432

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432

CHILE.

[European gazettes of that period, at which time
the war had cost the royal treasury and individuals
1,700,000 dollars.

54. Peace restored . — The same year an accom
modation' was agre(?d on; and by this it was al
lowed that the Araucaiiians should afterwards have
a minister resident in the city of St. Jago. With
respect to the other articles of the peace, it is suf
ficient fo state, that the treaties of Quillan and
Negrete were by mutual consent revived. On the
death of Gonzaga, the court of Spain sent Don
Augustin Jaiiregui to govern Chile, who has since
filled with universal approbation the important of
fice of viceroy of Peru. His successor, Don
Ambrosio Benavides, has rendered the country
happy by his wise and beneficent administration.

Chap. V.

Present slate of Chile.

From the brief relation that we have given of
the occurrences in Chile since its discovery, it will
be seen that its possession has cost Spain more
blood and treasure than all the rest of her settle
ments in America. The Araucanians, occupying
but a small extent of territory, have with far in
ferior arms not only been able to counterbalance
her power, till then reputed irresistible, but to
endanger the loss of her best established possessions.
Though the greater part of her officers had been
bred in that school of war, the Low Countries, and
her soldiers, armed with those destructive wea
pons before which the most extensives empires of
that continent had fallen, were considered the best
in the world, yet have these people succeeded in
resisting them. The Spaniards, since losing
their settlements in Araucania, have prudently
confined their views to establishing themselves
firmly in that part of Chile Avhich lies between
the s. confines of Peru and the river Biobio,
and extends from lat. 24° to 36|° 5. : this they have
divided into 13 provinces. They also possess the
fortress of Valdivia, in the country of tiie Cuu
chese, the Archipelago of Chiloe, and the island
of Juan Fernandez.

1. Civil government . — These provinces are go
verned by an officer, who has usually the rank of
lieutenant-general, and combines the title of pre
sident, governor, and captain-general of the king
dom of Chile, lie resides in the city of St. Jago,
and is solely dependent upon the king, e.xcept in
case of war, when, in certain points, he receives
his directions from the viceroy of Peru. In qua
lity of captain-general he commands the army, and
has under him not only the three principal officers
of the kingdom, the quarter-master, the serjeant-

major, and the commissary, but also the four go- .
vernors of Chiloe, Valdivia, Valparaiso, and Juan
Fernandez. As president and governor, he has the
supreme administration of justice, and presides
over the superior tribunals of that capital, whose
jurisdiction extends all over the Spanish provinces
in those parts. The principal of these is the tri
bunal of audience, or royal senate, whose decision
is final in all causes of importance, both civil and
criminal ; and is divided into two courts, the one
for the trial of civil, and the other for the trial of
criminal causes. Both are composed of several
respectable judges, called auditors, of a regent, a
fiscal or royal procurator, and a protector of the
Indians. All these officers receive large salaries
from the court. Their judgment is final, except
in causes Avhere the sum in litigation exceeds
10,000 dollars, when an appeal may be had to
the supreme council of the Indies. The other su
preme courts are those of finance, of the cruzada,
of vacant lands, and the consulate or tribunal of
commerce, which is wholly independent of any
other of that kind. The provinces are governed
by prefects, formerly called corregidors, but at
present known by the name of sub-delegates ; these,
according to the forms of their institution, should
be of royal nomination, but owing to the distance
of the court they are usually appointed by the
captain-general, of whom they style themselves
the lieutenants, d hey have jurisdiction both of
civil and military affairs, and their emoluruents of
office depend entirely upon their fees, which
are by no means regular. In each capital of a
province there is, or at least should be, a munici
pal magistracy, called the cabildo, which is com
posed, as in other parts of the Spanish dominions,
of several members, called regidores, who are ap
pointed for life, of a standard-bearer, a procura
tor, a forensic judge, denominated the provincial
alcalde, an alguazil or high sllerift, and of two
consuls or burgo-masters, called alcaldes. The
latter are chosen annually from among the princi
pal nobility by the cabildo itself, and have juris
diction both in civil and criminal causes in the
first instance.

2. Military force.— The inhabitants are divided
into regiments, which are obliged to march to the
frontiers or the sea-coast in case of war. In 1792
there were 15,856 militia troops enrolled in the two
bishoprics of Santiago and Concepcion; 10,218 in
the first, and 5638 in the latter. Besides this re
gular militia, there are a great many city militias,
that are commanded by commissaries, who act as
colonels. A sufficient force also of regular troops
for the defence of the country is maintained by]

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