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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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21. Don Fray Pedro de Espineira ; elected in1762 ; he governed until his death, in 1778.

22. Don Francisco Joseph de Maran ; electedin 1779.

Concepcion de la Vega, another city, inthe island of St. Domingo, founded by the AdmiralChristopher Columbus, on a beautiful and spaciousplain, or Uanura^ celebrated for a conquest gainedon it by a numerous army of Indians. It has a goodparish church, erected into a bishopric, and wliichwas afterwards done away with in 1605, it beingthen embodied with the archbishopric of S. Do-mingo. it has also a convent of the religiousorder of St. Francis, in which is deposited andvenerated the first cross that the discoverer and con-queror of this country planted here ; which, al-though the Indians have endeavoured with all theirmight to break and destroy, has resisted all theireftbrts. Twenty-five leagues from the capital ofS. Domingo.

(Concepcion, a town of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay ; situate on the e. side ofthe river Paraguay, about SO leagues n. of Asun-cion. Lat. 23'^ 23' 8" s. Long. 57° 16" <®.)

(Concepcion del Pao, a city of the provinceand government of Caracas ; composed of the in-habitants of Trinity, of Margareta, and of Caracas,who owned the folds in the plains near the Ori-noco, to the s. of Barcelona ; they here succes-sively fixed their dwellings, for the purpose ofbeing in the centre of their property, and of super-intending it themselves. In 1744 the number ofthese houses were found considerable enough to ac-quire the name of village. There are only 2300people of all classes here, subsisting will] facilityby Ihe fertility of the soil. The air and water aregood, and the only inconveniences the inhabitantsexperience are an excessive lieat, and inundationsarising from the long and heavy rains. The produceof the land is merely the provisions common to theCQuntry. The wealth of the inhabitants consistsentirely in cattle, which they export to Trinity,liia Guarapiche or Orinoco, This village, nowa city, is distinguished from St.John the Baptistdel Pao, situate in the province of Venezuela, bythe title of Concepcion del Pao. Lat. 8° 42' n.Long. 65° 10' ra.)

Concepcion, a settlement, the capital of theprovince and corregiwicnlo of Xauja in Peru.

Concepcion, another, of tlie same province andcorregimiento, in which there is a convent of thereligious order of St. Francis.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cor-regimknto of Lucanas in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Otoca.

Concepcion, another, of the same province andkingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Paraisancos.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Chichas and Tarija in the same king-dom, and of the district of the former.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cor-regimienlo of Vilcas Huaiman in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Vizchongo.

Concepcion, another, of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Leon in Nueva Espana, andof the bishopric of Mechoacan ; annexed to thecuracy of Rincon. It contains 208 families of In-dians, 100 of Spaniards, and ^0 oi Mustees. Itproduces wheat, maize, and other seeds, and is aquarter of a league from its curacy, and fourleagues from the capital.

Concepcion, another small settlement or ward,united to that of Tequiszillan, of ihealcaldia mayorof Theotihuacan in the same kingdom.

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichare held by the religious order of St. Francis, inthe province of Texas and kingdom of Nueva Es-pana. It is 112 leagues to the e. n. e. of the pre-sidency of San Antonio de Bejar.

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of Mainas,of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore ofthe great river Maranon, on a point of land formedby the same, and where this river is entered by theApena and the Guallaga,

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province of Tepeguana, and kingdomof Nueva Vizcaya; situate on the bank of theriver Florido, near the settlement and real of themines of Parral.

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichbelong to the religion of St. Francis, in the pro-vince of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya, lying 17 leagues distant between the s. ands. w. of the real of the mines of San Felipe de Chi-guagua.

Concepcion, another, with the surname ofAchaguas, being composed of Indians of this na-tion, in the kingdom of Granada ; of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in Orinoco; situate on the shore of theriver Meta.

Concepcion, another settlement, the capital ofthe province and captainship of Itamaraca in Bra-zil ; situate on the top of a mountain by the sea-side. It has a magnificeut parish church, and isgarrisoned by two companies of troops, it con-tains 300 housekeepers, and has three large sugar.

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mills. The whole of the district of its territory iscovered with estates and country-seats, whichabound in all kinds of fruits, at once rendering ita place pleasing and advantageous for residence.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Pacajes in Peru ; situate on the shoreoflhe lake Titicaca, and at the mouth of the riverDesa<;uadero.

Concepcion, anotlier, of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, in the samekingdom ; a reduccion of the missions which wereheld in this province by the regulars of the com-pany of the Jesuits ; situate between the source ofthe river Verde and the river Ubay.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito ;■situate between the rivers Guandes and Y laibi, andnearly in the spot where they join.

Concepcion, another, of the former provinceand government ; situate on the shore of the riverItenes.

Concepcion, another, of the province andcountry of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos-sessions ; a reduccion of the missions which are heldby the Carmelite fathers of this nation ; situate onthe shore of a pool or lake formed by the riverUrubu. . .

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits in California ; situate near the sea-coast andthe Puerto Nuevo, or New Port.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, and district ofChaco ; being a reduccion of the Abipones Indians,of the mission held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, and to-day under the charge of the reli-gious order of S. Francisco.

Concepcion, another, which is also called hu-enclara or Canada, of the missions held by the re-ligion of St. Francis, in the kingdom of NuevoMexico.

Concepcion, another, which is the real oi inesilver mines of the province and government ofSonora in Nueva Espana.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cap-iahiship ot Rio Janeiro in Brazil 5 situate on thecoast, opposite the Isla Grande.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cap-iainship of S. Vincente in the same kingdom.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres; situate at the mouth ofthe river Saladillo, on the coast which lies betweenthe river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-

suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the w. shore of the river Uru-guay. (Lat. 27° 58' 43". Long. 53° 27' 13" re.)

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the country of the Chiquitos Indians, inthe kingdom of Peru ; situate to the e. of that ofSan Francisco Xavier.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom ofQuito, which produces nothing but maize, yucas^plantains, and quantities of aloes, with the whichthe natives pay their tribute, and which are muchesteemed in Peru.

Concepcion, a town of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, between therivers Bermejo and Salado. It was destroyed bythe infidel Indians.

Concepcion, a bay of the kingdom of Chile,at the innermost part of which, and four leaguesfrom its entrance, is found a bed of shells, fromwhich is made excellent lime.

Concepcion, another bay, in the gulf of Cali-fornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. It is very largeand capacious, having within it various islands.Its entrance is, however, very narrow.

Concepcion, a river in the province and go-vernment of Costarica, which runs into the sea be-tween that of San Antonio and that of Portete.

Concepcion, another, of the kingdom of Bra-zil, which rises to the w. of the town of Gorjas,runs s. 5 . K). and unites itself with that of the Re-medies, to enter the river Prieto or La Palma.

Concepcion, another, which is an arm of theriver Picazuru, in the province and government ofParaguay.

Concepcion, another, of the kingdom of Chile,which runs through the middle of the city ofConcepcion, and enters the sea in the bay of tliisname.

(Concepcion, a large bay on the c. side ofNewfoundland island, whose entrance is betweencape St. Francis on the s. and Flamborough headon the n. It runs a great way into the land in a s.direction, having numerous bays on the w. side,on which are two settlements, Carboniere andHavre de Grace. Settlements were made here in1610, by about 40 planters, under Governor JohnGuy, to whom King James had granted a patentof incorporation.)

(Concepcion of Salaye, a small town of N.America, in the province of Mechoacán in Mexico

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or New Spain, was built bj the Spaniards, as wellas the stations of St. Michael and St. Philip, to se-cure the road from Mechoacan to the silver minesof Zacatea. They have also given this name toseveral boroughs of America; as to that in His-paniola island, and to a sea-port of California,&C.)

CONCHA, San Martin de la, a town andcapital of the province and corregimiento of Quil-lota in the kingdom of Chile ; founded in 1726by the Licentiate Don Joseph dc Santiago Concha,who gave it his name, being at the time temporalpresident of this kingdom. Its situation is in avalley, the most beautiful and fertile of any in theJcingdom, and it particularly abounds in wheat.It has been celebrated for the abundance of goldthat has been taken out of a mine within its dis-trict, and for the protection of which a fort hadbeen built by Pedro de Valdivia. It has a very^ood parish church, three convents of the religiousorders of St. Francis, St. Augustin, and La Merced,and a collec^e which belona-ed to the regulars ofthe company of Jesuits, and which is at present oc-cupied by {jic monks of St. Domingo, and a houseof retirement for spiritual exercies, founded andendowed by a certain individual. In the districtof this city European chesnuts grow, and not farfrom it is a lime-kiln belonging to the king, andwhich renders a supply for the works going on atthe garrison of Valdivia. Nine leagues from Val-parayso. Lat, 32^48' s. Long. 71° 10' zo.

Concha, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina;situate near the source of the river Sonlahowe.

Concha, a bay on the coast of the province andgovernment of Santa Marta, to the e. of the capeof La Aguja.

Concha, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru ; situate at themoiitli of the river of its name, and where it en-ters the Pasage.

Concha, a river in the jurisdiction of the cityof Salta, runs e. and enters the Pasage betweenthe river Blanco and that of Metau.

CONCHACHITOUU, a settlement of Indiansof S. Carolina, where a fort has been built by theEnglish for the defence of the establishment whichthey hold there.

CONCHALI, a river of the province and cor-regimienlo of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile. Itruns Z 0 . and enters the sea.

CONCHAMARCA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; an-aexed to the curacy of San Miguel de Huacar.

CONCHAO, a settlement of the province and

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corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Andajes.

(CONCHAS, a parish of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a river ofthe same name, about six leagues n. zs. of BuenosAyres. Lat. 34° 24' 56" s. Long. 58° 23' 30" ay.)

Conchas, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs n. e. and en-ters the river La Plata, at a small distance fromthe capital.

Conchas, another river, in the province andcaptainship of the Rio Grande in Brazil. It issmall, rises near the coast, and empties itself at themouth of that of Amargoso.

Conchas, another, of the kingdom of NuevaEspaña, which runs into the sea at the bay ofMexico, being first united to the Bravo.

Conchas, another, a small river of the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres, distinct fromthat of which we have spoken. It runs zso. andenters the Parana, close to the settlement of LaBaxada de Santa Fe.

(CONCHATTAS, Indians of N. America, al-most the same people as the Allibamis. Theyfirst lived on Bayau Chico, in Appelousa district ;but, four years ago, moved to the river Sabine,settled themselves on the e. bank, where they nowlive, in nearly a s. direction from Natchitoch, anddistant about 80 miles. They call their numberof men about 160 ; but say, if they were altogether,they would amount to 200. Several families ofthem live in detached settlements. They are goodhunters. Game is here in plenty. They kill anuncommon number of bears. One man alone,during the summer and fall hunting, sometimeskills 400 deer, and sells his skins at 40 dollars per100. The bears usually yield from eight to 12gallons of oil, each of which never sells for lessthan a dollar a gallon, and the skin a dollar more.No great quantity of the meat is saved. Whatthe hunters do not use when out, they generallygive to their dogs. The Conchattas are friendlywith all other Indians, and speak well of theirneighbours the Carankouas, who, they say, liveabout 80 miles s. of them, on the bay, which isthe nearest point to the sea from Natchitoches.A tew families of Chactaws have lately settled nearthem from Bayau Bceiif. The Conchattas speakCreek, which is their native language, and Chac-taw, and several of them English ; and one or twoof tliem can read it a little.)

CONCHOS, San Francisco DE LOS, a Settle-ment and garrison of the province of the Tepe-guana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate

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on the banks of the river of its name, near wherethis river joins that of Florido. It is garrisonedby a captain, a lieutenant, a serjeant, and 33 sol-diers, to guard against the irruptions of the infidelIndians. In its vicinity are the estates of La Ci-enega, Sapian, and El Pilar. Fifty-eight leaguesto the n.n.e. of the city of Guadalaxara.

CONCHUCOS, a province and corresimientoof Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Huama-chucos, n. e. by that of Pataz, and separated fromthence by the river Marafion, e. and s. e. by theprovince of Huraalies, and s. by that of Caxa-tambo. It is 52 leagues in length, and in someparts 20 in width. It is of a very irregular figure,and of various temperature, according to the dif-ferent situation of its territories ; cold in all theparts bordering upon the cordil/era, mild in someparts, and in others excessively hot. It is 'V-erypleasant, and it has all kinds of fruits, which itproduces in abundance, and in the same mannerwheat, barley, and pot herbs. On its skirts arefound numerous herds of cattle of every species,and from the wools of some of these are made thecloth manufactures of the country, which meetwith a ready demand in the other provinces. Theprincipal rivers by which it is watered are three ;and these are formed by various streams : the oneof them enters that of Santa to the zo. and theother two the Marafion. The most s. is called DeMiraflores, and the other, which is very large,keeps the name of the province. Here are somemines of silver, which were formerly very rich ;as also some lavaderos, or washing places of gold,of the purest quality, the standard weight of itbeing 23 carats. Also in the curacy of Llamelinare some mines of brimstone, and a fountain orstream, the waters of which, falling down into adeep slough, become condensed and converted intoa stone called Catachi, in the form of columns muchresembling wax-candles, of a very white colour.The same substance is used as a remedy againstthe bloody flux, and it is said, that being madeinto powders, and mixed Avith the white of an egg,it forms a salve which accelerates in a Avonderfulmanner the knitting of fractured bones. It com-prehends 15 curacies, Avithout the annexed settle-ments, all of Avhich, the former and the latter, are

as folloAVS :

Huari del Rey, the ca-pital,

Chavin,

Huantar,

San Marcos,

San Ildefonso,

San Christoval,Yunga,

Uco,

Paucas,

Yanas,

Huachi,

Rapayan,

Llapo,

Llamelin,

Yupan,

Acso,

Ancos,

M irgas,

Tauca,

Taquia

Cavana,

Siccican,

Huendoval,

San Luis de Huari,

Pallasca,

Chacas,

Pampas,

Piscobainba,

Lacabamba,

Sihuas,

Conch UCOS,

Puruay,

Corongo,

Huacachi,

CONCHUCOS, a settlement of the same pro-vince ; annexed to the curacy of Pallasca.

CONCHUCOS, a river of the province and cor-regimiento of the same name in Peru, Avhich risesin the cordillera. It runs s. and enters the Ma-ranon near the settlement of Uchos in the provinceof Andahuailas.

CONCON, a port of the coast of the kingdQmof Chile, in the S. sea, and province and corregi-miento of Quillota,

(CONCORD, a post-toAvn of New Hampshire,very flourishing, and pleasantly situated on thew. bank of Merrimack river, in Rockinghamcounty, eight miles above Hookset falls. Thelegislature, of late, have commonly held their ses-sions here ; and from its central situation, and athriving back country, it will probably become thepermanent seat of government. Much of the tradeof the upper country centres here. A liandsoraetall bridge across the Merrimack connects thistown Avith Pembroke. It has 1747 inhabitants,and Avas incorporated in 1765. The Indian nameAvas Penacook. It was granted by Massachusetts,and called Rumford. Tlie compact part of thetown contains about 170 houses, a Congregationalchurcli, and an academy, which was incorporatedin 1790. It is 54 miles w. n. w. of Portsmouth,58 s. w. of Dartmouth college, and 70 n. fromBoston. Lat. 43” 12' n. Long. 71° 31' a?.)

(Concord, in Essex county, Vermont, lies onConnecticut river, opposite a part of the Fifteen-mile falls.)

(Concord, in Massachusetts, a post-town, oneof the most considerable towns in Middlesexcounty ; situated on Concord river, in a healthyand pleasant spot, nearly in the centre of thecounty, and 18 miles n. w. of Boston, and 17 e.of Lancaster. Its Indian name Avas Musquetequid;and it owes its present name to the peaceable man-ner in which it was obtained from the natives.The first settlers, among whom Avere the Rev.Messrs. Buckley and Jones, having settled- the

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purchase, obtained an act of incorporation, Sep-tember 3, 1655 ; and this was the most distantsettlement from the sea-shore of New England atthat time. The settlers never liad any contest withthe Indians ; and only three persons were ever kill-ed by them within the limits of the town. In1791, there were in this township 225 dwellinglionses, and 1590 inhabitants ; of the latter therewere 80 persons upwards ot 70 years old. For 13years previous to 1791, the average number ofdeaths was 17 ; one in four of whom were 70 yearsold and upwards. The public buildings are, aCongregational church, a spacious stone gaol, thebest in New England, and a very handsome countycourt-house. The town is accommodated withthree convenient bridges over the river ; one ofwhich is 208 feet long, and 18 feet wide, supportedby 12 piers, built after the manner of Charles riverbridge. This town is famous in the history of therevolution, having been the seat of the provincialcongress in 1774, and the spot where the first op-position was made to the British troops, on thememorable 19th of April 1775. The generalcourt have frequently held their sessions here whencontagious diseases have prevailed in the capital.Lat. 42° 20'

(Concord, a small river of Massachusetts,formed of two branches, which unite near thecentre of the town of Concord, whence it takes itscourse in a n. e. and n. direction through Bed-ford and Billerica, and empties itself into Merri-mack river at Tewksbury. Concord river isremarkable for the gentleness of its current, whichis scarcely perceivable by the eye. At low watermark it is from 100 to 200 feet wide, and from threeto 12 feet deep. During floods. Concord riveris near a mile in breadth ; and when viewed fromthe town of Concord, makes a fine appearance.)

(Concord, a township in Delaware county,Pennsylvania.)

(Concord, a settlement in Georgia, on the e.bank of the Mississippi, about a mile from the s.line of Tennessee, 108 miles h. from the mouth ofYazoo river, and 218 bclov/ the Ohio.)

CONDACHE, a river of the province and go-vernment of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. Itruns n. e. and traversing the royal road whichleads from Baza to Archidono, enters the river Co-quindo on its s. side, in 37' lat.

(CONDE, Fort, or Mobile City, is situate onthe w. side of Mobile bay, in W. Florida, about40 miles above its mouth, in the gulf of Mexico.Lat. 30° 59' n. Long. 88° 11' a'.)

CONDE, a small river of the province andcountry of the Iroquees Indians, in New France or

VOL. I.

Canada. It runs n. and enters the lake On-tario.

CONDE, another of the same name. SecV E H D E .

(CONDECEDO, or Desconocida, a cape orpromontory of N. America, in the province ofYucatán, *100 miles w. of Merida. Lat. 20° 50' n.Long. 90° 45' w.)

CONDEBAMBA, a large and beautiful valleyof the provitice and fo?TCg7'??//f>«/o of Huamachucoin Peru ; celebrated for its fertility.

CONDES, River of the, in the straits of Ma-gellan. It runs into the sea opposite the islandSanta Ana.

CONDESA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cartagena; situate near the coast,at the mouth of the Dique, which forms a com-munication between the sea and the grand riverMagdalena.

CONDESUIOS DE Arequipa, a provinceand corregimiento of Peru : bounded n. by that ofParinocochas, e. by that of Chumbivilcas, s. e.by that of Canes and Canches, and s. by that ofCollahuas. It is generally of a cold temperature,even in the less lofty parts of the cordillera ; ofa rough and broken territory, and with very badroads. Nevertheless, no inconsiderable proportionof wheat is grown in the low grounds, as likewise ofmaize, and other seeds and fruits, such as grapes,pears, peaches, apples, and some flowers. Upontlie heights breed many vicunas, huanacos, andvizcachas, and in other parts is obtained cochineal,here called macno, and which is bartered by theIndians for baizes of the manufacture of the country,and for cacao. It has some gold mines whichwere worked in former times, and which, on ac-count of the baseness of the metal, the depth of themines, and hardness of the strata, have not pro-duced so much as formerly they did, althoughthey are not now without yielding some emolu-ment : such are those of Airahua, Quiquimbo,Araure, and Aznacolea, which may produce alittle more than the expences incurred in Avorkirigthem. The gold of these mines is from 19 to 20carats, and they produce from tliree to four ounceseach cfljjow. They are Avorked by means of steeland powder, and the metals are ground in mills.The greater part of the natives of tliis province oc-cupy themselves in carrying the productions of thevalley of Mages, of the province of Carnana, suchas Avines and brandies, to the other provinces ofthe sierra; also in the cultivation of seeds, andsome in working the mines. It is watered by somesmall rivers or streams, which, incorporate them-selves, and form t-wm large rivers. The capital is3 T

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Chuquibamba, and the other settlements of its juris-diction, -which comprehend nine curacies, are thefollowing :

Chuquibamba,

San Pedro de Illotnas,Andaray,Yanaquihua,Chorunga,

Alpacaj,

Llanca,

Cayaraiii,

Areata,

Salamanca,

Chichas,

Quechalla,

Belinga,

Andaliua,

Cliilca and Marca,Viraco,

Pampacolca,Umachulco,

H uancarama,Orcopampa,

Chachas,

Ayo,

San J nan Crisostomo deChoco,

Ucuchacas,Machahuay,

Arirahua, Tipan.

CONDIRAS, an arm of the river Jamunda, inthe country of Las Amazonas, and in the Portu-guese possessions. It runs from the lake Mari-pava, and enters the Maranon.

CONDOCONDO, a settlement of the provinceand corre^imiento of Pariá in Peru.

CONDONOMA, a mine, celebrated for itsabundance of silver, of the province and corregi-miento of Tinta in Peru.

CONDORGUASI, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tucumán in Peru ; belongingto the jurisdiction of Jujui, situate on the shore ofthe river Laquiaca.

CONDOROMA, a settlement and asiento of thesilver mines of the province of Canes and Canchesor Tinta in Peru, -where, during tempests of thun-der and lightning, is experienced a singular phe-nomenon ; namely, a certain prickly sensation uponthe hands and face, -which they called moscas,(flies), though none of these insects are ever seen.It is indeed attributed to the air, which is at thattime highly charged with electric fluid ; the effectsof which may be observed on the handles of sticks,buckles, lace, and other metal trinkets ; the sameeffects ceasing as soon as the tempest is over. Itis observed, that in no other parts is the same phe-nomenon known to exist.

CONDOROMA, another settlement, of the pro-vince and government of Chucuito in the samekingdom ; situate on the shore of the lake.

CONDUITE, or CoNDUITA, a small river ofthe province and country of the Iroquees Indians.It runs w. forming a curve, and enters the lakeOswego.

(CONDUSKEEG, a settlement in the districtof Maine, in Hancock county, containing 567 in-habitants.)

CONEUAGUANET, a small river of the pro-

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vince and colony of Pennsylvania and counfy ofCumberland. It runs c. and enters the Susque-hanna.

CONEGA, a small island of the s. coast of theisland of Newfoundland, between the isle of Des-pair and port Bartran.

CONEGHTA, a small river of S. Carolina. Itrises in the territory of the Tuscaroras Indians, runss. e. and enters the Neus.

(CONEGOCHEAGUE Creek rises near Mer-cersburg, Franklin county, Pensylvania, runs s.in a -winding course, and after supplying a numberof mills, empties into the Potowmack, at Williamport, in W ashington county, Maryland ; 19 miless. e. of Hancock, and eight miles s, of the Pennsyl-vania line.)

CONEGOGEE, a small river of the provinceand colony of Maryland. It runs s. and entersthe Potowmack.

CONEIUAGA, a small river of the provinceand colony of Pennsylvania, in the county of York,It runs e. and enters the Susquehanna.

(CONEMAUGH River, and Little Cor emaugh,are the head waters of Kiskemanitas, in Pennsyl-vania : after passing through Laurel hill and Ches-nut ridge, Conemaugh takes that name, andempties into the Alleghany, 29 miles n. e. of Pitts-burg. It is navigable for boats, and there is -aportage of 18 miles between it and the Frankstownbranch of Juniata river.)

(CONENTES, Las, a city of La Plata orParaguay in S. America, in the diocese of BuenosAyres.)

(CONESTEO, a w. w. branch of Tioga river inNew York. See Canjcodeo Creek.)

CONESTOGA, a settlement of Indians of thesame province and colony as the former river ; si-tuate between the e. and w. arms of the river Sus-quehanna, where the English have a fort andestablishment for its defence.

Conestoga, a river of this province, whichrunsw. then turns s. and enters the Susquehanna.

(CONESUS, a small lake in the Genesseecountry. New York, which sends its waters n. w,to Genessee river.)

CONETLA, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Comitlan in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CONFINES. See Villanueva de los In-fantes.

CONFUSO. See Togones.

CONG, a small river of the province and c^p-iainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises near thecoast, runs e. and enters the sea between the riverGoyana and the settlement of Gonzalo.

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CONGACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Angaraes in Pern ; annexed to theuracy of Yulcamarca.

CONGARI, a large river of S. Carolina. Itruns s. e. taking various names, till it enters thesea. It is first called Trente Milles, or ThirtyMiles, then Congari, and afterwards Santi.

CONGAS, a settlement of the province and ror-regimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Ocros.

CONGER, Rock of, a small island or rock,close to the e. coast of the island of Barbadoes.

CONGO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra N ueva ;situate on the shore of a river, which gives itits name, and of the coast of the S. sea, withinthe gulf of S. Miguel.

CONGOHAS, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil ; situate tothe w. of the Villa Rica.

CONGURIPO, Santiago de, a- settlement ofthe head settlement of Puruandiro, and alcaldtamayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopricof Mechoacan ; situate on a plain or shore of theRio Grande. It is of a hot temperature, and con-tains 12 families of Spaniards and Mustees^ and 57of Indians. Twenty-six leagues from the captitalPasquaro.

CONHAWAY, a large river of N. Carolina.It runs many leagues ; first n. e. then n. and after-wards n. w. and enters the Ohio. It is called alsoWood river and New river.

CONHAWAY, another, in the province and colonyof Virginia, with the additional title of Petit, orLittle. It also runs n. w, and enters the Ohio.

(CONHOCTON Creek, in New York, is then. head water of Tioga river. Near its mouth isthe settlement called Bath.)

CONICARI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana ; situateon the shore and at the source of the river Mayo.It is a reduccion of the missions which were heldby the regulars of the company of Jesuits.

CONIGUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe province and government of Tarma in Peru,who inhabit the mountains of the Andes, unitedwith the Cunchos, and of whom but little is known.

CONIL, Bocas de, entrances which the seamakes upon the coast of the province of Yucatán,between the river Lagartos, and the baxos or shoalsof Cuyo.

CONILABQUEN, a small river of the districtof Tolten Alto in the kingdom of Chile. It runs s.and enters the Token.

CONIMA, a settlement of the province and cor-

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regimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Moxo.

CONNECTICUT, a county of the provinceand colony of New England in N. America. It isbounded w. by New York and the river Hudson ;is separated from the large island by an arm of thesea to the s. ; has to the e. Rhode island, with partof the colony of Massachusetts, and the other partof the same colony to the n. It is traversed by ariver of the same name, which is the largest of thewhole province, and navigable by large vessels for40 miles. This province abounds in wood, tur-pentine, and resins ; in the collecting of whichnumbers of the inhabitants are occupied, althoughthe greater part of them are employed in fishing,and in hewing timber for the building of vesselsand other useful purposes. The merchants of theprovince once sent to King Charles II. some tim-ber or trees, of so fine a growth as to serve formasts of ships of the largest burthen. The greattrade of woods and timbers carried on by meansof the river has much increased its navigation.This territory is not without its mines of metal,such as lead, iron, and copper: the first of thesehave yielded some emolument, but the othershave never yet produced any thing considerable,notwithstanding the repeated attempts which havebeen made to work them. This county is wellpeopled and flourishing, since it numbers upwardsof 40,000 souls, notwithstanding the devastationsthat it has suftered through the French, the In-dians, and the pirates, in the reign of Queen Anne,when all the fishing vessels were destroyed.When this colony was first founded, many greatprivileges were given it, which have always beenmaintained by the English governor, throughthe fidelity which it manifested in not joiningthe insurrection of the province of Massachusetts,until, in the last war, it was separated from themetropolis, as is seen in the article U n ited StatesOF America.

(Connecticut, one of the United States ofNorth America, called by the ancient nativesQunnihticut, is situated between lat. 41° and 42°2' n. and between long. 71° 20' and 7.3° 15' w. Itsgreatest breadth is 72 miles, its length 100 miles;bounded «. by Massachusetts ; e. by Rhode island ;s. by the sound which divides it from Long island ;and w. by the state of New York. This statecontains about 4674 square miles; equal to about2,640,000 acres. It is divided into eight counties,viz. Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex, and NewLondon, which extend along the sound from w. toc. : Litchfield, Hartford, Tolland, and Windham,extend in the same direction on the border of the]3 T 2

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(state of Massachusetts. The counties are dividedand subdivided into townships and parishes ; ineach of which is one or more places of publicworship, and school-houses at convenient distances.The number of townships is about 200. Eachtownship is a corporation invested with powers suf-ficient for their own internal regulation. Thenumber of representatives is sometimes 180; butmore commonly about 160 ; a number fully ade-quate to legislate for a wise and virtuous people,well informed, and jealous of their rights ; andwhose external circumstances approach nearer toequality than those, perhaps, of any other peoplein a state of civilization in the world.

The principal rivers in this state are, Connecti-cut, Housatonick, the Thames, and their branches,which, with such others as are worthy of notice,are described under their respective names. Thewhole of the sea-coast is indented with harbours,many of which are safe and commodious ; thoseof New London and New Haven are the most im-portant. This state sends seven representatives tocongress. Connecticut, though subject to the ex-tremes of heat and cold, in their seasons, and tofrequent sudden changes, is very healthful. It isgenerally broken land, made up of mountains,hills, and valleys ; and is exceedingly w'ell-watered.Some small parts of it are thin and barren. Itsprincipal productions are Indian corn, rye, wheatin many parts of the state, oats, and barley, whichare heavy and good, and of late buck-wheat, flaxin large quantities, some hemp, potatoes of severalkinds, pumpkins, turnips, peas, beans, &c. &c. ;fruits of all kinds which are common to the cli-mate. The soil is very well calculated for pas-turage and mowing, which enables the farmers tofeed large numbers of neat cattle and horses.

The trade of Connecticut is principally with theW. India islands, and is carried on in vessels from60 to 140 tons. The exports consist of horses,mules, oxen, oak-staves, hoops, pine-boards, oak-plank, beams, Indian corn, fish, beef, pork, &c.Horses, live cattle, and lumber, are permitted inthe Dutch, Danish, and French ports. A largenumber of coasting vessels are employed in carry-ing the produce of the state to other states. ToRhode island, Massachusetts, and New Hamp-shire, they carry pork, wheat, corn, and rye ;to N. and S. Carolina, and Georgia, butter,cheese, salted beef, cider, apples, potatoes, hay,&c. and receive in return, rice, indigo, and money.But as New York is nearer, and the state of themarkets always well known, much of the produce ofConnecticut, especially of the w. parts, is carriedthere ; particularly pot and pearl-ashes, flax-seed.

beef, pork, cheese and butter, in large quantities.Most of the produce of Connecticut river from theparts of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Ver-mont, as well as of Connecticut, which are adja-cent, goes to the same market. Considerablequantities of the produce of the e. parts of thestate are marketed at Boston, Providence, andNorwich. The value of the whole exported pro-duce and commodities from this state, before theyear 1774, was then estimated at about 200,000?.iav/ful money annually. In the year ending Sept.SO, 1791, the amount of foreign exports was710,340 dollars, besides articles carried to differ-ent parts of the United States, to a great amount.In the year 1792, 749,925 dollars; in the year1793, 770,239 dollars ; and in the year 1794,806,7'46 dollars. This state owns and employs inthe foreign and coasting trade 32,897 tons ofshipping.

The farmers in Connecticut, and their fami-lies, are mostly clothed in plain, decent, home-spun cloth. Their linens and woollens are manu-factured in the family way ; and although theyare generally of a coarser kind, they are of astronger texture, and much more durable thanthose imported from France anrl Great Britain.Many of their cloths are fine and handsome. Hereare large orchards of mulberry-trees ; and silk-worms have been reared so successfully, as to pro-mise not only a supply of silk to the inhabitants,buta surplnssagefor exportation. In New Haven arelinen and button manufactories. In Hartford a wool-len manufactory has been established ; likewise glassworks, a snuft' and powder mill, iron works, and aslitting mill. Iron-works are established also at Sa-lisbury, Norwich, and other parts of the state. AtStafford is a furnace at which are made largequantities of hollow ware, and other ironmongery,sufficient to supply the whole state. Paper is ma-nufactured at Norwich, Hartford, New Haven,and in Litchfield county. Ironmongery, hats,candles, leather, shoes, and boots, are manufac-tured in this state. A duck manufactory has beenestablished at Stratford. The state of Connecticutis laid out in small farms, from 50 to 300 and 400acres each, which are held by the farmers in feesimple; and are generally well cultivated. Thestate is chequered with innumerable roads or high-ways crossing each other in every direction. Atraveller in any of these roads, even in the mostunsettled parts of the state, will seldom pass morethan two or three miles without finding a house orcottage, and a farm under such improvements asto afford the necessaries for the support of a family.The whole state resembles a well cultivated garden,)

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(There is no necessity of serving an apprentice-ship to the business, nor of a large stock of moneyto commence it to advantage. Farmers who dealmuch in barter, have less need of money than anyother class of people. The ease with which acomfortable subsistence is obtained, induces thehusbandman to marry young. The cultivation ofhis farm makes him strong and healthful. Hetoils cheerfully through the day, eats the fruit ofhis own labour with a gladsome heart, at night de-voutly thanks his bounteous God for his dailyblessings, retires to rest, and his sleep is sweet.Such circumstances as these have greatly contri-buted to the amazing increase of inhabitants in thisstate. Besides, the people live under a free go-vernment, and have no fear of a tyrant. Thereare no overgrown estates, with rich and ambitiouslandlords, to have an undue and pernicious in-fluence in the election of civil officers. Propertyis equally enough divided; and must continue tobe so, as long as estates descend as they now do.No person is prohibited from voting. He who hasthe most merit, not he Avho has the most money,is generally chosen into public office. As instancesof this, it is to be observed, that many of the citi-zens of Connecticut, from the humble walks oflife, have arisen to the first offices in the state, andfilled them with dignity and repulation. Thatbase business of electioneering, which is so di-rectly calculated to introduce wicked and design-ing men into office, is yet but little known in Con-necticut. A man who wishes to be chosen intooffice, acts wisely, for that end, when he keepshis desires to himself.

A thirst for learning prevails among all ranks ofpeople in the state. More of the young men inConnecticut, in proportion to their numbers, re-ceive a public education, than in any of the states.The revolution, which so essentially affected thegovernment of most of the colonies, produced novery perceptible alteration in the government ofConnecticut. While under the jurisdiction ofGreat Britain, they elected their own governors,and all subordinate civil officers, and made theirown laws, in the same manner and with as littlecontroul as they now do. Connecticut has everbeen a rejmblic, and perhaps as perfect and ashappy a republic as has ever existed. Whileother states, more monarchical in their governmenand manners, have been under a necessity of un-dertaking the difficult task of altering their old, orforming new constitutions, and of changing theirmonarchical for republican manners, Connecticuthas uninterruptedly proceeded in her old track,both as to government and manners ; and, by these

means, has avoided those convulsions which haverent other states into violent parties.

The present territory of Connecticut, at thetime of the first arrival of the English, was pos-sessed by the Pequot, the Mohegan, Podunk, andmany other smaller tribes of Indians. In 1774,there were of the descendants of the ancient nativesonly 1363 persons ; the greater part of whomlived at Mohegan, between Norwich and NewLondon. From the natural decrease of the In-dians, it is imagined that their number in this statedo not now exceed 400. The first grant of Connec-ticut was made by the Plymouth council to theEarl of Warwick, in 1630. The year followingthe earl assigned this grant to Lord Say and Seal,Lord Brook, and nine others. Some Indian traderssettled at Windsor in 1633. The same year, alittle before the arrival of the English, a few Dutchtraders settled at Hartford, and the remains of thesettlement are still visible on the bank of Connec-ticut river. In 1634, Lord Say and Seal, &c.sent over a small number of men, who built a fortat Saybrook, and made a treaty with the PequotIndians for the lands on Connecticut river. Mr.Haynes and Mr. Hooker left Massachusetts bay in1634, and settled at Hartford. The followingyear, Mr. Eaton and Mr. Davenport seated them-selves at New Haven. In 1644, the Connecticutadventurers purchased of Mr. Fenwick, agentfor Lord Say and Seal, and Lord Brook, their rightto the colony, for 1600/, Connecticut and NewHaven continued two distinct governments formany years. At length, John Winthrop, Esq.who had been chosen governor of Connecticut,was employed to solicit a royal charter. In 1662,Charles II, granted a charter, constituting the twocolonies for ever one body corporate and politic,by the name of “ The Governor and Company ofConnecticut.” New Haven took the affair ill;but in 1665, all difficulties were amicably adjusted ;and, as has been already observed, this charterstill continues to be the basis of their government.The capital is Boston.)

(Connecticut is the most considerable riverin the c. part of the Linited States, and rises inthe high lands which separate the states of Vermontand New Hampshire from Lower Canada. Ithas been surveyed about 25 miles beyond the 45°of latitude, to the head spring of its n. branch ;from which, to its mouth, is upwards of 300 miles,through a thick settled country, having upon itsbanks a great number of the most flourishing andpleasant towns in the United States. It is from80 to 100 rods wide, 130 miles from its mouth.Its course between Vermont and New Hampshire]

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(is generally 5. s.zc. as likewise through Massachus-setts, and part of Connecticut, until it reaches thecity of Middleton ; after wliich it runs a s, s. e.course to its mouth. The navigation of this beau-tiful river, which, like the Nile, fertilizes tiie landsthrough which it runs, is much obstructed byfalls ; two of these are between New Hampshireand Vermont, the first are called the Fifteen-milefalls ; here the river is rapid for 20 miles : thesecond remarkable fall is at Walpole, formerlycalled the Great falls, but now called Bellows’falls. Above these the breadth of the river is insome places 22, in other places not above 16 rods;the depth of the channel is about 25 feet, and com-monly runs full of water. In September 1792,however, owing to the severe drought, the waterof the river, it is said, “ passed within (he spaceof 12 feet wide, and 2| feet deep.” A large rockdivides the stream into two channels, each about90 feet wide ; when the river is low, the e. channelis dry, being crossed by a solid rock ; and thewhole stream falls into the w. channel, where it iscontracted to the breadth of 16 feet, and flows withastonishing rapidity. There are several pitches,one above another, in the length of half a mile, thelargest of which is that where the rock divides thestream. A bridge of timber was projected over this fallby Colonel Hale, in the year 1784, 365 feet long,and supported in the middle by the island rock,and under it the highest floods pass without doingany injury; this is the only bridge on the river,but it is contemplated to erect another, SO milesabove, at the middle bar of Agar falls, where thepassage for the water, between the rocks, is 100feet wide ; this will connect the towns of Lebanonin New Hampshire, and Hartford in Vermont ; asthe former bridge connects Walpole in NewHampshire with Rockingham in Vermont. Not-withstanding the velocity of the current at Bellows’falls, above described, the salmon pass up theriver, and are taken many miles above, but the shadproceed no farther. On the steep sides of theisland rock, at the fall, hang several arm chairs,secured by a counterpoise ; in these the fishermensit to catch salmon with fishing nets. In the courseof the river, through Massachusetts, are the fallsat South Hadley, around which locks and canalswere completed in 1795, by an enterprising com-pany, incorporated for that purpose in 1792, bythe legislature of Massachusetts. In Connecticutthe river is obstructed by falls at Enfield, to ren-der which navigable in boats, a company has beenincorporated, and a sum of money raised by lot-tery, but nothing effectual is yet done. The

average descent of this river from Weathersfield inVermont, 150 miles from its mouth, is two feet toa mile, according to the barometrical observationsof J. Winthrop, Esq. made in 1786. The riversor streams which fall into Connecticut river arenumerous; such of them as are worthy of noticewill be seen under their respective names. At itsmouth is a bar of sand, which considerably ob-structs the navigation ; it has 10 feet water on itat full tides, and the depth is the same to Middle-ton, from which the bar is 36 miles distant. AboveMiddleton there are some shoals which have onlysix feet water at high tide, and here the tide ebbsand flows about eight inches ; three miles abovethat city the river is contracted to about 40 rodsin breadth, by two high mountains ; on almostevery other part of the river the banks are low,and spread into fine extensive meadows. In thespring floods, which generally happen in May,these meadows are covered with water. At Hart-ford, the water sometimes rises 20 feet above thecommon surface of the river, and the water hav-ing no other outlet but the above mentioned strait,it is sometimes tw o or three weeks before it returnsto its usual bed ; these floods add nothing to-thedepth of water on the bar at the mouth of theriver, as the bar lies too far off in the sound to beaffected by them. This river is navigable toHartford city upwards of 50 miles from its mouth,and the produce of the country for 200 miles aboveit, is brought thither in boats. The boats whichare used in this business are flat-bottomed, long,and narrow, and of so light a make as to be port-able in carts : before the construction of locks andcanals on (his river, they were taken out at threedifferent carrying places, all of which made 15miles : it is expected that in a few years the ob-structions will be all removed. Sturgeon, salmon,and shad, are caught in plenty in their season, fromthe mouth of the river upwards, excepting stur-geon, which do not ascend the upper falls; be-sides a variety of small fish, such as pike, carp,perch, &c. There is yet a strong expectation ofopening a communication between this river andthe Merrimack, through Sugar river, which runsinto the Connecticut at Claremont in New Mamp-shire, and the Contoocook, which falls into tlieMerrimack at Boscawen. From this river wereemployed, in 1789, three brigs of 180 tons each,in the European trade ; and about 60 sail, from60 to 150 tons, in the VV. India trade, besidesa few fishermen, and 40 or 50 coasting vessels.The number has considerably increased since.)

(Connecticut, a stream in Long island, New

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York, wliicli falls into a bay at the s. side of theisland. It lies two miles to tlies. of Rockonkamapond.)

CONNESTIGUCUNE, an establisliment oftlie English, in the county of Albany, inthew. partand to the e. of Chenectady, or of (he river Mo-hawk, where it gives a fall from above 70 feet inlieiglit. See Arm any.

CONNETABLE, or CoN?)ESTABr^E, a smallisland of tire county of Cayenne, belonging to theFrench, between the city of Cayenne and capeOrange.

CONNETABLE, anotlier small island of tire sameprovince, witli the addition of Petite, to distin-guish it from the former.

CONOCOTO, a settlement of the kingdom ofQuito, in the corregimimto of the district of theCinco Leguasde la Ciudad, in the district of whichis a rising ground called A Halo, and upon theskirts of this are many warm-water mineral streams,much frequented as baths for the curing of in-firmities.

CONOMA, a lake of the province and countryof the Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions.It is formed from some waste water of the riverMadera, very near its shore, and at a small distancefrom the river of Las Amazonas.

CONOME, Cape of, a point of land of thecoast of Nova Scotia, in the bay of Fundy, and inthe most interior part of the same.

CONORIBO, a river of the province and cap-ainship of Seara in Brazil. It rises near the coast,runs n. and enters that of La Concepcion or S.Francisco, and that of La Cruz, and then entersthe sea.

CONOSTEE, a settlement of Indians of N.Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Eu-phasee.

CONSAHATCHEE, a river of the provinceand colony of Georgia. It runs s. e. and enters thesea.

CONSATA, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the religious order of St. Augustin,in the country of Paititi, of the province and cor-regimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CONSETS, Point of, on the e, coast of theisland of Barbadoes, on the side of the point ofBele.

CONSOLACION, Nuestra Senora de, aset-tlement of the government of Neiba in the NuevoReyno de Granada ; annexed to the curacy of thetown of La Purificacion. It is situate on theshore of the river Pardo, is of a hot temperature,abounding in the vegetable productions of a similar

climate, and in troublesome and venomous in-sects. It contains more than 200 house-keepers.

CONSOLACION, a point or long strip of landcalled Possession, on the n. coast of the straits ofMagellan ; one of those which form Possessionbay, and where are to be seen the ruins of the fortnamed Jesus, which was founded by the AdmiralPedro de Sarin iento.

CONSTANCE, or Constancia, a small cityof the English, in the island of Barbadoes.

CONSTANTINO Perez, an island of theriver Valdivia, in tlie kingdom of Chile, oppositethe same city, with two other small islands, theone before, the other behind it, and which, together,form the celebrated port of this name. The pas-sage on both sides is navigable, but the channel onthe s. side being the most wide, is the course uni-formly taken by large ships and vessels, and in thesame manner the n. channel is mostly, as it isnarrower, entered by frigates and small craft.

CONTAS, Rio das, a river in the provinceand captainship of Ylheos in Brazil. It rises nearthe coast, runs e. and enters the sea in the Barraor Bar of Camamu, in the river of Ylheos.

CONTAS, a town of the above province andkingdom.

(CONTINENTAL Village was situated onNorth river, in New York state. Before its de-struction by Sir Henry Clinton, in October 1777,there were here barracks for 2000 men.)

CONTOOK, a settlement of the English, inthe province of Hampshire, one of the four ofNew England ; situate on the shore of the riverPenny cook.

Contook, a river of the above province. Itrises from a small lake, runs s. then turns e. andenters the Pennycook.

CONTOY, an island of the N. sea, near thecoast of the province and government of Yucatan,close to the cape Cotoche.

CONTRE-PASTURAGE, a river of the pro-vince and colony of Virginia. It runs n. e. andenters the head of the river James.

CONTRERAS, a small island of the S. sea,close to the coast of the province and governmentof Veragua in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.

CONTUMAZA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

CONUCO, a settlement ofthe province and cor-regimiento of Ytata in the kingdom of Chile ; situatenear the coast, opposite the island of Quiriquina.

CONUENTOS, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Rey in Brazil, at the source of theriver Curitaba.

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CONUENTOS, another settlement in thh provinceand corregimiento of Chillan in the kingdom ofChile.

CONUENTILLO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tucumán, in the district of thecapital ; situate to the of the same.

(CONVERSATION Point, a headland on thes. side of a bay on the coast of California. Lat.30' Long. 119°t0.)

(CONWAY, a township in the province ofNew Brunswick, Sudbury county, on the w. bankof St. John’s river. It has the bayofFundyonthe and at the westernmost point of the townshipthere is a pretty good harbour, called Musquashcove.)

(Conway, a township in the ti. e. corner ofStrafford county, New Hampshire, on a bend inSaco river, incorporated in J765, and contains574 inhabitants. It was called Pigwacket by theIndians.)

(Conway, a thriving township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusetts, incorporated in 1767, andcontains 2092 inhabitants. It lies 13 miles n. w.of Northampton, and 115 n.w. by w. of Boston.)

(CONYA, a river in Surinam, or DutchGuinea, S. America.)

(COOK’S River, in the n. w. coast of N. Ame-rica, lies n. w. of Prince William’s sound, and1000 miles n. w. of Nootka sound. It promises tovie with the most considerable ones already known.It was traced by Captain Cook for 210 miles fromthe mouth, as high as lat. 61° 30' n. and so far asis discovered, opens a very considerable inlandnavigation by its various branches ; the inhabi-tants seemed to be of the same race with those ofPrince William’s sound, and like them had glassbeads ami knives, and were also clothed in finefurs.)

(COOKHOUSE, on the Cooquago branch ofDelaware river, is situated in the township of Col-chester, New York, 18 miles s. of the mouth ofUnadilla river.)

(COOLOOME, an Indian town situated on thew. side of Tallapoose river, a bratich of the Mo-bile.)

COONI, a settlement of the province and cor-reghniento of Cicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Mecapaca.

COOPER, a river of the province and coloiij'of Georgia. It runs s. e. then s. and enters thesea.

(Cooper’s Island, one of the Lesser Virgin islesin the W. Indies, situated s.w. of Ginger island,and uninhabited. It is five miles long, and onebroad.)

VOL. I.

(Cooper, a large and navigable river whichmingles its waters with Ashley river, below Charles-ton ^ity in S. Carolina. These form a spaciousand convenient harbour, which communicates withthe ocean, just below Sullivan’s island, which itleaves on the n. seven miles s. e. of the city. Inthese rivers the tide rises 6| feet. Cooper river isa mile wide at the ferry, nine miles above Charles,town.)

(Cooper’s Town, a post-town and townshipin Otsego county. New York, and is the compactpart of the township of Otsego, and the chief townof the country round lake Otsego. It is pleasant-ly situated at the s. w. end of the lake, on its banks,and those of its outlet ; 12 miles n. w. of Cherryvalley, and 73 w. of Albany. Here are a court-house, gaol, and academy. In 1791 it contained292 inhabitants. In 1789 it had but three housesonly ; and in the spring 1795, 50 houses had beenerected, ofwhich above a fourth part were respect-able two-story dwelling-houses, with every pro-portionable improvement, on a plan regularly laidout in squares. Lat. 42° 36' n. Long. 74° 58' M.][Cooper’s Town, Pennsylvania, is situated onthe Susquehannah river. This place in 1785 wasa wilderness ; nine years after it contained 1800 in-habitants, a large and handsome church, with asteeple, a market-house and a bettering house, alibrary of 1200 volumes, and an academy of 64scholars. Four hundred and seventy pipes werelaid under ground, for the purpose of bringingwater from West mountain, and conducting it toevery house in town.)

(COOP’S Town, in Harford county, Maryland,lies 12 miles n. w. of Harford, and 22 n. e. of Bal-timore, measuring in a straight line.)

(COOS, or Cohos. The country called Upperand Lower Coos lies on Connecticut river, be-tween 20 and 40 miles above Dartmouth college.Upper Coos is the country of Upper Amonoo-suck river, on John and Israel rivers. LowerCoos lies below the town of Haverhill, s. of th«Lower Amonoosuck. The distance from UpperCoos, to the tide in Kennebeck river, was measuredin 1793, and was found to be but 90 miles.)

(COOSADES, an Indian town on Alabamariver, about 60 miles above its mouth, on Mobileriver, below M‘Gillivray’s town, and oppositethe mouth of the Oakfuskee.)

(COOSA Hatchee, or Coosaw, a river of S.Carolina, which rises in Orangeburg district, andrunning a 5. m. course, em.pties into Broad riverand Whale branch, which separate Beaufort islandfrom the mainland.)

(Coosa|COOSA, or Coosa Hatcha]]==, a river which3 u

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rises in the hi<>'h lands of the Cfierokecs country,and joining Tallapoose, forms Alabama river. Itscourse is generally s. running through the conntryof the Natchez, and other tribes of the UpperCreeks, the roughest and most broken of the wholenation. It is rapid, and full of rocks and shoals,hardly navigable for canoes.)

(COOSAWATCHIE, or Coosahatchie, apost-town in Beaufort district, S. Carolina; situ-ated on the s. w. side of Coosa river, over which abridge has been lately erected. It is a flourishingplace, having about 40 houses, a court-house, andgaol. The courts formerly held at Beaufort areheld here. It is 33 miles from Beaufort, and 77ze. ». w. of Charleslon.)

(COOTSTOWN, in Berks county, Pennsyl-vania, is situated on a branch of Sauhoca creek, abranch of the Schuylkill river. It contains 40houses, and a German, Lutheran, and Calvinistchurch united. It is 17 miles n. n. e. of Reading,and 73 n. w. by n. of Philadelphia.)

COPA, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of Ambana.

Copa, another settlement, in the province andcorregimiento of Caxatambo in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Mangas.

Copa, a large and copious river of the kingdomof Quito, which runs n. e. enters the Cipre to then. and the Quinindi to the s. ; then joins theBlanco on the w. side, a little before this unites it-self with the Guaillabamba, and forms the Esme-raldas. Its mouth or entrance is in lat. 2Q' n.

COPACAUANA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Omasuyos in Peru ; situateon a loner strip of land which runs into the greatlake of Titicaca or Chucuito. Here is veneratedan image of Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria,which, in 1583, was put into a temple, very sump-tuous, and of fine architecture, riches, and orna-ments. The same is a sanctuary of the greatestdevotion, and most resorted to of any in Peru.

COPACAUANA, another settlement, in the pro-vince and corregimiento of Paria in the samekingdom.

COPACAUANA, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of theJesuits, in the province of Gayrá, and govern-ment of Paraguay ; situate on the shore of a smallriver which enters the Parana, and on the skirtof a mountain to the s. e. of the city of Gayra,which was destroyed by the Portuguese of SanPablo,

COPACAUANA, a point or long strip of land oflake Titicaca, which serves as a limit to the

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province of Umamarca, in the province of Uma-suyos.

COPAMALA, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

COPAIQUE, a setlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Ambana.

COPALA, a province of the alcaldia mayor ofNueva España ; bounded n. w. by that of Chia-metla or Chametlan. It is a mountainous coun-try, abounding in wax, honey, and some sugar-cane, from which sugar is made in various mills.Its population of Indians is but small, and thesefot the most part occupy themselves in fishing ;an employment which is readily afforded them bythe copious river Mazatan. It is of a very hottemperature, and has many silver mines, whichare worked to tolerable advantage. Some salinesalso on the sea-shore are not less lucrative ; andhere there is a small port. This province has beenfrequently invaded by enemies. Near the riverPiastla, which also waters this province, the re-gulars of the company of Jesuits held some mis-sions, where there had been formed three settle-ments of Indians, reduced to the Catholic faith.The capital is the town called Del Rosario, andthe other settlements are,

Mazatan, Charcas, the same,

Copala, real of the Cosela, the same,mines, San Xavier de Cavasan.

Copala, with the dedicatory title of San Juan,a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tepozcolula in Nueva Espana. It isof a hot temperature, pleasant, and abounding , infruits. It contains 104 families of Indians, and is15 leagues w. by s. of its capital.

Copala, another settlement in the head settle-ment of Tuzcacuesco, and alcaldia mayor ofAmola, in the same kingdom. It contains 32 fa-milies of Indians, and is five leagues to the n. ofits head settlement.

Copala, another settlement and real of thesilver mines of the province and alcaldia mayorof its name ; situate to tlie n. of the capital.

COPALLEN, an ancient province of the In-dians, to the s. of the city of Jaen de Bracamorosin the kingdom of Quito. As yet its limits are notknown ; but it is full of woods, uncultivated, anduninhabited.

COPALLIN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

COPAN, Santa Maria de, a settlement ofthe alcaldia mayor of Córdova in Nueva Espana;

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of a hot and moist temperature, and inhabited by107 families of Indians ; being 15 leagues n.e. ofits capital.

Copan, a river of the province and governmentof Cumaná. It rises in the serrama of Imataca,runs s. and enters the Cuyuni on the side.

COPANDARO, Santiago de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Tuzantla, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in Nueva Espaha. It contains 34families of Indians, and is 10 leagues to the s. ofits head settlement. In it is a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Augustin, Avhicli is one of thebest convents in the kingdom.

COPENAME, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions orcolony of Surinam. It runs n. and unites itselfwith the Sarameca at its mouth, to form anothermouth, and enter into the sea.

COPER, a small settlement of the Nuevo Reynode Granada, in the road which leads from SantaFe to Muzo ; situate upon an height, near themountain Apari, where, upon the descent whichis called Cuesta de Macanazos, and at its skirt,runs the river Villaraisar. Near it has been founda mine of earth, esteemed an excellent antidoteagainst poisons.

COPERE, a settlement of the province and ju-risdiction of Muzo, in the corregimiento of Tunja,of the N uevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a be-nign temperature, produces maize, cotton, yucas^plantains, and the other fruits of its climate. Inthe territory of this curacy rises the river calledVillamisar, memorable for the battle fought thereby the Indians and Captain Luis Lanchero, inwhich the former were routed. It contains 150housekeepers, and 30 Indians.

COPIA, one of the ancient provinces whichwere formed by that of Popayan in the time of theIndians ; and bounded by the province of Car-tama. At present its limits are not known, sincethe Spaniards have changed both the divisions andnames.

COPIAPO, a province and corregimienlo of thekingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by the province ofAtacama, of the archbishopric of Charcas, andkingdom of Peru ; e. by the territory of the city ofRioja, of the province of Tucuman, the cordillerarunning between ; s. by the province of Coquitnbo,and w, by the Pacific ocean. Its extent is 60leagues n. s. and from 20 to three e. w. It very sel-dom rains here ; cattle is therefore scarce, althoughit nevertheless produces every sort of grain, of ex-cellent quality, and fruits of various kinds. Thetemperature is very benign throughout the year.

it has many mines of copper, most pure and richsulphur, loadstone, lapis lazuli, and gold ; some ofwliicJi are worked ; and it is not many years agothat some silver mines also were discovered. Itproduces a kind of small frees, which are plantedand cultivated upon the banks of the streams andaqueducts, called jonM/o hobo, and which distil aliquor, which, being prepared over the fire, servesinstead of pitch for lining the vessels in which thewine in that kingdom is kept. The conger eelabounds upon the coast, and there is a particulartribe of Indians, called Changes, who are devotedto this kind of fishery, living the whole year uponthe coasts, and carrying about their wives and chil-dren upon rafts, until they find out a creek likelyto afford them what they are in search of: thesefish are then bought by the natives, and carried tobe sold at the capital of the kingdom, Santiago.Here is also a trade of sulphur, since it is so finethat it needs never to be purified, and is conse-quently worth three dollars the canlaro [a cantarois about four gallons]. It abounds no less in nitre,on which account all the waters here are brackish,and there is little indeed that is sweet. This pro-vince is very thinly peopled, since it has no otherpopulation than such as is found in the capital,which is called, San Francisco de la Selva. Its in-habitants, which should amount to 5000, of allsexes and ages, are dispersed about in countryfarms. (The province of Copiapo owes its name,according to the Indian tradition, to the greatquantity of turquoises found in its mountains.Though these stones ought, with propriety, to beclassed amongst the concretions, as they arc onlythe petrified teeth or bones of animals, colouredby metallic vapours, we may place them amongstthe precious stones. The turquoises of Copiapoare usually of a greenish blue ; some, however,are found of a deep blue, which are very hard,and known by the name of the turquoises of theold rock. The amazing fertility of the soil of thisprovince has given rise to assertions, which, onthe first blush, might appear fabulous. Mr. San-son, of Abbeville, in his Geography, asserts thatits valleys frequently yield 300 for one. SeeChile.)

Copiapo, a port of the above province andcorregimiento.

Copiapo, a settlement of the same.

Copiapo, a mountain, in which there is a vol-cano, which at different times has occasionedmuch mischief, and is in lat. 26°. (This moun-tain consists entirely of a marble, striped withbands of various colours, which have a very beau-3 u 2

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tifni appearance. A mountain similar to this isfound in the marshes of Maule.]

Copiapo, a river Avhich rises in the cordillera.It runs two leagues to the w. passes near the settle-ment of its name, and empties itself into the S. sea,serving as a port for vessels.

Morro de Copiapo, a mountain, called Morro de Copiapo,in the coast, at the side of the port of its name.

COPILA, a small settlement or ward of thealcaldia mayor of Guachinango in Nueva Espana ;annexed to the curacy of Naupan.

COPORAQUE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Canes and Canches or Tintain Peru.

COPORAQUE, another, in the province and cor-regimiento of Collahuas of the same kingdom.

COPORAQUE, another. See Vilcomayo.

(COPPER Mine, a large river of New Britain,reckoned to be the most n. in N. America. Takinga n. course, it falls into the sea in lat, 19P n. andabout long. 119° a;, from Greenwich. The ac-counts brought by the Indians of this river to theRritish ports in Hudson bay, and the specimens ofcopper produced by them, induced Mr. Hearne toset out from fort Prince of Wales, in December1770, on a journey of discovery. He reached theriver on the 14th July, at 40 miles distance fromthe sea, and found it all the way encumbered withshoals and falls, and emptying itself into it over adry flat of the shore, the tide being then out, whichseemed by the edges of the ice to rise about 12 or14 feet. This rise, on account of the falls, willcarry it but a very small way within the river’smouth ; so that the water in it has not the leastbrackish taste, Mr. Hearne had the most exten-sive view of the sea, which bore n. w. by w. andn. e. when he was about eight miles up the river.The sea at the river’s mouth was full of islandsand shoals ; but the ice was only thawed awayabout three-fourths of a mile from the shore, on the17th of July. The Esquimaux had a quantity ofwhale-bone and seal-skins at their tents on theshore.)

COPTA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Aricá in Peru.

COPTOS, silver mines of the province andcorregimiento of Guamachuco in Peru ; they aremost abundant, and have yielded immense wealth.

COPUENO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdomof Quito.

COQUEROSO, a settlement of the provinceand captainship of Sergipe in Brazil ; situate onthe shore of the river Cirti.

COQUE-UIELLE, a shoal of the n. coast ofthe island of St. Domingo, in the French posses-sions, between the point Roche-a-Picoler and theriver Grande.

COQUIBACOA, Cabo de, a point of landwhich runs into the sea, on the coast of the pro-vince and government of Venezuela, distinct fromthat of Chichibacoa. ‘

COQUIMBO, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Chile ; bounded e. by the pro-vince of Tucuman, of the kingdom of Peru, thocordillera running between ; s. by the province ofQuillota; and w. by the Pacific ocean. It is 80leagues in length s. and 40 in width e, w. Itstemperature is very benign ; and on account ofits not raining much in the sierra,, through the lowsituation of this part of the province, the snowand frost is not so common here, nor does it stayupon the ground so long as it does upon theparts which lie s. of Santiago. For the samereason the rivers are few, and th# largest of themare those of Los Santos or Limari, and that whichpasses through its capital. Many huanmos andvicunas breed here. The territory is for the mostpart broken and uneven, and produces, althoughnot in abundance, the same fruits as in the wholekingdom, such as grain, wine, and oil of excel*lent quality. It has many gold mines, likewisesome of silver, copper, lead, sulphur, white lime,and salt ; but the most abundant of all are those ofcopper; large quantities of this metal having beensent to Spain for founding artillery, and indeedfrom the same source has been made all the artilleryin this kingdom. This metal is found of two sorts,one which is called campanal, and is only fit forfounding, and the other, which has a mixture ofgold, and is called de labrar,, or working metal, andwhich is known only in this province. Here alsothey make large quantities of rigging for ships.Its inhabitants may amount to 15,000. [In thisprovince is found tlie quisco tree, with thorns ofeight inches long ; the same being used by the na-tives for knitting needles. It is noted for produc-ing the best oysters, and for a resin which is yieldedfrom the herb chilca. See Chieb.] The capitalbears the same name, or that of La Serena. Thiswas the second settlement of the kingdom, andfounded by the order of Pedro de Valdivia, byCaptain Juan Bohon, in 1543, in the valley ofCuquimpi, which gave it its name, and which,being corrupted, is now called Coquimbo, andEl Segundo de la Serena, in memory of the countryof Valdivia in Estremadura. It lies at a quarterof a league’s distance from the sea, and is situate

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upon the loftiest part of that most beautiful lltinura,from which the prospect is so enchanting ; sliew-ing on one side the sea, on another the river whichwaters tlie precincts, and on another some shadypoplar groves. It is of an extremely benign tem-perature, and enjoying throughout the year a per-petual spring, being neither incommoded by heatnor cold. It is extremely fertile, and abounds inwhatever can conduce to the comfort and conve-nience of life. The city is tolerably large ; all thestreets are drawn at straight lines ; and the housesare disjoined from each other by large gardens,which are all well supplied with water brought byaqueducts from the river. The parish church isvery beautiful, and not less so are those of the re-ligious orders of St.. Francis, St. Domingo, St.Augustin, La Merced, San Juan de Dios, and thecollege which formerly belonged to the regularsof the company of the Jesuits. It has a port,which is convenient ajid much frequented by ves-sels ; upon the shore of which are caught tunnies,abacoras, and various other kinds of fish ; alsomany delicate kinds of shell-fish. At a small dis-tance is a very abundant copper mine, from whichmuch metal is extracted and carried to Europe ;and it is of this, as well as of its excellent breedof horses, its wine, oil, tallow, cow-hides, anddried meats, that its commerce is composed ; send-ing, as it does yearly, four or five vessels loadedwith these effects to Lima. Although it has minesof the purest gold, yet these are but little worked.The whole of the town is covered with beautifulmyrtles, and of these there is a delightful grove.It was destroyed by the Araucanos Indians in1547 ; and in 1579 it was attempted to be taken byFrancis Drake, who was repulsed by the inhabi-tants, la 1680 it seemed to be rebuilt only thatit might undergo a sacking the same year by theEnglish pirate, Bartholomew Sharps. Its popula-tion consists of 500 families of Spaniards andpeople of colour, and some Indians. Fifteenleagues from the city of Concepcion, and 58 fromthe capital of the kingdom, Santiago. Lat. 30° s.Long. 71° 18'. [See Chile,]

COQUIMBO, an island of the coast of this pro-vince and corregimiento.

COQUIN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Cayna.

COQUINOCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chichas and Tarija in Peru.

CORAI, Santa Clara de Cosme, a settle-ment of the province and corregimienlo of Hu-anta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Paucar-baraba.

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CORAJAIS, a settlement and village of th«Portuguese in the province and country of LasAmazonas ; situate on the shore of the riverNegro.

CORAL, a settlement of the province and c«/j*iainship of Rey in Brazil; situate on the sea-coast,at the mouth of the river Imbau.

(Coral River, in New Mexico, runs acourse w. by s. and empties into the head of thegulf of California, close by the mouth of Colo-rado river.)

(CORAM, a post-town in Suffolk county. Longisland. New York, It has about 60 houses, andlies 62 miles e. of New Y ork city, and 10 fromSrnithtown.)

CORANI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Ayapata.

CORAS, Santiago de los, a settlement of themissions which were held by the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits in California ; situate at anequal distance from both coasts. It is composedof Indians of the nation of its name, and is theplace where the Father Lorenzo Carranza, a mis-sionary, suffered martyrdom.

Coras, some shoals, lying very little underwater, near the coast of the province and coptam-ship of Marañan in Brazil, at the mouth of a riverwhich is also thus called.

CORAZON DE Jesus, a settlement of thecorregimiento and jurisdiction of Velez in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. Its population i*small, and it is situate in a country mountainousand full of pools, being scanty in vegetable pro-ductions, with 200 inhabitants, a miserable race.It is near the settlement of Chiquinquira, and tothe s. of Velez.

CORAZON, another, called De Maria, of the mis-sions which were held by the regulars of the companyof J esLiits, in the province and government of May-nas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on theshore of the river Aguarico.

CORAZON, another, called De Jesus, in the pro-vince and government of the Chiquitos Indians inPeru ; situate at the foot of the cordillera of SanFernando, a reduccion of the missions which wereheld there by the regulars of the company,

CORAZON, another, of the kingdom of Quito,in the corregimiento of the district of Las CincoLeguasde esta Ciudad (the Five Leagues from thisCity), and in the road which leads down fromGuayaquil.

CORAZON, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,on the s. s. e. part, from the ivhich on the w. flowdown the rivers of San Lorenzo and Yaraboya,

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running to unite themselves with that of Toachi.It is to the n. of the paramo of Elenisa, and issometimes covered with snow.

CORCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Huanoquite.

(CORCAS, or Grand Corcas, an islandalmost in the form of a crescent, n. of St. Do-mingo, in the windward passage, about sevenleagues w. of Turk’s island, and about 20 e. ofLittle Inagua or Heneagua. Lat. 21° 45' n.Long. 71° ob' w.)

CORCHUE, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Valdivia in the kingdomof Chile.

CORCOLA, a settlement of the Portuguese, inthe territory of the Giiayazas Indians, of the king-dom of Brazil; situate at the source and on theshore of the river Tocantines.

CORCOUADO, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in the province and government of LosLlanos, of the Nuevo Reyno de Gratiada, andwhich is at present under the charge of the reli-gious order of St. Francis.

CORCOUADO, a rock or island of the S. sea, op-posite the port of Santa, of the province and corre-gimiento of this name in Peru.

CORCULLA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CORDES. See Verdf.

CORDILLERA. See Andes.

CORDILLIERS, Montagne des, a mountainof the island of Cayenne, on the skirts of avliichthe French have a fort and establishment for itsdefence.

CORDON, PUNTA DEL, a point of the coast ofthe w. head of the island of St. Domingo, on theshore of the port Pimiento.

CORDOVA, a province and alcaldia mayor ofNueva España; bounded w. by the province ofOrizava ; n. by that of San Juan de los Llanos ;e. by that of the ancient Vera Cruz ; and s. by therugged mountains of Songolica. It has on the5. e. and s.s. e. the great estate of Mataanona, 10leagues from Taliscona, the last boundary of VeraCruz. It is of a hot and moist temperature ; thegreater part of its district is composed of brokenand uneven grounds, and mountains covered withcedars, walnuts, pines, and ocotales. It has alsobeautiful and fertile plains, abounds in birds andanimals of the chase, and no less in fish, many troutand bohos being caught out of the rivers by whichthis province is irrigated. In the spacious plainof Altotonga runs a rapid river, by which it is

fertilized, and rendered abundant in every kind ofvegetable production. Here also breed manyflocks of cattle, which are the chief commerceof the place. The capital bears the same name.

This was founded in 1618, by order of the vice-roy Don Diego Fernandez de Cordova, Marquisof Gnadalcazar, who gave it his name. It is of ahot and moist temperature ; situate to the w. ofsome small mountains, which form an half-circle,and are surrounded by many umbrageous trees.The parish church is magnificent, of exquisitearchitecture, and rich ornaments. Here is a con-vent of the religious Descalzos (barefooted order)of St. Francis, and one of St. Hippolyte dela Ca-ridad, in which there is an hospital for the sickSpaniards, and for the black slaves, endowed bythe masters and proprietors of certain mills, in whichan infinite quantity of sugar is made. It aboundsin this artich', with those of tobacco, Chinaoranges, ajonjoli, large cattle, and swine ; as alsoother fruits and articles of merchandize peculiarto Europe and the kingdom itself. [Hun.boldtassert.s that the environs of Cordova and Orizabaproduce all the tobacco consumed in New Spain.]Its population consists of 260 families of Spaniards,126 of Mustees, 70 of Mulattoes and Negroes,and 273 of Mexican Indians ; of many others alsowho are of various classes, and Avho work in thesugar-mills. Forty-eight leagues to the e. «. c. ofMexico, in lat. 18° 50' ; long. 96° 56'. Theothersettlements of this jurisdiction are,

Santa Ana de Zacan, San Diego,

Chocaman,

Yxhuatlan,

Coscomatepec,

Sta. Maria Magdalena,Calcahualco,

S. Antonio Huatuzco,Amatlan de los Reyes,

San Bartolome,Totutla,

Copan,

Zentla,

San Diego Huatuzco,San J uan de la Punta,San Lorenzo.

Cordova, another city, the capital of the provincoand government of Tucumán in Peru ; founded bythe governor of that province, Geronimo Cabrera,in 1573, and not by Juan Nuilezde Prado, in 1549,according to the erroneous account of the Ex-jesuit Coleti. It was in the territory of the Comi-chingones Indians, and part which they calledKisliisacate, on the shore of the river Piicani ;but removed from thence to the x. part of thesame river ; the parish being dedicated to NuestraSenora de la Pena of France, and being under theobligation of celebrating its festival on the day ofthe conception, when it was also usual to displaythe spectacle of a bull-fight. It is situate in anarrow bay, close to which is a lotty n'ountain.It is much exposed to inundations in the rainy

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seasons, and is flooded by waters rushing downthrough a neighbouring channel, and in factAvould be hereby rendered iinitdiabitable, but forthe mounds Avhich have been raised for its defence.One half of the city experiences in one day a va-riation of all the winds from n. to s. These winds,thus changing, are accompanied with great tem-pests of thunder and lightning. At one momentthe heat which accompanies the n. wind is ex-cessive, and at another the cold which accompaniesthe s. is intolerable. It is, indeed, to this causethat the number of sudden deaths which occurhere are attributed. The city is small, and nearlyof a square figure, but the buildings are superiorto any in the province. It has three convents ;those of the religious order of St. Francis, St. Do-mingo, and La Merced, an hospital of Bethleraites,with the dedicatory title of San Roque ; two mo-nasteries of nuns, tlie one of Santa Teresa, the otherof Santa Clara, and two colleges with the titles ofuniversities, it is the head of a bishopric, erectedin 1570, and is very rich, owing to the great com-merce which it carries on in mules bought in theprovince of Buenos Ayres, and fattened in thepastures here, for the purpose of being sold for thesupply of the other provinces, and in fact of thewhole of Peru. It abounds in all kinds of pro-ductions, and is 70 leagues from Santiago del Es-tero, to the s. in 62° 39'; long. 31° 20' s. lat. (Foran account of the late revolutions of this place,see La Plata.)

Cordova, another city, in the province andgovernment of Cumaná, founded by Gonzalo deOcampo in 1525, near the sea-coast. It is so re-duced and poor, that it does not deserve the nameof a city. It is bounded by the Caribes Indians.

Cordova, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru.

Cordova, another, of the province and go-vernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Ti-erra Firme, situate upon the coast. It was sackedby the English pirate Gauson in 1625.

CORDOVES, Rio Del, a river of the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres. It runs zo. andenters the Yazigua close to the pass of Chileno.

CORE, Bank of, an isle of the N. Sea, nearthe coast of S. Carolina, between those of Oca-cook and Drum.

(Core Sound, on the coast of N. Carolina,lies s. of, and communicates with Pamlico.)

COREBO, a river of the province and govern-ment of Chocó. It rises in the valley of 'I'atave,at the foot of the mountains of Choco, and entersthe Paganagandi.

CORENA, a port on the coast of the province

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and captainship of the Rio Janeiro in Brazil, closeto the island of Santa Maria.

CORENTE, a river of the kingdom of Brazil.It rises in the head of that of the Paraguas and theVerde, runs s, s.e. and enters the above river atmid-course.

CORENTIN, a river of the province and co-lony of Surinam, or part of Guayana in the Dutchpossessions, according to the last advices ot theFather Bernardo Rosclla of the extinguished so-ciety, Avhich advices were received from theDutch, and served, in 1745, to the making the mapof this province and the Orinoco. It rises in then. part of the famed lake Parime, which some havethought to exist merely in fable. It runs s. wa-teringtlie Dutch colonies; and five leaguesto the w.of Berbice, and to the s. e. of the Orinoco, emptiesitself into the sea, in 5° 22' n. lat. : at its entranceit is one league wide. The English call it Devil’screek, which signifies Barranco del Diablo. Inthe interior of its course it has some sand-banks,which extend for three leagues, and render its na-vigation difficult, notwithstanding that at the lowtide there arc still some channels of water. In thisriver are likewise three small well cultivated islands,lying in a direction from n. tov. They are veryfertile, and covered with trees, and the soundingsof the river about them varies from five to sixfathoms.

CORETIQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CORIANA. See Coro.

CORIDON, Salinas de, salt grounds in thepoint and zo. head of the island of St. Domingo,on the shore of the port Pimiento.

CORIMPO, a settlement of the province ofCinaloa in Nueva Espaiia ; situate on the shore ofthe river Mayo, between the settlements of Heco-joa and Nabajoa.

(CORINTH, a township in Orange county,Vermont, z€. of Bradford, containing 578 inha-bitants.)

CORIO, a settlement of the province and cap-tainship of San Vincente in Brazil, on the shoreand at tlie source of the river Uruguay.

CORIPATA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of Atabillos Altos.

CORIPI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Guayana, iii the French possessions. Itenters the sea between the Oiapoco and capeOrange.

CORIS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento oi Huailas in Peru, annexed to the cu-racy of Aija.

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CORIXAS, a river of the kingdom of Brazil,It rises in the sierra Bermeja, runs n. forming acurve, and eaters the Tocantines near that of LosMonges, according to tl>e account given by thePortuguese.

CORIXAS, some sierras of the same kingdom,which run s. s. e. and are a continuation of thesierra Bermeja ; they then run e. forming acurve, as far as the river Tocantines, and ex-tend their course on as far as the shore of theAraguaya.

CORK, a large bay in the e. coast of the islandof Newfoundland, between the cape Gull and theisland Tuliquet.

CORKAM, a fort of the English, in the pro-vince and colony of Connecticut, one of the fourwhich composQ New England ; situate near thecoast.

CORMA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Papres.

CORMO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacyof Atabillos Altos.

CORNE, an island of the N. sea, near thecoast of Florida, between the islands Vaisseauxand Massacre.

CORNEJO, an island of the S. sea, near thecoast of the province and corregimiento of Are-quipa, opposite the port of Arantae.

(CORNISH, a township in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, between Claremont and Plainfield, about 15miles n. of Charlestown, and 16 s. of Dartmouthcollege. It was incorporated in 1763. In1775 it contained 309, and in 1790, 982 in-habitants.

(CORNWALL, a township in Addison county,Vermont, e. of Bridport, on lake Champlain, con-taining 826 inhabitants.)

(Cornwall, NEW, atownship in Orange coun-ty, New York, of whose inhabitants 350 aredectors.)

(Cornwall, a township in Litchfield county,Connecticut, about nine miles n. of Litchfield, 11s. of Salisbury, and about 40 w. by n. of Hartfordcity.)

(Cornwall, a small town in Upper Canada, onthe bank of Iroquois river, near lake St. Francis,between Kingston and Quebec, containing a smallchurch, and about 30 or 40 houses.)

(Cornwallis, a town in King’s county, in theprovince of New Brunswick, situated on the s. w.side of the basin of Minas ; 18 miles n. w. of Fal-mouth, and 55 n. w. of Annapolis.)

(Cornwallis, also a river in the »arae pro-vince, navigable for vessels of 100 tons five miles ;for vessels of 50 tons, 10 miles.

CORO, Santa Ana de, a city of the provinceand government of Venezuela, thus named in thetime of the Indians, after the district called Coriana.It was founded by Juan de Ampues in 1529.The Weltzers, under the orders of Nicholas Fe-derman, were the first Avho peopled it, giving it thename of Cordoba, to distinguish it from the othercity of the same name which had been founded byGonzalo de Ocampo in the province of Cumana,This name it afterwards lost, and took that ofCoro, which it preserves to this day, from a smallsettlement of Indians thus named. It is of a dryand hot temperature, but so healthy that physiciansare said here to be of no use. The territory, al-though sandy and lack of water, produces everykind of vegetable production ; so that it may besaid to abound in every thing that luxury or con^venience may require. Here are large breeds ofcow-cattle and goats, and a considerable numberof good mules. Its articles of merchandize, suchas cheese, tanned hides, and cacao, meet with aready sale in Cartagena, Caracas, and the island ofSt. Domingo. It has a reduced convent of the re-ligious order of St. Francis, and an hermitagededicated to St. Nicholas. The town is very rich.It was plundered, by the English in 1567. Itschurch was a cathedral, and the head of thebishopric, from the time that it was erected in1532 until 1636, when this title was transferred toSantiago of Caracas. It is two leagues distantfrom the sea, where there is a port insecure, butmuch frequented by trading vessels.

(From the time that the governor began to re-side at Caracas, in 1576, there remained no con-spicuous authority at Coro but the bishop andchapter, and they did all they could to follow th«governor; and indeed, not being able to leaveCoro by legal measures, they put tlieir wishesinto effect by flight, in 1636. At three leaguesfrom the city are lands where they cultivate withsuccess, if not with abundance, all the usual pro-duce of the country. The inhabitants, who aremuch addicted to indolence, glory that they aredescended from the first conquerors of the country ;and there is here, generally speaking, more rankthan wealth, and more idleness than industry. Thelittle trade that is carried on here consists in mules,goats, hides, sheep-skins, cheeses, &c. which comein a great measure from the interior, and thelarger part fromCarora; shipments of these ar-ticles are made for the islands. The most commonintercourse is with Cura 9 oa, from whence they2

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(bring in exchange dry goods, and this they doeither by avoiding the vigilance of the guards, orby purchasing a connivance. The population ofCoi^ is composed of 10,000 people of all colours ;few slaves are to be seen here, since the Indians,although they everywhere else have a particularpartiality for the blacks, entertain a decided aver-sion against them in this city. This antipathywas very useful in 1797 to the public tranquillity,for when the Negro slaves employed at w ork inthe fields, wished to follow the example of theblacks of St. Domingo, and selected chiefs, underwhom they committed some robberies, the In-dians of Corojoined the white people, and marchedagainst the rebels with most extraordinary cou-rage ; the revolt was thus suppressed almost assoon as it broke out ; the ring-leaders were hang-ed, and every thing was restored to order ; therebel army never amounted to more than 400blacks. All work at Coro is done by Indians,notwithstanding the wages are very low ; indeedthey li ve here with so much parsimony that a per-son cannot fetch fire from his neighbour’s withoutcarrying in exchange a piece of wood of the sizeof the firing he takes away, and even this is notalways done without difficulty. The city has nospring, and the water they drink is brought fromthe distance of half a league by asses in barrels, ofwhich two compose a load. The houses, thoughoriginally well built, bear evident marks of misery,and of the ravages of time; those belongingtothe Indians are yet more pitiful. The streets runin parallel lines, but are not paved ; the publicbuildings consist of a parish church, formerly acathedral, which title is yet given to it by the in-habitants, although for more than 160 years ithas been without a bishop or a chapter, the dutybeing performed by two curates, belonging to aconvent containing about seven or eight Francis-cans, and to a parish church in which are threemonks of the same order. The civil power isexercised by a cahildo. Since 1799, a militarycommandant has been established here, who sharesat the same time the judicatory authority, and thatof the police ; his revenue being 2000 dollars perannum. Two miles to the n. of Coro is an isthmusof about one league in breadth, which joins tlie pen-insula of Paragona to the continent ; it stretches outfrom the s. w. to n. w. about 20 leagues ; is inhabit-ed by Indians and a few whites, whose only em-ployment is the rearing of cattle, which they smug-gle over in great numbers to Cura^oa ; thebutchers’ shops of that island being always bettersupplied than those of the principal cities of TicrraFirme.

VOL. I,

This was the only city of Venezuela, exceptMaracaibo, which had not declared independenceon the 2Ist August 1811. See Venezuela.The city is in lat. 11° 24' n. and long. 69° 40'; itis a league distant from the sea, SO leagues w. ofCaracas, 33 n. of Barquisimeto, and 55 of Mara-caibo.)

Coro, a settlement of the province and coregi-miento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito ; situateon the shore of the river Cascabeles, where thisenters the Caqueta.

Coro, another, of the province and corregi-mienlo of Carangas in Peru, and of the arch-bishopric of Charcas ; annexed to the curacy ofCorquemar.

COROA Grande, a settlement of the provinceand captainship of Pará in Brazil ; situate on theshore of the river Tocantines.

COROA, a large shoal near the coast of the pro-vince and captainship of Marañan in Brazil, atthe entrance of the river Coras.

COROAIBO. SeeCossA.

COROBAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru, inwhich is venerated a miraculous image of NuestraSenora de Guadalupe. Near it are two caves,each capable of containing 50 horsemen with theirspears erect.

COROBAMBA, another settlement in the aboveprovince and kingdom.

COROBANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, which, according to Mr.Beilin, in his chart and description of the course ofa part of the Orinoco, runs continually n. andenters this river near where it runs into the sea.

COROCOTO, a settlement of Indians, of theprovince and corregimiento of Cuyo in the king-dom of Chile; situate on the shore of one of thelakes of Huanacache, distinct from the followingtown.

COROCOTO, a town of the above province andcorregimiento, a reduccion of the Pampas Indians ;situate on the shore of the river Tunuyan, nearthe high road which leads from Mendoza to BuenosAyres, in the district of which are tiie estates ofCarrizal Grande, Carvalillo, Lulunta, and Men-docinos.

COROCUBI, a river of the province and coun-try of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions.It is small, runs s. and enters the Negro, forminga dangerous torrent or whirl-pool, which bears thesame name.

COROI, a settlement of the missions wliicli be-long to the French in Guayana; situate near th«coast, and at the mouth of the river Kourrou.

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COROICO, a settlement of the province andeorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; situate on theshore of the river of its name, where there is aport for small vessels. This river rises in the cor-dillera of Ancuma, to the s. of the settlement ofPalca, and to the e. of the city of La Paz. It runsin a very rapid course to the e. and forming acurve turns n. and enters the w. side of the Beni,in lat. 16° 50' s.

COROMA, a settlement of the province andeorregimiento of Porco in Peru.

COROMANDIERES, some small islands ofthe N. sea, near the coast of Acadia inN. America,near the coast of Scatari. They are also calledDel Infierno, or Devil’s isles.

COROMOTO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela ; situate on theshore of the river Guanarito, to the s. of the townof Guanaro.

CORON, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Huanoquite.

CORONA-REAL, a city of the province ofGuayana, and government of Curaana, foundedon the shores of the river Orinoco in 1759, by theRear-Admiral Don Joseph de Iturriaga, for whichpurpose he assembled together some wanderingpeople of the provinces of Caracas and Barcelona.At present, however, it is as it were desert andabandoned, since its inhabitants have returned totheir former savage state of life, having been con-stantly pursued and harassed by the CharibesIndians, against whom they could no longer main-tain their ground, after that the king’s garrisonhad been withdrawn, and since, owing to the dis-tance at which they were situate from the capital,it was in vain for them to look for any succourfrom that quarter.

Corona-Real, a large bay in the lake of Ma-racaibo, on thew. side.

Corona-Real, a rocky isle, or ridge of rocks,close to the n. coast of the island of Guadalupe,between cape St. Juan and the port or bay of Mole.

CORONADOS, a small island of the gulf ofCalifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes ; situate verynear the island of Carmen, on its n. e. side, whichlooks to the coast of New Spain.

(CORONDA, a town of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a riverforming the island of Santa Fe, about five leaguess. w. of that town, in Lat. 31° 58' 47". Long. 61°2' a).)

CORONANGO, Santa Maria de, a headsettlement of the alcaldia maj/or of Cholula inNueva Espafia. It contains 94 families of In-

C O R

dians, and to its district belong nine other settle-ments. It lies one league to the n. of its capital.

CORONEL, Puerto del, a port on the coastof the province and corregimiento of Quillota, andkingdom of Chile, between the port of Longotoraaand the river Quilimari.

CORONEL, a river of the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It rises to the ^ . of the city ofNirua, and afterwards unites itself with the Grape,to enter the Tinaco.

CORONEL, a point of the coast of the kingdomof Chile, in the province and corregimiento of Quil-lota, between the mouth of the river Biobio and theheights of Villagran.

CORONGO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Conchucos in Peru.

COROPA, a spacious country of the provinceand government of Guayana, which extends itselfbetween the river Coropatuba to the s. w. the Ma-ranon to the s. the Avari to the e. the mountainsof Oyacop of the Charibes Indians to the n. andthe mountains of Dorado or Manoa to the n.w.The whole of its territory is, as it were, unknown.The Portuguese possess the shores of the Maranonand the sea-coast as far as the bay of Vicente Pin-zon ; the Dutch of the colony of Surinam, by theriver Esequevo or Esquivo, called also Rupununi,have penetrated as far as the Maranon, by the riverParanapitinga. The mountains, which some haverepresented as being full of gold, silver, and pre-cious stones, sparkling in the rays of the sun, aremerely fables, which, at the beginning of the con-quests, deceived many who had gone in search ofthese rich treasures, and fell a sacrifice to thefatigues and labours which they experienced inthese dry and mountainous countries. The Por-tuguese have constructed here two forts, called Paruand Macapa. Mr. De la Martiniere, with hisusual want of accuracy, says that the Portuguesehave a settlement called Coropa, at the mouth ofthe river Coropatuba, where it enters the Maranon ;the Coropatuba joins the Maranon on the n. side,in the country of Coropa, and at the settlement ofthis name ; this settlement being nothing more thana small fort, and lying in the province of Topayos,on the s. shore of the Maranon, and being knownby the name ofCurupa, in the chart published in1744, and in that of the Father Juan Magnin, in1749.

COROPATUBA. See Curupatuba.

COROPUNA, a desert of the province ofCuzco in Peru, between the provinces of Parina-cocha and Canas or Aruni. It extends more than12 leagues s. to n. and is troublesome and dan-gerous to traverse.

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CORORAMO, a small river of tbe province andgovernment of Guayana. It rises to the w. of thelake Icupa, runs n. and enters the Paraguay.

COROYA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru ; of the district andjurisdiction of the city of Cordoba ; situate on theshore of the river Priraero.

COROYO, a lake of the province and countryof Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions.It is in the island of Topinambes, and is formedby the waters of the Maranon. '

COROZAL, or Pileta, a settlement of theprovince and government of Cartagena in the king-dom of Tierra Firme.

CORPAHUASI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Huaillati.

CORPANQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Tillos.

CORPUS-CHRISTI, a settlement of the mis-sions which were held by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits in the province and government ofParaguay ; situate on the shore of the river Parana,about 11 leagues n. e. of Candelaria. Lat. 27° T23" s. Long. 55° 32' 29" w.

Corpus-Christi, a large, beautiful, and fertilevalley of the province and government of Mariquitain the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.

CORQUEMAR, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas.

CORQUINA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana. It runs s. and enters theOrinoco.

CORRAL, a settlement of the district of Gua-dalabquen, of the kingdom of Chile ; situate on theshore of the river Valdivia.

Corral, Quemado, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Piura in Peru ; situatein an angle formed by a river of this name.

CORRALES, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Antioquia ; situate on the shore ofthe river Perico, in the sierras of Guarnoco.

CORRALITO, a setdement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Santiago del Estero ; to thee. of the same, and on the shore of the river Gua-rico.

CORRIENTES, S.Juan de , a city of theprovince and government of Buenos Ayres inPeru ; founded in 1588, on the e. coast of the riverLa Plata, near the part where those of the Paranaand Paraguay unite. It has, besides the parish

church, three convents, of St. Domingo, St. Francis,and La Merced, and a college which belonged tothe regulars of the company of Jesuits. This cityhas been harassed by the infidel Abipones In-dians, who have here put to death many Spaniards,and taken others prisoners ; on which account aguard of horse-militia has been established for itsdefence. (It is 100 leagues n. of the city of SantaFe, and contained, in 1801, 4300 inhabitants. Lat.27° 27' 21" s.)

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, a rivcr of the pro-vince and government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains towardsthe n. and enters the sea in the large plain oppositethe Mulatto isles.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another river, of theprovince and government of Buenos Ayres, whichrises from the lake Yberia, and runs s. w. to enterthe river La Plata.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another, of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay. It rises in theserrania which lies between the rivers Paraguayand Parana, runs w. and enters the former betweenthe rivers Mboeri and P'areiri.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another, of the pro-vince and captainship of Rey in Brazil, which runss.s. e. and enters the large lake of Los Patos.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, a Cape of the s. coastof the island of Cuba : CO leagues from the islandof Trinidad, and 13 from the cape of San An-tonio.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another cape, calledalso De Arenas Gordas, on the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Ma-gellan, between the capes San Antonio and SaaAndres.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another Cape OF pointof the coast, in the province and captainship ofSeara, between the river Molitatuba and the portPalmeras.

(CORTLANDT, a township in the n. part ofthe county of W. Chester, on the e. bank of Hud-son river. New York, containing 1932 inhabitants,of whom 66 are slaves. Of its inhabitants, in 1796,305 were electors.)

CORUPA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises near the coast of the N. sea to the e. of theprovince, and enters the Tarina.

CORUPA, another river. See Curupa.

CORUPO, San Francisco de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayorof Valladolid, in the province and bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains S3 families of Indians,3x2

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and lies seven leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.

CORUTES, a small river of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It runs n. n.'e. and en-ters the Xexuy, opposite the town of Curuguato.

CORWI, a river of the province and govern-ment of French Guinea. It enters the sea close tocape Orange.

COSACURO, a small river of the province andcolony of Surinam, or part of Guayana in theDutch possessions. It runs n. and enters theCuyuni.

COSANGA, a large river of the province ofQuixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs s. e.then turns its course e. and as it were imperceptiblyto the n. and afterwards, in order to receive on thew. the river Bermejo, enters the s. side of the riverCoca.

COSAPA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carangas in Peru, of the arch-bishopric of Charcas ; annexed to the curacy ofTurco.

COSCAOCOAS, a nation of Indians reducedto the Catholic faith, dwelling upon the llanura orlevel of Cumboso, of the jurisdiction of Lamas.They are few in number, and are bounded by theAmasifucines.

COSCOMATEPEC, San Juan de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Yxhuatlan, andalcaldia mayor of Cordoba, in NuevaEspana. Itcontains 10 families of Spaniards, 35 of Mustees,75 of Mulattoes, and 196 of Indians. Seven leaguesto the n. n. w. of its head settlement ; but the roadshere are so rugged and full of steeps and precipicesthat the sight grows dizzy at looking down them.

COSCOMITLAN, a settlement of the lieadsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlas inNueva Espana, from whence it lies one league anda half to the n. w. In its vicinity is a lake.

COSELA, a settlement and real of the silvermines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate to the n. of that of Char-cas.

COSEREMONIANOS, a barbarous nation ofIndians, of the province and government of Moxosin the kingdom of Quito ; discovered by FatherCypriano Baraza, a Jesuit. It is, however, butlittle known.

COSIGUIRACHI, a town of the province ofTaraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the most wealthy towns in the kingdom, and ofa mild and healthy temperature. Its populationis composed of many families of Spaniards andMustees^ no small number of Mulattoes, and verymany Indians. It is 24 leagues to the s. k?. \ to

the s. of the real of the mines and town of SanFelipe de Chiguagua.

Cosiguirachi, a settlement and real of thesilver mines of the intendancy of Durango inNueva Espana; of a cdld temperature ; situate ina rough and uneven territory, but being fertile, andabounding in fruits and seeds. (By a very recentmemoir of the intendantof Durango, the populationof this real was made to amount to 10,700.)

COSMA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Banos.

COSMA, another settlement, in the province andcorregimiento of Andahuailas, of the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Moro in the pro-vince of La Santa.

COSME, San, a settlement of the head settle-ment and alcaldia mayor of Fresnillo in NuevaEspana. It contains a very large number ofSpaniards, Indians, Mustees, and Mulattoes, beingvery close to the city of Zacatecas, lying fromthence only seven leagues to the n. and being 10 tothe e. of its capital.

COSME, San, another settlement, of the provinceand government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ;situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, onthe shore of a river between the settlements of SantaCatalina and San Francisco Xavier.

COSME, San, another, with the surname of Viejo,(Old), a reduccion of the missions which were heldby the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in theprovince and government of Paraguay ; situate onthe shore of the river Parana, between the settle-ments of Santa Ana and La Candelaria.

COSME, San, another, with the addition ofNuevo, (New), to distinguish it from the former inthe same province : also a reduccion of the regularsof the company of Jesuits, on the shore of theParana, and to the w. of the settlement ofJesus.

COSME, San, a small island of the gulf of Cali-fornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes ; situate very nearthe coast, in the middle of the canal which isformed by this coast and the island of Carmen,and close to another island called San Damian.

COSPALA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Juchipila in Nueva Espana.It is five leagues to the s. of the head settlement.

COSSA, or COSAIBO, a river of the provinceand government of Guayana, in the French posses-sions.

COSSART, a town of the province and colonyof N. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the riverJadquin.

COSTA-BAXA, a part of the coast of Brazil, in

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the province and captainship of Marañan, betweenthe rivers Camindes and Paraguay.

Costa-Desierta, a large plain of the At-lantic, between cape S. Antonio to the n. and capeBlanco to the s. It is 80 leagues long, and has onthe n. the llanuras ox pampas of Paraguay, on theetJ. the province of Cuyo, of the kingdom of Chile,on the s. the country of the Patagones, and on tliec. the Atlantic. It is also called the Terras Ma-gellanicas, or Lands of Magellan, and the wholeof this coast, as well as the land of the interior terri-tory, is barren, uncultivated, and unknoAvn.

Costa-Rica, a province and government ofthe kingdom of Guatemala in N. America ; boundedn. and w. by the province ot Nicaragua, e. bythat of Veragua of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ;s. w. and n. w. by the S. sea, and n. e. by the N.sea. It is about 90 leagues long e. w. and 60 n. s.Here are some gold and silver mines. It has portsboth in the N. and S. seas, and tAVO excellent bays,called San Geronimo and Caribaco. It is for themost part a province that is mountainous and fullof rivers ; some of which enter into the N. sea, andothers into the S. Its productions are similar tothose of the other provinces in the kingdom ; butthe cacao produced in some of the llanuras hereis of an excellent quality, and held in much esti-mation. The Spaniards gave it the name ofCosta-Rica, from the quantity of gold and silvercontained in its mines. From the mine calledTisingal, no less riches have been extracted thanfrom that of Potosi in Peru ; and a tolerable tradeis carried on by its productions with the kingdomof Tierra Firme, although the navigation is not al-way« practicable. The first monk Avho came hi-ther to preach and inculcate religion amongst thenatives, was the Fra_y Pedro de Betanzos, of theorder of St. Francis, who came hither in 1550,when he was followed by several others, whofounded in various settlements 17 convents of theabove order. The capital is Cartago.

Costa-Rica, a river of the province ancT go-vernment of Nicaragua in the same kingdom,which runs n. and enters theDesaguadero, or W asteW ater of the Lake.

COSTO, a settlement of the English, in theisland of Barbadoes, of the district and parish ofSantiago ; situate near the w. coast.

COTA, a settlement of the corregimiento of i-paquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is ofa very cold temperature, produces the fruits pecu-liar to its climate, contains upwards of 100 In-dians, and some white inhabitants ; and is fourleagues from Santa Fe.

Cota, a small river of the province and govern-

ment of Buenos Ayres in Peru. It rises in thesierras, or craggy mountains, of Nicoperas, runsw. and enters the Gil.

COTABAMBAS, a province and corregimientoof Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Abancay,s. w. and s. and even s. e. by that of Chilques andMasques or Paruro, w, by that of Chumbivilcas,and n. w. by that of Aimaraez. It is 25 leagueslong e.w. and 23 wide n.s. It is for the mostpart of a cold temperature, as are the other pro-vinces of the sierra; it being nearly covered Avithmountains, the tops of which are the greatest partof the year clad Avith snoAV. In the Ioav lands aremany pastures, in Avhich they breed numerousherds of cattle, such as cows, horses, mules, andsome small cattle. Wheat, although in no greatabundance, maize, pulse, and potatoes, also groAvhere. In the broken, uneven hollows, near whichpasses the river Apurimac, and which, after passingthrough the province, runs into that of Abancay,groAV plantains, figs, water melons, and other pro-ductions peculiar to the coast. Here are abund-ance of magueges', which is a plant, the leaves ortendrils of which, much resemble those of thesavin, but being somewhat larger ; from them aremade a species of hemp for the fabricating ofcords, called cahuyas, and some thick ropes usedin the construction of bridges across the rivers.The principal rivers are the Oropesa and the Chal-huahuacho, Avhich have bridges for the sake ofcommunication Avith the other provinces. Tliebridge of Apurimac is three, and that of Churuc-tay 86 yards across ; that of Churuc, Avhich is themost frequented, is 94 yards ; and there is anotherwhich is much smaller : all of them being built ofcords, except one, called Ue Arihuanca, on theriver Oropesa, which is of stone and mortar, andhas been here since the time that the ferry-boat wassunk, Avith 15 men and a quantity of Spanishgoods, in 1620. Although it is remembered thatgold and silver mines have been worked in thisprovince, none are at present ; notAvithstanding thatin its mountains are manifest appearances of thismetal, as well as of copper, and that in a part ofthe river Ocabamba, Avhere the stream runs witligreat rapidity, are found lumps^ of silver, whichare washed off from the neighbouring mountains.The inhabitants of the whole of the provinceamount to 10,000, who are contained in the 25following settlements ; and the capital is Tambo-bamba.

Cotabambas,

Totora,

Cullurqui,

Huaillati,

1

Palpakachi,

Llikehavilea,

Corpahuasi,

Pituhuanca.

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Airihuanca,Curasco,Chuquibatnba,Vilcabamba,Mamara,Turpay,Aquira,Llaqua,

Patahuasi,

Cocha,

Mara,

Pitic,

Aporaarco,

Palcaro,

Totorhuailas,

Chacaro.

COTACACHE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Otavalo in the kingdom ofQuito.

COTACACHE, a mountain of this province andkingdom, the top of which is eternally coveredAvith snow. From its summit runs the river Ca-yapas.

COTAGAITA, Santiago de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Chichas andTarija. Twenty-nine leagues from Potosi.

COTAGAITILLA, a settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento as the former ; annexedto the curacy of the capital.

COTAHUASSI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

COTAHUAU, an ancient province of Peru, atthe foot of the cordillera of the Andes, and to thew. of Cuzco. It is one of those which were con-quered by Mayta Capac, fourth Emperor.

COTAHUIZITLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan inNueva Espana. It is of a hot temperature, con-tains 28 families of Indians, who are busied inmaking mats, which they cs\\ petates. It belongsto the curacy of Atlatlauca, the capital of thealcaldia mayor of this name; being distant 10leagues from its capital.

COTAPARAZO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Guailas in Peru.

COTA-PINI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdomof Quito.

COTAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Yauyos in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Arma in the province of CastroVireyna.

(COTEAUX, Les, a town on the road fromTiburon to port Salut, on the 5. side of the s. pen-insula of the island of St. Domingo, 13f leagues e.by of the former, and four n.w, of the latter.)

COTICA, a river of Guayana, in the part pos-sessed by the Dutch, or colony of Surinam. Itruns n. until it comes very near the coast, makingmany turns, and then changing its course e. entersthe Comowini. At its mouth is a fort to defendits entrance, called Someldick.

COTIJA, Valley of, of the alcaldia mayor of

Tinguindin in Nueva Espana. It is more thantwo leagues in circumference, and in it live 205families of Spaniards. It is of a mild temperature,and abounds in seeds. Seven leagues to the w. ofits capital.

COTLALTA, a settlement and head settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Tuxtla in Nueva Espana.It contains 140 families of Indians, and three orfour of Spaniards. It abounds greatly in tamarinds,of which are made excellent conserves.

COTOCHE, a cape of the coast of Yucatán,opposite that of San Antonio, in the island ofCuba ; between these lies the navigation leadingto this island from Nueva Espana.

COTOCOLLAO, a settlement of the kingdomof Quito, in the corregimiento of the district ofthe Cinco Leguas de la Capital; being situate justwhere the beautiful llanura or plain of lilaquitoor Rumi-Pampa terminates. Its territory extendsto n. w. upon the skirt of the mountain Pichincha,and is bounded on the n. by the settlement of Po-masque. It is of a somewhat cold and moist tem-perature ; and in it is the county of Selva Florida,of the house of Guerrero Ponce de Leon, one ofthe most ancient and illustrious of the kingdom.

COTOE, a settlement of the province and ga-vernment of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacyof Lampun.

COTOPACSI, a mountain and desert, or pa-ramo, of the province and corregimiento of Ta-cunja in the kingdom of Quito, to the s. and one-fourth to s. e. It is of the figure of an invertedtruncated cone, and is in height 2952 Parisian feetabove the level of the sea : on its summit, whichis perpetually covered with snow, is a volcano,which burst forth in 1698, in such a dreadful man-ner as not only to destroy the city of Tacunja,with three fourths of its inhabitants, but othersettlements also. It likewise vomited up a river ofmud, which so altered the face of the province,that the missionaries of the Jesuits of Maynos,seeing so many carcases, pieces of furniture, andhouses floating down the Maranon, were persuadedamongst themselves that the Almighty had visitedthis kingdom with some signal destruction ; they,moreover, wrote circular letters, and transmittedthem open about the country, to ascertain Avhatnumber of persons were remaining alive. Thesemisfortunes, though in a moderate degree, recurredin the years 1742, 1743, 1760, 1768. From thee. part of this mountain the Napo takes its rise;and from the s. the Cotuche and the Alagues,which, united, form the river San Miguel, andafterwards, with others, the Patate ; to this theChambo joins itself, which afterwards degenerates.

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into tlie Banos, and which, after the great cas-cade, is known by the name of Pastaza. To then. rises the Padregal, afterwards called Pita, as itpasses through the llanura of Chillo ; and at theskirt of the mountain of Guangopolo, where theplain terminates, it unites itself with the Ama-g^uaiia, and then turning w. takes the names ofTumbaco and Huallabamba, to enter the Esmeral-das, which disembogues itself into the S. sea. Atthe skirt of this great mountain are the estates ofSinipu, Pongo, Pucaguaita, and Papaurca, It isdistant from the settlement of Mula-halo half aleague, and five leagues from its capital. In lat.40° IPs. (The height of this volcano was dis-covered, in 1802, to be only 260 feet lower thanthe crater of Antisana, which is 19,130 feet abovethe level of the sea.)

COTOPASSA, a river of the province of Ca-nela in the kingdom of Quito, towards the s. e. Itruns s. e. and enters the n. side of the river Pastaza,which, from that point, begins to be navigable.

COTOPAXI. See Cotopacsi.

COTUA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná ; situate on the shore ofa river near the coast of the gulf of Cariaco, be-tween the city of this name and thatof Cumanagoto.

COTUE, a small island of the N. sea; siPiatenear the n. coast of the island of Cuba.

COTUI, a town of St. Domingo ; founded, in1504, by Rodrigo Mexia deTruxillo, by the orderof the cometidador mayor of Alca.ntara, Nicolasde Obando, 16 leagues to the n. of the capital, St.Domingo, on the skirt of some mountains whichare 12 leagues in height, and at the distance oftwo leagues from the river Yauna. It is a smalland poor town. Its commerce depends upon thesalting of meats, and in preparing tallow and hidesto carry to St. Domingo, and in the chase of wildgoats, which are sold to the French. In its moun-tains is a copper mine, two leagues to the s. e. ofthe town. The Bucaniers, a French people of theisland of Tortuga, commanded by Mr. Pouancy,their governor, took and sacked it in 1676. (In

1505, the gold mines were worked here. Thecopper mine above alluded to is in the mountain ofMeymon, whence comes the river of the samename, and is so rich, that the metal, when refined,will produce eight per cent, of gold. Here are alsofound excellent lapis lazuli, a streaked chalk, thatsome painters prefer to bole for gilding, load-stone, emeralds, and iron. The iron is of the bestquality, and might be conveyed from the chain ofSevico by means of the river Yuna. The soilhere is excellent, and the plantains produced hereare of such superior quality, that this manna of the

Antilles is called, at St. Domingo, Sunday plan-tains. The people cultivate tobacco, but arechiefly employed in breeding swine. The inhabi-tants are called clownish, and of an unsociablecharacter. The town is situated half a leaguefrom the s. w. bank of the Yuna, which becomesunnavigable near this place, about 13 leagues fromits mouth, in the bay of Samana. It contains 160scattered houses, in the middle of a little savana,and surrounded Avith woods, SO leagues n. of St.Domingo, and 15 s.e. of St. Yago.)

COUCHSAGE, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and colony of New York ; situate on theshore of the river Hudson.

(COUDRAS, a small island in St. Lawrenceriver, about 45 miles n. e. of Quebec.)

COUECHI, a settlement of Indians of N. Ca-rolina, in the territory of the Cheroquees.

COUICAN, a settlement of the head settlementof Guiméo, and alcald'ia mayor of Cirindaro, inNueva Espafia. It contains 93 families of In-dians.

COUL, Bay of, on the e. coast of the capeBreton, in Spanish bay, and at the entrance of thelake Labrador.

COULEURE, a bay of the island of Marti-nique, one of the Antilles, on the n. w. coast, nearPearl island.

Couleure, a small river of this island, whichruns «. w. and enters the sea in the bay of itsname.

CORUCO. Sec Cabo.

(COUNTRY Harbour, so called, is about 20leagues to the e. of Halifax, in Nova Scotia.)

COUPEE, a point of the coast and shore of theMississippi in Canada, [it is also called CutPoint, and is a short turn in the river Mississippi,about 35 miles above Mantchac fort, at the gut ofIbberville, and 259 from the mouth of the river.Charlevoix relates that the river formerly made agreat turn here, and some Canadians, by deepen-ing the channel of a small brook, diverted thewaters of the river into if, in the year 1722. Theimpetuosity of the stream was such, and the soilof so rich and loose a quality, that in a short timethe point was entirely cut through, and the oldchannel left dry, except in inundations ; by whichtravellers save 14 feagues of their voyage. Thenew channel has been sounded Avith a line of SOfathoms, without finding bottom. The Spanishsettlements of Point Coupee extend 20 miles on thew. side of the Mississippi, and there are some plan-tations back on the side of La Fause Riviere,through Avhich the Mississippi passed about 70years ago. The fort at Point Coupee is a square

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figure, with four bastions, built wfili stockades.There were, some years since, about 2000 whiteinhabitants and 7000 slaves. They cultivate In-dian corn, tobacco, and indigo; raise vast quan-tities of poultry, wliich they send to New Or-leans. They also send to that city squared timber,staves, &c.]

COUQUECURA, a settlement of Indians ofthe province and corregimiento of Itata in thekingdom of Chile; situate on the coast.

COURIPI, a river of the province of Guay-ana==, in the F rench possessions.

COUSSA, a settlement of the English, in S.Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river of itsname.

Coussa, another settlement, in the same pro-vince and colony, on the shore of a river of thesame denomination. This river runs n. w. and en-ters the Albama.

COUSSARIE, a river of the province of Guay-ana, in the part possessed by the French. It entersthe Aprouac,

COUSSATI, a settlement of Indians of S. Ca-rolina ; situate on the shore of the river Albama.

COUUACHITOUU, a settlement of Indians ofS. Carolina, in which the English have an esta-blishment and fort for its defence.

COUUANCHI, a river of the province andcolonj'^ of Georgia, which runs e, and enters theOgeclii.

COUUANAIUUINI, a river of the provinceof Guayana, in the part which the Frenchpossess.

(COVENTRY, a township in Tolland county,Connecticut, 20 miles e. of Hartford city. ’’ It wassettled in 1709, being purchased by a number ofHartford gentlemen of one Joshua, an Indian.)

(Coventry, in Rhode Island state, is then. easternmost township in Kent county. Itcontains 2477 inhabitants.)

(Coventry, a township in the n. part of NewHampshire, in Grafton county. It was incorpo-rated in 1764, and contains 80 inhabitants.)

(Coventry, a township in Orleans county,Vermont. It lies in the n. part of the state, atthe s. end of lake Memphremagog. Black riverpasses through this town in its course to Memphre-magog.)

(Coventry, a township in Chester county,Pennsylvania.)

(COW AND Calf Pasture Rivers are headbranches of Rivanna river, in Virginia.)

(COWE is the capital town of the CherokeeIndians ; situated on the foot of the hills on bothsides of the river Tennessee. Here terminates the

great vale of Cowe, exhibiting one of the mostcharming, natural, mountainous landscapes thatcan be seen. The vale is closed at Cowe by aridge of hills, called the Jore mountains. Thetown contains about 100 habitations. In the con-stitution of the state of Tennessee, Cowe is de-scribed as near the line which separates Tennesseefrom Virginia, and is divided from Old Chota,another Indian town, by that part of the GreatIron or Smoaky mountain, called Unicoi or Unacamountain).

COWETAS, a city of the province and colonyof Georgia in N. America. It is 500 miles distantfrom Frederick, belongs to the Creek Indians,and in it General Oglethorp held his conferenceswith the caciques or chiefs of the various tribescomposing this nation, as also with the deputiesfrom the Chactaws and the Chicasaws, who in-habit the parts lying between the English andFrench establishments. He here made some newtreaties with the natives, and to a greater extentthan those formerly executed. Lat. 32° 12' n.Long. 85° 52' w. (See Apalachichola Town.)

(COWS Island. See Vache.)

(COWTENS, a place so called, in S. Carolina,between the Pacolet river and the head branch ofBroad river. This is the spot where General Mor-gan gained a complete victory over Lieutenant-co-lonel Tarleton, January 11, 1781, having only 12men killed and 60 wounded. The British had 39commissioned officers killed, wounded, and takenprisoners ; 100 rank and file killed, 200 wounded,and 500 prisoners. They left behind two piecesof artillery, two standards, 800 muskets, 35 bag-gage waggons, and 100 drago"on horses, which fellinto the hands of the Americans. The field ofbattle was in an open wood.)

COX, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes,in the district of the parish of San Joseph, nearthe e. coast.

Cox, another settlement in the same island,distinct from the former, and not far distantfrom it.

COXCATLAN, S. Juan Bautista de, asettlement and head settlement of the district of thea/caMa mayor of Valles in Nueva Espana ; situateon the bank of a stream which runs through aglen bordered with mountains and woods. It con-tans 1131 families of Mexican Indians, SO of Spa-niards, and various others of Mulattoes and Jlfus-tees, all of whom subsist by agriculture, and inraising various sorts of seeds, sugar-canes, andcotton. Fifteen leagues from the capital.

Coxcatlan, another settlement and head settle-ment of the alcddia mayor of Thehuacan in the

fr

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same kingdom. It contains 180 families of In-dians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes.Here is an hospital of the religious order of St.Francis. Seven leagues from its capital.

(COXHALL, a township in York county, dis-trict of Maine, containing 775 inhabitants.)

COXIMAR, a large plain of the coast of theisland of Cuba, close by the city of Havana, inwhich is a fortified tower. On this plain the Eng-lish drew up their troops when they besieged thatplace, in 1762.

COXIMES, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate on the sliore of the S. sea, on thepoint formed by the port Palmar, under the equi-noctial line.

COXO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the sea-coast,close to the settlement of Carvalleda.

(COXSAKIE, a township in the w. part ofAlbany county, New York, containing S406 in-habitants, of whom 302 are slaves. Of the citi-zens 613 are electors.)

COXUMATLAN, a settlement of the headsettlement of Zanguio and afcaldia mayor of Za-mora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of thesea of Chapala, and being backed by a large moun-tain covered with fruit-trees of various kinds, andexcellent timber and woods. It contains 17 tami-lies of Indians, who employ themselves in fishingand in agriculture. Four leagues to the w. of itshead settlement.

COYAIMAS, a barbarous and ancient nationof Indians of the province and government of Po-payán in the kingdom of Quito, and district of thetownofNeiba. Tliese Indians are valorous, ro-bust, faithful, and enemies to the Pijaos. Someof tl)ern have become converted to the Catholicfaith, and liveuniteil in settlemenis.

(COYAU, a settlement on Tennessee river, SOmiles below Knoxville.)

COYONES, a barbarous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the s. w. of Tocuyo. They are ferociousand infidels, and live upon the mountains. Theirnumbers at the present day are much reduced.

COYPO. SeeRAi.EMo.

COZAL, a settlement of the province and alcaldiamayor of Zacapula in the kingdom of Guatemala.

COZALCAQUE, San Felipe de, a settlementof the head settlement of Tenantitlan, and alcaldiamayor of Acaynca, in Nueva Espana. It contains51 families of Indians, and is 10 leagues to the e.and one-fourth to the a. e, of its head settlement.

COZAMALOAPAN, a province and alcaldiaviayor of Nueva España, the capital of which

bears the same name, with the dedicatory title ofSan Martin, and which is situate on a plain half aleague long, and somewhat less broad, surroundedby mountains so knit together, that, at the time ofits foundation, passes were obliged to be o[>ened.Through this province runs a river, which flowsdown from the sferTflA of Zongolica, and whichafterwards takes the nam.e of Alvarado, it is ofa hot and moist temperature, and continually ex-posed to inundations during the rainy seasons,owing to the immense overflowings of the rivers.Its population is composed of 38 families of Spa-niards, 128 of Mulattoes, and 34 of Mexican In-dians, who maintain themselves by the gatheringof cotton and maize ; and this last in such abun-dance as to supply Vera Cruz. The Spaniardsemploy themselves in fishing in the rivers, whichabound with fish the three last months of the year,and they carry them for sale into the other juris-dictions. It has, besides the parish church, atemple of superior architecture, dedicated toNuestra Seilora de la Soledad, though it be com-monly called, Of Cozomalotipan, being of suchancient origin as to be said to liave existed 12years before the conquest of the kingdom. Thistemple was inhabited by a religious fraternity, ap-proved by his holiness Gregory XIII. he havinggranted to the same many favours and indulgences,which, through the devotion of the communily,were perpetuated, through several prodigies andmiracles which afterwards took place in the set-tlement, and in its district. One hundred andfifteen leagues s. s.xo. of Mexico, in lat. 17^ 47' ;long. 274° 50'. The jurisdiction of this alcaldiaconsists in the folloAving settlements :

A rnatlnn,Acula,

Ixmaluliacan,Chacaltiaiiguis,Texliuacaii,Tlacotalpan,

Otatitlan,

Tuxtepec,

Chinantla,

Utzila,

Uzainacin,

A^etla.

COZAQUl, Santa Maria de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Acazingo and alcaldiamayor of Tepeaca, in Nueva Espana. It containsfour families of Spaniards, 33 Aluslees and Mu-lattocs, and 51 of Indians. It is a quarter of aleague lioni its head settlement.

COZATLA, San Juan de, a settlement of thehead settlement of Axixique, and ahaldia mayor ofZayula, in the same kingdom. It contains 60familie.s of Indians,its head settlement.

COZAUTEPEC, a settlement and head settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Chichicapain Nu-eva Espana, of the province and bishopric of3

iid is two leagues to the w. of

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Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.

COZCATLAN, a settlement and head settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Tasco in NuevaEspana. It contains 200 families of Indians, andis five leagues c. of its capital.

COZEL, a settlement of the jurisdiction andaknld'ia mayor of Culiacan in Nueva Espaila.

COZINAS, a bay of the coast of the provinceand government of Yucatán.

COZINERA, a shoal of rocks on the coast ofthe S. sea, of the province and government ofTierra Firme, very near the point of Paytilla, inthe bay of Panama.

COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.

COZTLA, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Coronango, and alcaldiamayor of Cholula, in Nueva Espana. It contains48 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n.of the capital.

COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.

(CRAB-ORCHARD, a post-town on Dick’sriver, in Kentucky, eight miles from Cumberlandriver, and 25 miles s. e. of Danville. The roadto Virginia passes through this place.)

CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered

with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.

CRAMBERRI, a small river of the provinceand colony of N. Carolina. It runs s. and entersthe source of the Conhaway.

CRAMBROOK, a river of the province andcolony of Pennsylvania in N. America.

(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)

(Cranberry Islands, on the coast of the dis-trict of Maine. See Mount Desert Island.)

(CRANEY, a small island on the s. side ofJames river, in Virginia, at the mouth of Eliza-beth river, and five miles 5. w. of fort George, onpoint Comfort. It commands the entrance of bothrivers.)

(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)

CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}

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CRAVO, Santa Barbara de, a settlement ofthe jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, of thegovernment of Los Llanos of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is on the shore of the large river of itsname, upon a very pleasant mountain plain, verynear to i\\ellanura at the bottom of the mountain, andwhere formerly stood the city of San Joseph deCravo, founded by the governor of this province in1644, but which was soon after destroyed. Thctem-perature here is not so hot as in the other parts ofthe province, from its being', as we have beforeobserved, in the vicinity of t\\e paramos or moun-taiti deserts. It produces in abundance maize,plantains, and pucas, of which is made the bestcazave of any in the kingdom, also many trees ofa hard and strong wood, used as a medicine inspotted fevers, and a specific against poisons, sothat it is much esteemed, and they make of itdrinking cups. Here are other trees, good forcuring the flux, their virtue in this disorder havingbeen accidentally discovered as follows. A la-bourer, as he was cutting down one of these trees,let his hatchet fall upon his foot; but rememberingthat by pressing his foot against the tree it wouldstop the blood, he did so, and a splinter thus gettinginto the wound, the cut soon healed without theapplication of any other remedy. Here are largebreeds of horned cattle, and the natives, whoshould amount to 100 Indians, and about as manywhites, are much given to agriculture. Eightleagues from the settlement of Morcote.

Cravo, a river of the former province and go-vernment. It rises in the province of Tunja, nearthe lake of Labranza, passes before the city, towhich it gives its name, and after running manyleagues, enters the Meta.

CRAVO, another river, in the district and juris-diction of Pamplona, of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises to the e. of the settlement ofCapitanejo, runs s. s. e. and enters the river Caza-nare, according to Beilin, in his map of the courseof a part of the Orinoco; and indeed ^\e doubt ifhe be not correct. In the woods upon its shoreslive some barbarian Indians, the }ietoyes,.Acira-guas, and Guaibas. its mouth is in tat. 3° SO' n.

(CREE Indians, The, inhabit of Littlelake Winnipeg, around fort Daiipiiin, in UpperCanada.)

(CREEKS, an Indian nation, described alsounder tfie name of Muskogulge or Muskogee,in addition to 'which is the following particulars,from the manuscript joarnal of an infeliigent tra-veller : “ Coosa river, and its main branches, formthe re. line of settlements or villages of the Creeks,but their hunting grounds cxtaid 200 miles be-

yond, to the Tombigbee, which is the dividingline between their coufitry and that of the Chac-taws. The smallest of their towns have from 20to 30 ho'.ises in them, and some of them containfrom 130 to 200, that are wholly compact. Thehouses stand in clusters of four, five, six, seven,and eight together, irregularly distributed up anddown the banks of the rivers or small streams.Each cluster of houses contains a clan or family orelations, who eat and live in common. Eac!town has a public square, hot-house, and yard ne.the centre of it, appropriatad to various pubhuses. The following are the names of the prin-cipal towns of the Upper and Lower Creeks thathave public squares ; beginning at the head of theCoosa or Coosa Hatcha river, viz. Upper Utalas,Abbacoochees, Natchez, Coosas, Oteetoocheenas,Pine Catchas, Pocuntullahases, Weeokes, LittleTallassie, Tuskeegees, Coosadas, Alabamas, Ta-wasas, Pawactas, Autobas, Auhoba, W eelump-kees Big,W eelumpkees Little, Wacacoys, Wack-soy, Ochees. The following towns are in thecentral, inland, and high country, between theCoosa and Taliapoosee rivers, in the district calledthe Hillabees, viz. Hillabees, Killeegko, Oakchoys,Slakagulgas, and Wacacoys; on the waters ofthe Taliapoosee, from the head of the river down-ward, the following, viz. Tuckabatchee, Tehassa,Totacaga, New Aork, Chalaacpaulley, Logus-pogus, Oakfuskee, Ufala Little, Ufala Big, Soga-hatches,Tuckabatchees, Big Tallassce or Half-wayHouse, Clewaleys, Coosahatches, Coolamies, Sha-Vt'anese or Savanas, Kenlsulka, and Mnckeleses.The towns of the Low'er Creeks, beginning on thehead waters of the Chattahoosee, and so on down-wards, are Chelu Ninny, Chattahoosee, liohtatoga,Cowetas, Cussitahs, Chalagatscaor, Broken Arrow,Euchces several, Hitchatces several, Palachuolo,Chewackala ; besides 20 towns and villages ofthe Little and Big Chehaus, low down on Flint andChattahoosee rivers. From their roving and un-steady manner of living, it is impossible to deter-mine, 'with much precision, the number of Indiansthat comimse tlie Creek nation. General M‘GiI-livray estimates the number of gun-men to be be-tween 3 and 6000, exclusive of the Semiuolcs, Avhoare of little or no accosmt in war, except as smallparties of marauders, acting independent of thegeneral interest of the others. The wliole numberof individuals may be about 23 or 26,000 souls.Every town and village has one established whitetrader in it, and generally a family of whites, wholiave fled from some part of the tfontiers. Theyoften, to have revenge, and to obtain jdunder thatmay be taken, use their influence to scud out pre«3 Y 2

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