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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]




San Nicolas de laPaz,

San J uan de lasPalmas,

Pueblo Nuevo,Santero,


San Nicolas deBari,

San Bernardo A-bad,




Tiquicio de Aden-tro,

Tiquicio de Afu-era,



San Marcos,

San Pelajo,


Zienega del Oro,San Carlos de Co-losina.

San Geronimo deBuenavista.

The capital is a large city adorned with beauti-ful buildings, founded by Pedro de Heredia in1533, on the shore of a great and very convenientbay more than two leagues in length. It was call-ed Calamari in the time of the Indians, which sig-nifies, in their language, the land of craw-fish, fromthe abundance of these found in it. It is situateon a sandy island, which forming a narrow strait,gives a communication to the part called TierraBomba ; on the left it is entered by a woodenbridge, having a suburb called Xiximani, whichis another island uniting with the continent bymeans of a bridge in the same manner as itself.It is well fortified, and is the residence of a go-vernor, with the title of captain-general, dependenton the viceroy of Santa Fe, having beeu indepen-dent till the year 1739. Besides the precinct andbastions, it has a half-moon, which defends theentrance or gate ; and at a small distance is thecastle of San Felipe de Baraxas, situate on aneminence, and on the side of the bay the castles ofSan Luis, Santa Cruz, San Joseph, San P'elipe,and Pastelillo, which were rebuilt in a modernmanner, in 1654;, by the Lieutenant-general DonIgnacio de Sala, with the names of San Fernando,San Joseph, El Angel, and El Pastelillo. Thecathedral church is magnificent, and included in itis the parish of Sagrario, besides two other pa-rishes called La Trinidad and Santo Toribo. Ithas the convents of monks of St. Francisco, St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Diego, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, which is an hospital, andsituate at the top of a high mountain without thewalls of the city, at a quarter of a league’s dis-tance from the convent of the barefooted Augustins,called Nuestra Senora de la Popa ; to this con-vent vessels are accustomed to offer up a salutationas soon as they discover it at sea. It has also acollege which belonged to the society of Jesuits,a convent of Santa Clara, one of the Observersof San Francisco, and another of barefooted Car-

melites. At a small distance without the city isthe hospital of San Lazaro for lepers, which ma-lady is epidemical in the country. It has also atribunal of the inquisition, established in 1610, ofwhich there is only three in all America, and put-tingthis city, in this pointof view, onafooting withthe metropolitan cities Lima and Mexico. It is thehead of a bishopric erected in 1534 by his holinessClement VII. The bay abounds in fish of variouskinds, but it is infested by marine wolves. Theclimate of this city is very hot ; from May to No-vember, which are the winter months, thunder,rain, and tempests are very frequent, but fromthis inconvenience they derive an advantage offilling with water their cisterns, called aijibes, andwhich afford them the only supply of this inostnecessary article ; accordingly every house is fur-nished with one of these cisterns : from Decemberto April, which is the summer, the heat is exces-sive, occasioning continual perspiration, whichdebilitates the frame, and causes the inhabitants tohave a pale and unhealthy appearance, althoughthey nevertheless enjoy good health, it being notunusual to find amongst them persons exceeding80 years of age. The irregularity of this climateproduces several very afflicting disorders, as theblack vomit, which is most common amongststrangers and sea-faring people, few of whom havethe luck to escape it, but no person ever has ittwice. The inhabitants are likewise much trou-bled with the leprosy, or disease of St. Lazarus ; theculebrilla, which is an insect which breeds under theskin, and causes a swelling which is accustomed toterminate in gangrene and spasms or convulsions :besides these inconveniences, there are multitudesof troublesome insects which infest the houses,such as beetles, niguas, scorpions, centipeds, andmorcielagos. The largest trees are the caob, thecedar, the maria, and balsam ; of the first aremade canoes, out of the solid trunk, for fishing andcommerce ; the red cedar is better than the white,and the two last, not to mention their utility fromthe compactness of their timber, for their delicioussmell and beautiful colour, are the trees fromwhence are procured those admirable distillationscalled the oil of Maria and balsam of Tolu. Hereare also tamarind trees, medlars, sapotas, papai/as,cassias, and Indian apple trees, producing deli-cate and pleasant fruits ; the fruit, however, of thelast mentioned is poisonous, and many who, de-ceived by the beauty of these apples, have therashness to taste them, soon repent of their folly,for they immediately swell to a distressing degree :so if perchance any one should sleep under itsbranches, he will be afflicted in the same way.

Last edit over 2 years ago by kmr3934




a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the placecalled the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all ofthem, to the mountains, although in the same yearthey returned back again to the settlement.

CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful.It has besides the parish church a convent or houseof entertainment of the religious order of St.Francis.

CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of theinfidel Indians of the province and government ofSanta Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence itlies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that ofChuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements,each governed by its captain or cazique, subject,in a certain degree, to the above government.These people, though they refuse to adopt the Ca-tholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spa-niards, trading with them in wax, cotton, andmaize. This nation, by the incursions which tlieymade, used at first to give frequent alarm to theprovince, and once had the address to capture thecity of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui en-deavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither henor the Spaniards could avail aught with them■until they were reduced by the missionaries, theregulars of the extinguished company of the Je-suits ; since that time they have been stedfast insupporting the Spaniards against the other infidels,serving them as a barrier, and having for their ownline of defence the river Guapay. They are veryvalorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they aredescended from the nations which are found to thee. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the num-ber of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastise-ment of the Portuguese, who were about to inflictcondign punishment on them for having treache-rously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in thetime of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal.They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fattentheir prisoners that these might become better fare ;but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniardshas caused them by degrees to forget this barbarouspractice, and even to give them a disgust at theirsavage neighbours, who still continue in the samepractices. They are at the present day so greatlyincreased in numbers, that they are one of themost numerous nations of America ; are besidesvery neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon forthem to rush out of their dwellings in the middleof the night to plunge and wash themselves in ariver in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.

immediately after parturition, invariably do thesame, and on their return lay themselves on a heapof sand, which they have for this purpose in thehouse; but the husband immediately takes to hisbed, and being covered all over with very largeleaves, refuses to take any other nourishment thana little broth made of maize ; it being an incorri-gible error of belief amongst them that these cere-monies will be the cause of making their childrenbold and warlike. They have shewn great powerand address in their combats with our troops whenthese first endeavoured to enter their territories,and they threw themselves in such an agile and un-daunted manner upon our fire-arms that it wasfound necessary, on our part, to insert in the rantsa lance-man between every two fusileers : the vare, moreover, so extremely nimble that it isimpossible to take them prisoners but by sur-prise.

CHIRIMICHATE, a river of the provinceand government of Venezuela. It rises in thesierra opposite the point of Hicacos, and entersthe sea in this point.

CHIRINOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and go-vernment of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdomof Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ;dividing the government from that of Guatemala,and touching upon the province of Costarica.It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous,and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded onall sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred num-bers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Pa-nama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S.sea are found crabs which distil a purple colourused for dyeing cotton, which, although it mayfade a little, can never be entirely eradicated.They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable pro-ductions ; with which they carry on a trade, nowfallen much to decay, with the city of Panama.The capital is Santiago de Alanje.

Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), whichrises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea,serving as limits to that province, and dividing itfrom that of Costarica in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHIRIS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru; annexedto the curacy of Huachos.

CHIRISU, a settlement of the province andcorregimieto of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a rather cold temperature, andabounds in wheat, maize, barley, a/berjas, andS M 2

Last edit over 2 years ago by LLILAS Benson




Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.

COZCATLAN, a settlement and head settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Tasco in NuevaEspana. It contains 200 families of Indians, andis five leagues c. of its capital.

COZEL, a settlement of the jurisdiction andaknld'ia mayor of Culiacan in Nueva Espaila.

COZINAS, a bay of the coast of the provinceand government of Yucatán.

COZINERA, a shoal of rocks on the coast ofthe S. sea, of the province and government ofTierra Firme, very near the point of Paytilla, inthe bay of Panama.

COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.

COZTLA, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Coronango, and alcaldiamayor of Cholula, in Nueva Espana. It contains48 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n.of the capital.

COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.

(CRAB-ORCHARD, a post-town on Dick’sriver, in Kentucky, eight miles from Cumberlandriver, and 25 miles s. e. of Danville. The roadto Virginia passes through this place.)

CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered

with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.

CRAMBERRI, a small river of the provinceand colony of N. Carolina. It runs s. and entersthe source of the Conhaway.

CRAMBROOK, a river of the province andcolony of Pennsylvania in N. America.

(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)

(Cranberry Islands, on the coast of the dis-trict of Maine. See Mount Desert Island.)

(CRANEY, a small island on the s. side ofJames river, in Virginia, at the mouth of Eliza-beth river, and five miles 5. w. of fort George, onpoint Comfort. It commands the entrance of bothrivers.)

(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)

CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}

Last edit over 2 years ago by kmr3934
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