The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACAXUCHITLAN the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tulazingo, to the N E. It contains 406 Indian families, and is a curacy of the bishopric of La Puebla de los Angeles. Distant four leagues to the E of its capital.
ACAYUCA, the alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, and of the province of Goazacoalco. Its jurisdiction is very extended, and consists, for the most part, of places of a hot and moist temperature, but so fertile is it that it gives annually four crops of maize; and as there is no demand for this production in the other provinces, it follows, of course, that the Indians here are little given to industry. Indeed the ground never requires the plough, and the whole of their labours during the seedtime consist merely in smoothing the surface of the mountains, and in scratching up the ground with a pointed stick. It is at times infested by locusts, which destroy the plants and crops ; and having never been able to find a remedy against this evil, the inhabitants had recourse to the protection of the virgin of La Conception, which is revered in the head settlement of the district of the Chichimecas ; and it is said that, owing to her mediatory influence, the plague has been thought to diminish. This province is watered by the abundant river of the Goazacoalco. The settlements of this alcaldía are, Xocoteapa, Macayapa, Menzapa, Molocan, Theimanquillo, Tinantitlan, Chinameca, Zoconusco, Olutla, Otcapa, Pochutla, Ostitan, Cozolcaque, Ixhuatla, Macatepeque.
another, the capital of the above, situate on the coast of the N. sea. Its inhabitants are composed of 30 families of Spaniards, 296 of Indians, and 70 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It lies a little more than 100 leagues S E of Mexico. Lat. 17° 53' N Long. 94° 46' 30" W.
Acacingo, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepcaca, situate in a plain of a mild temperature, and watered by two streams which run close to all the houses of the settlement, to the great comfort of the inhabitants. In the middle of the above plain there is a beautiful fountain, a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, a very ancient building, and some other buildings, which have been erected since the conquest of the country. The parish church is a piece of the most ancient architecture. The inhabitants are composed of 150 families of Spaniards, 104 of Mustees, 31 of Mulattoes, and 700 of Indians; 3 1/4 leagues E to the NE of its capital.
ACAZUTLA, a port of the S sea, on the coast of the province of the alcaldía mayor of Zuchitepec, in the kingdom of Guatemala, between the point of Los Remedios, and the settlement of Guapaca. [Lat. 14° 42' N Long. 90° 3'.]
ACCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru, situate on the skirt of a mountain, which has a prominence, seeming as though it were about to fall upon the settlement. This mountain is constantly dwindling away without any assignable cause. Lat. 13° 19 s. Long. 71° 13' W
[ACCOCESAWS. The ancient town and principal place of residence of these Indians is on the W side of Colorado of Rio Rouge, about 200 miles S W of Nacogdoches, but they often change their place of residence for a season : being near the bay, they make great use of fish, oysters &c.; kill a great many deer, which are the largest and fattest in the province ; and their country is universally said to be inferior to no part of the province in soil, growth of timber, goodness of water, and beauty of surface; they have a language peculiar to themselves, but have a mode of communication by dumb signs, which they all understand: number about 80 men. Thirty or forty years ago, the Spaniards had a mission here, but broke it up, or moved it to Nacogdoches. They talk of resettling it, and speak in the highest terms,of the country.]
and it is, indeed, pretty generally believed that this cross was left here by the above apostle.
CARACARES, a large lake of the province and government of Paraguay. It is 26 leagues in length, and has many fertile islands, inhabited by barbarian Indians, and empties itself through a canal into the river Paraná on the e. side. It is in 30° 41' s. lat.
CARACAS, Santiago de Leon de, a capital city of the province of Venezuela, founded by Diego Losada in the year 1566, in a beautiful and extensive valley of more than four leagues in length. It is of a very mild temperature, being neither troubled with excessive heat or cold. It is watered by four rivers, which fertilize its territory, and make it abound as well in delicate waters as in exquisite fruits and flowers: the streets are wide and straight, the buildings elegant and convenient, and it is ornamented by four marts. It is the seat of the bishopric, erected in the city of Coro in 1532, and translated to this spot in 1636. It has a beautiful cathedral church, besides some parish chapels, which are Nuestra Señora de Alta Gracia ; San Pablo, which is also an hospital, and Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria, out of the walls of the city. There is also an hospital De la Caridad (of charity) for women ; a convent of the religious order of Santo Domingo, in which is held in high respect the wonderful image of the Virgin of the Rosary, presented by Philip II. There is another convent of San Francisco, in which is preserved a piece of the wood of the cross left by the Governor Don Martin de Robles Villafañate ; another of our Lady of La Merced ; a monastery of religious women of La Concepcion ; another of the Carmelites Descalzas (barefooted) ; a college and seminary for the education of youth, with five cathedrals ; four hermitages dedicated to San Mauricio, Santa Rosalia de Palermo, La Divina Pastora, and La Santisima Trinidad. Charles II. granted to this city the privilege of allowing its alcaldes to govern the province in the vacancy of a governor ; and Philip V. permitted a commercial company of Biscayans to be established, who reaped considerable affluence, especially in the artiles of cacoa and sugar, the chief source of its revenues ; but this company was abolished in the reign of Charles III. in the year 1778 ; which circumstance was considered by the city and the pro-
vince as a most considerable privilege. The number of inhabitants amounts to about 1000, besides an infinity of people of colour by whom it is inhabited. The natives have shown themselves to be of an ingenuous disposition, clever, affable, and courteous. Its arms are a grey lion rampant in a field of silver, having between his arms a scollopshell of gold, with the cross of Santiago ; and the crest is a crown with five points of gold. It was sacked in 1566 by Sir Francis Drake, who came thither in an English cruiser ; also by the French in 1679. It is three leagues distant from the port of Guaira. Long. 67° w. Lat. 10° 30' n.
The bishops who have presided in this city.
1. Don Rodrigo Bastidas, dean of the holy church of St. Domingo, the chief of the visitation of the bishopric of Puertorico; elected on the 27th October 1535, and who died in 1542.
2. Don Miguel Gerónimo Ballesteros, dean of the church of Cartagena of the Indies ; elected in 1543.
3. Don Fr. Pedro de Agreda, of the order of St. Domingo, collegiate of San Gregorio of Valladolid ; presented to this bishopric in 1558, and taking possession of it 1560. In his time the city was sacked by the English : he died in 1580.
4. Don Fr. Juan de Manzanillo, of the order of St. Domingo ; presented in the year 1582 ; he rebuilt the church, and died in 1593.
5. Don Fr. Diego Salinas, of the order of St. Domingo, native of Medina del Campo, collegiate of San Gregorio de Valladolid, prior in different convents, procurator-general in the court, and elected bishop in the year 1600 : in the following year he died.
6. Don Fr. Pedro Martin Palomino, of the order of St. Domingo ; elected in 1601 : he died the same year.
7. Don Fr. Pedro de Oña, native of Burgos, of the order of our Lady of La Merced ; he was evening lecturer in the university of Santiago, elected bishop in 1601, canonized in the convent of Valladolid, and before he came to his church, was promoted to the bishopric of Gaeta, in the kingdom of Naples, in 1604.
8. Don Fr. Antonio de Alcega, of the order of St. Francis ; he Avas formerly married, and held the office of accountant to the royal estates in Yucatán, when he became a widower, and giving all he possessed as alms to the poor, he took to a religious life, and Philip III. being charmed with his virtues presented him to this bishopric in 1664 ; he celebrated the synod in Caracas the year following, and died in 1609.
9. Don Fr. Juan de Bohorques, native of Mex-
[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports consisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars. He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000 souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, and Chile, are consumed within the country. The population of some of the chief cities is thus stated ; Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello 7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela de Coro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, are supposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797 three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Caracas, on account of their revolutionary propensities. Being treated with great indulgence by the officers and soldiers to whose care they were committed, they formed the project of a conspiracy against the government. They engaged a number of persons, some of them of consequence, in their party. After gaining their first converts, the spirit did not spread. The coldness and apathy of the people did not admit of the effervescene they desired. After the plot had been kept a secret for many months it was disclosed to the government. Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others were taken. It was found that seventy-two had entered into the conspiracy; six were executed. The rest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys or banished from the country. For an account of the recent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]
Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Cumana. They are six in number, all small and desert, serving as places of shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on an illicit commerce on that coast.
CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement of the province and country of the Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which belonged to the abolished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth of the river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.
CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast of the province and corregimiento aforementioned, between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.
CARAMANTA, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Gratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in 1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature is hot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vegetables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : near it are many small rivers which enter the Cauca, and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On the mountains within its jurisdiction, are some settlements of barbarian Indians very little known. This city is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues distant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antioquia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.
21. Don Fray Pedro de Espineira ; elected in 1762 ; he governed until his death, in 1778.
22. Don Francisco Joseph de Maran ; elected in 1779.
Concepcion de la Vega, another city, in the island of St. Domingo, founded by the Admiral Christopher Columbus, on a beautiful and spacious plain, or Uanura^ celebrated for a conquest gained on it by a numerous army of Indians. It has a good parish church, erected into a bishopric, and wliich was afterwards done away with in 1605, it being then embodied with the archbishopric of S. Domingo. it has also a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, in which is deposited and venerated the first cross that the discoverer and conqueror of this country planted here ; which, although the Indians have endeavoured with all their might to break and destroy, has resisted all their eftbrts. Twenty-five leagues from the capital of S. Domingo.
(Concepcion del Pao, a city of the province and government of Caracas ; composed of the inhabitants of Trinity, of Margareta, and of Caracas, who owned the folds in the plains near the Orinoco, to the s. of Barcelona ; they here successively fixed their dwellings, for the purpose of being in the centre of their property, and of superintending it themselves. In 1744 the number of these houses were found considerable enough to acquire the name of village. There are only 2300 people of all classes here, subsisting will] facility by Ihe fertility of the soil. The air and water are good, and the only inconveniences the inhabitants experience are an excessive lieat, and inundations arising from the long and heavy rains. The produce of the land is merely the provisions common to the CQuntry. The wealth of the inhabitants consists entirely in cattle, which they export to Trinity, liia Guarapiche or Orinoco, This village, now a city, is distinguished from St.John the Baptist del Pao, situate in the province of Venezuela, by the title of Concepcion del Pao. Lat. 8° 42' n. Long. 65° 10' ra.)
Concepcion, another, of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Leon in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopric of Mechoacan ; annexed to the curacy of Rincon. It contains 208 families of Indians, 100 of Spaniards, and ^0 oi Mustees. It produces wheat, maize, and other seeds, and is a quarter of a league from its curacy, and four leagues from the capital.
Concepcion, another, of the missions which are held by the religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Texas and kingdom of Nueva Espana. It is 112 leagues to the e. n. e. of the presidency of San Antonio de Bejar.
Concepcion, another, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the great river Maranon, on a point of land formed by the same, and where this river is entered by the Apena and the Guallaga,
Concepcion, another, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya; situate on the bank of the river Florido, near the settlement and real of the mines of Parral.
Concepcion, another, of the missions which belong to the religion of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, lying 17 leagues distant between the s. and s. w. of the real of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
Concepcion, another, with the surname of Achaguas, being composed of Indians of this nation, in the kingdom of Granada ; of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits in Orinoco; situate on the shore of the river Meta.
Concepcion, another settlement, the capital of the province and captainship of Itamaraca in Brazil ; situate on the top of a mountain by the seaside. It has a magnificeut parish church, and is garrisoned by two companies of troops, it contains 300 housekeepers, and has three large sugar.