The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACUIAPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zultcpec in Nueva Espana, situate between two craggy steeps, and annexed to the curacy of Temascaltepec. It contains 38 Indian families, who carry on a commerce by the dressing of hides of large and small cattle. Six leagues n. of its capital.
ACUILPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot and moist temperature, abounding in grain, chia, (a white medicinal earth), seeds, and other productions, with which its inhabitants carry on a trade* These consist of 92 Indian families. It is a little more than three leagues from its head settlement.
ACUIO, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Cinaqua in Nueva Espana; of a hot temperature, and inhabited only by nine Indian families, whose commerce consists in collecting salt and wild wax. It belongs to the curacy of Tauricato, and in its district are 11 sugar mills, and seven pastures fit for the larger cattle, and which are so extensive and considerable as to employ in them 50 families of Spaniards, and 235 of Mustees, Mulattoes, and Negroes. 30 leagues towards the s. of its capital.
ACULA, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, situate upon a high hill, and bounded by a large lake of salubrious water, called by the Indians Puetla; which lake empties itself into the sea by the sand bank of Alvarado, and the waters of which, in the winter time, overflow to such a degree as nearly to inundate the country. It contains 305 Indian families, and is four leagues to the e. of its capital.
ACULEO, a lake of the kingdom of Chile, which empties itself into the river Maipo, famous for good fish, highly prized in the city of Santiago. It is three leagues in length, and in some parts one in breadth. It is in the district of the settlement of Maipo, of the province and corregimiento of Rancagua.
ACURAGU, Angoras, or Camosin, a river of the province and captainship of Seara in Brazil, which rises in the province of Pernambuco, runs n. for many leagues, and enters the sea between the points of Tortuga and Palmeras.
ACUTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Tepuxilco, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 45 Indian families, who trade in sugar, honey, and maize, and many other of its natural productions. It is five leagues n. e. of its head settlement, and a quarter of a league from Acamuchitlan.
ACUTZIO, a settlement of the head settlement of Tiripitio, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 136 families of Indians, and 11 of Spaniards and Mustees. There are six large cultivated estates in its district, which produce abundance of wheat, maize, and other seeds; and these estates keep in employ eight families of Spaniards, 60 of Mulattoes, and 102 of Indians, who have also under their care many herds of large and small cattle, which breed here. It is one league and a half s. of its head settlement.
ADAES, Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Los, a town and garrison of the province of Los Texas, or Nuevas Felipinas, and the last of these settlements, being upon the confines of the French colonies. It is of a mild temperature, very fertile,. and abounding in seeds and fruits, which the earth produces without any cultivation ; such as chesnuts, grapes, and walnuts. The garrison consisis of a captain and 57 men, for the defence of the Indian settlements lately converted by the missions belonging to the religious order of St, Francis. It is 215 leagues from its capital, and 576 from Mexico. Long. 93° 35'. Lat, 32° 9'.
ADAES, a lake of the above province, about five leagues broad, and 10 in circumference, forming a gulph, in which large ships can sail with ease. It is more than 180 fathoms deep, as was once proved, when it was found that aline of that length did not reach the bottom. It abounds in a variety offish, which are caught in vast quantities without nets ;
and tonegimknio of Atacama in Peru, situate onthe coast.
ALGONQUINENSES, or Algonquins, anation of savage Indians, who inhabit a part ofCanada : they are continually at war with theIroqiiees. Their idiom may be looked upon asthe mother tongue of all the other nations of thatcountry, and differs very slightly from the rest,so that any one speaking it would be able totravel in any other nation in these parts. Theyborder o;i the north side of lake Huron; andalthough inhabiting the whole of the coast of lakeSuperior, their number, according to Mackenzie,does not exceed 150 families.
[ALGONQUINS, of Rainy Lake, Indians ofN. America, of the precise limits of whose coun-try we are not informed. They live very muchdetached in small parties. The country theyinhabit is but an indifferent one ; it has been muchhunted, and the game, of course, nearly exhaust-ed. They are well-disposed towards the whites.Their number is said to decrease. They are ex-tremely addicted to spirituous liquors, of whichlarge quantities are annually furnished them bythe n. w. traders, in return for their bark canoes.They live wretchedly poor.]
[Algonquins, of Portage de Prairie, In-dians of N. America, who inhabit a low, flat,marshy country, mostly covered with timber, andwell stocked with game. They are emigrantsfrom the lake of the Woods, and the country e. ofit ; who were introduced some years since by then, tc. traders, in order to hunt the country on thelower parts of Red river, which then aboundedin a variety of animals of the fur kind. They arean orderly, well-disposed people, but, like theirrelations on Rainy lake, addicted to spirituousliquors. Their trade is at its greatest extent.]
ALGUILGUA. See article Santa Monica;
ALllUE, a settlement of the province andcorregim'iento of Rancagua in the kingdom ofChile, annexed to the curacy of San Pedro.
Aliiue, a large lake of the same province andkingdom.
[ALIATANS, Snake Indians, ofN. America,a numerous and well disposed people, inhabitinga woody and mountainous country ; they aredivided into three large tribes, who wander ata considerable distance from each other, and arecalled by themselves So-so-na, So-s6-bubar, andI-a-kar ; these are again subdivided into smaller,though independent bands, the names of Avhich wehave not yet learnt : they raise a number of horsesand mules, with which they trade with the Crow In-dians, or which are stolen by the nations on the e. of
them. They maintain a partial trade with theSpaniards, from whom they obtain many articlesof clothing and ironmongery, but no warlike im-plements.]
[ALiATANs,of La Playes, Indians of N. Ame-rica, who inhabit the rich plains from the headof the Arkansas, embracing the heads of Redriver, and extending, with the mountains and highlands, e. as far as it is known towards the gulph ofMexico. They possess^ no fire arms, but arewarlike and brave. They are, as well as theother Aliatans, a wandering people. Their coun-try abounds in wild horses, beside great numberswhich they raise themselves. These people, andthe West Aliatans, might be induced to trade onthe upper part of the Arkansas river. The Alia-tans do not claim a country within any particularlimits.]
[Aliatans, of the West, Indians of N. Ame-rica, who inhabit a mountainous country, andsometimes venture in the plains e. of the rockymountains, about the head of the Arkansas river.They have more intercourse with the Spaniards ofNew Mexico than the Snake Indians. They aresaid to be very numerous and warlike, but arebadly armed. The Spaniards fear these people,and therefore take the precaution not to furnishthem with any warlike implements. In their pre-sent unarmed state, they frequently commit hos-tilities on the Spaniards. They raise a greatmany horses.]
ALLANTE, a volcano of the kingdom ofChile, in the province and country of Arauco ;in 1640 it burst, the mountain opening in twoplaces, and throwing out large shapeless masses oflava, with so great a noise as to be heard at manyleagues distance: the mischief it did was veryconsiderable.
ALIBAMONS, or Alibamis, a nation ofIndians of Louisiana, dwelling «. of the Apaches.It is very numerous, and is on terms of amity withthe French ; so that they never have communica-tion with the ihiglisli, but from necessity. Theformer, when they first established themselves inthis country, carried on a large trade here, but itafterwards declined, on account of the distance ofthe place. [These Indians are from West Florida,off’ the Allibami river, and came to Red riverabout the same time as the Boluxas and Appala-ches. Part of them have lived on Red river,about sixteen miles above the Bayau Rapide, tilllately, when most of this party, of about 30 men,went up Red river, and have settled themselvesnear the Caddoques, where, we are informed, theyhave lately raised good crops of corn. The Cad-
an hermitage dedicated to St. Denis the Areopa-gite. It lies to the s. of the city of Barquisimeto,Between that of Tucuyo and the lake of Maracaibo.(Carora is 30 leagues to the s. of Coro. Its situa-tion owes nothing to nature but a salubrious air.Its soil, dry and covered with thorny plants, givesno other productions but such as owe almost en-tirely their existence to the principle of heat. Theyremark there a sort of cochineal silvestre as fine asthe misleca, which they suffer to perish. Theland is covered with prolific animals, such asoxen, mules, horses, sheep, goats, &c. ; and theactivity evinced by the inhabitants to make theseadvantageous to them, supports the opinion thatthere are but few cities in the Spanish West In-dies where there is so much industry as at Carora.The principal inhabitants live by the produce oftheir flocks, whilst the rest gain their livelihoodby tanning and selling the hides and skins. Al-though their tanning be bad, the consumer cannotreproach the manufacturer, for it is impossible toconceive how they can sell the article, whatevermay be its quality, at the moderate price it fetches.The skins and leather prepared at Carora are usedin a great degree by the inhabitants themselvesfor boots, shoes, saddles, bridles, and strops.The surplus of the consumption of the place isused throughout the province, or is sent to Ma-racaibo, Cartagena, and Cuba. They also manu-facture at Carora, from a sort of aloe disthica, veryexcellent hammocs, which form another article oftheir trade. These employments occupy andsupport a population of 6200 souls, who, with asterile soil, have been able to acquire that ease andcompetency which it appears to have been theintention of nature to deny them. The city is wellbuilt ; the streets are wide, running in straightparallel lines. The police and the administrationof justice are in the hands of a lieutenant of the go-vernor and a cabildo. There is no military au-thority. Carora lies in lat. 9° 50' n. and is 15leagues e. of the lake of Maracaibo, 12 n. ofTocuyo, IS n. w. of Barquisimeto, and 90 w. ofCaracas.)
Carora, a great llanura of the same province,which extends 16 leagues from e. to w, and sixfrom n. to s. It was discovered by George Spirain 1534, abounds greatly in every kind of grainand fruit, but is of a very hot temperature. Itspopulation is not larger than that of the former city,to which it gives its name.
(CAROUGE Point, the northernmost extremity
of the island of St. Domingo in the W. Indies ;25 miles n. from the town of St. Jago.)
CARRION DE Velazco, a small but beauti-ful and well peopled city of the kingdom of Peru,in the pleasant llanura of Guaura ; it is of a mild,pleasant, and healthy climate, of a fertile and de-lightful soil, and inhabited by a no small numberof distinguished and rich families.
Carrizal, sierra or chain of mountains ofthe same province and government, which runsfrom e. to w. from the shore of the river Guaricoto the shore of the Guaya.