The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACUIAPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zultcpec in Nueva Espana, situate between two craggy steeps, and annexed to the curacy of Temascaltepec. It contains 38 Indian families, who carry on a commerce by the dressing of hides of large and small cattle. Six leagues n. of its capital.
ACUILPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot and moist temperature, abounding in grain, chia, (a white medicinal earth), seeds, and other productions, with which its inhabitants carry on a trade* These consist of 92 Indian families. It is a little more than three leagues from its head settlement.
ACUIO, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Cinaqua in Nueva Espana; of a hot temperature, and inhabited only by nine Indian families, whose commerce consists in collecting salt and wild wax. It belongs to the curacy of Tauricato, and in its district are 11 sugar mills, and seven pastures fit for the larger cattle, and which are so extensive and considerable as to employ in them 50 families of Spaniards, and 235 of Mustees, Mulattoes, and Negroes. 30 leagues towards the s. of its capital.
ACULA, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, situate upon a high hill, and bounded by a large lake of salubrious water, called by the Indians Puetla; which lake empties itself into the sea by the sand bank of Alvarado, and the waters of which, in the winter time, overflow to such a degree as nearly to inundate the country. It contains 305 Indian families, and is four leagues to the e. of its capital.
ACULEO, a lake of the kingdom of Chile, which empties itself into the river Maipo, famous for good fish, highly prized in the city of Santiago. It is three leagues in length, and in some parts one in breadth. It is in the district of the settlement of Maipo, of the province and corregimiento of Rancagua.
ACURAGU, Angoras, or Camosin, a river of the province and captainship of Seara in Brazil, which rises in the province of Pernambuco, runs n. for many leagues, and enters the sea between the points of Tortuga and Palmeras.
ACUTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Tepuxilco, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 45 Indian families, who trade in sugar, honey, and maize, and many other of its natural productions. It is five leagues n. e. of its head settlement, and a quarter of a league from Acamuchitlan.
ACUTZIO, a settlement of the head settlement of Tiripitio, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 136 families of Indians, and 11 of Spaniards and Mustees. There are six large cultivated estates in its district, which produce abundance of wheat, maize, and other seeds; and these estates keep in employ eight families of Spaniards, 60 of Mulattoes, and 102 of Indians, who have also under their care many herds of large and small cattle, which breed here. It is one league and a half s. of its head settlement.
ADAES, Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Los, a town and garrison of the province of Los Texas, or Nuevas Felipinas, and the last of these settlements, being upon the confines of the French colonies. It is of a mild temperature, very fertile,. and abounding in seeds and fruits, which the earth produces without any cultivation ; such as chesnuts, grapes, and walnuts. The garrison consisis of a captain and 57 men, for the defence of the Indian settlements lately converted by the missions belonging to the religious order of St, Francis. It is 215 leagues from its capital, and 576 from Mexico. Long. 93° 35'. Lat, 32° 9'.
ADAES, a lake of the above province, about five leagues broad, and 10 in circumference, forming a gulph, in which large ships can sail with ease. It is more than 180 fathoms deep, as was once proved, when it was found that aline of that length did not reach the bottom. It abounds in a variety offish, which are caught in vast quantities without nets ;
and tonegimknio of Atacama in Peru, situate on the coast.
ALGONQUINENSES, or Algonquins, a nation of savage Indians, who inhabit a part of Canada : they are continually at war with the Iroqiiees. Their idiom may be looked upon as the mother tongue of all the other nations of that country, and differs very slightly from the rest, so that any one speaking it would be able to travel in any other nation in these parts. They border o;i the north side of lake Huron; and although inhabiting the whole of the coast of lake Superior, their number, according to Mackenzie, does not exceed 150 families.
[ALGONQUINS, of Rainy Lake, Indians of N. America, of the precise limits of whose country we are not informed. They live very much detached in small parties. The country they inhabit is but an indifferent one ; it has been much hunted, and the game, of course, nearly exhausted. They are well-disposed towards the whites. Their number is said to decrease. They are extremely addicted to spirituous liquors, of which large quantities are annually furnished them by the n. w. traders, in return for their bark canoes. They live wretchedly poor.]
[Algonquins, of Portage de Prairie, Indians of N. America, who inhabit a low, flat, marshy country, mostly covered with timber, and well stocked with game. They are emigrants from the lake of the Woods, and the country e. of it ; who were introduced some years since by the n, tc. traders, in order to hunt the country on the lower parts of Red river, which then abounded in a variety of animals of the fur kind. They are an orderly, well-disposed people, but, like their relations on Rainy lake, addicted to spirituous liquors. Their trade is at its greatest extent.]
ALGUILGUA. See article Santa Monica;
ALllUE, a settlement of the province and corregim'iento of Rancagua in the kingdom of Chile, annexed to the curacy of San Pedro.
Aliiue, a large lake of the same province and kingdom.
[ALIATANS, Snake Indians, ofN. America, a numerous and well disposed people, inhabiting a woody and mountainous country ; they are divided into three large tribes, who wander at a considerable distance from each other, and are called by themselves So-so-na, So-s6-bubar, and I-a-kar ; these are again subdivided into smaller, though independent bands, the names of Avhich we have not yet learnt : they raise a number of horses and mules, with which they trade with the Crow Indians, or which are stolen by the nations on the e. of
them. They maintain a partial trade with the Spaniards, from whom they obtain many articles of clothing and ironmongery, but no warlike implements.]
[ALiATANs,of La Playes, Indians of N. America, who inhabit the rich plains from the head of the Arkansas, embracing the heads of Red river, and extending, with the mountains and high lands, e. as far as it is known towards the gulph of Mexico. They possess^ no fire arms, but are warlike and brave. They are, as well as the other Aliatans, a wandering people. Their country abounds in wild horses, beside great numbers which they raise themselves. These people, and the West Aliatans, might be induced to trade on the upper part of the Arkansas river. The Aliatans do not claim a country within any particular limits.]
[Aliatans, of the West, Indians of N. America, who inhabit a mountainous country, and sometimes venture in the plains e. of the rocky mountains, about the head of the Arkansas river. They have more intercourse with the Spaniards of New Mexico than the Snake Indians. They are said to be very numerous and warlike, but are badly armed. The Spaniards fear these people, and therefore take the precaution not to furnish them with any warlike implements. In their present unarmed state, they frequently commit hostilities on the Spaniards. They raise a great many horses.]
ALLANTE, a volcano of the kingdom of Chile, in the province and country of Arauco ; in 1640 it burst, the mountain opening in two places, and throwing out large shapeless masses of lava, with so great a noise as to be heard at many leagues distance: the mischief it did was very considerable.
ALIBAMONS, or Alibamis, a nation of Indians of Louisiana, dwelling «. of the Apaches. It is very numerous, and is on terms of amity with the French ; so that they never have communication with the ihiglisli, but from necessity. The former, when they first established themselves in this country, carried on a large trade here, but it afterwards declined, on account of the distance of the place. [These Indians are from West Florida, off’ the Allibami river, and came to Red river about the same time as the Boluxas and Appalaches. Part of them have lived on Red river, about sixteen miles above the Bayau Rapide, till lately, when most of this party, of about 30 men, went up Red river, and have settled themselves near the Caddoques, where, we are informed, they have lately raised good crops of corn. The Cad-
an hermitage dedicated to St. Denis the Areopagite. It lies to the s. of the city of Barquisimeto, Between that of Tucuyo and the lake of Maracaibo. (Carora is 30 leagues to the s. of Coro. Its situation owes nothing to nature but a salubrious air. Its soil, dry and covered with thorny plants, gives no other productions but such as owe almost entirely their existence to the principle of heat. They remark there a sort of cochineal silvestre as fine as the misleca, which they suffer to perish. The land is covered with prolific animals, such as oxen, mules, horses, sheep, goats, &c. ; and the activity evinced by the inhabitants to make these advantageous to them, supports the opinion that there are but few cities in the Spanish West Indies where there is so much industry as at Carora. The principal inhabitants live by the produce of their flocks, whilst the rest gain their livelihood by tanning and selling the hides and skins. Although their tanning be bad, the consumer cannot reproach the manufacturer, for it is impossible to conceive how they can sell the article, whatever may be its quality, at the moderate price it fetches. The skins and leather prepared at Carora are used in a great degree by the inhabitants themselves for boots, shoes, saddles, bridles, and strops. The surplus of the consumption of the place is used throughout the province, or is sent to Maracaibo, Cartagena, and Cuba. They also manufacture at Carora, from a sort of aloe disthica, very excellent hammocs, which form another article of their trade. These employments occupy and support a population of 6200 souls, who, with a sterile soil, have been able to acquire that ease and competency which it appears to have been the intention of nature to deny them. The city is well built ; the streets are wide, running in straight parallel lines. The police and the administration of justice are in the hands of a lieutenant of the governor and a cabildo. There is no military authority. Carora lies in lat. 9° 50' n. and is 15 leagues e. of the lake of Maracaibo, 12 n. of Tocuyo, IS n. w. of Barquisimeto, and 90 w. of Caracas.)
Carora, a great llanura of the same province, which extends 16 leagues from e. to w, and six from n. to s. It was discovered by George Spira in 1534, abounds greatly in every kind of grain and fruit, but is of a very hot temperature. Its population is not larger than that of the former city, to which it gives its name.
(CAROUGE Point, the northernmost extremity
of the island of St. Domingo in the W. Indies ; 25 miles n. from the town of St. Jago.)
CARRION DE Velazco, a small but beautiful and well peopled city of the kingdom of Peru, in the pleasant llanura of Guaura ; it is of a mild, pleasant, and healthy climate, of a fertile and delightful soil, and inhabited by a no small number of distinguished and rich families.
Carrizal, sierra or chain of mountains of the same province and government, which runs from e. to w. from the shore of the river Guarico to the shore of the Guaya.