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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
Asiento de Con-doroma,
Santuario de la Vir-gen de Huancani,
San Pedro de Cacha,
Santuario de Tan-gascucal,
Its repartimiento amounted to 112,500 dollars,and it paid 900 dollars yearly for alcavala. Thecapital is Tinta.
CANETE, a province and corregimiento ofPeru. Its jurisdiction begins six leagues s. ofLima, and extends as far as 35, following thecoast of the Pacific ocean. It is bounded on then. e. by the province of Huarochiri, on the e. byYauros, on the s. by Yca, on the s. e. by CastroVireyna, and on the w. by the sea. It is 31 leaguesin length from n. to s. and from eight to nine inwidth, from e. to w. It is watered by some streams,of which the most considerable are the Mala onthe n. which rises from the lake Huasca-cocha,in the province of Yauyos, and the Cañete. Onits coast are many small ports and bays, thoughvery insecure and of unequal bottom. It aboundsin wheat, maize, sugar-cane, and all sorts offruit. The lands of this province belong for themost part to noble families at Lima, with whichcapital it carries on a considerable trade in fish,(brought from the coast), in fruit and vegetables,salt procured from the salt grounds of Chielca,and in nitre brought from the town of Mala.Its corregidor used to have a repartimiento of124,000 dollars, and it paid 992 yearly for alca-vala. The settlements of this province are,
Cañete, San Pedro de Mala,
Canete, a river of the same province, whichrises from the lake Tiell-cocha in Yauyos. Itruns to the w. and enters the sea near the Herbae.At its entrance are to be seen the remains of a fortwhich belonged to the Incas of Peru.
Canete, some islands near the coast of thesame province.
Canete, a port in the same province, fre-quented by small vessels. It is very confined andinsecure.
diction of Jujuy, situate on the shore of the riverLaquiaca.
CANGREJO, a large settlement of the sameprovince and government as the former, and ofthe same jurisdiction, situate likewise on the shoreof that river.
(CANIADERAGO, a lake in Otsego county,New York, nearly as large as Otsego lake, andsix miles w. of it. A stream called Oaks creekissues from it, and falls into Susquehannah river,about five miles below Otsego. The best cheesein the state is said to be made on this creek.)
CANIBALES, or Caribes, a barbarous na-tion of Indians, who are, according to their name,cannibals, inhabiting the islands of the Antillesbefore they were taken and conquered by the Spa-nish, English, and French. There are few ofthese Indians at the present day inhabiting thoseislands ; the greater part are to be found in Domi-nica, which is entirely possessed by them ; theyadore a man who they affirm was uncreated, andthe first of all men, who descended from heaven,and was called Longuo, from whose navel wereborn other men , and some also from his legs, whichhe himself cleft open with a hatchet. With theManicheans, they believe in the two original causesof good and evil, and in the immortality of thesoul ; and whenever any one dies they bury withhim his slaves and servants, thinking they maybe of use to him in the other world. They arepolygamists, very cruel, but dexterous in the useof the bow and arrow ; they are to be found alsoin other parts of the continent. [See Caribes.]
(CANNARES, Indians of the province ofQuito in Peru. They are very well made, andvery active ; they wear their hair long, whichthey weave and bind about their heads in form ofa crown. Their clothes are made of wool or cot-ton, and they wear fine fashioned boots. Theirwomen are handsome and fond of the Spaniards ;they generally till and manure the ground, whilsttheir husbands at home card, spin, and weavewool and cotton. Their country had many richgold mines, now drained by the Spaniards. Theland bears good wheat and barley, and has finevineyards. The magnificent palace of Theoma-bamba was in the country of the Cannares. SeeCANARIS.)
(CANNAVERAL Cape, the extreme point ofrocks on the e. side of the peninsula of E. Florida.It has Mosquitos inlet n. by w. and a large shoals. by e. This was the bounds of Carolina bycharter from Charles II. Lat. 28° 17' n. Long. 80° 20' w.')
CANOGANDl, a river of the province and
government of Chocó in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs tothe w. and enters the Paganagandi.
CANOMA or Guarihuma, or Guarihuma, a river of theprovince and country of the Amazonas, in thepart possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in theterritory of the Andirases Indians, and enters a kindof lake formed by different branches of the riverMadera.
CANONA, a lake of the province and countryof the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese,and in one of those numerous islands which formthe arms of the river Madera, on the side of theisland of Topinambas.
(CANONNICUT Island, in Newport county,Rhode island, lies about three miles w. of New-port, the s. end of which, (called Beaver Tail,on which stands the light-house), extends aboutas far s. as the s. end of Rhode island. It extendsn. about seven miles, its average breadth beingabout one mile ; the e. shore forming the w. partof Newport harbour, and the w. shore being aboutthree miles from the Narraganset shore. On thispoint is Jamestown. It was purchased of the In-dians in 1657, and in 1678 was incorporated bythe name of Jamestown. The soil is luxuriant,producing grain and grass in abundance. James-town contains 507 inhabitants, including 16sIaves.)
(CANONSBURGH, a town in Washingtoncounty, Pennsylvania, on the n. side of the w.branch of Chartier’s creek, which runs n. by e.into Ohio river, about five miles below Pittsburg.In its environs are several valuable mills. Hereare about 50 houses and an academy, seven milesn. e. by e. of Washington, and 15 s. w. of Pitts-burg.)
CANOTS, or Canoas, a river of the kingdomof Brazil, in the province and captainship of SanPablo. It rises near the coast opposite the islandof Santa Catalina, runs to the w. in a serpentinecourse, and serves as the source of the large riverUruguay.
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dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pasco ; in whichis the celebrated mountain and mine of Lauri-cocha.
CAXAMARQUILLA Y COLLAOS, the territory ofthe missions which forms part of the former pro-vince, and which is a reduccion of the infidel moun-tain Indians, who have been converted by themonks of St. Francis: these Indians are main-tained by a portion paid by the kin«?’s procuratorout of the royal coffers at Lima. They dwell tothe e. of the province, and are reduced to foursettlements ; two of the Ibita, and two of the Cho-lona nation. It is now 90 years since their foun-dation, and the number of Indians may at presentamount to 2000. Those settlements are situateupon mountains covered with trees and thickwoods ; from whence the natives procure incense,cffCflo, resinous gums, oil of Maria, dragon’s blood,the reed called bejuco^ dried fish, honey, wax,monkeys, parrots, and macaws, whicli^ are thebranches of its commerce ; tliough not less so isthe coca plant, which they pack up in measures offour bushels each , and carry in abundance to differentparts, for the consumption of the whole province.The missionaries of the above order have madevarious attempts, and have spared neither painsnor labour in penetrating into the interior parts ofthe mountains ; having repeatedly discovered otherbarbarous nations, whom they would fain have re-duced to the divine knowledge of the gospel.
The aforesaid settlements are,
Jesus de Sion, San Buenaventura,
Jesus de Ochonache, Pisano.
CAXATAMBO, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. by that of Huailas, n. e. bythat of Conchuios, e. by that of Huamalies, s. e.by that of Tarma, s. by the part of Chancay calledChecras, s. e. by the low part of Chancay, and n.w. by that of Santa. It is in length 34 leagues n. e.s. w. and 32 in width n. w. s. e. ; the greaterpart of it is situate in a serrama. Its temperatureis consequently cold, except in the broken and un-even spots and in the low lands. Besides the pro-ductions peculiar to the serrama., this provinceabounds in all sorts of seeds and fruits; in allspecies of cattle, especially of the sheep kind, fromthe fleece of whicli its inhabitants manufacturemuch cloth peculiar to the country ; this beingthe principal source of its commerce. It producessome grain and cochineal, used for dyes ; and if thislatter article were cultivated, it would bring greatprofit. Amongst tlie mountains of this provincethere is one called Huilagirca of fine flint, and twomines of sulphur and alcaparrosa, articles employedin the colouring of wools, not only in this province,
but in those of Huanuco, Huamalies, and Jauja:It has also mines of good yeso or gypsum. Theprincipal rivers by which it is irrigated, are twowhich rise in the same soil, and both of which enterthe S. sea, after having laved the contiguous pro-vinces ^ in former times there were fine silver mines,which are still worked, but for some reason or other,to very little profit. On the n. c. part, on some emi-nences, is a spot called Las Tres Cruces, (The ThreeCrosses), there being as many of these fixed up hereto determine its boundaries, and that of the pro-vince of Santa Huailas. Its population consists ofthe 69 following settlements : its repartimiento usedto amount to 1^0, (XX) dollars, and the akavala to1046 dollars per annum.
Caxatambo, the ca-
A cay a,
Palpas, distinct from
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the natives make friezes. The low part, lookingupon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal inmildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, andin the many estates which are in it maize grows ingreat quantities, and it, besides serving as food forthe labourers, and independent of that which is de-voured by the wild pigeons with which those fieldsare filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which arecarried to supply the markets of Lima ; those ani-mals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000head, and producing an emolument of 300,000dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here arealso some estates of sugar-cane, and others ofFrench beans and wheat, of which the crops wereformerly very great, and used, together with thevines, to be reckoned amongst the chief produc-tions of this country, though they have now maderoom for a more general cultivation of maize.What conduces much to render the soil fertile, iswhat the Indians call huano^ and which, in theirlanguage, signifies dung, this being brought fromsome small islands at a little distance from thecoast towards the n. It is thought to be the excre-ment of some birds called huanaes^ who have beenaccustomed to deposit it in the above places fromtime immemorial. Some of it has also been foundin various other islands of the coast of Canete,Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that ahandful being put at the root of a plant of maize,it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwardsof 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly.In the centre of the province, and upon the coast,are some fine salines^ which supply some of theneighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, thoseof Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Hua-nuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted.The salt is not only used in the workingof the me-tals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomousinsect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrailsuntil it destroys them. The population consists of37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town ofArnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amountedto 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dol-lars per annum.
Arnedo or Chancay,
S. Juan de Huaral,
Cauchaz or Maráz,
Chancay, the capital of the above province,founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, ata league and a half’s distance from the river Pasa-mayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being anuniversity, at which however it never attained. Ithas a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels,a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, anda good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inha-bitants consist of several noble and rich families.One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat.11° 30' 5.
CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort uponthe river Tapo, in the part washed by this river,called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. TheChunchos Indians of this province took possessionof it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.
CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of SantaElena in the province and government of Guaya-quil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port whichis frequented by vessels only in stress ; it havingsome extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance.Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armadadel Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as itwas dropping down to Panama, for the purpose ofdispatching the galleons under the charge of theMarquis de Villarubia ; although, through the op-portune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Countde Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, DonPedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of theproperty on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721.another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries tothe Plaza of Panama, without a single thing onboard being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious windfrom the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the
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Ingenio del Oro
And in the district of Tarija,
Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,
San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.
The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.
(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)
CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for
the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.
Rio Hondo or Thequila,
San Agustin de Losi-
CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.
CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.
(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)
3. Don Fray Geronimo de Corella, of the orderof St. Jerome, native of Valencia, descended fromtlic Connls of Cocentayna ; prior of the convent ofhis country, and afterwards of tliat of NuestraSehora del Prado, when he was elected bishop ofthis diocese in J562.
4. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda, of the orderof preachers ; promoted to the archbishopric ofCharcas in 1577.
5. Don Fray Caspar de Andrada, a Franciscanmonk, and native of Toledo ; collegian of thecollege of San Pedro and San Pablo of Alcala deHenares, guardian of the convents of S. Juan dclos Reyes in Toledo and in Madrid, visitor of theprovinces of Arragon, a celebrated preacher, andelected to this bishopric in 1588 ; he governed 24years, and died in 1612.
6. Don Fray Alonso Galdo, a monk of theorder of St. Dominic, native of Valladolid, present-ed in 1612; he visited its bishopric, was of ex-emplary conduct, and being full of years and in-firmities, he requested that a coadjutor might benominated in 1628 ; and this was,
7. Xion Fray Luis de Canizares, a religiousminim of St. Francis of Paula, native of Madrid ;he was lecturer in his convent, and in that ofAlcala, calificador and consultor of the inquisitionin Valladolid ; nominated through the nuncio ofof his holiness; was visitor of the province of An-dalucia, bishop of Nueva Carceres in Philippines,and promoted to this see, where he died, in 1645.
8. Don Juan Merlo de la Fuente, doctoral c^Lnonof the church of the Puebla de los Angeles, electedbishop of Nuevo Segovia in the Philippines,which oflBce he did not accept, and was bishophere in 1648.
9. Don Pedro de los Reyes Rios of Madrid,native of Seville, monk of the order of San Benito,master, preacher in general, theological doctor,and poser to the cathedrals of the university ofOviedo, difinidor and abbot of the monasteries ofSan Isidro de Dueilas, San Claudio de liCon, andSan Benito de Sevilla, preacher to Charles II.elected bishop of this church, and before he wentover to it, promoted to that of Yucatan in 1700.
10. Don Fray Juan Perez Carpintero; electedin the same year, 1700.
11. Don Fray Angel Mnldonado, native ofOcaila, monk of San Bernardo, doctor and pro-fessor of theology in the university of Alcala ; hewrote in defence of the right of Philip V. to thecrown of Spain ; presented to the bishopric ofHonduras, and after taking possession, promotedto the church of Antequara in 1702.
12. Don Fray Antonio Guadalupe Lopez Por-
tillo, native of Guadalaxara in Nueva Espaha,of the order of St. Francis, a man of great learn-ing and virtue, domestic prelate of his holinessBenedict NHL; presented to the bishopric ofComayagua in 1725 ; he died in 1742.
13. Don Flay Francisco Molina, of the orderof St. Basil, master of theology, abbot of the mo-nastery of Cuellar, thrice of that of Madrid, andtwice difinidor general of Castille ; elected in1743.
14. Don Diego Rodriguez Rivas de Velasco,native of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito, doc-tor of both laws in the university of Alcala, col-legian of the college of Los Verdes, titular arch-deacon of the holy church of Guatemala; electetlbishop in 1750, and promoted to the bishopric ofGuadalaxara in 1762.
15. Don Miguel Anselmo Alvarez de Abreu,native of Teneriffe, secretary of the bishop, of Se-govia, and canon in the church of Canarias, judgeof the apostolical chamber, and of the tribunal ofthe holy crusade, auxiliary bishop of the Puebla dclos Angeles, presented to this in 1762, and pro-moted to that of Antequera in 1767.
16. Don Isidore Rodriguez ; he died in 1767.
17. Don Antonio de Macarulla, elected in 1767,and promoted to that of Durango in 1773.
18. Don Francisco Joseph de Palencia, elected,in 1773.
19. Don Fray Antonio de San Miguel, in 1776,until 1783.
20. Don Joseph Antonio de Isabella, in 1783.
(COMBAHEE Ferry, on the above river, is 17miles from Jacksonsborough, 15 from Pocotaglio,and 52 from Charlestown.
COMBAPATA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tinta in Peru ; situate uponan eminence near the royal road which leads fromLa Plata to Lima. Its natives say that it has thebest and most healthy temperature of any in thekingdom, and they mention some persons whohave lived here to the age of 140 years.
COMBEIMA, a large river of the province
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dom of Guatemala, in the province and alcaldiamayor of Chiapa.
CUCHUNA, a large settlement of Indians, andformerly the capital of a small province of thisname in Peru, to the w. of the mountains of (heAndes. It was founded by Maita Capac, fourthEmperor of the Incas, after that he had literallystarved the country into obedience. These In-dians were treacherous, and used to give theirenemies a very deadly poison ; the said emperorcaused many to be burnt alive for having practisedthis abominable custom, and their houses to bedestroyed, together with their cattle and posses-sions.
CUCUANA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate on the shore of the river Mag-dalena.
CUCUCHO, San Bartolome de, a settle-ment of tlie head settlement of Arantzan, and aleal-dia mayor of Valladolid, in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 27 familiesof Indians, who employ themselves in agriculture,cutting wood, and making earthen-ware and
CUCUCHUCHAU, San Pedro de, a settle-ment of the bead settlement of the city of Cucupao,and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate on the shoreof the lake. It contains 18 families of Indians,and is two leagues to the s. of its head settle-ment.
CUCUNUBA, a settlement oiihe corregimientoof Ubate in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It isof a cold temperature, and produces the fruits ofthis climate. It consists of 100 families, includingthose of its vicinity, and of 80 Indians; is nineleagues to the n. of Santa Fe.
CUCUNUCO, a mountain to the e, of the pro-vince and government of Popayan, eternallycovered with snow. From it rises the river Pu-rase, as also the river La Plata. It takes its namefrom a nation of Indians, by whom it was inhabit-
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ed, and of whom a few only, who are reduced tothe,faith, remain.
CUCURULU, a river of the kingdom of Peru,which runs through the country of the CanisiencsIndians to the e. of the Andes, it abounds in fishof a very fine quality, which serve as food to thebarbarians; runs e. and being much swelled bythe waters it collects from others, enters the riverSanta Rosa.
CUCUTA, San Joseph de, a settlement ofthe government and jurisdiction of Pamplona inthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hottemperature, though healthy, of great commerce,owing to the cacao with which it abounds, andwhich is brought by persons coming from variousparts, the greater portion of it being embarked onthe river Sulia for Maracaibo. It contains morethan 100 rich Indians, but is infested with snakes,lice, and other noxious insects and reptiles.
CUCUTA, an extensive valley of this province (Pamplona),between the cities of Pamplona and S. Christoval,discovered by Juan de San Martin in 1534 ; cele-brated for its fertility, and excellent breed ofmules, by which the kingdom is supplied. It iswatered by many streamlets which render it luxu-riant and fertile, and most particularly in cacaoof the finest quality. The herb on which the muleschiefly feed is wild marjoram.
CUDAJA, a lake of the province and countryof Las Amazonas, in the territory possessed by thePortuguese. It is formed by one of the arms w hichis thrown out by the river Maranon, and returnsto enter the same, in the country of ihe CabaurisIndians.