The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.
CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.
[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]
CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.
CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.
[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]
[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]
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wliich there is a bank of fine sand, extending amile into the sea, and affording good anchorage.Lat. 1° 59' n. Long. 157° 35' w.]
[Christmas Sound, in Tien a del Fuego, S.America. Lat. 55° 21' n. Long. 69° 48' tw.]
CHRISTOVAL, San, atown of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rey no de Granada; foundedby Captain Juan de Maldonado in 1560. It is of•a hot but healthy temperature, produces abundanceof sugar-canes, of which are made honey, sugar,and conserves, in immense quantities ; also a greatproportion of smoking tobacco, which is carried toMaracaibo. It has a good church and a conventt)f St. Augustin, which latter has fallen much todecay with regard to its establishment. The po-pulation of the town consists of 400 housekeepers.It lies 20 leagues n. e. of Pamplona, from the juris-diction of which it is divided by the river Pam-plonilla. It is the native place of Don Gregoriode Jaimes, archdeacon of Santa Fe, and bishop ofSanta Marta.
Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lipes, archbishopric of Char-cas in Peru ; in which took place the following ex-traordinary occurrence: The curate of this placegoing to confess a sick person in the settlement ofTahisa of the province of Paria, which was annexedto this, sunk into a spring of water in the pampasor llanos dela Sal, when he was drowned, and withthe two Indians who accompanied him on horse-back, never more appeared, nor were any vestigesever found of them : this was the reason why thelatter settlement has since been disunited from thecuracy of San Christoval.
Same name, a capital city of the provinceand captainship of Sergipé in the kingdom of Bra-zil ; being also known by that name. It is foundedon the sea-shore, and has a fine and well defendedport. It has a magnificent parish church with thetitle of Nuestra Senora de la Victoria ; two fineconvents, the one of the order of the Franciscans,and the other of the Carmelites ; also a chapel ofdevotion of the Virgin of the Rosary. The council-house is a very fine edifice, and in the suburbs isa hermitage of San Gonzalo, which is frequentedas a pilgrimage by this and other settlements of thejurisdiction. In this city resides the chief captain,who governs this province, and who is attended bya company of troops as a body-guard. In earlytimes it was filled with nobility, descended from thefirst families in Portugal; but it is now reduced to600 housekeepers. in its district, towards thepart called Coninquiva, is a parish with fourchapels, and towards the river Vaza-Barris fiveothers. It has also 25 engines, by which abundanceof sugar of an excellent quality is manufactured ;this article affords a great commerce w ith t!ic bayof Todos Santos. Lat. ll°40's. Long. ST'* SO' tw.
Same name, an island of the N. sea ; oneof the Antilles, discoverctl by Admiral Christoj)herColumbus, who gave it his name, in 149S. It isfive leagues in circumference, and is very fertile,and abounding in productions, particularly in cot-ton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and brandy ; by allof which it carries on a great commerce. Here arcsome good salines, and in the mountains are somewoods of fine timber, well adapted for the buildingof ships. The English and the French both esta-blished themselves here in 1625, holding a dividedpossession, when they were driven out by the Spa-niards. After this the former again returned andre-established themselves in the greatest part of theisland, leaving, however, a small share to theFrench, until the year 1713, when the latter, inconjunction with the Spaniards themselves, cededit entirely to the English, who from that time haveheld it and kept it well fortified. [St. Christopher,situate in lat. 17° 21', long. 62° 48' ze. was calledby its ancient possessors, the Charibes, Liamuiga,or the Fertile Island. It was discovered in Novem-ber 1493 by Columbus himself, who was so pleasedwith its appearance, that he honoured it with hisown Christian name. But it was neither plantednor possessed by the Spaniards. It was, however,(notwithstanding that the general opinion ascribesthe honour of seniority to Barbadoes), the eldest ofall the British territories in the \V. Indies, andin truth, the common mother both of the Englishand French settlements in the Charibean islands.A Mr. Thomas Warner, an Englishman, asso-ciated himself Avith 14 other persons in the year1622, and with them took his passage on board aship bound to Virginia. From thence he and hiscompanions sailed from St. Christopher’s, wherethey arrived in January 1623, and by the monthof September following had raised a good crop oftobacco, which they proposed to make their staplecommodity. By the generality of historians whohave treated of the affairs of the W. Indies, it isasserted that a party oflhe French, under the com-mand of a person of the name of D’Esnambuc,took possession of one part of this island, on thesame day that Mr. Warner landed on the other;but the truth is, that the first landing of Warnerand his associates happened two years before thearrival of D’Esnambuc; who, it is admitted byDu Tertre, did not leave France until IG25. Un-fortunately the English settlers, in the latter end of
1623, had their plantations demolished by a dread- j
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[And the Import of Slaves, by report of privycouncil, 1788, at a medium of four years, andby a return to house of commons in 1805, at amedium of two years from 1803, was as follows :
Four years to 1787
Tw o years to 1803
By report of privy council, 1788, and by subse-quent estimate, the population amounted to
See Caribe (Leeward) Islands; and for thelater political inquiries, see West Indies.]
Same name, another settlement of the head settlement of Pinotepa, and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan,in Nueva Espana. It contains 24 families ofIndians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its headsettlement.
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and it lies 15 leagues to the w. of its capital, an^10 to the n. w. of the capital of the province ofGuadalaxara.
Same name, another settlement of the head settle-ment of Axixique, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula,in the same kingdom ; situate on the shore of thegreat lake or sea of Chapala. It contains 70 faj-milies of Indians, who employ themselves in fish-ing and agriculture ; is 13 leagues to the s. of itshead settlement.
Same name another settlement of the provinceand government of Cartagena in the district ofSinu ; situate on the bank of the river Pichelin, inthe division of this jurisdiction and that of Tolu.It is one of those which were founded, in 1776, bythe Governor Don Juan Piraienta.
[CHRISTOPHER, Sr. See Christovae.]CHUAO, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, to the w. of the port of La Guaira.
21. Don Fray Pedro de Espineira ; elected in1762 ; he governed until his death, in 1778.
22. Don Francisco Joseph de Maran ; electedin 1779.
Concepcion de la Vega, another city, inthe island of St. Domingo, founded by the AdmiralChristopher Columbus, on a beautiful and spaciousplain, or Uanura^ celebrated for a conquest gainedon it by a numerous army of Indians. It has a goodparish church, erected into a bishopric, and wliichwas afterwards done away with in 1605, it beingthen embodied with the archbishopric of S. Do-mingo. it has also a convent of the religiousorder of St. Francis, in which is deposited andvenerated the first cross that the discoverer and con-queror of this country planted here ; which, al-though the Indians have endeavoured with all theirmight to break and destroy, has resisted all theireftbrts. Twenty-five leagues from the capital ofS. Domingo.
(Concepcion del Pao, a city of the provinceand government of Caracas ; composed of the in-habitants of Trinity, of Margareta, and of Caracas,who owned the folds in the plains near the Ori-noco, to the s. of Barcelona ; they here succes-sively fixed their dwellings, for the purpose ofbeing in the centre of their property, and of super-intending it themselves. In 1744 the number ofthese houses were found considerable enough to ac-quire the name of village. There are only 2300people of all classes here, subsisting will] facilityby Ihe fertility of the soil. The air and water aregood, and the only inconveniences the inhabitantsexperience are an excessive lieat, and inundationsarising from the long and heavy rains. The produceof the land is merely the provisions common to theCQuntry. The wealth of the inhabitants consistsentirely in cattle, which they export to Trinity,liia Guarapiche or Orinoco, This village, nowa city, is distinguished from St.John the Baptistdel Pao, situate in the province of Venezuela, bythe title of Concepcion del Pao. Lat. 8° 42' n.Long. 65° 10' ra.)
Concepcion, another, of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Leon in Nueva Espana, andof the bishopric of Mechoacan ; annexed to thecuracy of Rincon. It contains 208 families of In-dians, 100 of Spaniards, and ^0 oi Mustees. Itproduces wheat, maize, and other seeds, and is aquarter of a league from its curacy, and fourleagues from the capital.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichare held by the religious order of St. Francis, inthe province of Texas and kingdom of Nueva Es-pana. It is 112 leagues to the e. n. e. of the pre-sidency of San Antonio de Bejar.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of Mainas,of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore ofthe great river Maranon, on a point of land formedby the same, and where this river is entered by theApena and the Guallaga,
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province of Tepeguana, and kingdomof Nueva Vizcaya; situate on the bank of theriver Florido, near the settlement and real of themines of Parral.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichbelong to the religion of St. Francis, in the pro-vince of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya, lying 17 leagues distant between the s. ands. w. of the real of the mines of San Felipe de Chi-guagua.
Concepcion, another, with the surname ofAchaguas, being composed of Indians of this na-tion, in the kingdom of Granada ; of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in Orinoco; situate on the shore of theriver Meta.
Concepcion, another settlement, the capital ofthe province and captainship of Itamaraca in Bra-zil ; situate on the top of a mountain by the sea-side. It has a magnificeut parish church, and isgarrisoned by two companies of troops, it con-tains 300 housekeepers, and has three large sugar.
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Bishops who have presided in Santa Cruz de laSierra.
1. Don Antonio Calderon, native of Vilches,dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bisliop ofPuertorico and Panama; first bishop in 1605;died at the advanced age of upwards of 100years.
2. Don Fray Fernando de Ocampo, of the re-ligious order of St. Francis, a native of Madrid.
3. Don Juan Zapata y Figueroa, native ofVelez-Malaga ; he was canon and inquisitor ofSeville ; presented to the brishopric of Santa Cruzin 1634.
Fray Juan de Arguinao, a religiousDominican, native of Lima, was prior and provin-cial in his religion, first professor of theology andwriting in that university, qualificator of the in-quisition ; presented to the bishopric of Santa Cruzin 1646, and promoted to the archbishopric ofSanta Fe in 1661.
5. Don Fray Bernardino de Cardenas, native ofLima, of the order of St. Francis ; promoted fromParaguay to this bishopric in 1666.
6. Don Fray Juan de Rivera, of the order ofSt. Augustin, native of Pisco in Peru ; first pro-fessor of theology.
7. Don Fray Juan de Esturrizaga, of the orderof preachers, native of Lima.
8. Don Pedro de Cardenas y Arbieto, native ofLima, collegian of the royal college of San Mar-tin, canon of its holy church.
9. Hon Fray Juan de los Rios, of the order ofSt. Dominic, a native of Lima, provincial of hisreligion in the province of San Juan Bautista delPeru.
10. Don Fray Miguel Alvarez de Toledo, ofthe order of Nuestra Sexiora de la Merced, electedin 1701.
11. Don Miguel Bernardo de la Fuente, deanof the holy church of Truxillo, elected in 1727.
12. Don Andres de Vergara and Uribe, electedin 1744 ; he died in 1745.
13. Don Juan Pablo de Olmedo, native of Tu-cuman, elected in 1745, died in 1757.
14. Don Fernando Perez de Obiitas, native ofArequipa, elected in the aforesaid year, died in1760.
15. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, nativeof Lima, elected in 1760, promoted to the arch-bishopric of Charcas in 1766.
16. Don Juan Domingo Gonzalez de la Ri-gucra, elected the aforesaid year, and promotedto the archbishopric of the holy metropolitanchurch of Lima in 1780.
17. Don Alexandro de Ochoa, elected in 1782.
Cruz, Santa, a city of the above province,which was once the capital ; founded by Nuno deChaves in 1557, after that he had passed along theshores of the river Paraguay to discover a commu-nication with the other provinces. Its inhabitants,however, not being able to stay in it through theincessant sallies of the Indians who surroundedthem, were under the necessity of changing theirsettlement ; but disagreeing in the choice of place,some of them united together, and founded the cityof Santiago del Puerto, and others that of SanLorenzo de la Frontcra, which is to-day the capi-tal, the former city being entirely abandoned.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementand alca’d'ia mayor of Jochimilco in Nueva Es-pana ; situate in a mountainous and cold country,containing 46 families of Indians, who live by cut-ting timber and making fuel. It is two leagues tothe cU. of its capital.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement ofSt. Francisco del Valle, and akaldia mayor ofZultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 28 fa-milies of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation ofthe land, and cutting bark from trees. Ten leaguesfrom its head settlement.