The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W. It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.
ACAPONETA, the alcaldía mayor of the kingdom of Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdiction is reduced. It enjoys various hot and cold temperatures, and has therefore the crops peculiar to both climates; and the same are sown in its district, and produce abundantly. The capital is the town of the same name, situate between the two rivers St. Pedro and de Cartas ; the latter dividing Nueva España from the provinces of Rosario and Cinaloa, as also the bishoprics of Durango and Gaudalaxara, from whence it is distant 83 leagues, W. N. W. It has a convent of the order of St. Francisco. Long. 105° 40' 30". Lat. 22° 43' 30".
ACAPULCO, the capital city of the government of Nueva España, situate on the coast of the S. sea. Its inhabitants amount to nearly 400 families of Chinese, Mulattoes, and Negroes. It has a parish church, with two vicars, and two convents, one of the order of St. Francis, and the other of St. Hyppolite de la Casidad, which is a royal hospital ; an office of public accounts, with an accountant and treasurer for the managing and keeping the accounts of the duties produced by the goods brought in the China ships. The city is small, and the churches and houses are moderately ornamented. The greater part of the city is on the seashore. The air is of an extremely hot and moist temperature ; for, independent of its being in the torrid zone, it is entirely shut oxit from the N. winds, being surrounded by lofty serranias. These circumstances render it very unhealthy, especially in the wet season, on account of the damps and seawinds blowing from the S. E. to the great detriment of the inhabitants and merchants who come to trade here ; this being the principal cause why there are scarcely more than eight Spanish families who reside here. It is equally in want of every sort of provision, owing to the reduced and barren state of the land, and is forced to seek its necessary supplies from the Indian settlements within its jurisdiction. The only commerce which it can be said to have, is afair which is held on the arrival of the ships from China ; and when these depart, there are no other means for the people of maintaining a trade, and if the above resource should happen to fail for three or four years, the place must inevitably be abandoned. At the distance of a musketshot, and on a promontory running far into the sea, is situate the castle and royal fort of San Diego, mounted with 31 pieces of artillery, the greater part of them 24 pounders, for the defence of the entrance of the port, which is safe, and so spacious, that 500 ships can lay at anchor in it with ease. It is surrounded by lofty rising grounds. Its principal mouth is on the S. side, formed by an Island of an oblong figure, and somewhat inclining to the S. W. The same Island forms also Acatlan mouth, which they call chica, or little. The canals on either side of the Island are 25 fathoms deep. The governor of the castle has the rank of castellano, with the title of lieutenant general of the coasts of the S. sea ; and for the defence of these coasts, there are three companies of militia, composed of the the whole of the inhabitants, namely, one company of Chinese, Acatlan another of Mulattoes, and the third of Negroes, who run to arms whenever they hear the cannon fired three times at short intervals. In the settlements of its neighbourhood they grow cotton, maize, and other seeds, vegetables and fruits. They have cattle of the large and small kind, and some tobacco, all of which productions are sufficient for the use of the castle and the city, which is 80 leagues distant from Mexico. — [The famous cut in the mountain, (Abra de San Nicholas), near the bay de la Langosta, for the admission of the sea winds, was recently finished. The population of this miserable town, inhabited almost exclusively by people of colour, amounts to 9000 at the time of the arrival of the Manilla galleon (nao de China). Its habitual population is only 4000. The chief trade of Acapulco continues still to be its commerce with Manilla. The Manilla ship arrives once a year at Acapulco, with a cargo of Indian goods, valued at 12 or 1300,000 dollars, and carries back silver in exchange, with a very small quantity of American produce, and some European goods. Lat. according to Humboldt, 16° 50' 29". Long, by ditto, 99° 46'. Lat. according to the Spaniards, 16° 50' 30". Long, by ditto, 160°. Both longitudes being measured from the meridian of Greenwich.] ACARAGA, a river of the province and government of Paraguay. It rises in the province of the Parana, and running n. enters the Uruguay where is the city of Asuncion. It is navigable by canoes throughout, and abounds in fish.
and lies seven leagues to the n. of its head settlement.
COSANGA, a large river of the province of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs s. e. then turns its course e. and as it were imperceptibly to the n. and afterwards, in order to receive on the w. the river Bermejo, enters the s. side of the river Coca.
COSCAOCOAS, a nation of Indians reduced to the Catholic faith, dwelling upon the llanura or level of Cumboso, of the jurisdiction of Lamas. They are few in number, and are bounded by the Amasifucines.
COSCOMATEPEC, San Juan de, a settlement of the head settlement of Yxhuatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Cordoba, in NuevaEspana. It contains 10 families of Spaniards, 35 of Mustees, 75 of Mulattoes, and 196 of Indians. Seven leagues to the n. n. w. of its head settlement ; but the roads here are so rugged and full of steeps and precipices that the sight grows dizzy at looking down them.
COSIGUIRACHI, a town of the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; one of the most wealthy towns in the kingdom, and of a mild and healthy temperature. Its population is composed of many families of Spaniards and Mustees^ no small number of Mulattoes, and very many Indians. It is 24 leagues to the s. k?. \ to
the s. of the real of the mines and town of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
Cosiguirachi, a settlement and real of the silver mines of the intendancy of Durango in Nueva Espana; of a cdld temperature ; situate in a rough and uneven territory, but being fertile, and abounding in fruits and seeds. (By a very recent memoir of the intendantof Durango, the population of this real was made to amount to 10,700.)
COSME, San, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Fresnillo in Nueva Espana. It contains a very large number of Spaniards, Indians, Mustees, and Mulattoes, being very close to the city of Zacatecas, lying from thence only seven leagues to the n. and being 10 to the e. of its capital.
COSME, San, another settlement, of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, on the shore of a river between the settlements of Santa Catalina and San Francisco Xavier.
COSME, San, another, with the surname of Viejo, (Old), a reduccion of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Paraguay ; situate on the shore of the river Parana, between the settlements of Santa Ana and La Candelaria.
COSME, San, another, with the addition of Nuevo, (New), to distinguish it from the former in the same province : also a reduccion of the regulars of the company of Jesuits, on the shore of the Parana, and to the w. of the settlement of Jesus.
COSME, San, a small island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes ; situate very near the coast, in the middle of the canal which is formed by this coast and the island of Carmen, and close to another island called San Damian.
COSTA-BAXA, a part of the coast of Brazil, in