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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success : the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
ABISMES, Quartel des, that part or division of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to the NE. It takes its name from its having some creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they stand in no need of being anchored, which would be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on account of the thick roots thrown out by the above trees. Further on is a small island called Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, which is a good one.
ABITANIS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechuan tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a celebrated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, from the want of workmen. It is nearly contiguous to the settlement of Colcha.
ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the S side of which is a settlement called Frederick, which last lies in N lat. 48° 35'. W long. 82°. Also the name of a river which runs N and joins Moose river near its mouth at James's bay.
ABITIBIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, in the territory of the Indians of this name. This lake is N of Nipissing lake, the NE boundary of Canada, in New South Wales: it has communication with James's bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 48° 39' N Long. 79° 2' W.
ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is very numerous and warlike ; and they live a wandering life in the woods. It is 60 leagues to the E of the mountains of the Andes; bounded on the S, by the Ipillos Indians.
ABREOLHOS, on the coast of Brasil, and of the province and capitainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers Percipe and Quororupa, in S lat. 18° 19' 30". W long. 39° 5 1° 30". Here are some hidden rocks, or sandbanks, extremely dangerous ; and although there are various navigable channels, it requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, this having been the lot of an infinite number of vessels. These sandbanks are more than 20 leagues distant from the continent, and extend themselves upwards of five leagues to the E of the Island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the the centre, is in 170° 51' 20" S lat. W long. 39° 18'.
[ABROJOS, a bank, with several small rocks and isles, E of Turk's island, in N lat. 21° 5'. W long. 70° 40'. Between this bank and Turk's Island is a deep channel, for ships of any burden, three leagues wide.]
ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of the same name. It was anciently the capital of this province, and had the same denomination. At present it is much reduced, the corregidor having left it to establish himself in Lucanas. Lat. 15° 33' S Long. 73° 28' W
ABUCEES, S. Joseph de los, a settlement of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who were founded by, and maintained at the expence of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 0° 36' N Long. 75° 22' W.
ABURRA, S. Bartolomé de, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 1542, by the Marshal George Robledo, in a fertile and extensive valley of the same name, which was discovered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are some streams of salt water, from which the Indians procure salt for their use. Lat. 5° 51' 30" N Long. 75° 17' W ACA, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlaxclala, in Nueva España.
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mines have as yet been discovered here. These islands have some ports, but such as are small, insecure, and without any defence, with the exception of that of Chacao. The inhabitants should amount to 22,000 souls, and these are divided into 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed by the reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis, and consisting at the present day, for the most part, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is the city of Santiago de Castro, in the large island of Chiloe. [For further account, see index to additional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ; situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile, and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leagues from the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded by the province of Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ; s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that of Abancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperature is various, the proportion of heat and cold being regulated by its different degrees of elevation ; so that in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm, and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13 leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered by three rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passing through the valley of this name, the Velille, and the Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extended seven bridges, which form a communication with the other provinces. It has likewise eight small lakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl. The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; in wheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stocked with some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer. Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the country ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, by means of chorillos, or running streams, as they have no mills for fulling, since a royal licence is necessary for the making use of the same. Although the appearance of mines has in many places been discovered amongst the mountains, yet no mines have as yet been worked, and two only have been known to have been opened in former times. This province has suffered much from earthquakes ; and the greatest of these happened in 1707, when many settlements were made desolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, and these contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital is Paruro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimiento used to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamla The other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann. Colcha,
San Lorenzo, Parapacucho,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its temperature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdiction. It is situate in the middle of a plain, extending over the top of a hill, on two sides of which are large chasms, so immensely deep, that it is really astonishing to observe how the Indians contrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges. It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leagues to thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito, in the government and corregimiento of Chirnbo or Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asancoto. It is entirely covered with woods and with streams, which flow down from the heights into the plains of Babahoyo. The river named De la Chima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol. A way has been opened through this mountain which leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it is passable in the summer only. There is also another pass equally difficult and dangerous, called Angas. The cold is great at the top of the mountain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.s in lat. 44' s.
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corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Anco.
CHUNIANIS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the lands of Magellan, in the vicinity of the straits of Magellan. It is a tribe descended from the Huyellanes. They are numerous and ferocious ; the men and women go entirely naked ; their arms are bows and arrows, the latter being pointed with well-filed flints ; they are robust, of great strength, and fine appearance. Some travellers pretend that these are the fabulous giants of whom so many have written.
CHUPACHOS, a river of Peru, which flows down from the mountains of the Andes. It rises from the lake Patancocho, in lat. 10° 4P s . ; washes the country of the Chupachos Indians, from whence it takes its name, and finishes its course by emptying itself into the Mollobamba, on the®, side, in lat. 7° 21' s.
CHUPANA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises iu the cordillera of the Andes, to the n. of the city of Guanuco in Peru, and after collecting the waters of several other rivers in its protracted course, enters the river Maranon in a very broad stream.
CHUPAS, an extensive valley or plain of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru, near to the city. It is celebrated for the battle which was fought here by the Licentiate Baca de Castro, of the royal council of Castille, governor of Peru, on the 16th September 1542, against the army of the rebels commanded by Diego de Almagro the younger, and son of the conqueror of the same name, when the latter was routed and taken prisoner with the loss of more than 700 men.
CHUQUIABO. See PAZ.
CHUQUICARA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Guamachuco. It rises in the same province, and enters the river Santa, changing its own name to this, immediately that it touche* the boundary of this jurisdiction, which it divide* from those of Truxillo and Guamachuco.
CHUQUINGA, a settlement close to that of Nasca, and nearly upon the shore of the river Amancay, where there is a narrow pass, through which two men cannot without great difficulty go abreast ; for on one side rises the mountain nearly perpendicular, and on the other is a precipice which runs into the river ; this is the spot where a signal victory was obtained by the rebel Francisco Hernandez Giron, in 1554, against the Brigadier Alonzo de Alvarado, both of them leaders of factions, maintaining the separate interests enkindled in the civil wars of Peru.
CHUQUIRIBAMBA, a large settlement of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito ; on the shore of a small river which enters the Catamayu, on which account some maintain that it is the origin of the latter. It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile
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dom of Guatemala, in the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa.
CUCHUNA, a large settlement of Indians, and formerly the capital of a small province of this name in Peru, to the w. of the mountains of (he Andes. It was founded by Maita Capac, fourth Emperor of the Incas, after that he had literally starved the country into obedience. These Indians were treacherous, and used to give their enemies a very deadly poison ; the said emperor caused many to be burnt alive for having practised this abominable custom, and their houses to be destroyed, together with their cattle and possessions.
CUCUANA, a settlement of the province and government of Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on the shore of the river Magdalena.
CUCUCHO, San Bartolome de, a settlement of tlie head settlement of Arantzan, and alealdia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 27 families of Indians, who employ themselves in agriculture, cutting wood, and making earthen-ware and
CUCUCHUCHAU, San Pedro de, a settlement of the bead settlement of the city of Cucupao, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate on the shore of the lake. It contains 18 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the s. of its head settlement.
CUCUNUBA, a settlement oiihe corregimiento of Ubate in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, and produces the fruits of this climate. It consists of 100 families, including those of its vicinity, and of 80 Indians; is nine leagues to the n. of Santa Fe.
CUCUNUCO, a mountain to the e, of the province and government of Popayan, eternally covered with snow. From it rises the river Purase, as also the river La Plata. It takes its name from a nation of Indians, by whom it was inhabit-
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ed, and of whom a few only, who are reduced to the,faith, remain.
CUCURULU, a river of the kingdom of Peru, which runs through the country of the Canisiencs Indians to the e. of the Andes, it abounds in fish of a very fine quality, which serve as food to the barbarians; runs e. and being much swelled by the waters it collects from others, enters the river Santa Rosa.
CUCUTA, San Joseph de, a settlement of the government and jurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, though healthy, of great commerce, owing to the cacao with which it abounds, and which is brought by persons coming from various parts, the greater portion of it being embarked on the river Sulia for Maracaibo. It contains more than 100 rich Indians, but is infested with snakes, lice, and other noxious insects and reptiles.
CUCUTA, an extensive valley of this province (Pamplona), between the cities of Pamplona and S. Christoval, discovered by Juan de San Martin in 1534 ; celebrated for its fertility, and excellent breed of mules, by which the kingdom is supplied. It is watered by many streamlets which render it luxuriant and fertile, and most particularly in cacao of the finest quality. The herb on which the mules chiefly feed is wild marjoram.
CUDAJA, a lake of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory possessed by the Portuguese. It is formed by one of the arms w hich is thrown out by the river Maranon, and returns to enter the same, in the country of ihe Cabauris Indians.