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[order to practise his troops, and subsist them at
tlie expence of the enemy ; and after defeating
one of V^illagran’s sons, who, with n large force,

I came to give him battle, he marched against Ca-

nete ; but V^illagran, convinced of the imposibility
V of defending it, anticipated him by withdrawing

all the inhabitants, part of whom retired to Impe-
rial, and part to Concepcion. The Araucanians, on
their arrival, did not fail to destroy this city ; tliey
set it on lire, and in a short time it was entirely

i 33. Pedro Villagr an. -—In the mean time Vil-

lagran, more the victim of grief and mental anxiety
than of his disoider, died, universally regretted by
the colonists, who lost in him a wise, humane,
and valiant commander, to whose prudent con-
duct they had been indebted for the preservation
of their conquests. Before his death he ap-
pointed as his successor, by a special commis-
sion from the court, his eldest son Pedro, whose
‘ mental endowments were no way inferior to his
father’s. The death of the governor appeared to
Antiguenu to present a fav;ourable opportunity to
undertake some important enterprise. Having
formed his army, which consisted of 4000 men,
into two divisions, he ordered one, under the com-
mand of his vice-toqui, to lay siege to Concep-
I cion, in order to attract thither the attention of the

1 Spaniards, while with the other he marched against

the fort of Arauco. The siege was protracted to
a considerable length ; the commanders therefore
determined to settle the affair by single combat;
but after having fought, with the greatest obstinacy
for the space of two hours, they were separated by
their men. But what force had not been able to
effect, was performed by famine. Several boats
; loaded with provisions had repeatedly attempted

in vain to relieve the besieged : the vigilance of
the besiegers opposed so insuperable an obstacle,
|j| that Bernal, the commander, saw himself at length

'■ compelled to abandon the place. The Araucanians

J permitted the garrison to retire without molestation,

and contented themselves with burning the houses
and demolishing the walls. The capture of An-
gol, after that of Cahete and Arauco, appeared
I easy to Antiguenu, but the attempt cost him his

I • life ; for after the most brilliant feats of valour and
intrepidity, he was forced along with a crowd of
soldiers who fled, and, falling from a high bank into
a river, Avas drowned.

34. The U'oqui Paillataru — Antiguenu had for
' , successor in the toquiate Paillataru, the brother or

I cousin of the celebrated Lautaro. During the same

:i time a change was made of the Spanish governor.

Rodrigo de Quiroga, Avho bad been appointed to

’ ‘ VOI.. I.

that office by the royal audience of Lima, began
his administration by arresting his predecessor,
and sending him prisoner to Peru. Having re-
ceived a reinforcement of 300 soldiers in 1665,
he entered the Araucanian territory, rebuilt the
fort of Arauco, and the city of Canete, con-
structed a new fortress at the celebrated post of
Qiiipeo, and ravaged the neighbouring provinces.
Towards the end of the following year he sent the
Marshal Ruiz Gamboa with 60 men to subject the
inhabitants of the Archipelago of Chiloe ; that
officer encountered no resistance, and founded in
the principal island the city of Castro and the port
of Chacao.

35. Ar hipelago of Chiloe subjected ; description
of the same, iis inh(d)itanis, &c. — The islands of
the Archipelago amount to 80, and have to all ap-
pearance been produced by earthquakes, owing
to the great number of volcanoes, with which
that country formerly abounded. Every part of
them exhibits the most unquestionable marks of
fire. Several mountains in the great island of
Chiloe, which has given its name to the ArchipC'
lago, are conqmsed of basaltic columns, which
some authors s rongly urge could have been pro-
duced only by the operation of fire. The native
inhabitants, though descerided from the continental
Chilians, as them appearance, their manners, and
their language all evince, are nevertheless of a very
different character, being of a pacific, or rather a
timid disposition. They made no opposition, as
we have already observed, to the handful of Spa-
niards who came there to subjugate them, although^
their population is said to have exceeded 70,000 ;
nor have they ever attempted to shake off the yoke
until the beginning of the last century, Avhen an in-
surrection of no great importance was excited, and
soon quelled. The number of inhabitants at present
amounts to upwards of 11,000; they are divided
into 76 districts or ulrnenates, the greater part of
which are subject to the Spanish commanders, and
are obliged to render personal service for fifty days
in the year, according to the feudal laws, which
are rigidly observed in this province, notwithstand-
ing they have been for a long time abolished
throughout the rest of the kingdom. 'I'iiese
islanders generally possess a quickness of'ctipacity,
and very readily learn whatever is taught them.
They haAm a genius for mechanical arts, an<l excel
in carpentry, cabinet-making, and turnery, from the
frequent occasions Avhich they have to exercise
them, all their churches and houses being built of
wood. They are very good manufaefurersof linen
and woollen, Avith which they mix the feathers of
sea-birds, and form beautitul coverings for their]


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