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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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AGUADILLA, a river of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the s. and enters the large river Chagre very near its mouth, and the castle of this name. Here ships take in water, on account of the convenience of a bay, for the defence of which there is, upon the shore, a battery belonging to the same castle, which was built under the directions of Don Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.
AGUADORES, River of the, in the island of Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast of this island, having at its mouth a watch-tower and guard to give notice of vessels which may enter the port of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it is seven leagues distant.
AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and government of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico, and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in the year 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Queretaro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of Sierra Gorda.
AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of the jurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and in 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families of Indians, including the wards of its district; 17 leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n. Long. 103° 33' w.
AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, and government of San Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It is of a hot temperature, and produces the same fruits as the other settlements of this province.
AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold temperature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo, and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain their livelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteen leagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.
AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlement of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito ; one of those which belonged to the missions held there by the Jesuits, and thus called from the nation of Indians of whom it is composed. It was founded in 1670 by the father Lorenzo Lucero.
AGUAPAI, a river of the province and government of Paraguay. It rises between the Parana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of San Carlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c. enters the last of the above rivers not far from the settlement of La Cruz.
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Aguarico, a river of the same province and f overnment, being one of those which enter the Napo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance, begins the large province of the Encabellados ; and here it was that the Portuguese attempted to establish themselves in 1732, invading it with a certain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), which came from Para. They were, however, through the well-timed precautions of the president of Quito, forced to retire without attaining their object. This river contains much gold in its sands, and its body is much increased by other streams, such as those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Duino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of the Andes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra, washes the territory of the Sucurabios Indians, and enters the Napo in lat. 1° 23' s.
Aguaro, Cano de, a river of the province and government of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico, and is famous for abounding in fish, particularly a kind called pabon, which has a circular spot of sky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling an eye, and which is much esteemed for its excellent flavour.
Aguas-blancas. See Yaguapiui.
Aguas-calientes, an alcaldia mayor of the the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdiction includes four head settlements of the district, and two large estates called the Pavellon, as also the estate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain and seed are cultivated. The principal settlement is the town of the same name, of a moderate temperature, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish families, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes; and although some Mexican Indians arc to be found here, they merely come to traffic with the productions of the other jurisdictions. It contains three convents ; one of the bare- footed Franciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one of the Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Dios, with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mention several other chapels and altars in the vicinity. It is 140 leagues n. n. w. of Mexico, and 35 of Guadaiaxara. Long. 101° 51' 30" w. Lat. 22° 2' n.
AGUASTELAS, San Miguel de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Andres of Acatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva España. It is but lately established, and is one league s. of its head settlement.
AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the district of the alcadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction; but on account of its smallness, and the ill-favoured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorporated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indian families, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital.
Agueda, a point or cape near the above mountain.
AGUILA, Villa Gutierrez de la, a town of the alcaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva España. It was formerly very considerable, and had a numerous population of Spaniards, when it was made a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Taraumaras Indians. It is an alcaldia mayor ^ but its jurisdiction is consolidated with another, on account of its being a place of little consideration, and its population being very scanty, and living in some small wards and estates in its district. It lies at the c. entrance of the province of Nayarith, and is the boundary of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, being nine leagues e. of Xerez.
Aguila, a very lofty mountain of the province
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anti government of Darien, near the n. coast, and thus "called from an eagle Avitli two heads, which was caught here in 1608, and which Avas sent to the queen, Doha Maria-Ana of Austria, mother of Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampy ground, which is round, and has a very narroAV inlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena.
Aguila (point), a point or cape of the larger island of the Malvinas or Falkland isles ; thus named from having been discovered by the French frigate, the Aguila, or Eagle. It is one of those whith form tlie great bay or port.
AGUILUSCO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of Indians, who employ themselves in sowing seed, cutting Avood, manufacturing vessels of fine earth en-Avare, and saddle-trees for riding.
AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast of Tierra Firme, and of the province and government of Santa Marta, between this city and Cape Chichibacoa. It is the part of land which projects farthest into the sea.
Aguja, Point of the. See article Eguille.
AGUSTIN, San, a capital city of the province and government of E. Florida, situate on the e. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land. It has a good port, which was discovered by Admiral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus-. tin’s day in the year 1565, which was his reason for giving the place this title, which has, however, been tAvice changed. He also built here a good castle for its defence. The city has a very good parish church, and a convent of the Franciscan order; and, as far as relates to its spiritual concerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who has at various times proposed the erection of an abbey, but has not obtained his wish, although it had been approved by the council of the Indies.
It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops, and another for the community ; it has also an hermitage, Avith the dedicatory title of Santa Barbara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586; by Captain Davis, Avith the Bucaniers, in 1665 ; but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In 1702 it Avas besieged by the English, under the command of Colonel Moore, who, failing in his attempts to take the castle, which Avas defended by the governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibited his revenge by burning and destroying the town. In 1744 the English returned to the siege, under the command of General Oglethorp, who was equally unsuccessful, in as much as it w^as most valiantly defended by the governor, Don Manuel de Montiano, who defied the bombardment of the enemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ; the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizontal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, with good bomb-proof casemates, and mounted Avith 50 pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, an excellent covered way. The city, although it is encompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its defence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ceded, Avith the whole of the province, to the English, by the King ofSpain, in the peace of Versailles, in 1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783, when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. The breakers at the entrance of the harbour have formed two channels, whose bars have eight feet of water each. Long. 81° 40'. Lat. 29° 58'.
Agustin, San, a settlement and real of mines, of the province of Tarauraara, in the kingdotli of Nueva Vizcaya, which was formerly a population of some consequence, and wealthy withal, from the richness of its mines, Avhich -have lately fallea into decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon the inhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S, Felipe de Chiguagua.
Agustin, San, another settlement of the head settlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldia mayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva España. It contains 20 families of Indians, and is distant a little more than a league from its head settlement.
Agustin, San, another, in the head settlement of the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, who trade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four league n. of its head settlement.
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Villas. It contains 34 families of Indians, who cultivate and trade in grain, pulse, coal, and the bark of trees. A little more than two leagues to the w. with a slight inclination to the s. of its head settlement.
Agustin, San, a point or cape of the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco, between the port Antonio Vaz and the river Tapado. One hundred leagues from the bay of Los Miiertos ; [300 miles n. e. from the bay of All Souls. Lat. 8° 38' s. Long. 35° 11' tc.]
Agustin, San, a river of the province and government of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Granada. It runs from s. to n. and afterwards, with a slight inclination to the w. enters the river S. Juan, of the province of Choco.
Agustin, San, a small island of the gulph of California, or Red Sea of Cortes ; situate in the most interior part of it, and near upon the coast of Nueva España, opposite the bay of San Juan Baptista.
AHOME, a nation of Indians, who inhabit the shores of the river Zuaque, in the province of Cinaloa, and who are distant four leagues from the sea of California : they were converted to the Catholic faith by father Andres de Rivas, a Jesuit. Their country consists of some extensive and fertile plains, and they are by nature superior to the other Indians of Nueva España. Moreover, their Heathenish customs do not partake so much of the spirit of barbarism. They abhorred polygamy, and held virginity in the highest estimation : and thus, by way of distinction, unmarried girls wore
a small shell suspended to their neck, until the day of their nuptials, when it was taken off by the bridegroom. Their clothes were decent, composed of wove cotton, and'they had a custom of bewailing their dead for a whole year, night and morning, with an apparently excessive grief. They are gentle and faithful towards the Spaniards, with whom they have continued in peace and unity from the time of their first subjection. The principal settlement is of the same name, and lies at the mouth of the river Fuerte, on the coast of the gulph of California,* having a good, convenient, and well sheltered port.
AHUACATLAN, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Francisco del Talle, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva España. It is of a cold temperature, inhabited by 51 families of Indians, and distant three leagues s. of its head settlement.
Ahuacatlan (Zochicoatlan), another settlement of’the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva España. It is of a cold temperature, situate on a small level plain, surrounded by hills and mountains. It contains 13 families of Indians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its capital.
Ahuacatlan, with the dedicatory title of San Juan, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva España. Its inhabitants are composed of 450 families of Indians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, including the settlements of the district. Five leagues from its capital, and separated by a mountainous and rugged road, as also by a very broad river, whose waters, in the winter time, increase to such a degree as to render all communication between the above places impracticable.
Ahuacatlan, another, of the head settlement of the district of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in the above kingdom. It contains 160 families of Indians, who trade in chia^ (a white medicinal earth), and grain, with which its territory abounds. It lies n, w. of its head settlement.
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AHUACAZALCA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Luis de la Costa, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espaiia. It contains 56 families of Indians, -whose commerce consists in rice and cotton. Three leagues n. e. of its liead settlement.
AHUACAZINGO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Atengo, and alcaldia mayor of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 46 families of Indians, and is ten leagues e. of its head settlement.
AHUALICAN, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Espana ; of a benign and salutary temperature, as it is fanned by then, breezes. It lies three leagues n. of its head settlement, which is Oapan ; and contains 36 families of Indians.
AHUATELCO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Izucai in Nueva Espana, situate on the skirt of the volcano of the same name. In its district are eight settlements, inhabited by 289 families of Indians, and 11 of Musiees and Mulattoes, who live in some temporary habitations for labourers. It is situate on a cold, rough, and barren soil, but is nevertheless fertile in wheat, and abounds in water and cattle. Eight leagues n. w. of its capital.
AHUATEMPA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Santa Isabel, and alcaldia mayor of Cholula, in Nueva Espana. It contains 39 families of Indians, and is two leagues s.of its capital.
AHUATLAN, San Pedko de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Juan del Rio, and alcaldia mayor of Queretaro, in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of the former place, and lying ten leagues n. w, of the latter.
AHUEZITLA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 families of Indians, and abounds in chia, (a white medicinal earth), grain, and earthen-ware. It is nine leagues w, n. w. of its capital.
AHWAHHAWAY, a race of Indians, who differ but very little in any particular from the Mandans, their neighbours, except in the unjust war which they, as well as the Minetares, prosecute against the defenceless Snake Indians. They claim to have once been a part of the Crow Indians, whom
they still acknowledge as relations. They have resided on the Missouri as long as their tradition will enable them to inform.
AIACOA, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It rises to the w. of the Sierra Maiguatida, runs e. and enters the Orinoco near the rapid stream of the Marumarota.
AIAHUALTEMPA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldia mayor of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 families of Indians, and is three leagues to the s. of its head settlement.
AIAHUALULCO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Ixlahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana, which, in the Mexican language, signifies a small river. It abounds in the best fruits of its jurisdiction, such as pears and other sorts of fruit highly esteemed at Vera Cruz. It contains only three families of Spaniards, 22 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 70 of Indians. In its district are several temporary habi. tations for labourers, and pastures for breeding cattle, which reach as far as the district of Tepcaca, in the lofty eminence of Xamiltepec, 16 leagues distant from Xalapa. It includes also within its administration the cultivated estates extending as far as the place called Puertezuelo, where this jurisdiction approximates to that of San Juan de los Llanos on the w. s.w. side ; and in the culture of the above estates many Spaniards, 3Iustees, and Mulattoes, are employed. One league s. w. of its head settlement.
Aiahualulco, another settlement of the head settlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldia mayor of Chilapa, in the kingdom of Xalapa, and annexed to the curacy of this place, from which it is three leagues distant, being nine to the s. of its head settlement. It contains 42 families of Indians, including another small settlement incorporated with it.