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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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tifni appearance. A mountain similar to this isfound in the marshes of Maule.]
Copiapo, a river Avhich rises in the cordillera.It runs two leagues to the w. passes near the settle-ment of its name, and empties itself into the S. sea,serving as a port for vessels.
Morro de Copiapo, a mountain, called Morro de Copiapo,in the coast, at the side of the port of its name.
COPORAQUE, another. See Vilcomayo.
(COPPER Mine, a large river of New Britain,reckoned to be the most n. in N. America. Takinga n. course, it falls into the sea in lat, 19P n. andabout long. 119° a;, from Greenwich. The ac-counts brought by the Indians of this river to theRritish ports in Hudson bay, and the specimens ofcopper produced by them, induced Mr. Hearne toset out from fort Prince of Wales, in December1770, on a journey of discovery. He reached theriver on the 14th July, at 40 miles distance fromthe sea, and found it all the way encumbered withshoals and falls, and emptying itself into it over adry flat of the shore, the tide being then out, whichseemed by the edges of the ice to rise about 12 or14 feet. This rise, on account of the falls, willcarry it but a very small way within the river’smouth ; so that the water in it has not the leastbrackish taste, Mr. Hearne had the most exten-sive view of the sea, which bore n. w. by w. andn. e. when he was about eight miles up the river.The sea at the river’s mouth was full of islandsand shoals ; but the ice was only thawed awayabout three-fourths of a mile from the shore, on the17th of July. The Esquimaux had a quantity ofwhale-bone and seal-skins at their tents on theshore.)
COQUIMBO, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Chile ; bounded e. by the pro-vince of Tucuman, of the kingdom of Peru, thocordillera running between ; s. by the province ofQuillota; and w. by the Pacific ocean. It is 80leagues in length s. and 40 in width e, w. Itstemperature is very benign ; and on account ofits not raining much in the sierra,, through the lowsituation of this part of the province, the snowand frost is not so common here, nor does it stayupon the ground so long as it does upon theparts which lie s. of Santiago. For the samereason the rivers are few, and th# largest of themare those of Los Santos or Limari, and that whichpasses through its capital. Many huanmos andvicunas breed here. The territory is for the mostpart broken and uneven, and produces, althoughnot in abundance, the same fruits as in the wholekingdom, such as grain, wine, and oil of excel*lent quality. It has many gold mines, likewisesome of silver, copper, lead, sulphur, white lime,and salt ; but the most abundant of all are those ofcopper; large quantities of this metal having beensent to Spain for founding artillery, and indeedfrom the same source has been made all the artilleryin this kingdom. This metal is found of two sorts,one which is called campanal, and is only fit forfounding, and the other, which has a mixture ofgold, and is called de labrar,, or working metal, andwhich is known only in this province. Here alsothey make large quantities of rigging for ships.Its inhabitants may amount to 15,000. [In thisprovince is found tlie quisco tree, with thorns ofeight inches long ; the same being used by the na-tives for knitting needles. It is noted for produc-ing the best oysters, and for a resin which is yieldedfrom the herb chilca. See Chieb.] The capitalbears the same name, or that of La Serena. Thiswas the second settlement of the kingdom, andfounded by the order of Pedro de Valdivia, byCaptain Juan Bohon, in 1543, in the valley ofCuquimpi, which gave it its name, and which,being corrupted, is now called Coquimbo, andEl Segundo de la Serena, in memory of the countryof Valdivia in Estremadura. It lies at a quarterof a league’s distance from the sea, and is situate
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upon the loftiest part of that most beautiful lltinura,from which the prospect is so enchanting ; sliew-ing on one side the sea, on another the river whichwaters tlie precincts, and on another some shadypoplar groves. It is of an extremely benign tem-perature, and enjoying throughout the year a per-petual spring, being neither incommoded by heatnor cold. It is extremely fertile, and abounds inwhatever can conduce to the comfort and conve-nience of life. The city is tolerably large ; all thestreets are drawn at straight lines ; and the housesare disjoined from each other by large gardens,which are all well supplied with water brought byaqueducts from the river. The parish church isvery beautiful, and not less so are those of the re-ligious orders of St.. Francis, St. Domingo, St.Augustin, La Merced, San Juan de Dios, and thecollege which formerly belonged to the regularsof the company of the Jesuits. It has a port,which is convenient ajid much frequented by ves-sels ; upon the shore of which are caught tunnies,abacoras, and various other kinds of fish ; alsomany delicate kinds of shell-fish. At a small dis-tance is a very abundant copper mine, from whichmuch metal is extracted and carried to Europe ;and it is of this, as well as of its excellent breedof horses, its wine, oil, tallow, cow-hides, anddried meats, that its commerce is composed ; send-ing, as it does yearly, four or five vessels loadedwith these effects to Lima. Although it has minesof the purest gold, yet these are but little worked.The whole of the town is covered with beautifulmyrtles, and of these there is a delightful grove.It was destroyed by the Araucanos Indians in1547 ; and in 1579 it was attempted to be taken byFrancis Drake, who was repulsed by the inhabi-tants, la 1680 it seemed to be rebuilt only thatit might undergo a sacking the same year by theEnglish pirate, Bartholomew Sharps. Its popula-tion consists of 500 families of Spaniards andpeople of colour, and some Indians. Fifteenleagues from the city of Concepcion, and 58 fromthe capital of the kingdom, Santiago. Lat. 30° s.Long. 71° 18'. [See Chile,]
COQUIMBO, an island of the coast of this pro-vince and corregimiento.
CORAS, Santiago de los, a settlement of themissions which were held by the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits in California ; situate at anequal distance from both coasts. It is composedof Indians of the nation of its name, and is theplace where the Father Lorenzo Carranza, a mis-sionary, suffered martyrdom.
CORAZON DE Jesus, a settlement of thecorregimiento and jurisdiction of Velez in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. Its population i*small, and it is situate in a country mountainousand full of pools, being scanty in vegetable pro-ductions, with 200 inhabitants, a miserable race.It is near the settlement of Chiquinquira, and tothe s. of Velez.
CORAZON, another, called De Maria, of the mis-sions which were held by the regulars of the companyof J esLiits, in the province and government of May-nas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on theshore of the river Aguarico.
CORAZON, another, called De Jesus, in the pro-vince and government of the Chiquitos Indians inPeru ; situate at the foot of the cordillera of SanFernando, a reduccion of the missions which wereheld there by the regulars of the company,
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into tlie Banos, and which, after the great cas-cade, is known by the name of Pastaza. To then. rises the Padregal, afterwards called Pita, as itpasses through the llanura of Chillo ; and at theskirt of the mountain of Guangopolo, where theplain terminates, it unites itself with the Ama-g^uaiia, and then turning w. takes the names ofTumbaco and Huallabamba, to enter the Esmeral-das, which disembogues itself into the S. sea. Atthe skirt of this great mountain are the estates ofSinipu, Pongo, Pucaguaita, and Papaurca, It isdistant from the settlement of Mula-halo half aleague, and five leagues from its capital. In lat.40° IPs. (The height of this volcano was dis-covered, in 1802, to be only 260 feet lower thanthe crater of Antisana, which is 19,130 feet abovethe level of the sea.)
COTOPAXI. See Cotopacsi.
COTUI, a town of St. Domingo ; founded, in1504, by Rodrigo Mexia deTruxillo, by the orderof the cometidador mayor of Alca.ntara, Nicolasde Obando, 16 leagues to the n. of the capital, St.Domingo, on the skirt of some mountains whichare 12 leagues in height, and at the distance oftwo leagues from the river Yauna. It is a smalland poor town. Its commerce depends upon thesalting of meats, and in preparing tallow and hidesto carry to St. Domingo, and in the chase of wildgoats, which are sold to the French. In its moun-tains is a copper mine, two leagues to the s. e. ofthe town. The Bucaniers, a French people of theisland of Tortuga, commanded by Mr. Pouancy,their governor, took and sacked it in 1676. (In
1505, the gold mines were worked here. Thecopper mine above alluded to is in the mountain ofMeymon, whence comes the river of the samename, and is so rich, that the metal, when refined,will produce eight per cent, of gold. Here are alsofound excellent lapis lazuli, a streaked chalk, thatsome painters prefer to bole for gilding, load-stone, emeralds, and iron. The iron is of the bestquality, and might be conveyed from the chain ofSevico by means of the river Yuna. The soilhere is excellent, and the plantains produced hereare of such superior quality, that this manna of the
Antilles is called, at St. Domingo, Sunday plan-tains. The people cultivate tobacco, but arechiefly employed in breeding swine. The inhabi-tants are called clownish, and of an unsociablecharacter. The town is situated half a leaguefrom the s. w. bank of the Yuna, which becomesunnavigable near this place, about 13 leagues fromits mouth, in the bay of Samana. It contains 160scattered houses, in the middle of a little savana,and surrounded Avith woods, SO leagues n. of St.Domingo, and 15 s.e. of St. Yago.)
CORUCO. Sec Cabo.
COUPEE, a point of the coast and shore of theMississippi in Canada, [it is also called CutPoint, and is a short turn in the river Mississippi,about 35 miles above Mantchac fort, at the gut ofIbberville, and 259 from the mouth of the river.Charlevoix relates that the river formerly made agreat turn here, and some Canadians, by deepen-ing the channel of a small brook, diverted thewaters of the river into if, in the year 1722. Theimpetuosity of the stream was such, and the soilof so rich and loose a quality, that in a short timethe point was entirely cut through, and the oldchannel left dry, except in inundations ; by whichtravellers save 14 feagues of their voyage. Thenew channel has been sounded Avith a line of SOfathoms, without finding bottom. The Spanishsettlements of Point Coupee extend 20 miles on thew. side of the Mississippi, and there are some plan-tations back on the side of La Fause Riviere,through Avhich the Mississippi passed about 70years ago. The fort at Point Coupee is a square