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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]

ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.

ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.

[Abineau Port, on the N side of lake Erie, is about 13 miles W S W from fort Erie. Lat. 42° 6' N Long. 79° 15' W. ]

[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]

[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]

[ABINGTON, a township in Plymouth county, Massachusetts; 22 miles SE from Boston, and contains 1453 inhabitants. Lat. 42° 4' 30". ]

[another, a parish in the town of Pomfret in Connecticut. Lat. 42° 4' 30". Long. 70° 51' 30".]

[another, a village in Pennsylvania, 32 miles N of Philadelphia.]

Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.

ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.

Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

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of a hot and moist temperature, and inhabited by 107 families of Indians ; being 15 leagues n.e. of its capital.

Copan, a river of the province and government of Cumaná. It rises in the serrama of Imataca, runs s. and enters the Cuyuni on the side.

COPANDARO, Santiago de, a settlement of the head settlement of Tuzantla, and alcaldia mayor of Maravatio, in Nueva Espaha. It contains 34 families of Indians, and is 10 leagues to the s. of its head settlement. In it is a convent of the religious order of St. Augustin, Avhicli is one of the best convents in the kingdom.

COPENAME, a river of the province and government of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions or colony of Surinam. It runs n. and unites itself with the Sarameca at its mouth, to form another mouth, and enter into the sea.

COPER, a small settlement of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the road which leads from Santa Fe to Muzo ; situate upon an height, near the mountain Apari, where, upon the descent which is called Cuesta de Macanazos, and at its skirt, runs the river Villaraisar. Near it has been found a mine of earth, esteemed an excellent antidote against poisons.

COPERE, a settlement of the province and jurisdiction of Muzo, in the corregimiento of Tunja, of the N uevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a benign temperature, produces maize, cotton, yucas^ plantains, and the other fruits of its climate. In the territory of this curacy rises the river called Villamisar, memorable for the battle fought there by the Indians and Captain Luis Lanchero, in which the former were routed. It contains 150 housekeepers, and 30 Indians.

COPIA, one of the ancient provinces which were formed by that of Popayan in the time of the Indians ; and bounded by the province of Cartama. At present its limits are not known, since the Spaniards have changed both the divisions and names.

COPIAPO, a province and corregimienlo of the kingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by the province of Atacama, of the archbishopric of Charcas, and kingdom of Peru ; e. by the territory of the city of Rioja, of the province of Tucuman, the cordillera running between ; s. by the province of Coquitnbo, and w, by the Pacific ocean. Its extent is 60 leagues n. s. and from 20 to three e. w. It very seldom rains here ; cattle is therefore scarce, although it nevertheless produces every sort of grain, of excellent quality, and fruits of various kinds. The temperature is very benign throughout the year.

it has many mines of copper, most pure and rich sulphur, loadstone, lapis lazuli, and gold ; some of wliicJi are worked ; and it is not many years ago that some silver mines also were discovered. It produces a kind of small frees, which are planted and cultivated upon the banks of the streams and aqueducts, called jonM/o hobo, and which distil a liquor, which, being prepared over the fire, serves instead of pitch for lining the vessels in which the wine in that kingdom is kept. The conger eel abounds upon the coast, and there is a particular tribe of Indians, called Changes, who are devoted to this kind of fishery, living the whole year upon the coasts, and carrying about their wives and children upon rafts, until they find out a creek likely to afford them what they are in search of: these fish are then bought by the natives, and carried to be sold at the capital of the kingdom, Santiago. Here is also a trade of sulphur, since it is so fine that it needs never to be purified, and is consequently worth three dollars the canlaro [a cantaro is about four gallons]. It abounds no less in nitre, on which account all the waters here are brackish, and there is little indeed that is sweet. This province is very thinly peopled, since it has no other population than such as is found in the capital, which is called, San Francisco de la Selva. Its inhabitants, which should amount to 5000, of all sexes and ages, are dispersed about in country farms. (The province of Copiapo owes its name, according to the Indian tradition, to the great quantity of turquoises found in its mountains. Though these stones ought, with propriety, to be classed amongst the concretions, as they arc only the petrified teeth or bones of animals, coloured by metallic vapours, we may place them amongst the precious stones. The turquoises of Copiapo are usually of a greenish blue ; some, however, are found of a deep blue, which are very hard, and known by the name of the turquoises of the old rock. The amazing fertility of the soil of this province has given rise to assertions, which, on the first blush, might appear fabulous. Mr. Sanson, of Abbeville, in his Geography, asserts that its valleys frequently yield 300 for one. See Chile.)

Copiapo, a port of the above province and corregimiento.

Copiapo, a settlement of the same.

Copiapo, a mountain, in which there is a volcano, which at different times has occasioned much mischief, and is in lat. 26°. (This mountain consists entirely of a marble, striped with bands of various colours, which have a very beau3 u 2

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