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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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los Llanos. Its inhabitants amount to about 200, besides 100 Indians.

CHIPATA, a settlement of the corregimiento of the jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, and it is healthy, though by no means abounding in the productions peculiar to its climate. Its inhabitants are very few, and the number of Indians is 50. It was one of the first settlements entered by the Spaniards, and where the first mass ever celebrated in that part of the world was said by the Friar Domingo de las Casas, of the order of St. Domingo ; and is situate very close to the city of Velez.

[CHIPAWAS. See Chepawas.]

CHIPAYA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of the archbisnoprhe of Charcas ; annexed to the curacy of Huachacalla.

CHIPEOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the country of Las Amazonas, who inhabit the forests near the river Ucayala. Very little is known of their customs.

[CHIPPAWYAN Fort, in N. America, from whence M‘Kenzie embarked, on the lake of the Hills, when he made his way as far as the N. sea, in 1789.1

[CUJPPEWAY River runs s. w. into Mississippi river, in that part where the confluent waters form lake Pepin.]

CHIPURANA, a river of the province and government of Mainas. It rises in the mountains which are to the s. of Yurimaguas ; runs in a serpentine course from s. to n. and enters the Guallaga on the e. side, in lat. 7° 8' s.

CHIQUALOQUE, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Popantla in Nueva Espana; inhabited by 12 families of Indians, and lying 12 leagues to the n. w. of its capital.

CHIQUIAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru.

CHIQUIGUANITAS, a barbarous nation of Indians in former times, but now reduced to the Catholic religion. It is in Perú, to the s. of Lima, in the province of Condesuyos de Arequipa.

CHIQUILIGASTA, a settlement of the province and government of Tucaman, in the district of its capital ; situate to the s. e. of the same.

CHIQUILIXPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zayula in Nueva Espana. It contains 50 families of Indians, and in the mountains in its vicinity are some mines of copper, which have been worked at different times ; but not having produced a benefit proportionate with the expences incurred, they have been abandoned. It is, 15 leagues n. w. of its head settlement.

CHIQUILLANIANS. Sec Index to new matter concerning Chile, chap. IV.

CHIQUIMULA Y SACAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHIQUINQUIRA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, but is healthy ; its situation is delightful, and it abounds in productions. It is watered by a river which runs through the centre of it, the waters of which are unwholesome : at a small distance another river passes through a plain ; this is called Balsa, or Raft, since, before the bridge was thrown across it, it was passed by rafts. It rises from the lake Fuguene, and abounds in most exquisite fish. The settlement, which was formerly but small, is now of great note, and its inhabitants are about 500, besides 70 Indians. It has a good convent of the religious order of S. Domingo, and is noted for the sanctuary of the virgin of its title. Under the large altar, at which is placed this image, there is a small fountain of water, renowned for the curing of infirmities, as is also the earth which is extracted from thence; it being by no means the least part of the prodigy, that although this earth has been constantly taken out for upwards of 200 years, the excavation formed thereby is comparatively exceedingly small. The faith in, and devotion towards this image, are throughout the kingdom very great, and not lesa so with regard to strangers, who visit it in great numbers from far distant provinces. This settlement is nine leagues from Tunja, and 15 to the n. zeJ. of Santa Fe.

CHIQUITI, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs from s. w. to n. e. between the rivers Vichi and Cuche, and enters on the s. side into the river of Las Esrneraldas.

CHIQUITOI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is at present destroyed, and the few surviving inhabitants afterwards collected together at the settlement of Santiago de Cao, and it then became merely a small estate or hamlet, preserving its original name, and being inhabited by a few Indians.

CHIQUITOS, a numerous and warlike nation of Indians of Perú, whose country or territory extends from lat. 16° to 20° s. It is bounded w. by the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the e". it extends itself for upwards of 140 leagues as far as the lake of Los Xarayes ; on the n, as far as the mountains of the Tapacures, the which divide this country from that of Moxos ;

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dried flesh, hung up to preserve them from corruption. Their garments are a shirt without sleeves, reaching down to the middle of their legs. The married people wear drawers of baize with coloured puckers for festival days, and those who enjoy offices of state wear a baize jacket : they neither use hatnorshoes, and no one of them ever goes out without slinging round his neck some medals and a rosary. The hair is worn short until they marry, and when they become old they suffer it to grow long. The women wear close gowns which reach down to the ground, and which they call tapoyes: they never swathe or bind themselves round the waist, but carry on their necks, on gala-days, some threads strung with glass intermixed with beads made of cacao nuts, and coloured beans ; these threads usually amount to 20 or SO rows ; on entering the church they always loosen their hair. The regulars of the company of the Jesuits taught them offices, in which they assisted most dexterously ; and it really excites admiration that Indians, acquainted only with their own barbarian dialect, should be able to manage the compass of the notes, understand their proportions and numbers, and apply the rules of music to its execution. At certain times of the year they go a mdear, or to hunt for honey among the woods : from thence they bring back wax of two sorts, one which is white and odoriferous, Jhe other of less substance, as the wax of Europe, manufactured by a species of bees without stings, called opernus; also another kind of wax, made by a still different sort of bees, but which are all properly denominated wild wax. This wax is delivered to the curate, who preserves it in his house to send to the provinces of Peru ; and from the product of this article, and from that of the cotton, which is made into woofs, to the amount of two pounds weight yearly by each Indian, he procures in 3xchange whatever is necessary for the settlement, such as baizes, coloured wools, bags, iron and steel articles, chopping knives, wedges, hatchets, scissars, pocket-knives, needles, medals, bugles, and other articles of hardware and little necessaries, which, being stored up by him, is distributed amongst the natives according to their necessities, and in a manner that they may want for nothing, but live happy and contented. The settlements are as follows :

San Xavier, San Joseph,

La Concepcion, Santiago,

San Miguel, San Juan,

San Ignacio, El Santo,

Santa Ana, Corazon.

San Rafael,

CHIQUIZA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Sachica in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, and produces wheat, maize, barley, papaSy and the other fruits peculiar to its climate. Its ijihabitants are so few as scarcely to amount to 30 housekeepers, and about the same number of Indians. Four leagues to the n. w. of Tunja, and somewhat less from Velez.

CHIRA, a settlement and seat of the silver mines of the province and corregimiento of Piura in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Paita.

Same name, another settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Nicoya in the kingdomof Guatemala.

[CHIRAGOW. See Plein River.]

CHIRAMBIRA, an island situate in the large bay of St. Juan, on the coast of the province and government of Choco in the S. sea, which gives its name to a small creek formed by this island and the continent.

CHIRCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Sicasica in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chulumani.

CHIRE, Santa Rosa de a city of the government and province of Los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; founded by the Governor Francisco Anciso. It is of a very hot and unhealthy temperature, but affords the same vegetable productions as the rest of the province. It is so mean and reduced as to contain hardly 100 housekeepers, and scarcely deserves the name of a city. This settlement lies the furthest to the n. w. extremity of any in this kingdom, and is bounded in that quarter by the province and bishopric of Caracas.

Same name a river of the above province and government. It rises at the foot of the lomas del Viento, runs e. and enters the Meta, traversing the country of the Betoyes Indians.

CHIRGUA, a river of the province and government of Venezuela. It rises in the mountain of Tacazuruma on the s. runs s. and enters the Gamalotal, after having collected the waters of many other rivers.

CHIRIBIQUI, Santa Fe de a settlement of the province and government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the coast, between the rivers Mosina and Marecapana.

CHIRICOAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, to the e. of the mountains of Bogota, and at the entrance of the llanos or plains of Cazanare and Meta. They lead a wandering life through the woods in company with the Guaibas ; they are crafty and very dexterous thieves, but of a docile and pacific disposition. In 16.64; some of them were reduced into

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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of which great quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its 'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100 Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital, and near to the settlement of Turmeque.

CHIROBIO, a river of the province and government of Venezuela. It runs e. and enters the sea opposite the island Tarata.

CHIRTA, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Yambrasbamba.

CHIRU, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor and jurisdiction of Penonome in the kingdom and government of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the S. sea, upon an extensive plain.

Same name, a river of this jurisdiction, which rises in the mountains of Penonome, and enters the S. sea near the settlement of Anton.

Same name, a very small island of the same jurisdiction, close upon the coast, and called El Farallon.

CHISAHALO, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito.

==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^ and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature. Its productions correspond with those of a similar climate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a very few whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.

CHISGAS, Paramo de, a very lofty mountain covered with eternal snow, in the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, between the rivers Apure and Sinaruco.

CHISLOCA, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; belonging to the district of the former. It is annexed to the curacy of Tupisa.

CHISME, a settlement of the head settlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor of Villalta. It contains 71 families of Indians, and lies 18 leagues from its capital.

CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s. coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo, in the territory possessed by the French ; lying between the settlement and parish of the English, and the point of Burgados.

CHISQUE, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Atabillos Altos.

CHISQUILLA, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee, two miles and a half from English ferry, on New river, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Long island, on Holston.]

CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty of Santa Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It is bounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. by the country bt the Laches Indians, or province of Cochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of the Orinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, a German, and he was the first who entered it with his companions in 1535. This territory is fertile, abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which is extremely large, as also in other seeds, and has goats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hot and unhealthy temperature, and has palms similar to those of Palestine and Barbary, producing excellent dates. The capital is of the same name. This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bogota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly entitled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwards of 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twentyfour leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.

Same name, another settlement, which is the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is three leagues and a half to the s. of its capital.

CHITAGA, Punta de, a bridge in the province and government of Merida, to the s. of the city of Pamplona, and upon the river of this name.

CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians; bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct from it, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They inhabit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains of Bogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto, and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people, and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535, having joined company with the Jiraras, they took and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.

CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregimienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliy temperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains, cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from which are made fine and much esteemed conserves.

CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pamplona ; they are mixed with some families of the Laches. This nation is extremely numerous, and pass a wandering life without any fixed abode ; they go entirely naked, and are much given to sensual gratifications ; some of them have embraced 2

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down from the mountains to the jy. of the Rachcs Indians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. until it enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix, opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto, which lies to the s.

CHOPO, a settlement of the government and jurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very mild climate, and abounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and many sorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branch of its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them for sale to the capital, which lies at a small distance from hence, in the road leading to M6rida and Gibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost as many indigent settlers.

[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are three miles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]

CHOPTANK, a large navigable river of the province and colony of Maryland, [emptying itself into Chesapeak bay.]

CHOPTANK, Little, another (river) of the same province Maryland. It runs w. and enters the sea in the bay of Chesapeak.

CHOQUE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Acros.

CHOQUECAMATA, a settlement of the province and corregtmiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CHOQUELIMPE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Copia.

CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians, of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwelling immediately upon the mountains and forests of Fosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitch their huts near the river Bermejo. But little is known of their customs and of their country.

CHORAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamalies in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Jesus.

CHOROMA, a settlement of the province and corrregimiento of Chichas and Tarija, in the district of the former, and annexed to the curacy of Tupisa.

CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plains or llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touching toAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogoles, and extending n. as far as the mountains of the Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They are at present reduced to the Catholic religion, and are mixed with those of other nations ; but some few of them still persist in their idolatry, and live dispersed upon the mountains.

CHORONI, a port of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Venezuela, between the mountain of Ocumara and the port of Chuapo.

CHOROS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. It has the hard lot of being scantily supplied Avith Avater, even as much as is necessary lor drinking.

Same name, a point of the coast of this province and kingdom (Chile).

Same name, an island near the coast and point of its name (Choros),

CHORRERA, a settlement of the jurisdiction and akaldia mayor of Nata in the kingdom of Tierra Firme; situate near the coast of the S. sea.

Same name, a creek of the island of Cuba, on the 71. coast, having a fort for its protection, with a detacliment of troops from the Havana.

CHORILLO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

Same name, another (settlement), in the province and corregimento of Cercado in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Surco.

CHORRILLOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cañete in Peru; situate on the coast, close to the point of China.

CHORROS, a settlement of the province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHORROU, Chike du, a rivulet and establishment of the French, in their possessions in Guayana.

CHORUNGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Andaray ; situate in the valley of its name.

CHOSAPACK, a large and beautiful bay on the coast of the province and colony of Virginia]]. [See Chesapeak.]

CHOSCHAMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huacaiia.

[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, near a small lake about 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35° 33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]

CHOTA, Todos Santos de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, though only two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth. It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions, in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they found its temperature to be intensely sultry.]

3 N

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belongs to the bishopric of La Paz, and is so situate as to have a fine view of the lake. It is a settlement at once the most pleasant and convenient, fertile, and abounding in fruits and cattle, but its temperature is excessively cold. It has two parishes, with the dedicatory title of Santo Domingo and La Asuncion, and two hermitages dedicated to St. Barbara and St. Sebastian. The other settlements are,

Asiento de Minas de Mi- Asiento del Desagua-

chacani, dero,

Asiento de San Ante- Acora,

nio de Esquilache, Hi lave,

Pomata, *July,

Asiento de Huacullani, Santiago,

Zepita.

Same name, The lake of, which, although it be thus called, is also known by the name of Titicaca, is 51 leagues in length from n. w. to s. e. and 26 in width, although in some parts less. On its shores are six provinces or corregimientos^ which are. The province of this Paucarcolla, name, Lampa, Pacages, Asangaro. Omasuyos, This lake is of sufficient depth for vessels of any size, since in many bays not far in from its shores there are from four to six fathoms of water, and within it, some places from 40 to 50. It is, as far as is ascertained, without any shoals or banks. Near it grow some herbs, called clacchos, eaten by the cows and pigs ; also a great quantity of the herb called totora, or cat’s tail, which in some parts grows to the length of a yard and an half. Of this the Indians make rafts, not only for fishing but for carrying to and fro the cattleand productions of the harvest and crops growing in the various islands lying in this lake. Some of these islands are so covered and hemmed in with the herb totora that it requires much force and labour to cut a passage through it. In one of the largest of these islands the Incas had a magnificent temple, dedicated to the sun, the first that was ever built. This lake is not without its tempests and squalls ; they are, on the contrary, frequent, and have at times caused no inconsiderable mischief. Its waters are thick, but are nevertheless drank by the cattle, and even the Indians ; particularly by those of the nation of the Uros, who are a poor ignorant people, who formerly lived upon the islands in great wretchedness, and who by dint of great solicitations have been prevailed upon to leave them for the mainland^ where they now reside in some miserable caves, excavated places, or holes in the earth covered over with fiags of totora^ maintain-

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ing themselves by fishing. This lake contains likewise various kinds of fish, such as trout, ormantos, cuches, anchovies, and boquillas in abundance; these are, for the most part, about the length of a man’s hand, and three fingers thick. The Indians of Yunguyo take upwards of 700 yearly, and sell them at four and six dollars the thousand. They also catch some small pejereyesy and an infinite variety of birds, which are salted, and afford excellent food. It is confidently and repeatedly asserted by the Indians, that the greater part of the riches of the country was thrown into this lake when the Spaniards entered it at the time of the conquest ; and amongst other valuables the great gold chain made by the order of the Inca Huayanacap, which was 2S3 yards in length, and within which 6000 men could dance.

CHUCURPU, an ancient settlement of warlike Indians of the province and corregimiento of Cuzco in Peru. It lies to the e. of this city, and was subjected and united to the empire after a long resistance by Pachacutec, emperor of the Incas.

CHUCUTI, a river of the province and government of Darien in the government of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains towards the e. and following this course, enters the Taranena at a small distance from its source.

CHUDAUINAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Quito, to the s, e. of this city. They inhabit the part lying s. w. of the river Pastaza, and are bounded on the s. e, by the Ipapuisas, and w. by the Xibaros. They are not numerous, owing to the continual wars which they have maintained with their neighbours ; and though of a martial spirt, they are of a docile and humane disposition. Some of them have 'United themselves with the Andoas, in the settlement of this name, which lies upon the w. shore of the river Pastaza.

CHUECA, San Agustin de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes, and archbishopric of Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of San Christoval.

CHUETI, a river of the province and government of Choco. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs w. and enters the Paganagandi.

CHUFIAS, a barbarous nation of Indians who inhabit the e. of the river Aguaricu, bounded on the n. w. by the nation of the Encabellados, with whom they are in continual warfare.

CHUGOD, Santa Catalina de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Chetu.

CHUI, a river of the province and captainship 3 o

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