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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


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ico, of the religious order of St. Dominic ; electedbishop in 1610, and was from thence translated tothe bishopric of Oaxaca.

10. Don Fr. Gonzalo de Angulo, of the orderof St. Francis, native of Valladolid ; he was su-perior of the convent of Segovia, difinidor of theprovince of Castilla, qualificator of the inquisi-tion ; elected bishop in 1617, visited his bishopric,where he spent more than three years, confirmed3000 persons, and founded many grammar-schools ;he died in 1633.

11. Don Juan Lopez Agurto de la Mata, na-tive of the Mandof Tenerife, canon of the churchof the Puebla de los Angeles, prebendary of thatof Mexico, rector of the college of Los Santos,and lecturer in its university ; he was elected bishopof Puertorico in 1630, and promoted to this in1634 ; in which time the cathedral was removedfor the sake of security: in 1637 he died.

19. Don Fr. Mauro de Tobar, of the order ofSt. Benedict, native of Villacastin, prior and ab-bot of the monastery of Valladolid, and afterwardsof Monforte, preacher to Philip IV. ; elected tothis bishopric in 1639: immediately upon his tak-ing possession of it a great earthquake happened,and destroyed the cathedral, which he was rebuild-ing, when he was translated to the bishopric ofChiapa in 1655.

13. Don Fr. Alonso Briceño, of the order of LaMerced, of the province and kingdom of Chile;he entered Caracas in the year 1659, and diedin 1667.

14. Don Fr. Antonio Gonzales de Acuña, of theorder of St. Dominic, postulador in the court ofRome ; he was elected bishop in 1676, and diedin 1682.

15. The Doctor Don Diego de Baños and Soto-mayor, native of Santa Fe of Bogotá, head colle-giate of the college of the Rosario in this city,honorary chaplain to Charles II. and canon ofCuenca ; he was promoted to the mitre of SantaMarta in 1684 ; he founded the Tridentine col-lege, having endowed the same with professorshipsand revenues ; and being removed to the arch-bishopric of Santa Fe, he died in the year 1706.

16. Don Fr. Francisco del Rincon, of the reli-gious order of the Minims of St. Francis de Paula,native of Valladolid ; he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Domingo in 1711, and fromthence to that of Santa Fe in 1717.

17. Don Juan Joseph de Escalona y Calatayud,was born at Rioja, became doctor of theology atSalamanca, canon of Calahorra, and first chap-lain in the court of Madrid ; he was elected bishop

vol. I.


of Caracas, for his charity to the poor, in the year1719, and thence translated to the bishopric of Me-choacau in 1728.

18. Don Joseph Feliz Valverde, native of Gra-nada ; he passed his youth at Mexico, where hewas collegiate of the college of San lldefonso, doc-tor of theology, and of both laws, magistrate anddean of the church of Oaxaca ; elected bishop in1731, and promoted to the church of Mechoácan ;which last appointment he declined : he diedin 1741.

19. Don Juan Garcia Padiano ; who took pos-session in 1742, and died in 1746.

20. Don Manuel Breton, doctoral canon of thechurch of Badajos ; he died in going over to beconsecrated at Cordova in 1749.

21. Don Manuel Machado y Luna, honorarychaplain to his Majesty, and administrator of thecollege of Santa Isabel, native of Estremadura :he studied at Salamanca, obtained the title of pri-mate of canons ; reputed for one of the wisest inecclesiastical discipline ; was made bishop of Ca-racas in 1750, and died in 1752.

22. Don Francisco Julian Antolino, native ofZamora, an eminent theologist, penitentiary ca-non of Badajoz, and bishop of Caracas in 1753 :he died in 1755.

23. Don Miguel Argüelles, principal theologist,and curate in the archbishopric of Toledo ; electedbishop in 1756, and immediately after auxiliarybishop of Madrid.

24. Don Diego Antonio Diaz Madroñero, nativeof Talarrubias in Estremadura, vicar of the cityof Alcalá ; he entered upon his functions in 1757,and died in 1769.

25. Don Mariano Marti, of the principality ofCataluña, ecclesiastical judge and vicar-generalof the archbishopric of Tarragona, doctor in theuniversity of Cervera ; he was promoted to thebishopric of Puertorico in 1770.

Governors and Captains-General of the provinceof Caracas, or Venezuela.

1. Ambrosio de Alfinge ; nominated first gover-nor, and elected by the Weltzers: he drew up thearticles of stipulation with the Emperor in the con-quest of Venezuela ; was founder of the city ofCoro ; took possession of the government in 1528,and retained it till 1531, when he was killed by theIndians in satisfaction of the cruelties he had com-mitted.

2. Juan Aleman, related to the Welzers ; he, byway of precaution, assumed the title of governorwhile the place was vacant, and held it until thearrival of the proper person.

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16. Don FV. Diego de Tores Atamairano, amonk of the order of St. Francis, native of Trux-illo in Estremadura, commissary-general of theprovinces of Peru ; he received his consecration atEiraa, entered Cartagena in 1620, and died in thefollowing year, 1621.

17. Don Fr. Francisco de Sotomayor, of theorder of St. Francis, native of San Tome, in thebishopric of Tuy, guardian of the convents inMontforte and Salamanca, difimdor general in thechapter which was celebrated at Rome ; elected tothe bishopric of Cartagena in 1622, and promotedto that of Quito before he left Madrid, in 1623.

18. Don Fr. Luis Ronquillo de Cordova, of theorder of the Santissirna Trinidad, native of Gra-nada, where he read arts and theology, was mi-nister in the convent of Malaga, and twice in that ofSeville, provincial and vicar-general of Andalucia ;he was elected bishop in 1630 : he governed eightyears, and returned to Spain without a licence ;he received notice of his promotion to the bishop-ric of Truxillo in Peru, which honour he declined,and retired to his convent in Granada, where hedied in 1642.

19. Don Fr. Christoval Perez de Lazarraga, ofthe order of San Bernardo, native of Madrid,qualificator of the inquisition ; he took to an eccle-siastical life when quite a child, was collegian ofthe college of Meira, afterwards of those of Sala-manca and Alcala, professor of philosophy, moraland theological, abbot of the college of Nuestra Se-hora ' de Salamanca, a most learned theologist ;elected and consecrated bishop of Chiapa, and be-fore he left the court promoted to the bishopric ofCartagena, of which he took possession in 1640 :he thrice visited his bishopric, and after a grievousillness of 90 days duration, died in 1648.

20. Don Francisco Rodriguez de Zepeda Val-carcel, native of Zamora ; he studied grammar inthe town of Garcia, jurisprudence in Salamanca,was professor of laws in Valladolid, abbot of Ci-fuentes, and canonical doctor of the church ofSiguenza ; elected bishop of Cartagena, of whichhe took possession in 1650 ; and having governedonly 11 months, he died in the following.

21. Don Diego del Castillo y Arteaga, native ofTudela ; he studied in the university of Alcala,was collegian of Malaga, professor of arts, hav-ing substituted this title for that of theology, cano-nical master of the church of Avila; presentedto the bishopric of Cartagena in 1632, which hedeclined.

22. Don Garcia Martinez Cabezas, native of thetown of Don Benito in Estremadura ; he was pub-

lic professor of the institutes, primate of canonsin the university of Maese Rodrigo de Sevilla,w hen he was adopted as provisor by the archbishopof Lima, Don Gonzalo de Ocampo, as he passedthrough that city ; he was doctoral canon of thechurch of Charcas, afterwards school-master, trea-surer, and archdeacon, from whence he went toLima as inquisitor, and was elected bishop of Car-tagena, but died before he took possession of hisoffice, in 1653.

23. Don Antonio Sanz Lozano, native of Cava-nillas, chief collegian iti Alcala, public professorof theology, a man of learning and of acute ge-nius ; being rector of his college, he was presentedby the king to the bishopric ot Cartagena, of whichhe took possession in 1661, governed with greatskill for 20 years, and was promoted to the arch-bishopric of Santa Fe in 1681.

24. Don Antonio dc Benavides and Piedrola,native of the city of Andujar, canon of Badajoz ;elected bishop of Cartagena in 1681 : his govern-ment being very troublesome, and disturbed by acessation of religious rites, occasioned by the cir-cumstance of the nuns of Santa Clara, who wereunder the care of the religious order of St. Fran-cis, having been put under the ordinary jurisdic-tion, he was called to the court, and arrived therein 1691 ; and not being willing to accept of anyother bishopric in Spain, he died in Cadiz.

25. Don Fr. Antonio Maria Casiani, monk ofBasilio, of the university of Alcala; elected in1713.

26. Don Francisco Gomez Calleja, doctoral Ca-non of the church of Zamora; elected in 1718.

27. Don Manuel Antoniode Silva, dean of Lima,named through promotion of the former, who nothaving accepted of the same, there became a dis-pute as to which was rightly entitled to the bishop-ric of Cartagena, when it was declared by thecourt in favour of the former, who governed from1725 till 1736.

28. Don Gregorio de Molleda y Clerque, nativeof Lima, consecrated at Rome with the title ofbishop of Isauria, domestic prelate to his holiness,and made bishop of Cartagena in 1736, afterwardspromoted to the see of Truxillo in 1740.

29. Don Diego Martinez Garrido, of the orderof Santiago, opponent to the professors in the uni-versity of Salamanca; elected in 1740: he diedin 1746.

30. Don Bernardo de Arbiza y Ugarte, nativeof Cuzco, in the university of which he studiedand graduated as doctor of both laws ; he waschief auditor of the royal audience of Panama,

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tive of Barcelana, a celebrated engineeer; also re-nowned in the constructing of the land-gate or en-trance to Cadiz : he was promoted to this govern-ment for the purpose of inspecting and repairingthe towers which had been destroyed by AdmiralVernon, which commission, after he had executed,he returned to Spain in 1755, and died director-general of the body of engineers.

61. Don Fernando Morillo Velarde, knight ofthe order of Alcantara, colonel of infantry, at thattime king’s lieutenant, when he received the go-vernment on account of the proprietor having goneto fortify the town of Portobelo.

62. Don Diego Tabares, knight of the order ofSantiago, brigadier-general ; promoted to this go-vernment from that of Camana in 1755, and go-verned till 1761, when arrived his successor,

63. Don Joseph de Sobremonte, Marquis of thisname, a brigadier, who was captain of the regimentof Spanish guards when he was nominated : he go-verned till 1770, when he died.

64. Don Gregorio de Sierra, also captain of gre-nadiers of the express regiment of Spanish guards ;he entered Cartagena in 1771, and died in 1774.

65. Don Juan Pimienta, colonel of the regi-ment of the infantry of Zamora, in rank a briga-dier, and knight of the distinguished order ofCharles III. ; he entered into the possession of thegovernment in 1774, and died in 1781.

66. Don Roque de Quiroga, king’s lieutenant ofthe fortified town, or Plaza ; promoted as provincialgovernor through the death of his antecessor, un-til arrived, under the king’s appointment, the pro-prietor,

67. Don Joseph de Carrion y Andrade, a bri-gadier, who before had been governor of thePlaza of Manilla, and had rendered himself re-nowned when it was besieged by the Emperor ofMarruecos, being nominated to this government in1774 : he died in 1785.

Cartagena, a river of the province and go-vernment of Choco : it rises in the mountains ofthis province nearthe settlement of Noanama, andenters the sea imimediately at the cape of Corri-entes.

Cartagena, a plain of the province and cor-regimiento of Maule in the kingdom of Chile,close to the port of San Antonio.

CARTAGO, a city of the province and go-vernment of Popayan, founded by the BrigadierGeorge Robledo in 1540, who gave it this name,with the dedicatory title of San Juan, his patron;the greater part of the military in it having comefrom the city of Cartagena in Europe. It did liebetween the rivers Otun and Quindio; but the


continual invasions it has experienced from thePijaos and Pimaes Indians, who are a bold andwarlike people, determined its inhabitants to re-move it at the end of the I7th century to the spotwhere it now stands ; having bought for that pur-pose some land of Tomasa Izquierdo, on the bankof an arm of the river of La Vieja, which is alarge stream, and navigable for canoes and rafts,and which is at the distance of rather better thana quarter of a mile from the large river Cauca,into which the above river enters, forming beforethe city an island, which abounds in animals of thechase, and in cattle, and having on its banks ex-cellent fishing. This city is of a dry and healthyclimate ; and although hot, the atmosphere is al-ways clear and serene. It is situate upon a leveland somewhat elevated plain , of beautiful appear-ance ; the streets are spacious, wide and straight.It has a very large grand square. Its buildingsare solid and of good structure, and universallyroofed over with straw, having, however, the wallsof solid stone from the top to the bottom ; othersare built of brick, and others with rafters of wood,the walls being of clay, (which they call imbulidoSyor inlaid), so solid as to resist the force of the mostviolent earthquakes, as was experienced in onethat happened in 1785. At a small distance fromthe city are various lakes or pools of water, whichthey call denegas, formed by nature, assisted byart. It is the residence of the lieutenant-gover-nor of the government of Popayan, of two ordi-nary alcaldes, two of La Hermandad, two member*of an inferior court, a recorder, a procurator-gene-ral, a major domo de propiosy and six regidors^the cabildo enjoying the privilege of electing andconfirming these officers yearly. It has also a bat-talion of city militia, and two disciplined compa-nies ; also some royal cofiers, which were broughtfrom the city of Anserma. Besides the church ofMatriz, in which is venerated, as the patroness, theHoly Virgin, under the image of Nuestra Senorade la Paz, (this being the pious gift of PhilipIII.) it has five parishes, viz. Santa Ana, SantaBarbara, Llano de Buga, Naranjo, Micos, andPueblo de los Cerritos. The territory is extremelyfertile and pleasant, abounding as well in fruitsand pulse as in birds of various sorts ; and in nopart whatever are plantains so various, or of sofine a quality. Tlie coffee is good, and the cacao,which is of two sorts, is excellent, and is calledyellow and purple hayna. Of no less estimationis the tobacco, with which a great traffic wasformerly carried on at Choco. The district of thiscity abounds in trees, medicinal herbs and fruits,and in an exquisite variety of cacao plants; also

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[unexpectedly into one of their houses of worship,found the cacique employed in obtaining responsesfrom the zemi. By the sound of the voice whichcame from the idol, they knew that it was hollow,and dashing it to the ground to expose the impos-ture, they discovered a tube which was before co-vered with leaves, that communicated from theback part of the image to an inner apartment,whence the priest issued his precepts as through aspeaking trumpet ; but the cacique earnestly en-treated them to say nothing of what they had seen,declaring that by means of such pious frauds, hecollected tributes, and kept his kingdom in sub-jection. Happily, however, the general system oftheir superstition, though not amiable, was notcruel. We find among them but few of thosebarbarous ceremonies which filled the Mexicantemples with pollution, and the spectators withhorror.

5. Their arts . — Our islanders had not only theskill of making excellent cloth from their cotton,but they practised also the art of dyeing it with avariety of colours; some of them of the utmostbrilliancy and beauty. The piraguas were fullysufficient for the navigation they were employedin, and indeed were by no means contemptible sea-boats. We are told that some of these vesselsAvere navigated with forty oars ; and Herrera re-lates, that Bartholomew Columbus, in passingthrough the gulf of Honduras, fell in with one thatwas eight feet in breadth, and in length equal to aSpanish galley. Over the middle was an awning,,composed of mats and palm-tree leaves ; under-neath Avhich were disposed the women and chil-dren, secured both from rain and the spray of thesea. It Avas laden with commodities from Yucatan.These vessels Avere built either of cedar, or thegreat cotton-tree hollowed, and made square ateach end like punts. Their gunnels Avere raisedAvith canes braced close, and smeared over withsome bituminous substance to render them Avater-tight, and they had sharp keels. Our islandersfar surpassed most other savage nations in the ele-gance and variety of their domestic utensils andfurniture, their earthenware, curiously Avovenbeds, and implements of husbandry. Martyrspeaks Avith admiration of the Avorkmanship ofsome of the former of these. In the account hegives of a magnificent donation from Anacoana toBartholomew Columbus, on his first visit to thatprincess, he observes, that among other valuablesshe presented him with 14 chairs of ebony beauti-fully wrought, and no less than 60 vessels of dif-ferent sorts, for the use of his kitchen and table,


air of which Avere ornamented Avith figures of va-rious kinds, fantastic forms, and accurate repre-sentations of living animals. The industry andingenuity of our Indians therefore must havegreatly exceeded the measure of their wants.]

Bishops who have presided in the island of Cuba.

1. Don Fray Juan de Ubite, a monk of theorder of St. Francis ; elected first bishop in 1525,and although not placed in the catalogue of thischurch by Gil Gonzalez Davila, he certainly pre-sided here as bishop.

2. Don Fray Bernardo de Mesa, of the orderofSt. Dominic, native of Toledo ; he died in 1538.

3. Den Fray Juan of Flanders, and native ofthis country, of the religious order of St. Do-minic ; he left the bishopric from being appointedconfessor to the queen of France, Dona Lconor ;succeeded by,

4. Don Fray Miguel Ramirez de Salamanca,native of Burgos, of the order of St. Dominic,master in his religion, preacher to the EmperorCharles V. collegian in the college of San Gre-gorio of Valladolid, regent in the university ofLobayna, and bishop of Cuba, in 1539.

5. Don F?'ay Diego Sarmiento, native of Bur-gos, a Carthusian monk, prior of the convent ofSanta Maria de las Cuevas of Seville ; electedbishop in 1540 : he renounced the bishopric afterhaving made the visitation of the whole island, andreturned to Spain.

6. Don Fernando de Urango, native of Azpeitiain Guipuzcoa, collegian of the college of St. Bar-tholomew in Salamanca, master and professor oftheology ; elected bishop in 1551; he died in1536.

7. Don Bernardino de Villalpando ; he governeduntil 1569.

8. Don Juan del Castillo, native of La Ordenin the bishopric of Burgos, collegiate of the col-lege of Sigiienza, and of that of St. Bartholomewin Salamanca, professor of arts ; elected bishop in1567 ; he goA^erned until 1580, Avhenhe renouncedhis functions, and returned to Spain.

9. Don Antonio Diaz de Salcedo, of the orderof St. Francis, collegiate of St. Clement of Bolonia,renoAvned for his virtues and letters ; elected in1580, through the renunciation of the former, andpromoted to the church of Nicaragua in 1597.

10. Don Fray Bartolome de la Plaza, of theorder of St. Francis, in the same year, until1602.

11. Don Fray Juan Cabezas, of the order of St.Dominic, native of Zamora ; he studied laAvs and

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