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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success : the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

ABISMES, Quartel des, that part or division of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to the NE. It takes its name from its having some creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they stand in no need of being anchored, which would be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on account of the thick roots thrown out by the above trees. Further on is a small island called Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, which is a good one.

ABITANIS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechuan tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a celebrated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, from the want of workmen. It is nearly contiguous to the settlement of Colcha.

ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the S side of which is a settlement called Frederick, which last lies in N lat. 48° 35'. W long. 82°. Also the name of a river which runs N and joins Moose river near its mouth at James's bay.

ABITIBIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, in the territory of the Indians of this name. This lake is N of Nipissing lake, the NE boundary of Canada, in New South Wales: it has communication with James's bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 48° 39' N Long. 79° 2' W.

ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is very numerous and warlike ; and they live a wandering life in the woods. It is 60 leagues to the E of the mountains of the Andes; bounded on the S, by the Ipillos Indians.

ABORROEN, a port of the coast of Brasil, in the province and capitainship of Seara, between the river Escorgogive and the bay of Inobu.

ABRA, an island of the straits of Magellan, at the entrance of the third and last narrow pass, called the Passage.

[ABRAM'S CREEK, falls into Hudson's river, near the city of Hudson.]

ABREOLHOS, on the coast of Brasil, and of the province and capitainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers Percipe and Quororupa, in S lat. 18° 19' 30". W long. 39° 5 1° 30". Here are some hidden rocks, or sandbanks, extremely dangerous ; and although there are various navigable channels, it requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, this having been the lot of an infinite number of vessels. These sandbanks are more than 20 leagues distant from the continent, and extend themselves upwards of five leagues to the E of the Island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the the centre, is in 170° 51' 20" S lat. W long. 39° 18'.

[ABROJOS, a bank, with several small rocks and isles, E of Turk's island, in N lat. 21° 5'. W long. 70° 40'. Between this bank and Turk's Island is a deep channel, for ships of any burden, three leagues wide.]

Abrojos, a shoal of the N. sea. See the article Panuela Quadrado.

ABSECON, Beach, on the coast of New Jersey, 16 miles SW from Little Egg harbour.

ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of the same name. It was anciently the capital of this province, and had the same denomination. At present it is much reduced, the corregidor having left it to establish himself in Lucanas. Lat. 15° 33' S Long. 73° 28' W

ABUCEES, S. Joseph de los, a settlement of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who were founded by, and maintained at the expence of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 0° 36' N Long. 75° 22' W.

ABURRA, S. Bartolomé de, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 1542, by the Marshal George Robledo, in a fertile and extensive valley of the same name, which was discovered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are some streams of salt water, from which the Indians procure salt for their use. Lat. 5° 51' 30" N Long. 75° 17' W ACA, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlaxclala, in Nueva España.

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the river Marailon has its rise in tins lake ; its real origin being in the lake Lauricociia, as may be seen under that article.

CHINCHERO, a settlement of the province and correghniado of Calca y Lares in Perú. The cemetery of its church is composed of some large, thick Avails of Avrouglit stone, well fitted together, and having in them certain niches similar to sentry boxes ; so that they appear as having formerly belonged to some fortress.

Same name, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in the same kingdom.

Same name, a lake in the province of Cuzco, five leagues distant from this city.

CHINCHILCA, as others will have it, a river of the district of Guadalabquien and kingdom of Chile ; it runs n. n. w. and enters the river Callacalla.

CHINCHIPE, a settlement of the province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

Same name, a river of this province, which rises from the mountain desert or paramo of La Sabanilla. It Avashes the city and territory of Valladolid, and on its c. side receives the rivers Nnmballa, Vergel, Patacones, Sangalla, San Francisco, and Nambacasa ; and on its zs. side those of Palanda, Simanchi, Namballe, and Guancabamba ; when, being sAA'^elled to a considerable size by all of these, it enters the Maranon on the n. shore, to the w. w. of the settlement of Tompenda.

CHINCHIRU, a large lake of the province and corregimiento of Cuzco in Peru, from whence it lies two leagues to the n.

CHINCHULAGUA, a very lofty desert mountain or paramo, covered with eternal snow, in the province and corregimiento of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It lies five leagues to the n. of Tacunga, Avith a slight inclination to the n. c.

CHINCONTLA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olintla, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a delightful defile or narroAV tract, watered by various rivers. Eight leagues from its head settlement.

CHINCOTEAG, a small island near the coast of the N. sea, in the province and colony of Maryland, between the Cedar isle and the river Siwanscut.

CHINGA, a fortress of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; one of the six Avhich were held by the %ipas or kings of Bogota, against the Punches nation, who border upon their country ; 10 leagues to the s. w. of Bogota.

CHINGOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Gongor.

CHINI, a small island of the S. sea; situate close to the coast of the province and government of Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala, within the gulf ofNicoya, and in the innermost part of it.

CHINIJO, a settlement of the missions which Avere held by the religious order of St. Augustin, in the country of the Gran Paititi, of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHINIPAS, a settlement of the missions of the province and government of Cinaloa.

Same name, some sierras of this province.

CHINGUINTILEA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Aneo.

CHINU, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; founded in the sahanas, and formed by a re-union of other settlements, in 1776, by the G'oA^ernor Uon Juan Piraiento.

CHIPACO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chavin de Pariarca.

CHIPALO, a river of the province and government of Neiva in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; one of those Avhich enter the great river Magdalena.

CHIPALZINGO, a settlement and head ettlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 353 families of Indians, and of Spaniards, Mustces, and Mnlattoes, and lies three leagues from the sett lemcn!, of Zurnpango.

CHIPAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru.

CHIPANGA, a river of the province and government of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom oi Quito. It rises in the sierra, Avhich divides the district of Macas from the province of Mainas, runs from n. to s. and enters the Morona.

CHIPAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Ubaque in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a mild temperature, and abounds in fruits and seeds peculiar to a warm climate. It consists of 150 housekeepers, and of as many Indians. It is so infested with snakes, that it is impossible to find any part of it clear of them. Eight leagues .9. . of Santa Fe, in the road which leads to San Juan de los Llanos.

CHIPASAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, lying 24 leagues to the s. e. of Santa Fe, and close to the settlement of Chaqueta, in the road Avhich leads to San Juan dc

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mills. The whole of the district of its territory is covered with estates and country-seats, which abound in all kinds of fruits, at once rendering it a place pleasing and advantageous for residence.

Concepcion, another, of the province and corregimiento of Pacajes in Peru ; situate on the shore oflhe lake Titicaca, and at the mouth of the river Desa<;uadero.

Concepcion, anotlier, of the province and government of the Chiquitos Indians, in the same kingdom ; a reduccion of the missions which were held in this province by the regulars of the company of the Jesuits ; situate between the source of the river Verde and the river Ubay.

Concepcion, another, of the province and government of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito ; ■situate between the rivers Guandes and Y laibi, and nearly in the spot where they join.

Concepcion, another, of the former province and government ; situate on the shore of the river Itenes.

Concepcion, another, of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions ; a reduccion of the missions which are held by the Carmelite fathers of this nation ; situate on the shore of a pool or lake formed by the river Urubu. . .

Concepcion, another, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits in California ; situate near the sea-coast and the Puerto Nuevo, or New Port.

Concepcion, another, of the province and government of Tucumán in Peru, and district of Chaco ; being a reduccion of the Abipones Indians, of the mission held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, and to-day under the charge of the religious order of S. Francisco.

Concepcion, another, which is also called huenclara or Canada, of the missions held by the religion of St. Francis, in the kingdom of Nuevo Mexico.

Concepcion, another, which is the real oi ine silver mines of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana.

Concepcion, another, of the province and capiahiship ot Rio Janeiro in Brazil 5 situate on the coast, opposite the Isla Grande.

Concepcion, another, of the province and capiainship of S. Vincente in the same kingdom.

Concepcion, another, of the province and government of Buenos Ayres; situate at the mouth of the river Saladillo, on the coast which lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.

Concepcion, another, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Je-

suits, in the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on the w. shore of the river Uruguay. (Lat. 27° 58' 43". Long. 53° 27' 13" re.)

Concepcion, another, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the country of the Chiquitos Indians, in the kingdom of Peru ; situate to the e. of that of San Francisco Xavier.

Concepcion, another, of the province and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana.

Concepcion, another, of the province and government of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom of Quito, which produces nothing but maize, yucas^ plantains, and quantities of aloes, with the which the natives pay their tribute, and which are much esteemed in Peru.

Concepcion, a town of the province and government of Tucumán in Peru, in the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, between the rivers Bermejo and Salado. It was destroyed by the infidel Indians.

Concepcion, a bay of the kingdom of Chile, at the innermost part of which, and four leagues from its entrance, is found a bed of shells, from which is made excellent lime.

Concepcion, another bay, in the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. It is very large and capacious, having within it various islands. Its entrance is, however, very narrow.

Concepcion, a river in the province and government of Costarica, which runs into the sea between that of San Antonio and that of Portete.

Concepcion, another, of the kingdom of Brazil, which rises to the w. of the town of Gorjas, runs s. 5 . K). and unites itself with that of the Remedies, to enter the river Prieto or La Palma.

Concepcion, another, which is an arm of the river Picazuru, in the province and government of Paraguay.

Concepcion, another, of the kingdom of Chile, which runs through the middle of the city of Concepcion, and enters the sea in the bay of tliis name.

(Concepcion, a large bay on the c. side of Newfoundland island, whose entrance is between cape St. Francis on the s. and Flamborough head on the n. It runs a great way into the land in a s. direction, having numerous bays on the w. side, on which are two settlements, Carboniere and Havre de Grace. Settlements were made here in 1610, by about 40 planters, under Governor John Guy, to whom King James had granted a patent of incorporation.)

(Concepcion of Salaye, a small town of N. America, in the province of Mechoacán in Mexico

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tifni appearance. A mountain similar to this is found in the marshes of Maule.]

Copiapo, a river Avhich rises in the cordillera. It runs two leagues to the w. passes near the settlement of its name, and empties itself into the S. sea, serving as a port for vessels.

Morro de Copiapo, a mountain, called Morro de Copiapo, in the coast, at the side of the port of its name.

COPILA, a small settlement or ward of the alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of Naupan.

COPORAQUE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canes and Canches or Tinta in Peru.

COPORAQUE, another, in the province and corregimiento of Collahuas of the same kingdom.

COPORAQUE, another. See Vilcomayo.

(COPPER Mine, a large river of New Britain, reckoned to be the most n. in N. America. Taking a n. course, it falls into the sea in lat, 19P n. and about long. 119° a;, from Greenwich. The accounts brought by the Indians of this river to the Rritish ports in Hudson bay, and the specimens of copper produced by them, induced Mr. Hearne to set out from fort Prince of Wales, in December 1770, on a journey of discovery. He reached the river on the 14th July, at 40 miles distance from the sea, and found it all the way encumbered with shoals and falls, and emptying itself into it over a dry flat of the shore, the tide being then out, which seemed by the edges of the ice to rise about 12 or 14 feet. This rise, on account of the falls, will carry it but a very small way within the river’s mouth ; so that the water in it has not the least brackish taste, Mr. Hearne had the most extensive view of the sea, which bore n. w. by w. and n. e. when he was about eight miles up the river. The sea at the river’s mouth was full of islands and shoals ; but the ice was only thawed away about three-fourths of a mile from the shore, on the 17th of July. The Esquimaux had a quantity of whale-bone and seal-skins at their tents on the shore.)

COPTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aricá in Peru.

COPTOS, silver mines of the province and corregimiento of Guamachuco in Peru ; they are most abundant, and have yielded immense wealth.

COPUENO, a settlement of the province and government of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom of Quito.

COQUEROSO, a settlement of the province and captainship of Sergipe in Brazil ; situate on the shore of the river Cirti.

COQUE-UIELLE, a shoal of the n. coast of the island of St. Domingo, in the French possessions, between the point Roche-a-Picoler and the river Grande.

COQUIBACOA, Cabo de, a point of land which runs into the sea, on the coast of the province and government of Venezuela, distinct from that of Chichibacoa. ‘

COQUIMBO, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Chile ; bounded e. by the province of Tucuman, of the kingdom of Peru, tho cordillera running between ; s. by the province of Quillota; and w. by the Pacific ocean. It is 80 leagues in length s. and 40 in width e, w. Its temperature is very benign ; and on account of its not raining much in the sierra,, through the low situation of this part of the province, the snow and frost is not so common here, nor does it stay upon the ground so long as it does upon the parts which lie s. of Santiago. For the same reason the rivers are few, and th# largest of them are those of Los Santos or Limari, and that which passes through its capital. Many huanmos and vicunas breed here. The territory is for the most part broken and uneven, and produces, although not in abundance, the same fruits as in the whole kingdom, such as grain, wine, and oil of excel* lent quality. It has many gold mines, likewise some of silver, copper, lead, sulphur, white lime, and salt ; but the most abundant of all are those of copper; large quantities of this metal having been sent to Spain for founding artillery, and indeed from the same source has been made all the artillery in this kingdom. This metal is found of two sorts, one which is called campanal, and is only fit for founding, and the other, which has a mixture of gold, and is called de labrar,, or working metal, and which is known only in this province. Here also they make large quantities of rigging for ships. Its inhabitants may amount to 15,000. [In this province is found tlie quisco tree, with thorns of eight inches long ; the same being used by the natives for knitting needles. It is noted for producing the best oysters, and for a resin which is yielded from the herb chilca. See Chieb.] The capital bears the same name, or that of La Serena. This was the second settlement of the kingdom, and founded by the order of Pedro de Valdivia, by Captain Juan Bohon, in 1543, in the valley of Cuquimpi, which gave it its name, and which, being corrupted, is now called Coquimbo, and El Segundo de la Serena, in memory of the country of Valdivia in Estremadura. It lies at a quarter of a league’s distance from the sea, and is situate

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Airihuanca, Curasco, Chuquibatnba, Vilcabamba, Mamara, Turpay, Aquira, Llaqua,

Patahuasi,

Cocha,

Mara,

Pitic,

Aporaarco,

Palcaro,

Totorhuailas,

Chacaro.

COTACACHE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Otavalo in the kingdom of Quito.

COTACACHE, a mountain of this province and kingdom, the top of which is eternally covered Avith snow. From its summit runs the river Cayapas.

COTAGAITA, Santiago de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chichas and Tarija. Twenty-nine leagues from Potosi.

COTAGAITILLA, a settlement of the same province and corregimiento as the former ; annexed to the curacy of the capital.

COTAHUASSI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

COTAHUAU, an ancient province of Peru, at the foot of the cordillera of the Andes, and to the w. of Cuzco. It is one of those which were conquered by Mayta Capac, fourth Emperor.

COTAHUIZITLA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot temperature, contains 28 families of Indians, who are busied in making mats, which they cs\\ petates. It belongs to the curacy of Atlatlauca, the capital of the alcaldia mayor of this name; being distant 10 leagues from its capital.

COTAPARAZO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guailas in Peru.

COTA-PINI, a settlement of the province and government of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom of Quito.

COTAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yauyos in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Arma in the province of Castro Vireyna.

(COTEAUX, Les, a town on the road from Tiburon to port Salut, on the 5. side of the s. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo, 13f leagues e. by of the former, and four n.w, of the latter.)

COTICA, a river of Guayana, in the part possessed by the Dutch, or colony of Surinam. It runs n. until it comes very near the coast, making many turns, and then changing its course e. enters the Comowini. At its mouth is a fort to defend its entrance, called Someldick.

COTIJA, Valley of, of the alcaldia mayor of

Tinguindin in Nueva Espana. It is more than two leagues in circumference, and in it live 205 families of Spaniards. It is of a mild temperature, and abounds in seeds. Seven leagues to the w. of its capital.

COTLALTA, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tuxtla in Nueva Espana. It contains 140 families of Indians, and three or four of Spaniards. It abounds greatly in tamarinds, of which are made excellent conserves.

COTOCHE, a cape of the coast of Yucatán, opposite that of San Antonio, in the island of Cuba ; between these lies the navigation leading to this island from Nueva Espana.

COTOCOLLAO, a settlement of the kingdom of Quito, in the corregimiento of the district of the Cinco Leguas de la Capital; being situate just where the beautiful llanura or plain of lilaquito or Rumi-Pampa terminates. Its territory extends to n. w. upon the skirt of the mountain Pichincha, and is bounded on the n. by the settlement of Pomasque. It is of a somewhat cold and moist temperature ; and in it is the county of Selva Florida, of the house of Guerrero Ponce de Leon, one of the most ancient and illustrious of the kingdom.

COTOE, a settlement of the province and gavernment of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Lampun.

COTOPACSI, a mountain and desert, or paramo, of the province and corregimiento of Tacunja in the kingdom of Quito, to the s. and onefourth to s. e. It is of the figure of an inverted truncated cone, and is in height 2952 Parisian feet above the level of the sea : on its summit, which is perpetually covered with snow, is a volcano, which burst forth in 1698, in such a dreadful manner as not only to destroy the city of Tacunja, with three fourths of its inhabitants, but other settlements also. It likewise vomited up a river of mud, which so altered the face of the province, that the missionaries of the Jesuits of Maynos, seeing so many carcases, pieces of furniture, and houses floating down the Maranon, were persuaded amongst themselves that the Almighty had visited this kingdom with some signal destruction ; they, moreover, wrote circular letters, and transmitted them open about the country, to ascertain Avhat number of persons were remaining alive. These misfortunes, though in a moderate degree, recurred in the years 1742, 1743, 1760, 1768. From the e. part of this mountain the Napo takes its rise; and from the s. the Cotuche and the Alagues, which, united, form the river San Miguel, and afterwards, with others, the Patate ; to this the Chambo joins itself, which afterwards degenerates.

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