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[The celebrafed poet Ercilla was one of the party,
ami solicitous of the rcj)utation of having pro-
ceeded Anther s. than any other European, he
crossed the gulf, and upon the opposite shore in-
scribed on the bark of a tree some verses contain-
ing his name, and the time of the discovery, the
5Jst January 1559.

26. Cit?/ of Osorno founded. — Don Garcia
satisfied with having bee ti the first to discover by
land the Archipelago of Chiioe, returned, taking
for his guide one of those islanders, who conduct-
cfl liim safely to Imperial through the country of
the Huiiliches, which is for the most part level,
a d abounds in provisions. The inhabitants, who
are similar in every respect to their western neigh-
bours the Cunches, made no opposition to his
passage. He there founded, or, according to some
writers, rebuilt the city of Osorno, which increas-
ed rapidly, not less from its manufactures of
woollen and linen stuffs, than from the fine gold
procured from its mines, which were afterwards
destroyed by tlie Toqui Paillamacu.

Sect. II. Comprising a period of 27 ^ears, from
1559 to 1586.

27. Coupolican //. — The campaign of the
following year was rendered still more memorable
by the numerous battles that were fought between
the two armies ; that of the Araucanians was com-
manded by Caupolican, the eldest son of the gene-
ral of that name ; but though he possessed the
celebrated talents of his father, he was not equally
successful in defeating his enemy. lJut of all his
icontests, thalof Quipeo was the most unfortunate ;
for here he lost all Ids most valiant officers, and
being pursued by a detachment of Spanish horse,
he slew himself to avoid the melancholy fate of his

28. The Guarpes subjected. —~T)on Garcia, con-
sidering this baftle decisive in every point of view,
and finding himself provided with a good number
of veteran troops, sent a part of them, under the
eornmand of Pedro Castillo, to complete the con-
quest of Cujo, which had been commenced by
Francis de Aguirre. That prudent officer sub-
jeclcd the Guarpe.s, the ancient inhabitants of that
province, to the Spanish government.

29. St. J uan and Mendoza founded.—We found-
ed on the c, limits of the Andes two cities, one of
which he called .It. .Tuan, and the other Mendoza,
from the family name of the governor. This ex-
tensive and fertile country remained for a consider-
able time under the government of Chile, but has
since been transferred to the viceroyalty of Buenos
Ayres, to which, from its natural situation, it ap-

pertains. Whilst in this manner Don Garcia took
advantage of the apparent calm that prevailed in
the country, he heard of the arrival at Buenos
Ayres of the person appointed his successor by the
court of Spain. In consequence of this informa-
tion, confiding the government for the present to
Rodrigo de Quiroga, he returned to Peru, w here,
as a reward for his services, he was promoted to
the exalted station which his father had filled.

SO. Villagran reinstated.— ~'VUe governor ap-
pointed in place of Don Garcia was his predeces-
sor, Francis Villagran, w ho having gone to Eu-
rope after he had been deprived of the government,
procured his reinstatement therein from the court
of Spain. On his arrival at Chile, supposing,
from the information of Don Garcia and Quiroga,
that nothing more was necessary to be done with
the Araucanians, and that they were in no condi-
tion to give him trouble, Villagran turned his at-
tention to the re-acquisition of the province of
Tucuman, which, after having been by him, in
1549, subjected to the government of Chile, had
been since attached to the viceroyalty of Peru.

31. The province of Tucuman restored, after-
wards retaken.— Gvegon Castaneda, who had the
charge of this enterprise, defeated the Iferuvian
commander, Juan Zurita, the author of the dis-
memberment, and restored the country to the
obedience of the captains-generalof Chile ; it was,
however, retained under their government but a
short time, as they were obliged by the court of
Spain, before the close of the century, to cede it
again to the government of Peru. But neither
Don Garcia nor Quiroga, notwithstanding the long
time they had fought in Chile, had formed a cor-
rect opinion of the temper of the people whom they
pretended they bad conquered. The invincible
Araucanian cannot be made to submif to the bit-
terest reverses of fortune. The few ulraenes who
had escaped from the late defeats, more than ever
determined to continue the war, assembled, imme-
diately after the rout of Quipeo, in a wood, where
they unanimously elected as toqui an officer of
inferior rank, called Antiguenu, who had signa-
lized himself in the last battle. He, with a few
soldiers, retired to the inaccessible marches of
Lumaco, called by the Spaniards the Rochela,
wheie he caused high scaffolds to be erected to
secure his men from the extreme moisture of this
gloomy retreat. The youth , who were from time to
time enlisted, went thither to be instructed in the
science of arms, and the Araucanians still consi-
dered themselves free, since they had a toqui.

32. Cahete r/eitrqyec?.— -Antiguenu began now
to make incursions in the Spanish territory, in]

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