The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this river and that of Pasimoni.
Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surname of Real) of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata, near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged to the Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part, there is a lake of very good sweet water.
Carlos, San, a valley in the province and government of Tucumán, which is very fertile in vines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birds and animals of the chase. Its natives are those who most of all infested the Spaniards when they conquered this province.
Carlos, San, another, of the province and country of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which were held there by the regulars of the society of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Araucaso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahumaris Indians.
Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, called De Don Carlos, in the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra of Los Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formed by the mouth of the river La Plata.
CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians of the province and corregimiento of Pastes in the kingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river of its name. Its territory is most fertile, but the climate is very cold, and the streets almost always
Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlement of Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.
CARMEN, a river of the province and colony of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runs from w. to e. and gathering the waters of many others, enters in a large body into the Mazarroni.
Carmen, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena ; situate in the district of the mountains of Marca, between those of San Jacinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one of those new settlements that were founded by the Govemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.
Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situate near a stream and on the shore of the river Tocantines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayal of San Feliz.
vince and government, on the shore of the river Masparro, between the cities of New and Old Barinas.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, on the shore of a river which enters the Gila, between the settlements of San Cosme and San Angelo.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in the kingdom of Guatemala.
Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea, near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escudo de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fertile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had in it a settlement defended by two castles, called Santiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with the town, were destroyed by an English pirate, John Morgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and although it was recovered in the same year by the president of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perez de Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.
Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there is also a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno de Leon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains 20 families in its neighbourhood, and produces only some sorts of pulse and some goats.
CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of the province and government of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, also called Chira, at the part where it enters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desert mountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the waters of several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n. until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, which enters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it then turns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the 5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of the rivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all of which enter it on the s. side. Being swelled with these, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settlement of this name, situate on its shore. Near its mouth this river is called Colan, and it empties itself into the sea in the corregimiento and province ofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertile and beautiful, and its banks are covered with orchards and plantations of sugar-canes of the territory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, and in the valleys formed by this river the inhabitants are much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its waters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.
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DEL PUERTO, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; founded by Gaspar de Kodas, on the spot of the Matanza of Valdivia, in 1676. It has changed its place several times, on account of the badness of.its temperature : and, lastly, in the year 1588, it was removed by Francisco Redondo to the spot where it now stands : is one league from the river Cauca, on a very steep declivity, which is also of an unhealthy temperature, although abounding greatly in gold mines, which are, however, but little worked. Jt is the native place of,
Fr. Marcos Vetancur, provincial of St. Domingo in Santa Fe:
Fr. Lorenzo de Figueroa, of the province of San Francisco :
Don Andres de Vetancur, elected bishop of La Concepcion in Chile;
Fr. Diego de Figueroa, provincial of San Augustin in Santa Fe : and
Don Luis de Vetancur, precentor of Quito, inquisitor of Lima, and bishop-elect of Popayan ; all brothers, and men of singular virtue and learning.
CECILIA, Dona, a settlement of the province and government of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the large river Magdalena, opposite the lake Zapatosa, three leagues from the town of Mompox.
(CEDAR Point, a port of entry in Charles county, Maryland, on the e. side of Potowmac river, about 12 miles below port Tobacco, and 96 s. by w. of Baltimore. Its exports are chiefly tobacco and Indian corn, and in 1794 amounted in value to 18,593 dollars.)
Cedar, a river of the province and colony of
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Pennsylvania, which traverses New Jersey, and enters the sea.
CELAYA, a town of the intendancy of Guanaxuato in the kingdom of Nueva Espana. Sumptuous edifices have been recently constructed here, as also at Queretaro and Guanaxuato. The church of the Carmelites of Celaya has a fine appearance ; it is adorned with Corinthian and Ionic columns. Its height is 1833 metres, or 6018 feet.
CENGUYO, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement of Yrimbo, and alcaldia mayor of Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan, and kingdom of Nueva Espaiia. It contains 60 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. zo. of its head settlement.
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de Granada, rises in the valley of Cerinza, runs n. and passing tlirough the city of San Gil, turns to the w. and enters the Suarez or Sabandija.
CHALCO, Hamanalco, a district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España ; situate between the n. and s. of the city of Mexico, at eight leagues distance ; is very fertile, and abounds in productions and the necessaries of life, especially in wheat and maize; the crops of the former usually amount to 30,000 (argas (a measure containing four bushels) yearly, and of the latter to 25,000. Besides this it produces great quantities of seeds, woods, sugar, honey, and the fruits of a hot climate, all of which arc carried to Mexico, as well by land carriage as by the lake, which is so favourable to its commerce. In the sierra of the volcano of this jurisdiction, there are silver mines, but they are not worked, on account of the great expence. The population consists of 46 settlements, of which 16 are head settlements of districts, and in 15 of these there are parish churches. Tlie capital is of the same name, and it is situate on the shore of a lake enjoying a mild temperature, and well known from the fair which it celebrates every Friday throughout the year, to which flock a great number of people from the neighbouring provinces with merchandize ; some even coming from the most distant parts in canoes by the lake, or with droves of mules on land. It lies between the rivers Fiamanalco and Tenango, which run into the lake, and the waters of this serve, when it is necessary, to replenish the lake of Mexico, for which purpose there are proper sluices provided. It contains 350 families of Indians, and some Spaniards and Mustees ; is seven leagues from Mexico. The other settlements are,
San Pedro de Ecazingo, Ayapango,
San Juan Tenango, Ayozingo,
CHALCO, with the dedicatory title of San Agustin, another settlement of the head settle-
ment of Coxcotlan, and the alcaldia mayor of Valles, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Aquismon ; is of an extremely hot and moist temperature, on account of which it has been abandoned by several Indian families who resided in it formerly ; 12 of these families only are now remaining ; is 23 leagues from its capital.
CHALCO, another, of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan ; situate in the plain of a deep break or hole made by mountain floods ; is of a hot temperature, and contains 35 families of Indians ; lies 12 leagues to the n. of its capital.
(Chalco Lake. See Mexico.)
(CHALEURS, a deep and broad bay on the w. side of the gulf of St. Lawrence. From this bay to that of Verte, on the s. in the s. e. corner of the gulf, is the n. e. sea line of the British province of New Brunswick.)
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either in the service of the United States during the war, or fled to them for protection. The indigence or ill habits of these people occasioned the breaking up of the settlement, and a better sort of inhabitants have now taken their place. The lands are fertile, and two rivers run through it, well stored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and three slaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the inhabitants are electors.)
CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, of more than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to 12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It was discovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tlie name of Champlain, who gave it his name, which it still retains. It communicates with a smaller lake called Sacrament, and the canal passing from one side to the other of these is extremely rapidand dangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. At the distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some very lofty mountains, which are covered with snow, and in which are found castors and a variety 'of animals of the chase; and between these mountains and the aforesaid lake are some beautiful level meadows or llanuras^ which, when first discovered, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; but these have greatly diminished in numbers, through the continual wars Avith the French and English. [This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and lies e. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing line between the states of New York and Vermont. It took its name from a French governor, who was drowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake. Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s, a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadth is from one to 18 miles, being very different in different places ; the mean width is about five miles, and it occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is sufficient for the largest vessels. There are in it above sixty islands of different sizes : the most considerable are North and South Hero and Motte island. North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, and from two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderoga the waters of lake George from the s. s. w. which is said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of this lake. Half the rivers and streams which rise in Vermont fall into it. There are several which come to it from New York state, and some from Canada ; to which last it sends its own waters a n. course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into the St. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish, particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, and pickerel, and the land on its borders, and on the banks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in several places appear to be marked and stained with the former surface of the lake, many feet higher than
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it has been since its discovery in 160S. The waters generally rise from about the 20th of April to the 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the greatest variation is not more than eight feet. It is seldom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle of January, Between the 6th and 15th of April the ice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon for many square miles of it to disappear in one day.]
CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, in which there is a mountain abounding greatly in silver mines. Here is also a mission Avhicli Avas established by the regulars of the company for the reduction of the natives : is 12 leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.
CHAMUINA, a river of the province and government of Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the limits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.
CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of Santa ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by that of Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado. It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and the same in width e. w. and has on its coast some ports and creeks not remarkable for their security. It comprehends in its district two territories, one of a cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, called De los Checras; and another of a warm temperature, lying in the valleys towards the sea, called De Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, one on the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the other Huama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge, which was built in the time of the viceroy, the Marquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of which are two rocks, through which the river passes. On the e. and in the cold part of this province, are found the productions peculiar to the climate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat and maize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which