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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACHACACHE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos, the capital of this province, in Peru. It contains, besides the parish chapel, another, in which is an image of Christ, with the dedicatory title of La Misericordia. [Lat. 16° 33' 30" S. Long. 79° 23' 20" W.]
ACHAGUA, a nation of Indians of the nuevo Reyno de Granada, who dwell among the plains of Gazanare and Meta, and in the woods which skirt the river Ele. They are bold in their engagements with wild beasts, but with human beings they have recourse rather to poison and stratagem; they are dexterous in the use of the dart and spear, and never miss their aim; are particularly fond of horses, of which they take the utmost care, anointing and rubbing them with oil ; and it is a great thing among them to have one of these animals of peculiar size and beauty. They go naked, but, for the sake of decency, wear a small apron made of the thread of aloes, the rest of their bodies being painted of different colours. They are accustomed, at the birth of their children, to smear them with a bituminous ointment, which hinders the hair from growing, even upon the eyebrows. The women's brows are also entirely deprived of hair, and the juice of jagua being immediately rubbed into the little holes formed by the depilatory operation, they remain bald for ever after. They are of a gentle disposisition, but much given to intoxication. The Jesuits reduced many to the catholic faith, forming them into settlements, in 1661 .
ACHIANTLAS, Miguel de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepozcolula. It contains a convent of monks of Santo Domingo, and 260 families of Indians, who occupy themselves in cultivating and improving the land. It is eight leagues to the W with an inclination to the S of its capital.
ACHINUTLAN, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It is on the shore of the river Orinoco, and to the E of the Ciudad Real, (royal city), the river Tacuragua running between them.
ACHOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru. In its vicinity is a volcano, called Amboto and Sahuarcuca, which vomits smoke and flames; the latter of which are seen clearly at night.
ACLA, a small city of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province of Darien, founded by Gabriel de Roxas, in 1514, on the coast of the S. sea, at the mouth of the gulph of Uraba, in front of the island of Pinos, with a good fort, then much frequented and very convenient, from having a good bottom, but somewhat incommoded by currents. Pedro Arias Davila built here a fort for its defence in 1516; but the settlement, nevertheless, did not keep long together, the Spaniards having abandoned it, on account of its unhealthiness, in 1532. [Lat. 8° 56' N. Long. 77° 40' W.]
ACOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It was the capital, but at present the town of Guancavelica bears that title, on account of its being the residence of the governor and other people of consequence. It is of a good temperature, and so abundant in grain, that its crops of wheat amount to 25,000 bushels yearly. In an estate near it, are some pyramidical stones, and in other parts
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vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation,forming a separate district, and situate in theplains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Gra-nada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyedby the Caribee indians in 1684.
AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fer-nandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom ofChile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn.This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves.Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.
[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captain-ship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between therivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.
AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the provinceof Paraguay, on the shore of the river of thisname, towards the e. The people are numerous,valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient timesthey were masters of that river, cruising about init, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; butafter several conflicts, they were at last subjectedby Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of theprovince, in 1642.
AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province andcolony of New England, of York county, dis-trict of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for itswaters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no con-siderable aid from streams of fresh water. Itsmouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddieriver. Small vessels can enter here.]
43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-markfor seamen, and is a good directory for the entryof Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly inthe same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill,on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witliwood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to itssummit, where there is an enchanting prospect.The cultivated parts of the country, especially onthe s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, in-tersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, itsbays and branches. The immense ranges ofmountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublimespectacle ; and on the sea side the various in-dentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to CapeElizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; andthe Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the powerof vision extends. At this spot the bearing of thefollowing objects were taken, with a good sur-veying instrument, October 11, 1780.
Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.
Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.
Rochester hill, n. 64° w,
Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.
Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.
Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.
Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.
Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles bymensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of theneedle, 6° te).]
AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the pro-vince and country of the Amazonas, in the Portu-guese territory. It rises in the country of theAnamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundantstream of the Madera.
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Aguarico, a river of the same province andf overnment, being one of those which enter theNapo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance,begins the large province of the Encabellados ;and here it was that the Portuguese attempted toestablish themselves in 1732, invading it with acertain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), whichcame from Para. They were, however, throughthe well-timed precautions of the president of Qui-to, forced to retire without attaining their object.This river contains much gold in its sands, andits body is much increased by other streams, suchas those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Du-ino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of theAndes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra,washes the territory of the Sucurabios Indians, andenters the Napo in lat. 1° 23' s.
Aguaro, Cano de, a river of the province andgovernment of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico,and is famous for abounding in fish, particularlya kind called pabon, which has a circular spot ofsky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling an eye,and which is much esteemed for its excellent fla-vour.
Aguas-blancas. See Yaguapiui.
Aguas-calientes, an alcaldia mayor of thethe kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric ofGuadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdictionincludes four head settlements of the district, andtwo large estates called the Pavellon, as also theestate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain andseed are cultivated. The principal settlement isthe town of the same name, of a moderate tempera-ture, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish fa-milies, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes;and although some Mexican Indians arc to befound here, they merely come to traffic with theproductions of the other jurisdictions. It con-tains three convents ; one of the bare- footed Fran-ciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one ofthe Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Dios,with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mentionseveral other chapels and altars in the vicinity.It is 140 leagues n. n. w. of Mexico, and 35 ofGuadaiaxara. Long. 101° 51' 30" w. Lat. 22° 2' n.
AGUASTELAS, San Miguel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of the district of SanAndres of Acatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa,in Nueva España. It is but lately established,and is one league s. of its head settlement.
AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Es-pana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction;but on account of its smallness, and the ill-fa-voured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorpo-rated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indianfamilies, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital.
Agueda, a point or cape near the above moun-tain.
AGUILA, Villa Gutierrez de la, a townof the alcaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva España.It was formerly very considerable, and had a nu-merous population of Spaniards, when it wasmade a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Tarau-maras Indians. It is an alcaldia mayor ^ but itsjurisdiction is consolidated with another, on ac-count of its being a place of little consideration,and its population being very scanty, and livingin some small wards and estates in its district. Itlies at the c. entrance of the province of Nayarith,and is the boundary of the kingdom of NuevaGalicia, being nine leagues e. of Xerez.
Aguila, a very lofty mountain of the province
in America, and they reckon the gold it has pro-duced at 33 millions of dollars, without countingthat which has been concealed ; but at present theyscarce procure from it 200 pound weight a year,on account of the increased charges of labour, andthe want of energy in the inhabitants. Many lumpsof gold have been found here, among which thereis still remembered to have been one of the figure ofa horse, which weighed 100 weight and some oddpounds, and which was carried to the EmperorCharles V. ; and likewise another lump which wassent to Philip II. bearing a resemblance to thehead of a man, which, however, was lost togetherwith much other riches in the channel of Bahama.This latter lump was found in the washing place ofYnahuaya. Nearly the whole of the territory of thisprovince is interspered with gold. The most cele-brated washing places that it had were called SanJuan del Oro, Paulo Coya, Ananea, and that whichwas superior to all, Aporoma. In the year 1713, alump of silver also was discovered in the mountainof Ucuntaya, being of a very solid piece of metal,and of prodigious value ; in its rivers are foundsands of gold, to which at certain times of the year,the Indians have recourse, in order to pay their tri-butes. There are also other mines of silver andcopper in various parts, and springs of hot water.It is very liable to earthquakes, and according tothe tradition of the Indians, there was one whichtook place before the conquest, so large as to over-turn mountains, and that, opening the earth, itswallowed up in an abyss many towns with theirinhabitants. They likewise assert, that in the year1747, another earthquake, throwing out of theground a dirty and muddy water, thereby infectedthe rivers to such a degree as to cause a dreadfuland general mortality. It has some large riversas well as small ; all of which empty themselvesinto the Ynambari, thus rendering this river ex-tremely abundant : towards the n. and n. e. which,as we have observed, is bounded by the infidel In-dians, there are large tracts of ground covered withcoca and rice, with an abundance of mountainfruits. In the aforesaid river they are accustomedto take shad and large dories by shooting themwith muskets, or by piercing them with arrows ordarts. There are also some lakes, which, althoughwithout fish, abound in ducks, snipes, and otheraquatic fowl. The infidel Indians have made va-rious irruptions into this province: its capital isSandia, and its natives, who amount to 28,000, aredivided into 26 settlements, as follows : The repar-timiento received by the corregidor used to amountto 82,800 dollars, and it paid 662 yearly for alcavala.
S. Juan del Oro, Ynambari,
CARABAILLO, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Cercado in Peru. It rises in theprovince of Canta from three lakes to the n. of thecapital, and continues its course until it join thesea close to the point of Marques.
CARABAILLO, a settlement of this province andcorregimiento.
CARABANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, which runs to the s. andenters the Orinoco between the Corquina and theArrewow. According to Bellin, in his map of thecourse of part of the Orinoco, it is distant fromthe other river called Corobana, which also en-ters the Orinoco on the opposite side.
CARABATANG, a river of the province andcaptainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises inthe sierra of the Tiguares Indians, near the coast,runs s. s. e. and enters the sea between the Congand the Goyana.
CARABELAS, River of the, in the provinceand captainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. Itrises in the cold sierra of the Pories Indians, runss. e. and according to Cruz, e. and enters the seaopposite the bank of the Escollos (hidden rocks).
Carabelas, Chicas, a bay in the same island,and on the same coast, between the settlement ofGuanajo and the Puerto del Poniente (w. port.)
CARABERES. See article Guarayos.
CARABUCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Omasuyos in Peru ; in the vici-nity of which are the ruins of a chapel, which wasdedicated to St. Bartholomew ; and the Indianshave a tradition that the above-mentioned saint ap-peared here and preached the gospel to them :thus, in the principal altar of the church, they re-verence a large cross of very strong wood, andwhich is celebrated for having wrought many mi-racles ; splinters of it being anxiously sought afterby the faithful, wherefrom to form small crosses ;
Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and LittleMance.]
CASTRO, a capital city of the province andgovernment of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile;peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Cas-tro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has agood port; is inhabited by some good and opu-lent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthytemperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of aregular and beautiful form ; has, besides the pa-rish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis,and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was.sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. ofthe city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.
Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete,«. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes,and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga andHuanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. bythat of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of\^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabi-tants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900,although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as,and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been dis-covered here, nor are there any other roads to itthan merely such as are opened through passes inthe snow, or where no obstruction is ofered bythe copious streams which every where precipi-tate themselves down from the mountains, andwhich are particularly large in the rainy season,which is from October to Slarch. Its productionsare wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in someglens, where the cold is not so great, fruits andcattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of whichthey turn to some profit. This province is wa-tered by rivers, some of which descend from theprovinces of the coast of the S. sea, and othersfrom the further side of the cordillera, runningtowards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it isalso watered by the Canete, which rises from theChicha, and collects other streams in this province ;by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called.firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-
cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters theprovince of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters ofthis province, notwithstanding they are very abun-dant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and withoutdoubt this arises from the cold which prevailshere. This province is but thinly peopled, and itsinhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard,amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of sixcuracies, to which there are 29 other settlementsannexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; thisis a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot,where the cold is most intense : close to it runs ariver, which is made use of for working the millsof the silver mines ; which, although they pro-duce this metal of a good quality, they are by nomeans well stocked with it. The town has a con-vent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estatescalled Huallanto and Huallanga, in which theraare churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leaguesfrom Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from
la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The
ements of the province
CATA, a settlement of the province and govern-
vince and government, on the shore of the riverMasparro, between the cities of New and Old Ba-rinas.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and government of La Sonora in NuevaEspana ; situate in the country of the SobaipurisIndians, on the shore of a river which enters theGila, between the settlements of San Cosme andSan Angelo.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in thekingdom of Guatemala.
Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea,near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escu-do de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fer-tile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had init a settlement defended by two castles, called San-tiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with thetown, were destroyed by an English pirate, JohnMorgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and al-though it was recovered in the same year by thepresident of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perezde Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.
Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there isalso a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno deLeon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, fromwhence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains20 families in its neighbourhood, and producesonly some sorts of pulse and some goats.
CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of theprovince and government of Loxa in the kingdomof Quito, also called Chira, at the part where itenters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desertmountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the watersof several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n.until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, whichenters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it thenturns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of therivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all ofwhich enter it on the s. side. Being swelled withthese, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settle-ment of this name, situate on its shore. Near itsmouth this river is called Colan, and it empties it-self into the sea in the corregimiento and provinceofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertileand beautiful, and its banks are covered with or-chards and plantations of sugar-canes of the terri-tory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, andin the valleys formed by this river the inhabitantsare much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its wa-ters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.
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the natives make friezes. The low part, lookingupon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal inmildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, andin the many estates which are in it maize grows ingreat quantities, and it, besides serving as food forthe labourers, and independent of that which is de-voured by the wild pigeons with which those fieldsare filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which arecarried to supply the markets of Lima ; those ani-mals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000head, and producing an emolument of 300,000dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here arealso some estates of sugar-cane, and others ofFrench beans and wheat, of which the crops wereformerly very great, and used, together with thevines, to be reckoned amongst the chief produc-tions of this country, though they have now maderoom for a more general cultivation of maize.What conduces much to render the soil fertile, iswhat the Indians call huano^ and which, in theirlanguage, signifies dung, this being brought fromsome small islands at a little distance from thecoast towards the n. It is thought to be the excre-ment of some birds called huanaes^ who have beenaccustomed to deposit it in the above places fromtime immemorial. Some of it has also been foundin various other islands of the coast of Canete,Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that ahandful being put at the root of a plant of maize,it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwardsof 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly.In the centre of the province, and upon the coast,are some fine salines^ which supply some of theneighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, thoseof Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Hua-nuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted.The salt is not only used in the workingof the me-tals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomousinsect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrailsuntil it destroys them. The population consists of37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town ofArnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amountedto 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dol-lars per annum.
Arnedo or Chancay,
S. Juan de Huaral,
Cauchaz or Maráz,
Chancay, the capital of the above province,founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, ata league and a half’s distance from the river Pasa-mayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being anuniversity, at which however it never attained. Ithas a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels,a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, anda good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inha-bitants consist of several noble and rich families.One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat.11° 30' 5.
CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort uponthe river Tapo, in the part washed by this river,called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. TheChunchos Indians of this province took possessionof it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.
CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of SantaElena in the province and government of Guaya-quil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port whichis frequented by vessels only in stress ; it havingsome extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance.Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armadadel Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as itwas dropping down to Panama, for the purpose ofdispatching the galleons under the charge of theMarquis de Villarubia ; although, through the op-portune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Countde Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, DonPedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of theproperty on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721.another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries tothe Plaza of Panama, without a single thing onboard being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious windfrom the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the
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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.
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constitution left the lower people little more free-dom than they would have possessed under thegovernment of the Aztec kings.]
The capital is the city of the same name, foundedas far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexi-can empire, when this nation was at enmity withthat of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the mostpopulous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitantsand 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moc-tezuma, in the attack against the republic ofTlaxclala ; the latter place never having been sub-jected to the Mexican yoke. This was the citywhich of all others most thwarted the designs ofHernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discoveredin the conspiracy they had laid against him, whenthey pretended to receive him with open arrhs anda peaceable and friendly disposition, and weremade by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ;after which he and his whole army escaped un-injured. This city has many monuments denotingits antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatrywas here carried to its highest pitch, yet the lightof the gospel has spread widely around its enliven-ing rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature,rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate ona level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a goodconvent of the order of St. Francis, which is alsoa house of studies. Its inhabitants are composedof 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mu-lattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On alofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on thec. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in whichis venerated the image of the blessed virgin,which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rente-dios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e.of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98°14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at presentestimated at about 16,000 souls.]
CHONE, a settlement which in former timeswas considerable, but now much impoverished, inthe ancient province of Cara, which is at presentunited to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon theshore of the river Chones to the n. and is of anhot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.
CHONES, a large river of the province ofCara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w.and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTos-sagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Cama-ron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n.stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges stillremain. Where it runs into the sea it forms thebay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca andthe n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly twomiles and an half wide.
CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a verycold temperature, from its being situate in the vi-cinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chon-tales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabi-tants amount to 24 families of Indians, who tradein cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the coun-try, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quan-tities. It is watered by rivers which pass at alittle distance, and is annexed to the curacy ofTepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayorof Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-,on account of this great distance, combined withthe badness of the roads, that the natives so sel-dom can avail themselves of any instruction in theholy faith ; dying, as they often do, without theadministration of the sacraments. Indeed, there isonly one day in the year, which is the 29th ofSeptember, and on which the Indians celebrate thefestival of their titular saint Michael, when theyare visited by their curate, who then hears theirconfessions and says mass. At this time this settle-ment has somewhat the appearance of a Catholicpeople ; but being all the rest of the year left tothemselves, it is not to be wondered that many re-lapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idola-try. Three leagues w. of its capital.
CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and government of Guayaquil in the kingdomof Quito; situate near a small torrent, re-nowned for the stones which it washes down, of acertain crystallized matter, which being polished,resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings,and other trinkets.
CHONTALES, a district of the corregimientoor alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom ofGuatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is butsmall, and its natives have this name from the Spa-niards, who would by it express their natural un-couthness and stupidity.
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wliich there is a bank of fine sand, extending amile into the sea, and affording good anchorage.Lat. 1° 59' n. Long. 157° 35' w.]
[Christmas Sound, in Tien a del Fuego, S.America. Lat. 55° 21' n. Long. 69° 48' tw.]
CHRISTOVAL, San, atown of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rey no de Granada; foundedby Captain Juan de Maldonado in 1560. It is of•a hot but healthy temperature, produces abundanceof sugar-canes, of which are made honey, sugar,and conserves, in immense quantities ; also a greatproportion of smoking tobacco, which is carried toMaracaibo. It has a good church and a conventt)f St. Augustin, which latter has fallen much todecay with regard to its establishment. The po-pulation of the town consists of 400 housekeepers.It lies 20 leagues n. e. of Pamplona, from the juris-diction of which it is divided by the river Pam-plonilla. It is the native place of Don Gregoriode Jaimes, archdeacon of Santa Fe, and bishop ofSanta Marta.
Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lipes, archbishopric of Char-cas in Peru ; in which took place the following ex-traordinary occurrence: The curate of this placegoing to confess a sick person in the settlement ofTahisa of the province of Paria, which was annexedto this, sunk into a spring of water in the pampasor llanos dela Sal, when he was drowned, and withthe two Indians who accompanied him on horse-back, never more appeared, nor were any vestigesever found of them : this was the reason why thelatter settlement has since been disunited from thecuracy of San Christoval.
Same name, a capital city of the provinceand captainship of Sergipé in the kingdom of Bra-zil ; being also known by that name. It is foundedon the sea-shore, and has a fine and well defendedport. It has a magnificent parish church with thetitle of Nuestra Senora de la Victoria ; two fineconvents, the one of the order of the Franciscans,and the other of the Carmelites ; also a chapel ofdevotion of the Virgin of the Rosary. The council-house is a very fine edifice, and in the suburbs isa hermitage of San Gonzalo, which is frequentedas a pilgrimage by this and other settlements of thejurisdiction. In this city resides the chief captain,who governs this province, and who is attended bya company of troops as a body-guard. In earlytimes it was filled with nobility, descended from thefirst families in Portugal; but it is now reduced to600 housekeepers. in its district, towards thepart called Coninquiva, is a parish with fourchapels, and towards the river Vaza-Barris fiveothers. It has also 25 engines, by which abundanceof sugar of an excellent quality is manufactured ;this article affords a great commerce w ith t!ic bayof Todos Santos. Lat. ll°40's. Long. ST'* SO' tw.
Same name, an island of the N. sea ; oneof the Antilles, discoverctl by Admiral Christoj)herColumbus, who gave it his name, in 149S. It isfive leagues in circumference, and is very fertile,and abounding in productions, particularly in cot-ton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and brandy ; by allof which it carries on a great commerce. Here arcsome good salines, and in the mountains are somewoods of fine timber, well adapted for the buildingof ships. The English and the French both esta-blished themselves here in 1625, holding a dividedpossession, when they were driven out by the Spa-niards. After this the former again returned andre-established themselves in the greatest part of theisland, leaving, however, a small share to theFrench, until the year 1713, when the latter, inconjunction with the Spaniards themselves, cededit entirely to the English, who from that time haveheld it and kept it well fortified. [St. Christopher,situate in lat. 17° 21', long. 62° 48' ze. was calledby its ancient possessors, the Charibes, Liamuiga,or the Fertile Island. It was discovered in Novem-ber 1493 by Columbus himself, who was so pleasedwith its appearance, that he honoured it with hisown Christian name. But it was neither plantednor possessed by the Spaniards. It was, however,(notwithstanding that the general opinion ascribesthe honour of seniority to Barbadoes), the eldest ofall the British territories in the \V. Indies, andin truth, the common mother both of the Englishand French settlements in the Charibean islands.A Mr. Thomas Warner, an Englishman, asso-ciated himself Avith 14 other persons in the year1622, and with them took his passage on board aship bound to Virginia. From thence he and hiscompanions sailed from St. Christopher’s, wherethey arrived in January 1623, and by the monthof September following had raised a good crop oftobacco, which they proposed to make their staplecommodity. By the generality of historians whohave treated of the affairs of the W. Indies, it isasserted that a party oflhe French, under the com-mand of a person of the name of D’Esnambuc,took possession of one part of this island, on thesame day that Mr. Warner landed on the other;but the truth is, that the first landing of Warnerand his associates happened two years before thearrival of D’Esnambuc; who, it is admitted byDu Tertre, did not leave France until IG25. Un-fortunately the English settlers, in the latter end of
1623, had their plantations demolished by a dread- j
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datorj parties against the settlements in their vici-nity. The Creeks are very badly armed, havingfew rifles, and are mostly armed with muskets.For near 40 years past, the Creek Indians havehad little intercourse with any other foreigners butthose of the English nation. Their prejudice infavour of every thing English, has been carefullykept alive by tories and others to this day. Mostof their towns have now in their possession Britishdrums, with the arms of the nation and other em-blems painted on them, and some of their squawspreserve the remnants of British flags. They stillbelieve that “ the great king over the water” isable to keep the whole world in subjection. Theland of the country is a common stock ; and anyindividual may remove from one part of it to an-other, and occupy vacant ground where he canfind it. The country is naturally divided intothree districts, viz. the Upper Creeks, Lower andMiddle Creeks, and Seminoles. The upper dis-trict includes all the waters of the Tallapoosee,Coosahatchee, and Alabama rivers, and is calledthe Abbacoes. The lower or middle district in-cludes all the waters of the Chattahoosee and Flintrivers, down to their junction ; and although oc-cupied by a great number of different tribes, thewhole are called Cowetaulgas or Coweta people,from the Cowetan town and tribe, the most warlikeand ancient of any in the whole nation. Thelower or s. district takes in the river Appala-chicola, and extends to the point of E. Florida,and is called the Country of the Seminoles. Agri-culture is as far advanced with the Indians as itcan well be, without the proper implements of hus-bandry. A very large majority of the nationbeing devoted to hunting in the winter, and to waror idleness in summer, cultivate but small parcelsof ground, barely sufficient for subsistence. Butmany individuals, (particularly on Flint river,among the Chehaws, who possess numbers of Ne-groes) have fenced fields, tolerably well cultivated.Having no ploughs, they break up the groundwith hoes, and scatter the seed promiscuously overthe ground in hills, but not in rows. Theyraise horses, cattle, fowls, and hogs. The onlyarticles they manufacture are eartlien pots andpans, baskets, horse-ropes or halters, smokedleather, black marble pipes, wooden spoons, andoil from acorns, hickery nuts, and chesnuts.)
(Creeks, confederated nations of Indians. SeeMuscogulge.)
(CREGER’S Town, in Frederick county,Maryland, lies on the w. side of Monococy river,between Owing’s and Hunting creeks, which fallinto that river ; nine miles s. of Ermmtsburg, nearthe Pennsylvania line, and about 11 n. of Frede-rick town.)
CRISTO. See Manta.
(CROCHE, a lake of N. America, in New SouthWales, terminated by the portage La Loche, 400paces long, and derives its name from the appear-ance of the water falling over a rock of upwardsof 30 feet. It is about 12 miles long. Lat. 36°40'. Long, 109° 25' w.)
CROIX, or Cross, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana, the same as that which,with the name of the Ovadeba, incorporates itselfwith the Ynsovavudela, and takes this name, till itenters the Mississippi.
(Croix, St. See Cruz, Santa.)
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linas and that of Chirgua, in the space left bythese rivers as they run to enter the Portuguesa.
CULIACAN, a province and alcald'm mayorof the kingdom of Nueva Galicia ; bounded n.and n. e. by the province of Cinaloa, s. by that ofCopala, s. w. by the kingdom of Niieva Fizcaya,s. by that of Chiamatlan, and w. by the gulf ofCalifornia. It is 60 leagues in length and 50 inAvidth. It is fertile, apd abounds in all sorts ofproductions; is watered by various rivers, par-ticularly the Umaya, Avhich is very large, and inwhich are caught great quantities offish. It emp-ties itself into the S. sea, in the port of Navitoos.It abounds in various earths, salt, and silvermines, and in many settlements of Mexican In-dians, reduced by the missionaries of the religionof St. Francis. The capital is of the same name.Lat.24°58'??.
CULIACAN, with the dedicatory title of San Mi-guel, a town which was founded by Nunez deGuzman in 1531 ; situate on the banks of a smallriver, Avhich afterwards unites itself Avith theUmaya. It is 160 leagues from Guadalaxara,and 260 from Mexico. The other settlements ofthis province are,
CULIACAN, a river of this province (Sonora), which di-vides the jurisdiction of the same from that of Ci-naloa. It runs into the sea at the entrance of thegulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. At itsmouth or entrance are some very dangerous shoalsof the same name. See St. Michael.
CULLOUMAS, a settlement of Indians, of thsprovince and colony of Georgia ; situate on theshore of the river Apalachicola.
CULLURQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru, in the vici-nity of which, in an estate for breeding cattle, is apoor chapel of Santa Rosa, and near to this twovery large rocks, Avhich, being touched with smallstones, send forth a sound similar to bells of thebest temper and metal.
CULPEPPER, a county in Virginia, betweenthe Blue ridge and the tide waters, which con-tains 22,105 inhabitants, of whom 8226 are slaves.The court-house of this county is 45 miles fromFredericksburg, and 95 from Charlottesville.]
CULUACAN, San Lucas de, a settlement ofthe head settlement and alcatdia mayor of Yzucárin Nueva Espana. It contains 50 tamilies of In-dians, and Avas formerly the capital of the juris-diction. Here there still remain some baths ofwarm water, celebrated for the cure of many in-firmities. It is two leagues to the s. Avith a slightinclination to the 5. e. of its head settlement.
CUMA, San Antonio de, a town of the pro-vince and captainship of Marañan in Brazil. Itcontains a good parish-church, two convents ofmonks, one of the order of Carmen, and the otherof La Merced ; and at a short distance from thetown is a house Avhich was the residetice of the re-gulars of the company of .Jesuits. This town be-longs to the lordship of the house of Antonio Al-burquerque Coello de Carballo. It is three leaguesfrom its capital.
tlie small river Guatanay ; the same being nearlydry, save in the months of January, February,and March ; though the little water found in itjust serves to irrigate the neighbouring plains.The grandeur and magnificence of the edifices,of the fortress, and of the temple of the sun, struckthe Spaniards with astonishment, when, at the con-quest, they first beiield them, and upon their en-tering the city.j in 1534, when the same was takenpossession of by Don Francisco Pizarrro, forCharles V^. It was then the capital of the wholeempire of Peru, and the residence of the empe-rors. Its streets were large, wide, and straight ;though at the present day Lima stands in compe-tition with it in regard to grandeur. The housesare almost all builtofstone, and of fine proportions.The cathedral, which has the title of La Asun-cion, is large, beautiful, rich, and of very goodarchitecture, and some even prefer it to the cathe-dral of Lima. Here are three curacies in thechapel of the Sagrario, two for the Spaniards, andanother for the Indians and Negroes ; and the pa-rishes are Nuestra Senora de Belen, San Christo-yal, Santa Ana, San Bias, S:intiago, and the hos-pital ; besides two others, which are without thecity, called San Geronirno and San Sebastian.Here are nine convents of the following religiousorders ; one of St. Dominic, founded on the spotwhere the Indians had their celebrat^sd temple ofthe sun ; two of St. Francis, one of the Observers,and another of the Recoletans, one of St. Au-gustiti, one of La Merced, two colleges whichbelonged to the regulars of the extinguished com-pany of Jesuits, the principal, in the part lyingtowards the c. being destined, at the present time,for an armoury ; and the other at the back of thesame, in which was the house for noviciates andstudents, serving now as barracks for the troops ;add to these the chapel of ease to the cathedral.Here are four hospitals ; the first and most ancientis that of the Espiritu Santo, in which are receivedIndians of both sexes, subject to the patronageof the secular cabildo, and governed by a junta ofS3 persons, the president of whom, the alcalde,has the first vote, and after him the administratoror first brother. It has two chaplains and veryample revenues ; one of the sources being the du-ties paid upon all effects passing over the bridgeof Yipuriraac, the which droits belonged to theroyal exchequer until the year 1763, at whichtime, at the instance of the king’s ensign, DonGabriel de Ugarte, they were conceded by theking to the hospital, together with the right andproperty of the bridge, in redemption of somecrown grants which were left to the hospital by
Rodrigo de Leon, in Seville ; and it was by thismeans that the hospital, having become so wellendowed, has now no less than 250 beds. A jubi-lee has been granted by the apostolical see to itschapel; and this is celebrated at the octave ofPentecost with much solemnity, and by an unusu-ally great concourse of people, and was once the bestobserved jubilee of any in America. The se-cond hospital, being of the religious order of SanJuan de Dios, is for the men, and has 50 beds;the third, called. Of Nuestra Senora de la Almu-dena, is for all descriptions of individuals, andhas also 50 beds ; the tburih, called San rlndres,has 30 beds for Spanish women. Here are threemonasteries of nuns ; the first of Santa Catalina dcSena, founded where the Incas kept the virginsdedicated to the sun ; and the others are of SantaClara and the bare-tboted Carmelites. Here arealso four other religious houses, which are that^ofthe Nazarenes, thatof Nuestra Senora del Carmen,that of Santiago, and that of San Bias ; three col-leges, which are, that of San Bernardo, whereinare taught grammar, philosophy, and theology,and was founded by a Aizcayan for the sons of theconquerors, having been formerly under thecharge of the regulars of the company of Jesuits,and at present under an ecclesiastical rector ; thatof San Borja, for the sons of the Indian caciques,where they are initiated in their letters, and in therudiments of music, at least as many of them asshow any disposition to this science, (this accom-plishment having been formerly taught by thesame regulars of the company) ; and that of SanAntonio Abad, which is a seminary and univer-sity, and is a very sumptuous piece of architec-ture. This city preserves many monuments of itsancient grandeur ; and amongst the rest, thegreat fortress built for its defence, which, althoughinjured by time, bears testimony to the powers ofthe Incas, and excites astonishment in the mindof every beholder, since the stones, so vast andshapeless, and of so irregular a superficies, areknit together, and laid one to fit into the other withsuch nicety as to want no mortar or other materialwhereby to fill up the interstices ; and it is indeeddifficult to imagine how they could work them inthis manner, when it is considered that they knewnot the use of iron, steel, or machinery for thepurpose. The other notable things are the baths ;the one of warm and the other of cold water ; theruins of a large stone-way, which was built by or-der of the Incas, and which reached as far aswhere Lima now stands ; the vestiges of some sub-terraneous passages which led to the fortress fromthe houses or palaces of the Inca, and in which pass-4 n ?
s;iges the walls were cut Tery crooked, admittingfor a certain space only one person to pass at atime, and this sidewise, and with great difficulty,when shortly afterwards two raio^ht pass abreast.The exit was by a rock, worked in the same nar-row manner on the other side ; and this was alto-gether a plan adopted through prudence, and forthe better security against any sudden assault,since here a single man might defend himselfagainst a great number. In a magnificent chapelof the cathedra! is venerated a miraculous crucifix,which was presented by the Emperor Charles V.and which is called De los Temblores, from thecity having invoked it as a patron in the tremen-dous earthquake which happened here in 1590;also an image of Nuestra Senora de Helen, whichthey call La Linda, (the Beautiful), the gift of thesame royal hand. It is the second city of Peru,and inferior only to the capital of the kingdom.It was governed, after the time of the conquestsmade by the Spaniards, by a secular cabildo, com-posed of two ordinary alcaldes, a royal ensign,an alguaxil mayor, a provincial alcalde, a depo-sitor-general, 12 perpetual regidors, two alcaldesof the inquisition, and a regidor, nominated an-nually, with the title of judge of the natives, whois entrusted with the causes of the Indians; thesehaving also a protector, nominated every twoyears by the viceroy of Lima. This cabildo main-tains, through the grant of the Emperor CharlesV. the same privileges as the cabildo of Burgos.The city has also many other prerogatives, withthe title of Gran Ciudad, and Cabeza, or head ofthe kingdoms and provinces of Peru, in rewardfor its having supported the crown against thetraitor Diego de Almagro, in the conflicts that hemaintained with Francis Pizarro, and from itsliaving taken him prisoner in 1553, in the cele-brated battle of Las Salinas, a league from Cuzco ;also from its having refused to acknowledge thetitle of governor of Peru, assumed by Diego deAlmagro the younger, supporting, in preference,the legitimate government. Again, when the Li-centiate Christoval Vaca de Castro arrived, think-ing to be governor, the people of Cuzco took himprisoner, under the orders of the lieutenant-gover-nor, Diego Salazar de Toledo, and the ordinaryalcalde, Antonio Ruiz de Guevera, and kept himin confinement until he was beheaded in that placeby the same person that executed his father. Forthese services, and for the valuable presents,which on several occasions it has made to thecrown, this city was allowed to be by the laws ofthe Indies, and, as appears by its records, one ofthe first cities in all Castilla, having a priority of
vote ; and in 1783, it was ordered by the king ofSpain, that in consideration of the resistance itoffered in the late rebellion of the Indians of theprovince of Tinta and the other immediate pro-vinces, it should be endowed with the title ofMost Noble, Most Loyal, and Most Faithful, andthat it should enjoy the same privileges as Lima.In 178i, the office of corregidor was extinguished,and his Majesty established an intendant and go-vernor vice-patron; and in 1787, the tribunal ofroyal audience, composed of a president, fouroidors, and aJiscaL It has for arms a golden castleupon a blue field, with various trophies andcolours on the sides, and an eagle at the top. Ithas been the native place of many illustrious men,and of these are,
Don Bernardo de Aviza y Ugarte, oidor ofPanama, bishop of Cartagena and Truxillo, andelected archbishop of Charcas.
Don Cayetano Marcellano y Agramont, bishopof Buenos Ayres, and archbishop of Charcas.
Don Gabriel de Ugarte, royal ensign of the saidcity.
Don Diego Esquivel and Navia, dean of itschurch.
Don Ignacio de Castro, curate of San Geronimoand rector of the university.
Don Francisco Espinosa and Medrano, alias ElLunarejo, magistral canon of its church,
Don Francis Xavier de Lagos, penitentiarycanon.
The Father Maestro Fray Pedro de la Sota, ofthe order of La Merced ; a subject who was oftenconsulted by the viceroys in matters of the utmostimportance.
The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, a celebratedhistorian of Peru.
Its jurisdiction, although it may retain the titleof province, is so reduced as to extend merely asfar as the district of the city, notwithstanding itformerly comprehended all the neighbouring pro-vinces, until the president, Lope Garcia de ()astro,established in each of these separate corregidors.Its principal commerce consists in the very largequantity of sugar which is made in the neighbour-ing jurisdictions, and where the inhabitants havemany sugar plantations ; that of San Ignacio dePachachaca, in the boundaries of the jurisdictionof Abancay, and formerly belonging to the re-gulars of the extinguished company of Jesuits,being the most celebrated. Tliere is made here avast quantity of baize and ordinary cloth, calledpanete, woven stuffs, saddles, floor-carpets, andtucuyo, which is an ordinary kind of linen usedas clothing by the poor; galloons of gohl, silver,