415

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CHILE.

415

[tomize : ' these, infatuated with mnchiism^ dissect
bodies in-order to show the entrails, which they
say are infected with magic poison. Nevertheless,
by means of this practice, they acquire ideas, by no
means contemptible, respecting the conformation of
the human body, for the different parts of which
they have appropriate names. Before the arrival
of the Spaniards, the Araucanians made use of
bleeding, blistering, clysters, emetics, cathartics,
and sudorifics, all which remedies have their pe-
culiar names in their language. They let blood
with the sharp point of a flint fixed in a small stick.
This instrument they prefer to a lancet, as they
think it less liable to fail. Instead of a syringe they
make use, like the inhabitants of Kamschatka, of a
bladder, to which they apply a pipe. Their eme-
tics, catliartics, and sudorifics, are almost all ob-
tained from the vegetable kingdom.

21. Commerce, — Their internal and exteral com-
merce is very limited: not having yet introduced
among them the use of money, every thing is con-
ducted by means of barter. This is regulated by a
kind of conventional tariff, according to which all
commercial articles are appraised, under the name

Cullen. Thus a horse or a bridle forms one pay-
ment ; an ox two, &c. Their external commerce
is carried on with tlie Spaniards, with whom they
exchange ponchos and animals for wine, or the
merchandize of Europe, and their good faith in
contracts of this kind has always been highly ap-
plauded. “ The Spaniard,” says Raynal in his
history, “ who engages in this trade, applies
directly to the heads of families. When he has
obtained the necessary permission, he proceeds to
all the houses, and distributes indiscriminately his
merchandize to all those who present themselves.
When he has completed his sale, he gives notice of
his departure, and all the purchasers hasten to de-
liver to him, in the first village he arrives at, the
articles agreed upon ; and never has there been an
instance of the least failure of punctuality.” We
cannot help extracting also the following from the
Compendium of the Geographical, Natural, and
Civil History of Chile, printed in Bologna, 1776.
“ The Spaniards who live in the province of
Maule, and near the frontiers of Araucania, carry
on a commerce with these people, which consists
in supplying them with iron Avare, bits for bridles,
cutlery, grain, and wine. This trade is conducteci
altogether by the way of barter, as it is not pos-
sible to persuade the Araucanians to open the gold
mines, nor to produce any of that metal. The re-
turns therefore are in ponchi, or Indian cloaks,
of which they receive more than 40,000 an-

nually ; in horned cattle, horses, ostrich feathers,
curiously wrought baskets, and other trifles of a
similar kind. This commerce, although generally
prohibited, is carried on in the Indian country,
whither the traders go with their merchandize by
bye-roads, and deposit it in the cabins of the na-
tives, to whom they readily trust whatever they
wish to sell, certain of being punctually paid at the
time agreed upon, which is always the case, these
Indians observing the greatest faith in their con-
tracts.”

22. National pride. — The Araucanians, proud

of their valour and unbounded liberty, believe
themselves the only people in the world deserving
the name of men. From hence it is, that, besides
the appellation auca, or free, which they value
so highly,they give themselves metaphorically the
names of cAe, or the nation ; of recAe, pure or un-
degenerated nation ; and of huentii, men, a word
of similar signification with the vir of the Latins ;
and as the latter is the root of the word virtus, so
from the former is derived huentugen, which signi-
fies the same thing. From this ridiculous pride
proceeds the contempt with which they regard all
other nations. To the Spaniards they gave, on
their first knowledge of them, the nickname of
chiapi, vile soldiers ; from whence proceeded the
denomination of chiapeton, by Avhich they are
known in South America. They afterwards called
them hidnca ; this injurious appellation, Avhich
from time and custom has lost its odiousness, comes
from the verb huincun, Avhich signifies to assassi-
nate. It is true that in their first battles the Spa-
niards gave them too much reason for applying to
them tliesc opprobrious epithets, Avhich serve to
the present time to denote one of that nation.
Esteeming themselves fortunate in their barbarity,
they call those Indians who live in the Spanish
settlements culme-huinca, or wretched Spaniards.
To the other Europeans, the English, French, and
Itrdians, whom they readily distinguish from each
other, they give the name of mamche, which is
equiA'alcnt to the term moro, used by the common
people of Spain, to denote all strangers indiscrimi-
nately. They call each other that is, bro-

thers, and even apply the same name to tiiose born
in their country of foreign parents.

23. Kindness towards each other . — The benevo-
lence and kindness Avith which these people treat
each other is really surprising. For the word
friend^ tliey have six or seven very expressive
terms in their language ; among others, that of
canap^ Avhich corresponds to the alter ego of the
Latins. Those who have the same name call each}

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