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CHILE.

431

[had been deserted for more than 40 years, where
they intended to form an establishment in order to
conquer the rest of the kingdom. With this view
they immediately began building three strong forts
at the entrance of the river, in order to secure its
possession. The Araucanians were invited, with
the most flattering promises, to join them ; this they
not only declined, but strictly adhering to the sti-
pulations of the treaty, refused to furnish them with
provisions, of which tliey were greatly in want.
The Cunchese, to whom the territory which they
had occupied belonged, following the counsel of
their allies, refused also to treat with them or sup-
ply them. In consequence of this refusal, the
Dutch, pressed with hunger, and hearing tliat a
combined army of Spaniards and Araucanians were
on their march against them, were compelled to
abandon the ])lace in three months aftertheir land-
ing. The Marquis de Mancura, son to the vice-
roy of Pern, having soon after arrived there in
search of them, with 10 ships of war, fortified the
harbour, and particulary the island, which has
since borne the titular name of his family. On
the termination of the sixth year of his govern-
ment, Baydes was recalled by the court, and Don
Martin IVluxica appointed in his place.

51. Dreadful earthquake.— lAa succeeded in
preserviiijr the kingdom in that state of tranquil-
lity in which he found it, no other commotion oc-
curring during his government, but that produced
by a violent earthquake, which, on the 8th of May
1617, destroyed part of the city of St. Jago.
The fortune of his successor, Don vVntonio Acugna,
was very dift'erent. During his government the
war was excited anew between the Spaniards and
Araucanians ; but contemporary writers have left
us no accounts of the causes that produced it,
Clentaru, the hereditaiy toqui of Lauquemapu,
being, in 1655, unanimously elected general, sig-
nalized his first campaign bj’ the total defeat of
the Spanish army. He, moreover, continued to
persecute the Spaniards with great violence for a
period of 10 years, under the governments of Don
Pedro Portel Casanate, and Don Francisco Me-
neses. The last, who was a Portuguese l)y birth,
had the glory of terminating it, in 1665, by a peace
more permanent than that made by Baydes. All
the succeeding governors appear to have kept up
a good understanding witli the Araucanians until
the year 1686, when Garro was nearly breaking it,
on occasion of removing tlie inhabitants of the
island of Mocho to the ?z. shore of the Biobib,
iti order to cut off all communication with foreign
enemies.

^ 52. Commerce zeilh the French.~T\\Q com-

mencement of the present aera was marked in Chile
by the deposition of the Governor Doi^ Francisco
Ibanez, the rebellion of the inhabitants of Chiloe,
and the trade with the French. The islanders
of Chiloe were soon restored to obedience, through
the prudent conduct of the quarter-master-general
of the kingdom, Don Pedro Molina, who succeeded
in reducing them rather by mild measures than by
useless victories. The French, in consequence of
the war of the succession, possessed themselves
for a time of all tlie external commerce of Chile.
From 1707 to 1717, its ports were filled with their
ships, and they carried from thence incredible
sums in gold and silver. It w as at this period that
the learned F'ather Feuille, whoremained there three
years, made his botanical researches and meteorolo-
gical observations upon the coast. His amiable quali-
ties obtained him the esteem of the inhai)itants, who
still cherish his memory with much affection. It
w'as in 1722 that the Araucanians, impatient at
the insolence of those who were designated by the
title of captains of the friends ; and who having"'
been introduced under pretence of guarding the
missionaries, arrogated to themselves a species of
authority over the natives, resolved to create a
toqui, and have recourse to arms. A war in con-
sequence ensued, but it soon became reduced to
little skirmishes, which were finally terminated by
tlie celebrated peace of Negrete, a place situated
at the confluence of the rivers Biobio and Lara,
where the treaty of Quillan was reconfirmed, and
the odious title of captain of friends wholly abo-
lished.

53. How the Pehuenches became inimical to
the Spaniards. Governor Gonzaga was the
next Avho excited the flames of war by endeavour-
ing to effect more than his predecessors. He un-
dertookto compel the Araucanians to live in cities.
This chimerical scheme was ridiculed by those
who knew the prejudices of tiiis people, and it was
finally abandoned, not, however, till it had pro-
cured another powerful, and for ever after impla-
cable enemy to the Spaniards. Tiiis was no other
than the Peliuenches, avIio being in the above war
in alliance with (he Spaniards, and who sufiered a
considerable defeat whilst fighting against the
Araucanians, resolved all at once to'change sides,
and have ever since been the firm allies of the lat-
ter. They have a practice of attacking the Spa-
nish caravans from Buenos Ayres to Chile, and
every year furnishes some melancholy inforination
of that kind. We shall not proceed particularly
to notice several actions, and among others a
bloody battle wdiich was fougiit in tlie beginning of
the year 1773 ; mention of which was made in t1iel

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