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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


[ACAAY, a parish in Paraguay, situate on a small river which runs into the Río Paraguay. It is about 14 leagues SE of Asuncion. Lat. 25° 54' 7" S Long. 57° 25' W.]

ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru. It is very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the S. sea; is very barren, and situate between the promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat. 70° 29' S [Long. 18° 35' W.]

ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. America, on the E coast of Canada, between the island or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 100 leagues in length from N W S E and nearly 80 in width, from NE to SW from the gulph of St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither from England by Henry VII. The French, under the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. Maloes, established themselves here in 1534, in order to carry on a codfishery on the bank of Newfoundland; and in 1604, Peter Guest, a gentleman of the household of Henry IV of France, was sent by that king to establish a colony, which he founded at Port Royal. The English entered it under Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant which had been made to this person by Queen Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. In 1621 King James I made a donation of it to the Earl of Stirling; and in 1627 the French, commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made themselves masters of it, destroying all the establishments of the English, who were obliged to surrender it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Germains. The French shortly afterwards lost it; a Governor Philip having taken possession of it; but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace of Riswick, in 1697, to consider which should be the limits of Nova Scotia and New England; and in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the English, who afterwards returned to it. This beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes; the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked with fish: there are also many woods, full of excellent timber, and thronged with very singular birds; as, for instance, the Colibri, or hummingbird, and various others. The same woods abound in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The capital is Port Royal.— [The name of Acadia was first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th degree of N lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 1603, by Henry IV of France. For the present state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.]

ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Tancitaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more than 15 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable productions. — Eight leagues S of the capital.

ACAHILA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yamparaes in Peru, dependent on the archibishopric of Charcas, and annexed to the curacy of S. Christobal de Pilcomayo.

ACAIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Churin.

ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán. It contains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. In its district there are other small settlements or wards.— Seven leagues S of its capital.

ACAMISTLAHUAC, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tasco, annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it is distant two leagues to the E N E. It contains 30 Indian families.

ACAMUCHITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian families, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. It produces also maize, and cultivates many vegetable productions. — Five leagues N of its head settlement.

ACAMON, a river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It arises in the serranias of Usupama; runs W N W and enters the Caroni.

ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among which are included those of another settlement in its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by manufacturing cotton stuffs.

ACANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which lie towards the N and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tiburon and the bay of Calidonia.

ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W [It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.]

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river Hudson. It is small, but has a great tradefrom the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. Itcontains 350 houses, buiH afterthe Dutch fashion ;and that of the magistracy, which consists ofa mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is verybeautiful. The city is defended by a regular fortwith four bastions, the rest of the fortification con-sisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alli-ances have been made with the Indians. It wastaken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to thisprovince by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles «.of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank,and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, byenumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, ofwhich 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inha-bitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style,with the gable end to the street, which custom thefirst se^ttlers brought from Holland; the newhouses arc built in the modern style. Its inhabit-ants are collected from various parts of tlie world,and speak a great variety of languageJ^, but theEnglish predominates ; and the use of efery otheris gradually lessening. Albany is urfrivalled forsituation, being nearly at the head of sloop navi-gation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world.It enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural em-porium of the increasing trade of a large extent ofcountry ay. and w. — a country of an excellent soil,abounding in every article for the W. Indiamarket; plentifully watered with navigable lakes,creeks, Snd rivers ; settling with unexampled rapid-ity ; and capable of aftbrdingsubsistenceto millionsof inhabitants. The public buildings are, a lowDutch church, of ancient and very curious con-struction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presby-terians, one for Germans'or Higli Dutch, and onefor Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a hand-some brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry II udson,whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boatto Aurnnla, the spot on which Albany now stands.The improvements in this city have, of lateyears, been very great in almost all respects.Wharfs have been built on the river, the streetshave been paved, a bank instituted, a new andhandsome style of building introduced. One milen. of this city, in its suburbs, near the manor-houseof lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are veryingeniously constructed extensive and usefulworks, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappeesnuff, roll and cut tobacco of dilferent kinds,chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, split-pease, and hulled barley. These valuable worksare the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who un-fortunately lost a complete set of similar works byfire, in Jidy 1791, with the stock, valued at

37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy ofremark, and is evincive of the industry and enter-prise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre«sent buildings and machinery were begun andcompleted in the short space of eleven mouths.These works are decidedly superior to any of thekind in America. All the articles above enume-rated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manu-factured by the aid of water machinery. For theinvention of this machinery, the proprietor hasobtained a patent. These Avorks give employ-ment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a num-ber of workmen.] Long. 73° 42' w. Lat. 42°40' n.

Albania, or Albany, a large river of NewFrance, which takes its rise from the lake Chris-tinaux, runs n. e. and enters the sea at Hudson’sbay.

Albania, or Albany, a fortress in New SouthWales, N. America. [Lat. 32° 17' n. Long. 81°51' a;.]

ALBARICOQUES, Point of the, a cape onthe n. coast, in the head settlement of the islandof Santo Domingo, and in the French territories.It lies between the Trou d’Enfers and Cape Bom-bon.

ALBARRACIN, Desert of, a very loftymountain, always covered with snow, in tlie newkingdom of Granada.

ALBARRADA, a settlement of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile, situate on the shore of theriver Cauchupil.

Albarrada, another settlement, with the dedi-catory title of San Miguel, in the head settlementof the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor ofTentitlan, in Nueva España. It contains 22Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its headsettlement.

ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant riverof the new kingdom of Granada, which descendsfrom the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the coun-try and the city of Merida, running n. of thiscity until it enters the lake Maracaibo.

ALBEMARLE, a county of the province andcolony of N. Carolina, and that part of it whichis most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It pro-duces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and thewinter is very temperate. This colony was esta-blished in 1670 by the lords and proprietors of it,who equipped, at their own expence, three ships,and a coiisiderable number of persons, with provi-sions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchan-dize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment ;to which they sent resources yearly, in the pro-portion . required, until it appeared tube in a fit

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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,

ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir- ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha- bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]

Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.

ALBERTO, a small settlement or ward of the head settlement of the district of Tlazintla, and alcafdia mayor of Ixmiqailpan, in Nueva Espana.

[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow- smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis- sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre- tended rights acquired by certain European na- tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig- nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of

commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea- sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]

ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.

ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle- ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.

Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]

Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.

ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre- gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.

ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua- temala, in the division and district of that city.

ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.

ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work- shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.

Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle- ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.

ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay- man and Gomez.

ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).

ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.

ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the

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nardo. On the shore at its mouth the French,under Robert la Sale, made their first establish-ment in the year 1683.

(CANELON, a town of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres, situate on a branch ofthe river of the same name, about seven leaguesn. of Monte Video. Lat. 34° 35' 23" s. Long.56° 15' w.)

CANELONES, River of the, in the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres. It runs to thes. and enters the sea on the coast of the Rio de laPlata, on the side of Monte Video.

CANELOS, a large province of the kingdomof Quito, discovered by Gonzalo Pizarro in theyear 1540, who gave it this name on account ofthe quantity of cinnamon trees found in it, whichgrow very strong, shedding an odour somethinglike camphor, and very pungent. This cinnamon,which is called raspado, is carried to Quito, andsold at six reals a pound, being made use of in-stead of the fine cinnamon. A small viper is fre-quently met with in it of the same colour as thecinnamon, and extremely venomous. This pro-vince is uncultivated, full of impenetrable forestsand rivers, and contains only one settlement of thesame name, on the n. shore of the river Bobonaza,in which is the port of Canoas, and the residenceof a religious Dominican, who is the curate ofthose few miserable Indians. In lat. 1° 32' 20" s.

CANES AND Canches, a province and cor-regiminto of Peru, bounded on the e. by Cara-baya, towards the town of Mauclani, on the s. Lampa in the cordillera of Villacanota, onthe s. by Cailloma, s. e. by a part of the provinceof Condesuios of Arequipa, w. by Chumbivilca,being divided by the river Apurimac, and n. Quispicanchi. It is in length from n. to s.30 leagues, and 15 in width : Its climate is, forthe greater part, extremely cold, on account ofits being nearly covered with mountains of snow ;nevertheless they cultivate here barley, maize,potatoes, cavi, and quinoa; and in the warm parts,which consist of uneven and broken grounds nearthe rivers, some kinds of fruit, though in no abun-dance. Here also are great quantities of animalswhich breed upon the mountains from the luxu-riance of the pastures ; and of these are the vigog-nes, huanacos, and viscachas, which latter are aspecies of hare or rabbit ; deer also, and par-tridges, abound here. In the rivers are foundbagres a foot in length. The principal riverswhich water this province, are the Vilcamayo,which runs from the province of Quispicanchi,into which runs another flowing down from thesnowy sierras on the e. part called Combapata.

This river has a stone bridge, and descends fromthe heights of Cailloma. This province has manylakes, which are filled with water-fowl, such asducks, widgeons, and others ; these birds arefound more particularly in lake Lanchug, which isthree leagues long and one and a half broad, andin it there is also found the load-stone. Linencloth is fabricated here. In the district of SanPedro de Cacha, in a place called Rache, there isan ancient and grand edifice with nine gates, halfof the walls of which, as high as the first stories,are made of carved stone ; the rest of the edificebeing of earth upon five galleries of stone, formingas it were so many other walls. This building issaid to have served as a temple in Viracocha in thetime of the gentilism of the Indians. At a smalldistance there is an artificial lake with aqueductswhich keep it always at a proper height ; thislake is situate upon a black mountain, which maybe about two leagues in circumference ; also inthe same vicinity are vestiges of a considerablepopulation, and here is found a mineral earthfrom which they fabricate jars, large pitchers, and other vessels, which are carried to be sold in theneighbouring provinces. In this province aremany mines of silver, but they are not worked, onaccount of their being some of them filled withwater, and some of them broken in, with the ex-ception, however, of those of Condoroma, which,although they have experienced the former ca-lamity, do not fail to render yearly many marksof gold, a pretty good testimony of their riches.Great indeed have been the labour and expence inthe attempts to empty them of the water, but inthis they have not as yet succeeded. Here are alsofour good sugar-mills ; and in the jurisdiction ofthe town of Yauri, are two mines of copper, whichare worked : Some gold mines also are not wanting,although they be of little note. In the establish-ment of Condoroma it is not unusual to expe-rience, in the tempests of thunder and lightning,a sort of prickly sensation on the hands and feetand other parts of the body, which they call mos-cas, or flies, without, however, being able todiscover any of these insects ; and it should seemthat the effect is to be attributed to the state of theatmosphere, since the heads' of canes, buckles,and silver or gold galloons, though during suchtimes highly affected by the electric matter, ceaseto be so on the cessation of the tempest. The in-habitants of this province amount to 18,000 souls, dwelling in 24 settlements, which are,

Sicuani, Tunganuca,

San Pablo, Yanacoa,

Chacuyupi, Layo,

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C A R I B E.

It was formerly a very rich tract of land, si-tuate on the shore of the river Cazanare, a streamwhich crosses and stops the pass into the coun-try and for this reason there was a consider-able establishment formed here by persons whobelonged to tlie curacy of Santa Rosa de Chire.Its temperature is hot, but it is very fertile, andabounds in productions, which serve to provide forthe other settlements belonging to the same mis-sions : at present it is under the care of the reli-gious order of St. Domingo.

CARIBANA, a large country, at the presentday called Guayana Maritania, or Nueva Anda-iucia Austral. It extends from the mouth of theriver Orinoco to the mouth of the Marahon ; com-prehends the Dutch colonies of Esquibo, Surinam,and Berbice, and the French colony of Cayenne.It takes its name from the Caribes Indians, whoinhabit it, and who are very fierce and cruel,although upon amicable terms with the Dutch.Nearly the whole of this province is uncultivated,full of woods and mountains, but watered bymany rivers, all of which run for the most partfrom s. to e. and empty themselves into the sea ;although some flow from s. ton. and enter the Ori-noco. The climate, though warm and humid, ishealthy ; the productions, and the source of itscommerce, are sugar-cane, some cacao, wild wax,and incense. The coast, inhabited by Europeans,forms the greater part of this tract of country, ofwhich an account will be found under the respec-tive articles.

Caribana, a port on the coast of Tierra Firme,in the province and government of Darien, at theentrance of the gulf of Uraba.

CARIBE, a small port of the coast of TierraFirme, in the province and government of Vene-zuela, to the w. of cape Codera.

Caribe, Caribbee, or Charaibes, someislands close upon the shore of the province andgovernment of Cumana, near the cape of TresPuntas. [The Caribbee islands in the West In-dies extend in a semicircular form from the islandof Porto Rico, the easternmost of the Antilles, tothe coast of S. America. The sea, thus inclosedby the main land and the isles, is called the Ca-ribbean sea; and its great channel leads n. zo. tothe head of the gulf of Mexico through the sea ofHonduras. The chief of these islands are, SantaCruz, Sombuca, Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Bar-tholomew, Barbuda, Saba, St. Eustatia, St. Chris-topher, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadalupe,Dcseada, Mariagalante, Dominica, Martinica,St. Vincent, Barbadoes, and Grenada. These areagain classed into Windward and Leeward isles bv

seamen, with regard to the usual courses of shipsfrom Old Spain or the Canaries to Cartagenaor New Spain and Porto Bello. The geographi-caltablesand maps class them into Great and LittleAntilles ; and authors vary much concerning thislast distinction. See Antilles. The Charaibesor Caribbecs were the ancient natives of the Wind-ward islands ; hence many geographers confine theterm to these isles only. Most of these were an-ciently possessed by a nation of cannibals, the ter-ror of the mild anti inotfensive inhabitants of His-paniola, who frequently expressed to Columbustheir dread of these fierce invaders. Thus, whenthese islands were afterwards discovered by thatgreat man, they were denominated Charibbeanisles. The insular Charaibs are supposed to beimmediately descended from the Galibis Indians,or Charaibes of S. America. An ingenious andlearned attempt to trace back the origin of the Ca-ribes to some emigrants from the ancient hemis-phere may be found in Bryan Edwards ; and itis to the valuable work of this author that we areindebted for the following illustrations of the man-ners and customs of this people. — The Caribesare avowedly of a fierce spirit and warlike dispo-sition. Historians have not failed to notice theseamong the most distinguishable of their qualities.Dr. Robertson, in Note X Cl II. to the first vol. ofhisHistory of America, quotes from a MS. Historyof Ferdinand and Isabella, Avrittenby Andrew Ber-naldes, the cotemporary and friend of Columbus,the folloAving instance of the bravery of the Caribes :A canoe with four men, two Avomen, and a boy, un-expectedly fell in with Columbus’s fleet. A Spanish,bark with 25 men was sent to take them; and the fleet,in the mean time, cut off their communication withthe shore. Instead of giving way to despair, theCaribes seized their arms with imdauntcd resolu-tion, and began the attack, wounding several ofthe Spaniards, although they had targets as wellas other defensive armour ; and even after thecanoe was overset, it was with no little difficultyand danger that some of them Avere secured, asthey continued to defend themselves, and to usetheir bows with great dexterity while swimmingin the sea. Herrera has recorded the same anec-dote. Restless, enterprising, and ardent, it wouldseem they considered war as the chief end of theircreation, and the rest of the human race as theirnatural prey ; for they devoured, without re-morse, the bodies of such of their enemies (themen at least) as fell into their hands. Indeed,there is no circumstance in the history of mankindbetter attested than the universal prevalence ofthese practices among them. Columbus was not]

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320 CAR

close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they arethree in number, small and desert.

CARNERO, Punta del, a point on the coastof the S. sea, and of the province and governmentof Guayaquil ; one of the two which form thegreat bay of Tumbez. It is close to the point ofSanta Elena.

Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coastof the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extend-ing itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. Thee. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerousto be passed.

Carnero, Punta del, another point of landon the coast of the same kingdom.

Carnero, Punta del, a port of the coast ofthe kingdom of Chile, between tlie mouth of theriver Lebo and the point of Rumena.

(CARNESVILLE, the chief town of Franklincounty, Georgia, 100 miles n. w. of Augusta. Itcontains a court-house, and about 20 dwelling-houses.)

CAROLINA, a province of N. America, andpart of that extensive country anciently calledFlorida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the trueFlorida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic.It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its ex-tent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. ton. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30®to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by JuanPonce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settledby the Spaniards then, but abandoned until thereign of Charles IX. king of France, when theFrench established themselves in it, under thecommand of admiral Chatilon, protector of theProtestants. He founded a colony and a fort call-ed Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina tothe country, in lionour to his monarch. This es-tablishment, however, lasted but a short time, forit was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put tothe sword the new colonists, and went away underthe impression that they had now left the countryin a perfectly abandoned state. But the English,at this time, were maintaining a footing here, un-der the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, thoughthey were not under any formal establishmentuntil the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when thecountry was granted as a property to the followingnobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke ofAlbemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, JohnAshley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, GeorgeCarteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley;by these it was divided into as many counties,and by them names were given to the rivers, settle-ments, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and


jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. andthey had an absolute authority to form establish-ments and governments, according to the laws andstatutes laid down by that famous and renownedphilosopher John Locke ; accordingly the govern-ment partook largely of the despotic, and therulers had the power of acknowledging or renounc-ing laws, of conferring titles, employments, pro-motions, and dignities, according to their owncaprice. They divided the population into threeclasses: The first was composed of those entitledthe Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acresof land; the second were two lordships, with thetitle of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ;and the third, who were called Landgraves, a titlecorresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000acres. This last body formed the high council-chamber, and the lower was composed of the re-presentatives of the counties and cities, both ofthese together forming the parliament, this beingthe real title, and not assembly, as in the othercolonies. The first establishment was the city ofCharlestown, between two navigable rivers calledAshley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylumto the Europeans, who on account of religiousdisturbances fled from Europe, and who havingsuffered great distresses there, had afterwards toencounter a very unfriendly reception from theIndians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728,when this city was taken under the protection ofthe English crown ; a corresponding recompencehaving been paid to the lords, the proprietors, whoyielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ;the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keep-ing his eighth share. From that time it was divid-ed into two parts, called North and South. The cli-mate differs but little from that of Virginia, al-though the heat in the summer is rather morepowerful here ; the winter, however, is shorterand milder ; the temperature is serene and theair healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are fre-quent, and this is the only part of this continentwherein have been experienced hurricanes; althoughthey are but rare here, and never so violent as in theislands. The half of March, the whole of April,May, and the greater part of June, the season ismild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearlyall September, the heat is intense ; but the winteris so mild, especially when the wind prevails,that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fer-tile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and allkinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisiteflavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, iscovered with all kinds of trees. The principal

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CASONA, a river of the province of Guayana :it runs e. and enters the Esquivo,

CASPANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Atacama, and of the archbishopricof Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to the curacy ofChiuchiu.

(CASPEAN, or Beautiful, a small lake inGreensborough, Vermont. It has Hazen block-house on its w. side. It is a head water of LaMoille river.)

CASPIYACU, a small river of the provinceand government of Mainas in the kingdom of Qui-to ; it runs from s. s. e, to n. n, w. and enters theYana at its sources.

(CASQUIPIBIAC, a river on the n. side of Cha-leur bay, about a league from Black cape, n. n. in the bottom of Casquipibiac cove, at thedistance of about one league from which is thegreat river of Casquipibiac. It lies about w, fromthe former, and affords a small cod and salmonfishery.)

(CASSITAH, an Indian town in the w. part ofGeorgia; which, as well as the Coweta town, is60 miles below the Horse ford, on Chattahouseeriver.)

CASTA, San Pedro de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Coquimbo in thekingdom of Chile : it runs n. n. e. and enters theMames near the sea-coast.

(CASTAHANA, Indians of N. America, whoresemble the Dotames, except that they tradeprincipally Avith the Crow Indians, and that theywould most probably prefer visiting an establish-ment on the Yellow Stone river, or at its mouth onthe Missouri.)

CASTEENS, a small river of the province ofSagadohook : it runs s. and enters the sea in thebay of Penobscot. On its shore and at its mouth isa settlement of Indians, where the English have afort and an establishment.

CASTELA, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Moxos in the king-dom of Quito, being formed from those of the Beniand Paravari ; it afterwards unites itself with thatoftheYtenes, and changes its name to Madera,which joins the Maranon on the s. side, in lat. 3°13' 18" s.

CASTELLANOS, Puerto, a port in the largeisland of San Sebastian, and near the coast of Bra-zil, and province and captainship of San Vin-cente.

CASTILLA, Santo Tomas de, a settlementof the province and government of Honduras in thekingdom of Guatemala. Its port is good, and wellfrequented with vessels.

CASTILLA DEL ORO. See Tierra Firme*

CASTILLO, a river of the province and districtof Quillota in the kingdom of Chile : it runs w-and joins the Pcrquilabquien to enter the Lon-gamilla.

Castillo, a port of the coast, in the same pro-vince and kingdom, between the former river andthe port Valparaiso.

Castillo, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of thecity of Cordova ; situate on the shores of the riverTercero, near the mouth Avhere this enters the Sa-ladillo.

CASTILLOS Grandes, an island of the pro-vince and captainship of Rey in Brazil. It is verynear the coast, between the cape Santa Maria ofthe river La Plata and the cape of Las Yncas;the Portuguese have a fort in it.

Castillos Grandes, another island, withthe addition of Chicos, to distinguish it from theother in the same province and kingdom, and ata little distance from the above island.

Castillos Grandes, a point of land or ex-tremity of the island of Guadalupe, opposite thoseof Deseada and of Marigalante.- It is thus calledfrom two castles which it has in it.

(CASTINE, the shire town of Hancock county,district of Maine, is situate on Penobscot bay. Itwas taken from the town of Penobscot, and incor-porated in Feb. 1796. It is named after a Frenchgentleman who resided here ISO years ago, asalso)

(Castine River, which is about 14 mileslong, is navigable lor six miles, and has severalmills at the head of it. It empties into Penobscotbay.)

(CASTLE Island. See Crooked Island.)

(CASTLETOWN, a township in Richmondcounty, Stateti island, New York, which contains805 inhabitants, including 114 slaves; 114 of itsinhabitants are electors.)

(CASTLETON, a township and river in Rut-land county, Vermont, 20 miles s. e. of mount In-dependence at Ticonderoga. Lake Bombazon ischiefly in this town, and sends its waters into Cas-tleton river, which, rising in Pittsford, passesthrough this town in a s. westerley course, and failsinto Pultney river in the town of Fairhaven, a littlebelow Colonel Lyon’s iron Avorks. Fort War-ner stands in thistoAvn. Inhabitants 805.)

(CASTOR’S River, in Newfoundland island,empties in the harbour of St. John’s. Its size isconsiderable for 15 miles from the sea.)

(Castor, Estanque del, a lake of the pro-vince and colony of Virginia, on the shore of the

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certain seasons of tlie year it is so filled withfish, for seven leagues from its mouth, that theIndians are accustomed to harpoon them from theshores.

Cauten, a point of land, or cape, which is oneof those which form the entrance of the formerriver.

CAUTO, a settlement of the s. coast of the islandof Cuba; situate on the shore of a river whichbears the same name.

CAUX, Montanas de, mountains in the pro-vince and government of French Guinea, whichrun along the shore of a river of the same name, be-tween the rivers Orapu and Aprovaque.

(CAVALLO, as some erroneously spell it, asea-port town in the province of Venezuela, inTierra Firme. Lat. 10'’ 28'. Long. G8° 8'. SeeCabello Pderto and Cavello Puerto.)

(CAVAILLON, a town on the s. side of thes. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo, aboutthree leagues n. e. of Les Cayes, and five w. by s.of St. Louis. Lat. 18° 18' w.)

(CAVELLO, Puerto, Borburata. Oneleague e. of Puerto Cavello, was originally the onlyresort of vessels trading to this part of Venezuela.Puerto Cavello was merely frequented by smugglers,fishermen, and the outcasts of the interior. Theold town is surrounded by tlic sea, excepting aspace of a few fathoms to tlie w. ; through whichthey have now cut a canal communicating to thesea on the n. of the town to that on the s. ; thusforming an island, the egress being by a bridgewith a gate which is shut every evening, and atwhich is placed the principal guard. This islandbeing too small for the increasing population,houses were built on a tongue of land to the w. ofthe town, which was the only part free from inun-dation ; and this has now become the residence ofthe merchants, and the principal place. The totalpopulation of Puerto Cavello is 7600, of which,excepting the military and the officers of govern-ment, none are of the nobility. The whites aregenerally employed in trade and navigation ; thechief correspondence being with the ports of thecontinent or the neighbouring colonies ; for, al-though the port has been open from 1798 to thetrade of the metropolis, there is as yet but. littlecommunication with it. Of about 60 vessels trad-ing to this place, 20 at least are from Jamaica, and20 from Cura 9 oa, whilst only four or five are fromSpain. According to the custom-house books, thecargoes of these veesels are of little value ; but therevenue is defrauded, and the vessels discharge theirlading on the coast before entering the port. Thisplace supplies all the w. part of Venezuela,


and the jurisdiction of Valencia, San Carlos, Bari-quisimeto, San Felipe, and a part of the valleys ofAragoa. About 20 Europeans engross the w holetrade. All vessels trading to the neighbourhoodresort here for repairs, and nothing but the un-wholsoraeness of the air prevents Puerto Cavellobecoming the most important port in America.This insalubrity arises from the exhalations fromthe rain water that accumulates in a clayey marshto the s. of the city. It is particularly fatal tothose who are not seasoned to the climate. In1793 a Spanish squadron anchored at Puerto Ca-vello ; but in six months of its stay, it lost one-thirdof the crew; and in 1802 a French squadron in20 days lost 16 i officers and men. It has beencomputed that 20,000 piastres fortes would be suf-ficient to drain this tatal marsh. The inhabitantsare supplied by conduits with water from a riverthat runs into the sea one- fourth of a league w. ofthe town. A military commander is also at thehead of the police, and is likewise the administra-tor of justice, his decisions being subject to an ap-peal to the royal audience. The people have de-manded the establishment of a cahildo, but withoutsuccess. They obtained in 1800 a single alcalde ywho is appointed annually ; but great inconveni-ences have been found to arise from this arrange-ment.

There is no convent, and but one church, inPuerto Cavello. The foundation of another churchwas begun, but for want of funds it has not beehcompleted. There is a military hospital, and an-other for the poor. The garrison consists of acompany of the regiment of Caracas in time ofpeace ; but daring war it is reinforced from themilitia and troops of the line. 'I'hcre arc from 300to 400 galley-slaves always employed onthepiiblicworks.

Puerto Cavello is 30 leagues from Caracas,in embarking for La Guaira, and 48 leaguesin the direction of Valencia, Maracay, Tulraero,La Victoria, atid San Pedro. Reaumur’s thermo-meter is generally in August at 26°, and in Janu-ary from 18° to 19°. Lat. 10° 20' «. Long. 70*30' w. of Paris. See Puerto Cabello.)

(CAVENDISH, a township in Windsor county,Vermont, w. of Wcathersfield, on Black river,having 491 inhabitants. Upon this river, andwithin this township, the channel has been worndown 100 feet, and rocks of very large dimensionshave been undermined and thrown down one uponanother. Holes are wrought in the rocks of va-rious dimensions and forms ; some cylindrical,from one to eight feet in diameter, and from one to15 feet in depth ; others are of a spherical form.

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place on the 12th of January 1809 ; the Englishin this brave contest having been commanded byLieutenant-colonel Marques, and Captain Yeo.JBesides the capital tliere are in this island thetowns of Armire, inhabited by Jews, as likewisethose of Matuiri, Matahuri, Courrou, and Cona-nama, inhabited by French, Negroes, Mustees, andMulattoes ; but few by Indians, these living for themost part retired in the mountains and Avoods tothe s. These towns were converted to the faith bythe society of the Jesuits, who had here establisheda mission, Avhich afterwards fell to decay.

(The province of Cayenne is bounded on the the Dutch colony of Surinam; w. by tlie woodsand mountains inhabited by barbarians, and s. bythe country of the Portuguese on the borders of theMaranon.) The principal rivers which water it,and which empty themselves into the Atlanticocean, are the Cabo, Apurvaca, Cayenne, Vuya,and Barca. Its chief commerce is in sugar, Avhichis manufactured in various mills by the Negroes.(In 1752 the exports of the colony were 260,541 lbs.of arnotto, 80,365 lbs. sugar, 17,919 lbs. cotton,26,881 lbs. coffee, 91,916 lbs. cacao, beside timberand planks.)

Cayenne, the capital of the above island, issmall, well built, and populous. It is at the n.point of the island, at the foot of the castle of Sanljuis, and defended by two other redoubts, the onecalled Courrow, and the other Sinarari, with ahandsome, convenient, and large port ; the greaterpart of the houses, which amount to about 200, arebuilt of wood. Besides the parish called San Sal-vador, there is a fine one which belonged to the Je-suits, as also an excellent house for the governor.The form of the city is an irregular hexagon, wellfortified ; in Lat. 5“ n. Long. 52° 16' w.

Cayenne, a river of the above province, (whichrises in the mountains near the lake of Parime, runsthrough the country of the Galibis, a nation ofCaribe Indians, and is 100 leagues long; theisland which it environs being 18 leagues in circuit.)

(CAYES, Les, a sea-port town on the s. side ofthe s. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo, 13leagues w. by s. of St. Louis. Lat. 18° 12' n.)

CAYETANO, San , a settlement of the provinceand government of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; situate on the mountain of the di-vision of Maria ; six leagues to the n. n. e. of theswamp which takes the name of this town. It isone of those new establishments founded in the year1776 by the Governor Don Juan Pimienia.

Cayetano San, another settlement of the pro-vince and government of La Sonora in NuevaEspaña; situate in the country of the Sobaipuris

Indians, on the banks of a river between the settle-ments of San Louis, and San Francisco Xavier.

Cayetano San, another settlement of the pro-vince and captainship of Rey in Brazil ; situate onthe shore of the Rio Grande.

(CAYLOMA, a jurisdiction under the bishop ofArequipa, 32 leagues e. of that city, in S. America,in Peru, famous for the silver mines in the moun-tains of the same name, which are very rich,though they have been worked for a long time.The country round it is cold and barren. Thereis an office here for receiving the king’s fifths andvending quicksilver. See Cailloma.)

(CAYMANS, three small islands, 55 leaguesn. n. w. of the island of Jamaica, in the West Indiesthe most s. of which is called the Great Caymans,which is inhabited by 160 people, who are descend-ants of the old Buccaniers. It has no harbour forships of burden, only a tolerable anchoring placeon the s. w. The climate and soil are singularlysalubrious, and the people are vigorous, and com-monly live to a great age. 'I'hey raise all kinds ofproduce for their own use and to spare. Theirchief employment is to pilot vessels to the adjacentislands, and to fish for turtle ; with w hich last theysupply Port Royal and other places in great quan-tities. Great Caymans lies in Lat. 19° 15' n. Long.81° 33' w.)

(CAYMITE, Grande, an island on the n. sideof the s. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo,two leagues long and one broad.)

(CAYUGA, a beautiful lake in Onondaga,county, Ncav York, from 35 to 40 miles long,about two miles wide, in some places three, andabounds with salmon, bass, cat-fish, eels, &c. Itlies between Seneca and Owasco lake, and at the n.end empties into Scayace river, which is the 5 . e.part of Seneca river, Avhose waters run to lake On-tario. On each side of the lake is a ferry-house,where good attendance is given. The reservationlands of the Cayuga Indians lie on both sides of thelake, at its n. end.)

CAZAPE, or Cazapa, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay ; situate to thes. of the town of Espiritu Santo.

(CAZARES, a town of Mexico. See Angelo.)

CAZAUTAS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Antioquía ; situate in the sierraMorena, on the shore of an arm of the river SanJorge.

(CAZENOVIA, a new and thriving townshipin Herkemer county, New York, 40 miles w. ofWhitestown. By the state census of 1796, 274 ofits inhabitants are electors.)

CAZERES, San Augustin de, or San Martin

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CHACARMARCA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Vilcas Huaman inPeru.

CHACARO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Tanibobamba.

CHACAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Conchucos in Peru.

CHACAYACU, a river of the province ofQuixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs frome. to w. then turns its course to s. w. and shortlyafter, passing tlirough the settlement of Loreto,enters the river Suno on its w. shore.

CHACCUMAS, a settlement of South Caro-lina, situate on the shore of a small river. TheEnglish have a fort and establishment in it.

CHACHAGUI. See Tambo Pintado.

CHACHAPOIAS, a province and corregimientoof Peru ; bounded e. and s. by the mountains ofthe infidel Indians, n. w. by the provinces ofLuya and Chillaos, and w. by C.axaraarca. Itsgreatest length is 38 leagues from n. w. to s. e. andits breadth is nearly as great. Its temperatuse isfor the most part mild, though in some places ex-ceedingly hot, and in others equally cold, since abranch of the cordillera intersects it. Upon thisaccount also it abounds greatly in all productions,such as wheat, maize, and other seeds, and in allkinds of herbs and fruits. It produces a good pro-portion of sugar ; but the principal sources of itscommerce are cotton and tobacco ; these produc-tions belonging peculiarly to the district of Mayo-bamba, three leagues distant to the s. e. and beingheld in great estimation. The women spin cot-ton, of which they manufacture canvass for thesails of ships, also for bags : they spin likewiseanother sort of delicate thread, of which theymake linen for garments ; the men employingtliemselves in the looms and in the cultivation ofcotton and tobacco : of this they used to gatheryearly 600 measures, consisting of 200 mazos orrollos each, each mazo being valued at one real.At present less is cultivated, from the prohibitionof commerce, so that the settlement has becomemuch poorer, and the price of the cotton for mak-ing sails is now at two reals per lb. ; thougli thatwhich is very fine, at a dollar. As there is no cur-rent coin, the inhabitants make barters in kind forthe necessaries they want. Thus also they pay liieirtributes, duties, and taxes ; and the treaties amongstthem for canvass and linen cloths are consequentlyvery large, the prices being regulated amongstthemselves. They cultivate coca, and with thisthey supply some of the neighbouring provinces.


They breed cattle of every sort, horses, sheep, andcows ; of whose hides, when tanned and dried bythe fire, they manufacture trunks, saddles, chests,&c. It has but a tew mines, and of these, oneonly is gold, and a few of salt are worked. It iswatered by several rivers ; but the principal arethe Moyobamba and the Uccubaraba. Its inha-bitants amount to 10,000, and are divided into 43settlements. Its reparti mi etHo amounted to 32,000dollars ; and it paid nearly 256 for alcavala,

San Juan de la Fron- Nixaque,tera, Corobamba,

Santa Ana, Pomacocha,

San Lazaro, Quispis,

El Santo Christo de Bur- Santo Tomas,



San Christoval de las Junvilla,

Balzas, Tiata,

Chuquibamba, Mitmas,

San Pedro de Utac, Yambrasbamba,

Santo Tomas de Guillai, Chirta,

San lldefonso, Yapa,

Tingo, Chiliquin,

Ponaya, Goncha,

La Magdalena, San Miguel de los 01-

Taupa, leros,

Yurraanca, Diosan,

Quinjalca, Yambajaica,

Coellcho, Tauli,

Vilaga, Casmal,

Moyobamba, city, Palanca,

Y rinari, Thoe,

Yantala, Huambo.


Chachapoias, a river of the above province,which runs «. w. and enters the Marafion.

CHACAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Condesuyos of Arequipa inPeru.

CHACHICHILCO, a settlement of the headsettlement of Aytitlan, and alcaldia mayor ofAmola, in Nueva España. It has very few inha-bitants, and lies 11 leagues to the w. of its headsettlement.

CHACHOPO, a small settlement of the go-vernment and jurisdiction of Maracaibo, is of amild temperature, and produces wheat, maize,papas, and fruits peculiar to the climate.

CHACHUAPA, a settlement and head settle-ment of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofNochiztlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 78families ot Indians, and is one league n. sy. of itscapital.

CHACILATACANA, San Francisco del

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CHACOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Huariaca.

CHACOTA,a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aricá in Peru ; situate close to theQuebada de Victor.

CHACRALLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Abucara.

CHACRAPAMPA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; annex-ed to the curacy of Huayama.

CHACTAHATCHE, a river of S. Carolina,which runs s. and enters the Chicachas.

CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of theIndian district of this name in Louisiana, in whichthe French had a fort and establishment. (TheChactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy,subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabita very fine and extensive tract of hilly country,with large and fertile plains intervening, betweenthe Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w.part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had,not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, inthree divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which4041 were fighting men. They are called by thetraders Flat-heads, all the males having the foreand hind part of their skulls artificially flattenedwhen young. These men, unlike the Muscogul-ges, are slovenly and negligent in every part oftheir dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious,sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yetquiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, how-ever, have observed that they pay little attentionto the most necessary rules of moral conduct, atleast that unnatural crimes were too frequent amongthem. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nationsbordering on the United States, they have largeplantations or country farms, where they employmuch of their time in agricultural improvements,after the manner of the Avhite people. Althoughtheir territories are not one-fburth so large as thoseof the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of in-habitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeksare inveterate enemies* to each other. There area considerable number of these Indians on the w.side of the Mississippi, who have not been homefor several years. A bout 12 miles above the postat Oachcta on that river, there is a small villageof them of about 30 men, who have lived there forseveral years, and made corn ; and likewise onBayau Chico, in the n. part of the district ofAppalousa, there is another village of them ofabout fifty men, who have been there for aboutnine years, and say they have the governor of

Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besidesthese, there are rambling hunting parties of themto be met with all over Lower Louisiana. Theyare at war with the Caddoques, and liked by. neither red nor white people.)

(Chactaw Hills, in the n. w. corner of Georgiariver.)

(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, wholive on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. ofBayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ;a small, honest people ; are aborigines of thecountry where they live; of men about 30 ; di-minishing; have their own peculiar tongue;speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on BayauBceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depthand richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasant-ness of surface, and goodness of water.. TheBayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and dischargesthrough Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilionbay.)

CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdictionof the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, is of the missions which were held thereof the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, andits climate is hot.

(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine,called by some Great Works river, about 30 milesfrom the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, fromwhich it flows. It is said to have taken its lattername from a mill with 18 saws, moved by onewheel, erected by one Lodors. But the projectwas soon laid aside. The former name is derivedfrom Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,,who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of thenatives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)

CHAGONAMIGON, a point on the s. coastof lake Superior, in New France.

CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Panamá in the king-dom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and sourcein the mountains near the valley of Pacora, andtakes its course in various directions, makingmany windings, which are called randa/es, until itenters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vesselscalled chatas, (having no keels), up as far as thesettlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for un-lading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greaterpart of the commerce being conducted by thismeans, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a badand rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It hasdifferent forts for the defence of its entrance ; thefirst is the castle of its name, at the entrance ormouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upona long strip of land formed by a river of this name ;and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb

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Black, Granville, Craven, and a half-moon; onthe n. a line, and in front of the river Ashley thebastion of Colliton, and the covered half-moon ofJohnson, with a draw-bridge to pass the line, andanother to pass the half-moon. Besides these worksof regular fortification, it has a fort erected upona point of land at the entrance of the river Ashley,which commands the channel and the vessels : butthe bastions, the palisade, and the ditch on theland-side, having suffered much damage in anhurricane, and it being thought by the GovernorNicholson, that they were of too great an extent todefend themselves, they were by his command de-stroyed. This city is, as it were, a continual fair,being the market for the fruits of the whole pro-vince : the streets are well projected, and the edi-fices are grand and of fine architecture, especiallythe church, which is magnificent, spacious, andone of the best in all N . America : there are severalother churches belonging to different sects, and theFrench protestants have a very fine one in the prin-cipal street. The town consists of 800 housesbuilt of wood as to the greater part, although thereare some of stone ; all of them having glass win-dows, and manifesting a degree of elegance and or-nament in their structure : is the residence of thegovernor of the province, and in it is held the ge-neral assembly and the tribunal of judicature.Here are many rich nobles and opulent merchants,and almost all its inhabitants exhibit a costly ap-pearance, and live in a state of consummate luxury.It has a public library, which owes its establishmentto Doctor Thomas Bray. The liberty of con-science enjoyed in this city, and which was grantedto its inhabitants a short time after its foundation,caused it to become very populous. This effectwas further heightened by the extensive commerceit enjoyed ; and thus has it, with many other qua-lities of pre-eminence, become one of the finest set-tlements in America.

[Charleston, the metropolis of S. Carolina,is the most considerable town in the state; situatein the district of the same name, and on the tongueof land formed by the confluent streams of Ashleyand Cowper, which are short rivers, but large andnavigable. These waters unite immediately belowthe city, and form a spacious and convenient har-bour, which communicates with the ocean just be-low Sullivan’s island, which it leaves on. the n. sevenmiles s, e. of Charleston. In these rivers the tiderises in common about six feet and a half; but uni-formly rises 10 or 12 inches more during a nighttide. The fact is certain ; the cause unknown.The continual agitation which the tides occasionin the waters which almost surround Charleston,

the refreshing sea-breezes which are regularly felt,and the smoke arising from so many chimneys,render this city more healthy than any part of thelow country in the s. states. On this account it isthe resort of great numbers of gentlemen invalidsfrom the W. India islands, and of the rich plantersfrom the country, who come here to spend thesickly months, as they are called, in quest of healthand of the social enjoyments whicli the city affords ;and in no part of America are the social blessingsenjoyed more rationally and liberally than here.The following statement exhibits the greatest andleast height of Fahrenheit’s thermometer for severalyears past in Charleston.





























' 89
































State of the weather for 1807, ending Decem-ber 31.

Thermometer, highest~ ’ lowest

92^ SO'


58° 15'

30° 1' to 30° 77'

1 to 13142 inches IfN.E. S.W,





Ditto meanBarometerHygrometerFall of rainPrevailing windsDays of rain

Do. of thunderDo. of snow

Unaffected hospitality — affability — ease of man-ners and address — and a disposition to make theirguests welcome, easy, and pleased with themselves,are characteristics of the respectable people ofCharleston. In speaking of the capital, it oughtto be observed, for the honour of the people ofCarolina in general, that when, in common with theother colonies, in the contest with Britain, they re-solved against the use of certain luxuries, and evennecessaries of life, those articles which improve themind, enlarge the understanding, and correct thetaste, were excepted ; the importation of bookswas permitted as formerly. The land on whichthe town is built is flat and low, and the waterbrackish and unwholesome. The streets are prettyregularly cut, and open beautiful prospects, andhave subterranean drains to carry off’ filth and keep]

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CHATACANCHA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Olleros.

(CHATA-HATCHI, or Hatchi, is the largestriver which falls into St. Rose’s bay in W. Florida.It is also called Pea river, and runs from n. e. en-tering the bottom of the bay through severalmouths, but so shoal that only a small boat orcanoe can pass them. Mr. Hutchins ascended thisriver about 25 leagues, where there was a smallsettlement of Coussac Indians. The soil and tim-ber on the banks of the river resemble very muchthose of Escambia.)

CHATAHOUCHI, a settlement of Indians ofGeorgia, in which the English have an establish-ment. It is situate on the shore of the river Apala-chicola.

CHATAS, some islands of the N. sea, whichare very small and desert, and lie to the n. of theisland of Ynagua.

(CHATAUCHE, or Chatahuthe, a river inGeorgia. The n. part of Apalachiola river bearsthis name. It is about SO rods wide, very rapid,and full of shoals. The lands on its banks are lightand sandy, and the clay of a bright red. Thelower creeks are settled in scattering clans and vil-lages from the head to the mouth of this river.Their huts and cabins, from the high colour of theclay, resemble clusters of new-burned brick kilns.The distance from this river to the Talapose river,is about 70 miles, by the war-path, which crossesat the falls, just above the town of the Tucka-batches.)

(CHATAUGHQUE Lake, in Ontario county.New York, is about 18 miles long, and three broad.Conewango river, which runs a s. s. e. course,connects it with Alleghany river. Tliis lake isconveniently situated fora communication betweenlake Erie and the Ohio ; there being water enoughfor boats from fort Franklin on the Alleghany tothe n. w. corner of this lake ; from thence there isa portage of nine miles to Cliatanghque harbour onlake Erie, over ground capable of being made agood waggon road. This communication was onceused by the French.)

CHATEAU, a settlement of New France, inwhich the French have a castle and establishment,on the shore of the river St. Lawrence.

CHATEAUX, a small river of the country andland of Labrador. It runs s. and enters the sea inthe strait of Belleisle.

(CHATHAM, a maritime township in Barn-staple county, Massachusetts ; situate on the ex-terior extremity of the elbow of cape Cod, conve-

niently for the fishery ; in which they have usuallyabout 40 vessels employed. It has 1140 inhabi-tants, and lies 95 miles s. e. of Boston. See CapeCod.)

(Chatham, a township in Grafton county,New Hampshire, it Avas incorporated in 1767,and in 1790 contained 58 inhabitants.)

(Chatham, a flourishing township in Middlesexcounty, Connecticut, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, and opposite Middleton city, it was a partof the township of Middleton till 1767.)

(Chatham, a township in Essex county, N. Jer-sey, is situated on Passaic river, 13 miles zd. ofElizabethtown, and nearly the same from New-ark.)

(Chatham, a township of Columbia county,New York. By the state census of 1796, 380 ofits inhabitants were electors.)

(Chatham County, in Hillsborough district,N. Carolina, about the centre of the state. It con-tains 9221 inhabitants, of whom 1632 are slaves.Chief town, Pittsburg. The court-house is a fewmiles w. of Raleigh, on a branch of Cape Fearriver.)

(Chatham, a town of S. Carolina, in Cherawsdistrict ; situate in Chesterfield county, on the w.side of Great Pedee river. Its situation, in a highlycultivated and rich country, and at the head of anavigable river, bids fair to render it a place ofgreat importance. At present it has only about 30houses, lately built.)

(Chatham County, in the lower district ofGeorgia, lies in the n. e. corner of the state, havingthe Atlantic ocean e. and Savannah river n. e. Itcontains 10,769 inhabitants., including 8201 slaves.The chief toAvn is Savannah, tlie former capital ofthe state.)

(Chatham or Punjo Bay, a large bay on thew. side of the s. end of the promontory of E. Flo-rida. It receives North and Delaware rivers.)

(Chatham House, in the territory of the Hud-son bay company. Lat. 55° 28' n. Long. 97*32' w. from Greenwich.)

CHAUCA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Casta.

Chauca, another settlement, in the provinceand corregimiento of Canta ; annexed to the curacyof Pari.

CHAUCAIAN, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huailas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Caxacai, in the province of Caxa-tambo.

CHAUCHILLOS, a settlement of the province

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vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito. It runs from 7i. to s, and enters tlieChinchipe on the n. side, somewhat lower thanwhere this latter is entered by the Naraballe, andnear a small settlement of Indians.

CHERNAL, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Chile, in the district of the province and ccr-regimiet7tn of Copiapó. Lat. 27° 27'.

CHEROKEE, a settlement of North Carolina,where there is a fort built by the English on theshore of the river of its name, and at the mouth ofthe Agiqua.

Cherokee, a large river of the above colonyand province, called also Hogohegee and Calla-maco. It rises in the county of Augusta, and takesits name from a numerous nation of Indians ; runsV). for many leagues, forming a curve, and entersthe Ohio near the fourches of the Mississippi. Nearto this river are some very large and fertile plains ;and according to the account rendered by the In-dians, there are, at the distance of 40 leagues fromthe Chicazas nation, four islands, called Tahogale,Kakick, Cochali, and Tali, inhabited by as manyother different nations of Indians. (Cherokee wasthe ancient name of Tennessee river. The name ofTennessee was formerly confined to the fourteenthbranch, which empties 15 mites above the mouth ofClinch river, and 18 below Knoxville.)

Cherokee, the country of the Indians of thenation of this name in North Carolina. It standsw. as far as the Mississippi, and w. as far as theconfines of the Six Nations. It was ceded to theEnglish by the treaty of Westminster, in 1729.(This celebrated Indian nation is now on the de-cline. They reside in the n. parts of Georgia,and the s. parts of the state of Tennessee ; havingthe Apalachian or Cherokee mountains on the e.which separate them from North and South Caro-lina, and Tennessee river on the n. and w. and theCreek Indians on the s. The present line betweenthem and the state of Tennessee is not yet settled.A line of experiment was drawn, in 1792, fromClinch river across Holston to Chilhove mountain ;but the Cherokee commissioners not appearing, itis called a line of experiment. The complexion ofthe Cherokees is brighter than that of the neigh-bouring Indians. They are robust and well made,and taller than many of their neighbours ; beinggenerally six feet high, a few are more, and someless. Their women are tall, slender, and delicate.The talents and morals of the Cherokees are heldin great esteem. They were formerly a powerfulnation ; but by continual wars, in which it has beentheir destiny lo be engaged with the n. In-dian tribes, and with the whites, they are now re-duced to about 1500 warriors ; and they are be-coming weak and pusillanimous. Some writersestimate their numbers at 2500 warriors. Theyhave 43 towns now inhabited.)

Cherokee, a settlement of Indians of this na-tion, in the same country as that in which the Eng-lish had a fort and establishment, at the source ofthe river Caillon ; which spot is at present aban-doned.

CHERREPE, a port of the coast of Peru, and ofthe S. sea, in the province and corregimienlo ofSaña, is open, unprotected, and shallow ; andconsequently frequented only by vessels driven toit through stress, and for the sake of convenience.It is in lat. 7° 70' s.

CHERRITON, a port of the coast of the pro-vince and colony of Maryland, within the bay ofChesapeak, behind cape Charles.

(CHERRY Valley, a post-town in Otsegocounty, New York, at the head of the creek of thesame name, about 12 miles >/. e. of Coopersfown,and 18 s. of Canajohary, 61 w. of Albany,and 336 from Philadelphia. It contains about 30houses, and a Presbyterian church. There is anacademy here, which contained, in 1796, 50 or 60scholars. It is a spacious buildit)g, 60 feet by 40.The township is very large, and lies along the e.side of Otsego lake, and its outlet to Adiqnatangiecreek. By the state census of 1796, it appearsthat 629 of its inhabitants are electors. This set-tlement sutlered severely from the Indians in thelate war.)

(CHESAPEAK is one of the largest and safestbays in the United States. Its entrance is nearlye. n. e. and s. s. between cape Charles, lat. 37°13' and cape Henry, lat. 37°, in Virginia, 12 mileswide, and it extends 70 miles to the ??. dividingVirginia and Maryland. It is from 7 to IS milesbroad, and generally as much as 9 fathoms deep ;affording many commodious harbours, and a saleand easy navigation. It has many fertile islands,and these are generally along the c. side of the bay,except a few solitary ones near the xo. shore. Anumber of navigable rivers and other streamsempty into if, the chief of which are Susque-hannab, Fatapsco, Patuxent, Pofowmack, Rap-pahannock, and A^ork, which are all large and na-vigable. Chesapeak bay'- afibrds many excellentfisheries of herring and shad. There are also ex-cellent crabs and oysters. It is the resort ofswans, but is more particularly remarkable for aspecies of wild duck, called camashac/c, whoseflesh is entirely free from any fishy taste, and isadmired by epicures for its richness and delicacy.In a coinnierciul point of view, this bay is of im--

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CHI 383

in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,

Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,

Xicotlan, Huehetlan.

Forty-five leagues s. e. to the s. w. of Mexico.
CHIBACOA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore ofa river to the w. of the town of Nirua.

CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.

CHIBAI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Collahuas in Peru.

CHICA, an island of the N. sea, one of theLucayas ; situate between the islands Siguate andSt. Andrew. The English gave it the name ofLittle.

CHICACHAE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Louisiana or S. Carolina, in whichthe English have a fort and establishment to carry

on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.

CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.

CHICAGOU, a port of Canada, on the w. sideof the lake Michigan.

Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.

CHICAHOMINI, a river of the province andcolony of Virginia, runs s.e. and turning itscourse to the s. enters the Thames.

CHICAHUASCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Huipuxtla, and alcaldia mayor of Tepe-tango, in Nueva Espana, contains 72 families ofIndians.

CHICAHUASTEPEC, San Miguel de, asettlement of the head settlement of Zoyaltepec, andalcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan. It contains 48 fa-milies of Indians, and is 10 leagues from its headsettlement.

CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.

Chicahuaztla, another, a small settlement orward of the alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of that ofTlaola.

CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.

Chicama, a river of this province and corregi-miento. It rises in the province of Guamachuco,from two very lofty mountains, called Y ulcaguancaand Yanaguanca, to the n. e . ; and waters and fer-

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tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.

CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.

CHICANAM, a small river of the province andcolony of Surinam, or the part of Guayana pos-sessed by the Dutch. It is one of those whichenter into the Cuyuni.

CHICANI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru j annexed tothe curacy of Combaya.

(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)

CHICAQUARO, a small settlement or ward,of the district and jurisdiction of Valladolid, in theprovince and bishopric of Mcchoacan.

CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.

Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.

(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)

CHICHAS y Tarija, a province and correg/-miertto of Peru ; bounded on the n. by that ofGinti, s. by that of Tucuman, the river called

Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,

Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,

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left the government, in the year 1655, to the suc-cessor,

25. Don Martin de Muxica, knight of the orderof Santiago, a renowned officer, and one who hadgained much renown in the armies of Ital}^ andFlanders.

26. Don Pedro Porter de Casanate, A. D.1659.

27. Don Francisco Meneses Bravo de Sarabia,who led from Spain a body of troops, in order tosubdue the Indians; this he accomplished; andin the year 1664 rebuilt the cities which had beendestroyed in 1599 : his government lasted untilthe year 1668, when he was deposed by the vice-roy of Peru.

28. Don Angel Peredo, knight of the order ofSantiago ; he was appointed as an intermediategovernor upon the deposition of his antecessor,and governed during the following year, 1669.

» 29. Don Juan Enriquez, native of Lima, knightof the order of Santiago, governed until the year1677.

30. Don

31. Don

32. Don

33. Don Juan Andres de Ustariz, native of Se-villa, until the year 1715, when was elected,

34. Don Gabriel Cano dc Aponte, brigadier-general of the royal armies, in whose time theAraucanos again declared war, when he obligedthem to renew the peace ; died A.D. 1728.

35. Don Juan de Salamanca, colonel of the mi-litia of that kingdom ; he was an intermediate go-vernor, and at his death,

36. Don Joseph de Santiago Concha, Marquisde Casa Concha, kinght of the order of Calatrava,chief auditor of the royal audience of Lima, nomi-nated by the viceroy.

37. Don Alonso de Obando, Marquis de Obatido,vice-admiral of the royal armada ; appointed bythe viceroy, the Marquis de Villa Garcia, as inter-mediate successor, until the year 1736.

38. Don Joseph Manso de Velasco, Count otSnperunda, knight of the order of Santiago ; hewas at that time captain of the grenadiers of theregiment of Spanish guards, and ranked as briga-dier; well recommended by his valour and ex-ploits, when he was appointed to this presidencyin the aforesaid year ; he governed until the year1746, when he was promoted to the viceroyalty ofPeru.

39. Don Domingo Ortiz de Rozas, knight ofthe order of Santiago, was at that time governor ofBuenos Ayres, and Avas elected to this presidencyin the aforesaid year ; he founded several toAvns,

on which account the king gave him the title ofConde de Poblaciones ; governed until the year1754, when returning to Spain, he died.

40 Don Manuel Arnat y J unient, knight of theorder of San Juan, colonel of the regiment of dra-goons of Sagunto, of the rank of brigadier, ap-pointed to this presidency ; which he filled untilthe year 1761, when he was promoted to the vice-royahy of Peru.

41. Don Mateo de Toro de Zambrano y Urueta,appointed as intermediate successor by the former,upon his departure from Lima, until the arrival ofthe right successor,

42. Don Antonio Guill, formerly colonel of theregiment of infantry of Guadalaxara, and thenranked as brigadier, being governor and captain-general of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; promotedto this presidency in the aforesaid year, 1761, andexercised it until his death, in 1768.

43. Don Mateo de Toro Zambrano y Urueta, thesecond time of his being nominated as intermediatesuccessor by the audience in the vacancy, untilwas nominated by the viceroy of Peru,

44. Don Francisco Xavier de Morales, knightof the order of Santiago, brigadier of the royalarmies, who being captain of the grenadiers of theregiment of the royal Spanish guards, was madegeneral of the militia in Peru, and Avas nominatedas intermediate successor by the viceroy to thispresidency, Avhich he enjoyed till his death in theyear 1772.

45. The aforesaid Don Mateo de Toro Zam-brano y Urueta, then Count of La Conquista, knightof the order of Santiago, and lieutenant-colonel ofthe royal armies, nominated for the third time bythe royal audience during the vacancy, until ar-rived the right successor,

46. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, brigadier of the royal armies,Avho had been colonel of the regiment of dragoonsof Sagunto ; Avas appointed to this presidencyA.D. 1773, and enjoyed it until 1782, Avhen heAvas promoted to the viceroyalty of Peru.

47. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, brigadier ofthe royal armies, was nominated in the same year,1782.


Chap. 1. Origin and language of the Chilians.— Conquest o f the Peruvians^ and state of Chilebefore the arrival of the Spaniards.— What werethen its political establishments^ government, andarts.

1. Language.— 2. Original state.— 3. Divided intofree and subjugated.— Agricidture.—b. Civi-

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[lized state.— ‘6 The metals.— 1 . Substitute forwriting.

Chap. II. Fi rst expedition of the Spaniards inChile.— Encounters with the natives., with varioussuccess, until the alliance formed between theSpaniards and Promaucians.

1. Almagvo marches against Chile. —2. Road fromPeru to Chile.-— o. Kindhj received at Copiapo.—4. First European blood shed.— 5. Battle withthe Promaucians.— Q. Expedition abandoned,and why.—l. Valdivia marches against Chile.—8. Province of St. Ja go describe'd.—'il. The ca-pital founded.— \0. Steady enmitnj of the Mapo-chinians.—l\. The mine of Quillota.— 12. The

compassionate ulmena. 13. Recruits fom

Peru, under Monroy.—-\t^. Stratagem of theQuillotanes.-—\5. Serena founded.— \Q. Pro-maucian cdlies.—ll . Valdivia sets sail for Peru,and returns with men and supplies.— \8. Con-cepcion founded.

Chap. III. Of the character and manners of theAraucanians .

1. Local situation.— 2. Character .-—3. Dress.—

4. Dwellings.— b. Division of the Araucanian

state.— 6. Its political form.-— 7. Civil institu-tions.— 8. Military system.— 3. Their arms,and mode of making av/r.— -10. Division of thespoil.— 1\. Sacrifice after the war. — \2. Con-gress of peace.— 13. System of religion.—!^.Funeral ceremonies.— \b. Division of time.—16. Astronomical ideas.— \7. Measures.— \8.Phetoric.— \9. Poetry . — 20. Medical skill.— -21. Commerce.— 22. National pride.— 23. Kind-ness towards each other.— 2^. Mode of saluta-tion. 25. Proper names.-— 20. Domestic em-

ployments. — 27. Food. -— 28. Music, and otherdiversions.

Chap. IV. The wars of the Araucanians with theSpaniards, and concomitant events.

1. The Toqui Aillavila.—2. The Toqui Lincoyan.—3. Imperial founded.---!^. Villariqa founded. —

5. The Cunches.—G. Valdivia founded.-— 7 . For-tresses of Fiiren, Tucapel, and Araiico built.—8. City of the Frontiers founded. -— 9. Threeprincipal military offices instituted at Concepcion.

— \Q. The Toqui Caupolican. 11. Valdivia

slain.— Lautaro appointed lieutenant-general,—12. The mountain Mariguenu. 13. The Go-

vernor Villa gr an. —1^. Conception destroyed.—15. The small-pox appears.-— \0. Decision ofthe audience of Lima 1 'especting the governors.-—17. Concepcion rebuilt, and destroyed by Lau-taro.— Lautaro arrives at Santiago.— 19.Death of Lautaro.— 20. Caupolican raises thesiege of Imperial.— 21. The Governor Don Gar-

cia Hurtado de Mendoza.— 22. Caupolican takenprisoner and impaled.— 23. Cahete founded.—24. The Cur.ches, their curious embassy and stra-tagem.— 25. Archipelago of Chiloe discovered.-—26. City of Osorno founded.— 27 . Caupolican theSecond.— 28. The Guarpes subjected.— 29. St.Juan and Mendoza founded,— 30. Villagran re-instated. — 31. The province of Tucuman re-stored, afterwards retaken. 32. Cahete de-stroyed.— 33. Pedro Villagran. ---34. The To-qui Pcdllataru,— 35. Archipelago of Chiloe sub-jected; description of the same ; its inhabitants,fc.-—36. The court of audience established.—

37. Suppression of the tribunal of audience.— -

38. Description of the Pehuenches .—39 . De-scription of the Chiquillanians . — 40. Landingand defeat of the English.— ^1. Nature oj thewar in anno 1589. — 42. Independence restored.--43. Expedition of the Dutch.-— All theSpanish settlements destroyed.— 1^5. Court of au-dience re-established.— i6. Ineffectual efforts ofPhilip III. to establish a lasting peace. — VI .Second expedition of the Dutch.— F8. Secondexpedition o f the English.— ^9. Peace at lengthconcluded.-— 50. Last expedition of the Dutch.— 51. Dreadful earthquake. — 52. Commercewith the French.— 53. How the Pehuenches be-came inimical to the Spaniards.— 51. Peace re-stored.

Chap. V. Present state of Chile.

1. Civil government.— 2. Military force.— -3. Ec-clesiastical government. 4. The cities anddwellings.— 5. Population.— 6. Chilian Creoles.—7. ^ate of arts and sciences.— 8. The pea-santry .—9. Dress, S;c.— 10. Diseases; small-pox, how cured.— 11 . Manners, moral and phy-sical. 12. Internal and external commerce,

mines, imports, and exports. — 13. Natural divi-sions.— U. Poliiiced divisions.— 15. Climate.— -16. Of rain. — 11 . Winds.— -IS. Meteors.— 19.Volcanoes. — 20. Earthquakes. —21. Some de-tail of productions.— 22. Present revolution.

Chap. I.

Origin and language of the Chilians .—Conquestof the Peruvians, and state of Chile before thearrival of the Spaniards.-— What was then itspolitical establishments, government, and arts.Of the origin and huiguage of the Chilians, notraces are to be found further back than the middleof the 15th century, -which was the time when (hePeruvians first began (heir conquests in this de-lightful country. It is the general opinion thatAmerica was settled from the n. e. part of Asia,but the opinion entertained by the Chilians is, (hat '3 E 2

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[waters into the Majpo. The mountains of Caren,which terminate it on the n. abound witli veins ofgold ; and in that part of tlie Andes whicli boundsit at the e, arc found several rich mines of silver.Valdivia, who liad endeavoured to penetrate as faras possible into the country, in order to render itditlicnlt for Ids soldiers to return to Peru, deter-mined to make a settlement in this province,which, from its natural advantages, and its remote-ness, appeared to him more suitable than any otherfor the centre of his conquests.

9. Capital founded.—Wiih. this view, havingselected a convenient situation on the left shore ofthe Mapocho, on the 24th February 1541, helaid the foundations of the capital of the kingdom,to which, in honour of that apostle, he gave thename of St. Jago. In laying out the city, he di-vided the ground into plats or squares, each con-taining 4096 toises, a fourth of Avhich he allowedto every citizen, a plan which has been pursuedin the foundation of all the other cities ; one of theseplats, lying upon the great square, he destined forthe cathedral and the bishop’s palace, Avhich heintended to build there, and the one opposite forthat of the government. He likewise appointed amagistracy, according to the forms of Spain, fromsuch of his army as were the best qualified ; andto protect the settlement in case of an attack, heconstructed a fort upon a hill in the centre of tliecity, Avhich has since received the name of St.Lucia. Many have applauded the discernmentof Valdivia, in having made choice of this situa-tion for the seat of the capital of the colony. Butconsidering the wants of a great city, it would havebeen better placed 15 miles farther to the s. uponthe Maypo, a large river, Avhich has a direct com-munication with the sea, and might easily be ren-dered navigable for ships of the largest size. Thiscity, however, contained in 1807 more than 40,000inhabitants, and is rapidly increasing in popula-tion, from its being the seat of government, andfrom its great commerce, supported by the luxuryof the Avealthy inhabitants. Meanwhile the na-tives saw Avith a jealous eye this new establishment,and concerted measures, although late, for freeingthemselves of these unAvelcome intruders, Valdiviahaving discovered their intentions in season, con-fifiedthe chiefs of the conspiracy in the fortress ;and suspecting some secret intelligence betAveenthem and the neighbouring Promaucians, repairedwith 60 horse to the river Cachapoal to Avatchtheir movements. But this measure was unneces-sary ; that fearless people had not the policy tothink of uniting Avith their neighbours in order tosecure themselves from the impending danger.

10. Steady unanimity of the Mapochinians . —The Mapochinians, taking advantage of the de-parture of the general, fell upon the colony withinconceivable furj^, burned the half-built houses,and assailed the citadel, wherein the inhabitants hadtaken refuge, oh all sides. Notwithstanding theultimate defeat Avhich the Mapochinians expe-rienced in this battle, and others of not less import-ance Avhich they afterwards experienced, the}-never ceased, for the space of six years, until theirutter ruin, to keep the Spaniards closely besieged,attacking them upon every occasion that offered,and cutting off their provisions, in such a mannerthat they Avere compelled to subsist upon unwhole-some and loathsome viands, and upon the littlegrain that they could raise beneath the cannon ofthe place. The fertile plains of the neighbour-hood had become desert and uncultivated, as theinhabitants had destroyed their crops and retiredto the mountains. This mode of life did not fail todisgust the soldiers of Valdivia, but he contriAmdAvith much prudence and address to sooth theirturbulent spirits, painting to them in seducingcolours the happy prospect that aAvaited them.

11. The mine of Valdivia had often

heard in Peru that the valley of Quillota abounded inmines of gold, and imagined that he might obtainfrom thence a sufficient quantity to satisfy his sol-diers ; in consequence, notwithstanding the diffi-culties Avith which he was surrounded, he sentthither a detachment of troops, with orders tosuperintend the digging of this precious metal.The mine that Avas opened Avas so rich that itsproduct surpassed their most sanguine hopes ;their present and past sufferings were all buried inoblivion, nor Avas there one among them who hadthe remotest wish of quitting the country. Thegovernor, (for Valdivia had persuaded the magis-tracy of the city to give him this title), Avho Avasnaturally enterprising, encouraged by this success,had a frigate built in the mouth of the river Chile,Avhich traverses the valley, in order more readilyto obtain succours from Peru, without which hewas fully sensible he could not succeed in accom-plishing his vast undertakings. In the mean time,as the state of affairs was urgent, Valdivia wasresolved to send to Peru by land two of his cap-tains, Alonzo Monroy and Pedro Miranda, withsix companions, whose spurs, bits, and stirrups hedirected to be made of gold, hoping to entice, bythis proof of the opulence of the country, his fel-loAV-citizens to come to his assistance. These mes-sengers, though escorted by 30 men on horseback,who were ordered to accompany them to the bor-ders of Chile, Avere attacked and defeated by 100]

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ftime (1555) extended over the whole of S.America, did not think proper to commit the go-vernment to either, but in their place directed thattlie corre^idors ot the city should have the com-mand, each in his respective district, until furtherorders.

17. Concepcion rehuiU^ and destroyed by Lau-taro . — Upon a remonstrance of the inhabitants tothe court of audience, Villagran was afterwardsappointed to the command, but merely, however,with the ti(l<‘ of correffidor, receiving orders atthe same time to rebuild the city of Concepcion.No sooner was this order executed, than the youngLantaro rallied his array, and, exasperated againstwhat he termed “ obstinacy,” passed the Biobiowithout delay, and attacked tlie Spaniards, whoimprudently confiding in their valour, awaitedhim in the open plain. The first encounter de-cided the fate of the battle. The Amucanians en-tered the fort with those citizens who fled withprecipitation, and killed a great number of them ;some indeed embarked in a ship which was in theport, and others fled into the woods. Thus Lau-taro, having plundered and burned the city asbefore, returned laden with spoils to his wontedstation. Continued victories had so heightenedthe confidence of this commander, that nothingappeared to him impossible, and he formed thedetermination of attacking the Spaniards in theirvery capital, of carrying his arms against Santiagoitself. He accordingly passed with a chosen bandof 600 followers through the country of the Pro-maucians, where his indignation did not fail toI vent itself upon these people : a people detestedby him for having submitted to the Spanish yoke.The inhabitants of Santiago could not at first be-lieve it possible that he should have had the bold-ness to undertake a journey of SOO miles in orderto attack tliem ; but being undeceived as to thefact, thought proper to make some preparations ofdefence.

18. Lauiaro arrives at Saiitiago . — Lautaro hadnow encamped his army in a low meadow, on theshore of the Matiquito ; a measure he had beenobliged to adopt from repeated loss he had sus-tained in some skirmishes with young Villagran,who had taken the command on account of his fa-tlier being confined by sickness ; but the fatherhaving recovered his health, and being stronglysolicited by the citizens, who every moment ex-pected to see the Araucaniaris at their gates, atlength, in 1556, began his march with 196 Spa-niards, and 1000 auxiliaries, in search of Lautaro;but too well remernberingthe defeat of Mariguenu,he resolved to attack him by surprise. With this

intent ho quitted the great road, secretly directedhis march by the sea-shore, and under the guid-ance of a spy, by a private path, came at day-break upon the Araucanian encampment,

19. Death of Lautaro. — Lautaro, who at thatmoment had retired to rest, after having been uponguard, as was his custom during the night, leap-ed from his bed at the first alarm of the sentinels,and ran to the entrenchments to observe the enemy ;at this moment a dart, hurled by one of the Indianauxiliaries, pierced his heart, and he fell lifelessin the arms of his companions. It would seemthat fortune, hitherto propitious, was desirous byso sudden a death to save him from the mortifica-tion of finding himself, for the first time in his life,defeated. It is, however, not improbable that hisgenius, so fertile in expedients, would have sug-gested to h ira some plan to have baffled the at-tempts of the assailants, if this fatal accident hadnot occurred. Encouraged by this unexpectedsuccess, Villagran attacked the fortifications on allsides, and forced an entrance, notwithstandingthe obstinate resistance of the Araucanians, who,retiring to an angle of the works, determined ra-ther to be cut to pieces than to surrender them-selves to those who had slain their beloved general.In vain the Spanish commander repeatedly oileredthem quarter ; none of them accepted it, exceptinga few of the neighbouring Indians who happenedto be in their camp. The Araucanians perishedto a man, after having fought with such obstinacy,that a few of the last souglit their death by throw-ing themselves on the lances of their enemies.This victory, which was not obtained withoutgreat loss by the victors, was celebrated for threedays in succession in Santiago, and in all the otherSpanish settlements, with the utmost demonstra-tions of joy. The Spaniards felicitated themselveson being at last freed from an enemy, who at theearly age of 19 had already obtained so manyvictories over their nation, and who possessed ta-lents capable of entirely destroying their establish-ments in Chile, and even harassing them in Peru,as he liad resolved upon, when he had restored theliberty of his native country. The Araucanianstor a long time lamented the loss of their valiantcountryman, to whom they owed all the successof their arms, and on whose conduct and valourth(*y entirely relied for the recovery of their liber-ties. His name is still celebraied in their heroicsongs, and his actions proposed as the most glo-rious model for the imitation of their youth.

20. Caupolican raises the siege of Imperial.But above all, Caupolican felt this fatal loss; ashe was a sincere lover of his country, far from]

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[beds. From their swine, which are very nume-rous, they make excellent haras, the most esteemedof any in S. America. Notwithstanding thegreat quantity of timber taken from them, theseislands are covered with thick woods ; and as itrains there almost incessantly, the cultivatedgrounds continue w'et the whole year. From henceit follows that the inhabitants, although they havecattle, make no use of them for ploughing, but tillthe earth in a very singular manner. About threemonths- before sowing time they turn their sheepupon their lands, changing their situation everythree or four nights. When the field is sufficientlymanured in this manner, they strew the grain overit. One of their strongest men then attempts toharrow it by means of a machine formed of twolarge sticks of hard wood, made sharp, and fas-tened together, which he forces against the groundwith his breast, and thus covers the seed. Not-withstanding this imperfect tillage, a crop of wheatwill yield them ten or twelve for one. They alsoraisegreat quantities of barley, beans, peas, qidnoa^and potatoes, which are the largest and best of anyin Chile. From the excessive moisture of the at-mosphere, the grape never acquires sufficient ma-turity to be made into wine, but its want is suppliedby various kinds of cider, obtained from applesand other wild fruits of the country. The neces-sity they are under of often going from one islandto another, where the sea is far from deserving thename of the Pacific, renders the Chilotes excellentsailors. Their 'pirogues are composed of three orfive large planks seAved together, and caulked Avitha species of moss that groAvs on a shrub. Theseare in great numbers throughout the Avhole of theArchipelago, and are managed Avith sails and oars,and in these frail skiffs the natives Avill frequentlyventure as far as Concepcion : and here it maynot be improper to observe, that the Indians, Avhoform the principal part of the sailors of the S. seas,are very cictive and docile, and excellent seamen.These people are fond of fishing, an occupation towhich they are led from the great variety of fishwith which their coasts abound. Large quantitiesof these are dried and seiit to foreign countries.They likcAvisc dry the testaceous kinds, particularlythe conchs, the chimps, and thepfio’cs. P'or thispurpose they arrange them in a long trench, co-vering them Avith the targe leaves of the panlcetincloria. Over these they place stones, on Avhichthey make a hot fire for several hours. They thentake the roasted animals from their shells, andstring them upon threads, Avhich they hang forsome time in the smoke : in this manner they findthem to keep very well, and so carry them to Cujo,

and other places at a distance from the sea. Assoon as the Christian religion was preached inChiloe, it was readily embraced by the natives, whohave ever since continued faithful and obedient toits precepts. Their spiritual concerns are underthe direction of the bishop of Concepcion, andtheir temporal were administered by a governorappointed by the captain-general of Chile ; but in1792 it was vested in the viceroyalty of Lima.The Spaniards at present established in this Archi-pelago amount to about 15,000, and its commerceis conducted by means of three or four shipswhich trade there annually from Peru and Chile.These purchase of the natives large quantities ofred cedar boards, timber of different kinds, suitablefor carriages, upwards of 2000 ponchos of variousqualities, hams, pilchards, dried shell-fish, whitecedar boxes, cloaks, embroidered girdles, and asmall quantity of ambergris, which is found uponthe shores; giving in exchange wine, brandy, to-bacco, sugar, herb of Paraguay, salt, and severalkinds of European goods. Independently of theabove trade, Chiloe has of late years been made anentrepot of illicit commerce betAveen the Spanishcolonies, and English and N. American shipsengaged in the S. sea fishery.

36. The court of audience established . — But toreturn to our history, the continuation of the war,and the great importance of the conquest, finallyinduced Philip II. to erect a court of royal audi-ence in Chile, independent of that of Peru. Thissupreme tribunal, embracing the political, as Avellas military administration of the kingdom, andbeing composed of four judges of law, and a fiscal,made, on the 13th of August 1567, its solemn entryinto Concepcion, Avhere it fixed its residence. Im-mediately on assuming its functions, it remoA^edQuiroga from the government, and gave the com-mand of the army, Avith the title of general, to RuizGamboa. The military government of the royalaudience Avas soon found to be inadequate to thepurpose of its establishment, and accordingly DonMclehor de Bravo was, in 1568, invested with thetriple character of president, governor, and cap-tain-general of Chile. BetAveen him and Paillatarusome serious battles Avere fought, though not suchas to alter the general state of alfairs, when, untiltlie death of the latter commander, (a period ofabout four years), the tAvo belligerent nations ob-served a truce or suspension of arms. This Avasprobably OAving in a great measure to the generalconsternation caused by a dreadful earthquakewhich Avas felt throughout the country, and did greatinjury to the Spanish settlements, partieularly thecity of Concepcion, which Avas entirely destroyed.]

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- fS7. Suppression of the tribunal o f audience. — In1575’ the tribunal of audience was* suppressed, asit is asserted, on the sole principle of economy, andRodrigo Quiroga was reinstated in the governmentby order of Philip II. This experienced olhcer,having received a reinforcement of 2000 men fromSpain, gave directions to his father-in-law, RuizGamboa, to found a new colony at the foot of thecordilleras, between the cities of Santiago andConcepcion, which has since received the appella-tion of Chilian, from the river on whose shore itstands, and has become the captial of the fertileprovince of that name. Shortly after the establish-ment of this settlement, in 1589, the governor diedat a very advanced age, having nominated Gamboaas his successor. The three years of Gamboa’sgovernment were occupied on one side in opposingthe attempts of Paynenancu, the then existingtoqui, and on the other in repelling the Pehuen-ches and Chiquillanians, Avho, instigated by theAraucanians, had begun to molest the Spanish set-tlements.

38. Description of the Pehuenches. — The Pe-huenches form a numerous tribe, and inhabit thatpart of the Chilian Andes lying between lat. 34°and 37° s. to the e. of the Spanish ])rovinces ofCalchagua, Maule, Chilian, and Huilquilemu.Their dress is no way difl’erent from that of theAraucanians, except that instead of drawers orbreeches, they Avear around the waist a piece ofcloth like the Japanese, which falls down to theirknees. Their boots or shoes are all ot one piece,and made from the skin of the hind leg of an oxtaken ofi’ at the knee ; this they fit to the foot whilegreen, turning the hair within, and sewing up oneof the ends, the skin of the knee serving for theheel. These shoes, from being Avorn, and oftenrubbed Avith tallow, become as soft and pliable asthe best dressed leather. Although these moun-taineers have occasionally shown themselves to bevaliant and hardy soldiers, they are neverthelessfond of adorning and decorating themselves likewomen. They wear ear-rings and bracelets ofglass beads upon their arms ; they also ornamenttheir hair with the same, and suspend little Ivellsaround their heads. Notwithstanding they havenumerous herds of cattle and sheep, tlieir usualfood is horse-flesh, which, like the Tartars, tlieyprefer to any other ; but, more delicate than thatpeople, they eat it only Avhen boiled or roasted.They dwell in the manner of the Redouin Arabs,in tents made of skins, disposed in a circular form,leaving in the centre a spacious field, where theircattle feed during the continuance of the herbage.When that begins to fail, they transjAort themselves

to another situation, and in this manner, continu-ally changing place, they traverse the valleys of thecordilleras. Each village or encampmeirt is go-verned by an ulmen or hereditary prince. Intheir language and religion they differ not from tlieAraucanians. They are fond of hunting, andoften, in pursuit of game, traverse the immenseplains Avhich lie between the great riv^r of Plataand the straits of Magellan. These excursions theysometimes extend as far as Buenos Ayres, andplunder the country in the vicinity. They fre-quently attack the caravans of merchandize goingfrom thence to Chile ; and so successful have theybeen in their enterprises, that, owing to that cause,the commerce in that quarter Avas once almost en-tirely stopped, though very lately resumed Avitli a to-lerable degree of A'igour. They have, nevertheless,for many years abstained from committing hostilitieswithin the Chilian boundaries in time of peace ;induced either by the advantages which they de-rive from the trade with the inhabitants, or fromthe fear of being roughly handled by them. Theirfavourite Aveapon is the laqve, Avhich they alwayscarry with them fastened to their girdles. It isvery probable that the ten Americans conductedby the valiant Orellana, of Avhose amazing couragemention is made in Lord Anson’s voyage, were ofthis tribe. Notwithstanding their wandering andrestless disposition, these people are the most in-dustrious and commercial of any of the savages.When in their tents they are never idle. The avo-men Aveave cloths of various colours : the menoccupy themselves in making baskets and a varietyof beautiful articles of Avood, feathers, or skins,Avhich are highly prized by their neighbours. Theyassemble every year on the Spanish frontiers, Avherethey hold a kind of fair, which usually conti-nues for 15 or 20 days. Hither they bring fos-sil salt, gypsum, pilch, bed-coverings, ponchos,skins, woo], bridle-reins beautifully wrought ofplaited leather, baskets, wooden vessels, feathers,ostrich eggs, horses, cattle, and a variety of otherarticles ; and receive in exchange wheat, Avine,and the manufactures of Europe. They are veryskilful in traffic, and can with difficulty be over-reached. Eor fear of being plundered by thosewho believe every thing is lawful against infidels,they never all drink at the same time, but separatetiiemsch'es into several companies ; and Avhilesomekeep guard, the others indulge themsehms in thepleasures of Avine. They are generally humane,complacent, lovers of justice, and possess all thosegood qualities that are produced or perfected bycommerce.

39. Description of the Chiquillanians. — The]3 I 2

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[had been deserted for more than 40 years, wherethey intended to form an establishment in order toconquer the rest of the kingdom. With this viewthey immediately began building three strong fortsat the entrance of the river, in order to secure itspossession. The Araucanians were invited, withthe most flattering promises, to join them ; this theynot only declined, but strictly adhering to the sti-pulations of the treaty, refused to furnish them withprovisions, of which tliey were greatly in want.The Cunchese, to whom the territory which theyhad occupied belonged, following the counsel oftheir allies, refused also to treat with them or sup-ply them. In consequence of this refusal, theDutch, pressed with hunger, and hearing tliat acombined army of Spaniards and Araucanians wereon their march against them, were compelled toabandon the ])lace in three months aftertheir land-ing. The Marquis de Mancura, son to the vice-roy of Pern, having soon after arrived there insearch of them, with 10 ships of war, fortified theharbour, and particulary the island, which hassince borne the titular name of his family. Onthe termination of the sixth year of his govern-ment, Baydes was recalled by the court, and DonMartin IVluxica appointed in his place.

51. Dreadful earthquake.— lAa succeeded inpreserviiijr the kingdom in that state of tranquil-lity in which he found it, no other commotion oc-curring during his government, but that producedby a violent earthquake, which, on the 8th of May1617, destroyed part of the city of St. Jago.The fortune of his successor, Don vVntonio Acugna,was very dift'erent. During his government thewar was excited anew between the Spaniards andAraucanians ; but contemporary writers have leftus no accounts of the causes that produced it,Clentaru, the hereditaiy toqui of Lauquemapu,being, in 1655, unanimously elected general, sig-nalized his first campaign bj’ the total defeat ofthe Spanish army. He, moreover, continued topersecute the Spaniards with great violence for aperiod of 10 years, under the governments of DonPedro Portel Casanate, and Don Francisco Me-neses. The last, who was a Portuguese l)y birth,had the glory of terminating it, in 1665, by a peacemore permanent than that made by Baydes. Allthe succeeding governors appear to have kept upa good understanding witli the Araucanians untilthe year 1686, when Garro was nearly breaking it,on occasion of removing tlie inhabitants of theisland of Mocho to the ?z. shore of the Biobib,iti order to cut off all communication with foreignenemies.

^ 52. Commerce zeilh the French.~T\\Q com-

mencement of the present aera was marked in Chileby the deposition of the Governor Doi^ FranciscoIbanez, the rebellion of the inhabitants of Chiloe,and the trade with the French. The islandersof Chiloe were soon restored to obedience, throughthe prudent conduct of the quarter-master-generalof the kingdom, Don Pedro Molina, who succeededin reducing them rather by mild measures than byuseless victories. The French, in consequence ofthe war of the succession, possessed themselvesfor a time of all tlie external commerce of Chile.From 1707 to 1717, its ports were filled with theirships, and they carried from thence incrediblesums in gold and silver. It w as at this period thatthe learned F'ather Feuille, whoremained there threeyears, made his botanical researches and meteorolo-gical observations upon the coast. His amiable quali-ties obtained him the esteem of the inhai)itants, whostill cherish his memory with much affection. Itw'as in 1722 that the Araucanians, impatient atthe insolence of those who were designated by thetitle of captains of the friends ; and who having"'been introduced under pretence of guarding themissionaries, arrogated to themselves a species ofauthority over the natives, resolved to create atoqui, and have recourse to arms. A war in con-sequence ensued, but it soon became reduced tolittle skirmishes, which were finally terminated bytlie celebrated peace of Negrete, a place situatedat the confluence of the rivers Biobio and Lara,where the treaty of Quillan was reconfirmed, andthe odious title of captain of friends wholly abo-lished.

53. How the Pehuenches became inimical tothe Spaniards. Governor Gonzaga was thenext Avho excited the flames of war by endeavour-ing to effect more than his predecessors. He un-dertookto compel the Araucanians to live in cities.This chimerical scheme was ridiculed by thosewho knew the prejudices of tiiis people, and it wasfinally abandoned, not, however, till it had pro-cured another powerful, and for ever after impla-cable enemy to the Spaniards. Tiiis was no otherthan the Peliuenches, avIio being in the above warin alliance with (he Spaniards, and who sufiered aconsiderable defeat whilst fighting against theAraucanians, resolved all at once to'change sides,and have ever since been the firm allies of the lat-ter. They have a practice of attacking the Spa-nish caravans from Buenos Ayres to Chile, andevery year furnishes some melancholy inforinationof that kind. We shall not proceed particularlyto notice several actions, and among others abloody battle wdiich was fougiit in tlie beginning ofthe year 1773 ; mention of which was made in t1iel

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[{he king. All the veteran troops in Cliile do notexceed 2000, and these consist of artillery, dra-goons, and infantry. The infantry as well as theartillery is under the command of two lieutenant-colonels.

3. Ecdesiasikal government .— respects theecclesiastical government, Chile is divided intothe two large dioceses of St. Jago and Concepcion,which cities are tlie residencies ot the bishops,who are suffragans to the archbishop of Lima.The first diocese extends from the confines of Peruto the river Maule, comprehending the provinceof Cnjo upon the other side of the Andes. Thesecond comprises all the rest of Chile, with theislands, although the greater part of this extent isinhabited by pagans. The cathedrals are sup-plied with a proper mmiber of canons, whose re-venues depend upon the tithes, as do those of thebishops. The court of inquisition at Lima hasat St. Jago a commissioner with several subalternofficers. Pedro Valdivia, on his first enteringChile, brought with him the monks of the orderof Mercy ; and about the year 1553, introducedthe Dominicans and strict Franciscans. The Au-gustins established themselves there in 1595; andthe Hospitallers of St. John of God, about thethe year 1615. These religious orders have all anumber of convents, and the three first form dis-tinct jurisdictions. The brothers of St. John ofGod have the charge of the hospitals, under acommissary, who is dependent upon the provin-cial of Peru. These are the only religious frater-nities now in Chile. The Jesuits, who came intoChile in 1593, with the nephew of their founder,Don Martin de Loyola, formed likewise a separateprovince. Others have several times attempted,but without success, to form establishments, theChilians having always opposed the admission ofnew orders among them. In St. Jago and Con-cepcion are several convents of nuns ; but theyare the only cities that contai?i them.

4. The cities and dwellings . — The cities arebuilt in the best situations in the country. Manyof them, however, w ould have been better placed,for the purposes of commerce, upon the shores ofthe large rivers. This is particularly the case withthose of more recent construction. The streetsare straight, intersecting each other at right angles,and are 36 French feet in breadth. On accountof earthquakes the houses are generally of onestory ; they are, however, very commodious,whitewashed without, and generally painted within.Each is accommodated with a pleasant garden, ir-rigated by an aqueduct which furnishes water forthe use of the family. Those belonging to the


L E.

wealthier classes, particularly the nobility, arefurnished with much splendour and taste. Theinhabitants perceiving that old buildings of twostories have resisted the most violent shocks, ha\ eof late years ventured to reside in the upper rooms,and now begin to construct their houses in theEuropean naanner. In consequence of this thecities have a better appearance than formerly ; andthe more so, as instead of forming their houses of clayhardened in the sun, which was supposed less liableto injury, they now employ brick and stone. Cel-lars, sewers, and wells, were formerly much morecommon than at present; a circumstance whichmay have contributed to render the buildings moresecure from earthquakes. The churches are ge-nerally more remarkable for their wealth than theirstyle of architecture. The cathedral and thechurch of the Dominicans in the capital, whichare built of stone, are however exceptions. Thefirst was constructed at the royal expcnce, underthe direction of the Bishop Don Manuel Alday,an excellent and learned prelate; it is built in amasterly style, and is 384 French feet in front.The plan was drawn by two English architects,who superintended the work : but when it washalf finished they refused to go on, unless theirwages were increased. In consequence of this tliebuilding was suspended, when two of the Indianswho had worked under the Englishmen, and hadsecretly found means of instructing themselves inevery branch of the art, offered to complete it :which they did with as much skill and perfectionas their masters themselves could have displayed.In the capital the follow ing edifices are also worthyof remark : the barracks for the dragoons, themint, which has been lately built by a Homan ar-chitect, and the hospital for orphans.

5. Population . — Spanish Chile, in consequenceof the freedom granted to its maritime trade, ispeopling with a rapidity proportioned to the salu-brity of its climate and the fertility of its soil. Itspopulation in general is composed of Europeans,Creoles, Indians, Negroes, and Musters. TheEuropeans, except a few French, English, andItalians, are Spaniards, who for the most part arefrom the s. provinces of Spain. D. Cosrne Bueno,whose manuscript account of Peru is stated byRobertson, as having been drawn up in 1764,(though the copies w hich v/e have seen of this workcontain facts of a later date by at least 20 years),ffives to Chile a population of 240,000 souls.Malespina, who visited that country in 1790, is ofopinion that this estimate, is greatly under thetruth ; and we hove been lately informed, on goodauthority, that the present population of Chile]

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CHOCOPE, San Pedro y San Pablo de,a small settlement of the province and corregi-miento of Truxillo in Peru ; situate in the valleyof Chicama, watered and fertilized by the river ofthis name. It produces in abundance grapes,sugar-canes, olives, and every kind of Europeanfruit of the most excellent flavour. It was formerlya large population, since that the few inhabitantswho had been lel't at Concepcion, and those ofLicapa in the same valley, have incorporatedthemselves here. It has a very large and handsomechurch, although this underwent some damagefrom an earthquake experienced in this provincein 1759; the settlement suffered much also in 17S6,as did all the other towns of the coast, as, verycontrary to the custom of the climate here, it rainedwithout cessation for a period of 40 days, fromfive o’clock in the evening to the same hour in thefollowing morning, so that the houses were almostall entirely destroyed. Itis 10 leagues from the capi-tal, in the royal road which leads to Lima, andwhich is called De Valles. Lat. 7° 52' s.

[CHOCORUA, a mountain in Grafton county,New Hampshire, on the n. line of Strafford county,n. of Tamworth.]

[CHOCUITO. See Chucuito.]

CHOGUY. See Laches.

[CHOISEUL Bay, on the n. w. coast of theislands of the Arsacides, w. of port Praslin. Theinhabitants of this bay, like those at port Praslin,have a custom of powdering their hair with lime,which burns it and gives it a red appearance.]

CHOIX, a port of the w. coast of the island ofNewfoundland.

CHOLCHOL, a settlement of the district ofRepocura in the kingdom of Chile ; situate at themouth of the river Rumulhue before it enters theCauten.

CHOLCO-COCHA, a great lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru,upon the heights of the mountains of the Andes.It is navigated by rafts made by the Indians;fish it has none, from the excesisve cold of itswaters ; from it springs the river Caica-mayu.Mr. De la Martiniere confounds this lake, whichis called Chocolo-cocha, with the city of CastroVireyna, maintaining that the Indians call it bythe latter name, but which is erroneous.

CHOLI, a settlement and establishment of theEnglish in S. Carolina, and country of the Che-rokees Indians; situate at the source of the riverApalachicola.

CHOLIQUE, San Pablo de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxaraarca la Grande in Peru.

CHOLOAPA, San Bartolome de, a settlement of the head settlement of Huitepec, andalcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana.It contains 84 families of Indians.

CHOLOSCOPO, San Mateo de, a settlementof the district, and alcaldia mayor of Mexilcaltzingo,in Nueva Espana, somewhat more thanhalf a league’s distance to the m. of ^his place.It contains 102 families of Indians, and has ahandsome convent of the strict observers of St.Francis, which is also a college for studies.

CHOLULA, a district and jurisdiction of analcaldia mayor in Nueva España. Its extent isvery limited, being only three leagues in length atthe widest part ; but it is nevertheless well filled withinhabitants ; its territory is level, and very fertilein wheat, maize, and pepper, which is here calledchile^ as also in other seeds, of which abundant cropsare gathered ; it formerly acquired agreat emolumentfrom the sale of cochineal, but this is laid asideand entirely abandoned. The Spaniards, Mustees^and Mulattoes, busy themselves in making clothsand woven stuffs of cotton, and they have manyworkshops, by which they supply with these articlesthe other provinces. Its population consists of 43settlements of Indians, which are,

San Juan Quantlazingo, Sta. Maria Quescomate,Santiago de Momospan, San Bernardino,

Santa Barbara, Sta. Clara Ocovica,

Todos Santos, Sta. Maria Malacatepe»

San Luis, que,

San Gregorio de Saca- Sta. Maria Coronango,pecpan, S. Miguel Coztla,

S. Francisco de Quapan, San Francisco Ocotlan

S. Diego Cuaucotla, San Antonio, ^

S. Sebastian, San Francisco,

S. Juan Cuautla, San Mateo,

Tonanchin, San Gabriel,

Santa MariaZacatepeque, San Lucas,

San Geronimo, San Martin,

San Pablo Zochimehua, San Lorenzo,

San Andres de Oiolula, TIantenango,

San Francisco Acate- Santa Isabel,peque, Los Santos Reyes,

San Bernardo Tlaxcal- S. Pablo Ahuatempa,zingo, S. Mateo, distinct from

S.AntonioCacalotepeque, the other,

Santa Ana, S. Miguel Papalotla,

San Martin TIanapa, S. Andres de Cholula.

[The district of Cholula contained in 1793 apopulation of 22,423 souls. The villages amount-ed to 42, and the farms to 45. Cholula, Tlax-clala, and Huetxocingo, are the three republicswhich resisted the Mexican yoke for so many cen-turies, although the pernicious aristocracy of theiff

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down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.

CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.

[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]

CHOPTANK, a large navigable river of theprovince and colony of Maryland, [emptying it-self into Chesapeak bay.]

CHOPTANK, Little, another (river) of the same pro-vince Maryland. It runs w. and enters the sea in the bay ofChesapeak.

CHOQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Acros.

CHOQUECAMATA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregtmiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CHOQUELIMPE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arica in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Copia.

CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.

CHORAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Jesus.

CHOROMA, a settlement of the province andcorrregimiento of Chichas and Tarija, in the dis-trict of the former, and annexed to the curacy ofTupisa.

CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.

CHORONI, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, between the mountain of Ocumaraand the port of Chuapo.

CHOROS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the hard lot of being scantily sup-plied Avith Avater, even as much as is necessary lordrinking.

Same name, a point of the coast of this provinceand kingdom (Chile).

Same name, an island near the coast and point ofits name (Choros),

CHORRERA, a settlement of the jurisdictionand akaldia mayor of Nata in the kingdom ofTierra Firme; situate near the coast of the S.sea.

Same name, a creek of the island of Cuba, onthe 71. coast, having a fort for its protection, witha detacliment of troops from the Havana.

CHORILLO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

Same name, another (settlement), in the province and corregimento of Cercado in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Surco.

CHORRILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cañete in Peru; situate onthe coast, close to the point of China.

CHORROS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHORROU, Chike du, a rivulet and establishmentof the French, in their possessions inGuayana.

CHORUNGA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Andaray ; situate in thevalley of its name.

CHOSAPACK, a large andbeautiful bay on the coast of the province and colony of Virginia]]. [See Chesapeak.]

CHOSCHAMA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacaiia.

[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]

CHOTA, Todos Santos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru.

[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]

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CHOTE, a settlement of Indians of N. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Tennessee.

CHOTECHEL, a settlement of Indians of the kingdom of Chile ; situate in theinterior of it, and on the shore of the river Como-Leuvre.

CHOUEE, Montañas de, mountains in theprovince and colony of N. Carolina, which followthe course of the river Tennessee,

CHOUMANS, a settlement or village of theprovince and colony of Louisiana ; situate on thebank, and at the source of the river Maligna orSabloniere.

CHOUSSIPI, a small river of the country ofLabrador. It runs s. w. and enters that of St.Lawrence.

CHOWAN, a district and jurisdiction of theprovince and colony of Virginia, between that ofPequima and the river Pansemond. The principalsettlement bears the same name.

[Chowan County, in Edenton district, N.Carolina, on the n. side of Albemarle sound. Itcontains 5011 inhabitants, of whom 2588 are slaves.Chief town, Edenton.]

[Chowan River, in N. Carolina, falls intothe n. w. corner of Albemarle sound. It is threemiles wide at the mouth, but narrows fast as youascend it. It is formed, five miles from the Vir-ginia line, by the confluence of Meherrin, Notta-way, and Black rivers, which all rise in Vir-ginia.]

CHOXLLA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Yanacache.

[CHRIST CnuacH, a parish in Charleston dis-trict, S. Carolina, containing 2954 inhabitants, ofwhom 566 are whites, 2377 slaves.]

[CHRISTENOES, a wandering nation of N.America, who do not cultivate, nor claim any par-ticular tract of country. They are well disposedtowards the whites, and treat their traders Avith re-spect. The country in which these Indians roveis generally open plains, but in some parts, parti-cularly about the head of the Assinniboin river, itis marshy and tolerably Avell furnished with timber,as are also the Fort Dauphin mountains, to whichthey sometimes resort. From the quantity ofbeaver in their country, they ought to furnish mofeof that article than they do at present. They arenot esteemed good beaver-hunters. They mightprobably be induced to visit an establishment onthe Missouri, at the Yellow Stone river. Theirnumber has been reduced by the small-pox sincethey Avere first known to the Canadians.]

[CHRISTIANA, a post-town in Newcastlecounty, Delaware, is situated on a navigable creekof its name, 12 miles from Elkton, nine s. w. ofWilmington, and 37 s. w. of Philadelphia. Thetown, consisting of about 50 houses, and a Presby-terian church, stands on a declivity which commandsa pleasant prospect of the country towards the De-laware. It carries on a brisk trade with Philadel-phia in flour. It is the greatest carrying place be-tween the navigable Avaters of the Delaware andChesapeak, which are 13 miles asunder at thisplace. It was built by the Swedes in 1640, andthus called after their queen.]

[Christiana Creek, on which the above townis situated, falls into Delaware river from the w.a little below Wilmington. It is proposed to cut acanal of about nine miles in length, in a s. to. direc-tion from this creek, at the toAvn of Christiana (sixmiles w. s. w. of Newcastle) to Elk river in Mary-land, about a mile below Elkton. See Delawareand Wilmington.]

[Christiana, St. one of the Marquesa isles,called by the natives Waitahu, lies under the sameparallel with St. Pedro, three or four leagues moreto the w. Resolution bay, near the middle of thew. side of the island, is in lat. 9° 58' s. long. 139'^840' w. from Greenwich ; and the w. end of Do-minica 15 71. Captain f^ook gave this bay thename of his ship. It Avas called Port Madre deDios by the Spaniards. This island produces cot-ton of a superior kind. A specimen of it is depo-sited in the museum of the Massachusetts HistoricalSociety.]

CHRISTIANO, San, a settlement of the province and captainship of Serigipé in Brazil ; situateon the coast, and at the mouth of the river Cirii.

[CHRISTIANSBURG, the chief town of Mont-gomery county, Virginia. It contains A’ery fewhouses ; has a court-house and goal, situated neara branch of Little river, a water of the Kanhaway.Lat. 37° 5' ».]

[CHRISTIANSTED, the principal town in theisland of Santa Cruz, situated on the n. side of theisland, on a fine harbour. It is the residence of theDanish governor, and is defended by a stone for-tress.]

[CHRISTMAS Island, in the Pacific ocean,lies entirely solitary, nearly equally distant fromthe Sandwich islands on the n. and the Marquesason the s. It Avas so named by Captain Cook, onaccount of his first landing there, on Christmasday. Not a drop of fresh Avater was found by dig-ging. A ship touching at this desolate isle mustexpect nothing but turtle, fish, and a few birds. Itis about 15 or 20 leagues in circumference, andbounded by a reef of coral rocks, on the xc. side of

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wliich there is a bank of fine sand, extending amile into the sea, and affording good anchorage.Lat. 1° 59' n. Long. 157° 35' w.]

[Christmas Sound, in Tien a del Fuego, S.America. Lat. 55° 21' n. Long. 69° 48' tw.]

CHRISTOVAL, San, atown of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rey no de Granada; foundedby Captain Juan de Maldonado in 1560. It is of•a hot but healthy temperature, produces abundanceof sugar-canes, of which are made honey, sugar,and conserves, in immense quantities ; also a greatproportion of smoking tobacco, which is carried toMaracaibo. It has a good church and a conventt)f St. Augustin, which latter has fallen much todecay with regard to its establishment. The po-pulation of the town consists of 400 housekeepers.It lies 20 leagues n. e. of Pamplona, from the juris-diction of which it is divided by the river Pam-plonilla. It is the native place of Don Gregoriode Jaimes, archdeacon of Santa Fe, and bishop ofSanta Marta.

Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lipes, archbishopric of Char-cas in Peru ; in which took place the following ex-traordinary occurrence: The curate of this placegoing to confess a sick person in the settlement ofTahisa of the province of Paria, which was annexedto this, sunk into a spring of water in the pampasor llanos dela Sal, when he was drowned, and withthe two Indians who accompanied him on horse-back, never more appeared, nor were any vestigesever found of them : this was the reason why thelatter settlement has since been disunited from thecuracy of San Christoval.

Same name, a capital city of the provinceand captainship of Sergipé in the kingdom of Bra-zil ; being also known by that name. It is foundedon the sea-shore, and has a fine and well defendedport. It has a magnificent parish church with thetitle of Nuestra Senora de la Victoria ; two fineconvents, the one of the order of the Franciscans,and the other of the Carmelites ; also a chapel ofdevotion of the Virgin of the Rosary. The council-house is a very fine edifice, and in the suburbs isa hermitage of San Gonzalo, which is frequentedas a pilgrimage by this and other settlements of thejurisdiction. In this city resides the chief captain,who governs this province, and who is attended bya company of troops as a body-guard. In earlytimes it was filled with nobility, descended from thefirst families in Portugal; but it is now reduced to600 housekeepers. in its district, towards thepart called Coninquiva, is a parish with fourchapels, and towards the river Vaza-Barris fiveothers. It has also 25 engines, by which abundanceof sugar of an excellent quality is manufactured ;this article affords a great commerce w ith t!ic bayof Todos Santos. Lat. ll°40's. Long. ST'* SO' tw.

Same name, an island of the N. sea ; oneof the Antilles, discoverctl by Admiral Christoj)herColumbus, who gave it his name, in 149S. It isfive leagues in circumference, and is very fertile,and abounding in productions, particularly in cot-ton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and brandy ; by allof which it carries on a great commerce. Here arcsome good salines, and in the mountains are somewoods of fine timber, well adapted for the buildingof ships. The English and the French both esta-blished themselves here in 1625, holding a dividedpossession, when they were driven out by the Spa-niards. After this the former again returned andre-established themselves in the greatest part of theisland, leaving, however, a small share to theFrench, until the year 1713, when the latter, inconjunction with the Spaniards themselves, cededit entirely to the English, who from that time haveheld it and kept it well fortified. [St. Christopher,situate in lat. 17° 21', long. 62° 48' ze. was calledby its ancient possessors, the Charibes, Liamuiga,or the Fertile Island. It was discovered in Novem-ber 1493 by Columbus himself, who was so pleasedwith its appearance, that he honoured it with hisown Christian name. But it was neither plantednor possessed by the Spaniards. It was, however,(notwithstanding that the general opinion ascribesthe honour of seniority to Barbadoes), the eldest ofall the British territories in the \V. Indies, andin truth, the common mother both of the Englishand French settlements in the Charibean islands.A Mr. Thomas Warner, an Englishman, asso-ciated himself Avith 14 other persons in the year1622, and with them took his passage on board aship bound to Virginia. From thence he and hiscompanions sailed from St. Christopher’s, wherethey arrived in January 1623, and by the monthof September following had raised a good crop oftobacco, which they proposed to make their staplecommodity. By the generality of historians whohave treated of the affairs of the W. Indies, it isasserted that a party oflhe French, under the com-mand of a person of the name of D’Esnambuc,took possession of one part of this island, on thesame day that Mr. Warner landed on the other;but the truth is, that the first landing of Warnerand his associates happened two years before thearrival of D’Esnambuc; who, it is admitted byDu Tertre, did not leave France until IG25. Un-fortunately the English settlers, in the latter end of

1623, had their plantations demolished by a dread- j

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ment of the province and corre^innenlo of Hiia-machuco in Peru ; one of the lour divisions of thecuracy of Estancias.

CHUQUIYAPU, an ancient province of Peru,which was conquered and united to the empire byMayta Capac, fourth Emperor of the Incas, afterthe famous battle and victory of Huallu againstthe Collas Indians. It is tolerably well j, copied,and of a cold climate. Its territory abounds inexcellent pastures, iti which there are great quan-tities of cattle. In some parts, where the tempera-ture is hot, there is found maize, cacao, and sugar-cane. This country abountls in woods, and inthese are found tigers, leopards, stags, and mon-keys of many dilFerent species.

CHURCAMPA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Mayor.

[CHURCH Creek Town, in Dorchestercounty, Maryland, lies at the head of Churchcreek, a branch of Hudson river, seven miles $.w.from Cambridge.]

[Church Hill, a village in Queen Ann’s county,Maryland, at tlie head of S. E. Creek, a branch ofChester river, n. w. of Bridgetown, and n. e. ofCentreville eight miles, and 85 s. w. from Phila-delphia. Lat. 39° 6' n. Long. 76° 10' a?.]

CHURCHILL, a great river of New S. Wales,one of tlie provinces of N. America, at the mouthof which the English Hudson bay company have afort and establishment; situate in lat. 59° w. andlong. 94° 12' w. The commerce of this place isgreat and lucrative, and on account of its greatdistance entirely secure from any disturbance fromthe French. In 1747 the number of castor-skins,which were brought by 100 Indians to this spot intheir canoes, amounted to 20,000. Several otherkinds of skins were also brought from the n, by200 other Indians ; some of whom came hither bythe river Seals, or Marine Wolves, 15 leagues tothe s. of the fort. To the n. of this fort there areno castors, since there arc no woods where theseanimals are found, though there are many otherwoods Avhich abound in wolves, bears, foxes, buf-faloes, and other animals whose skins are valuable.Here are great quantities of shrubs or small trees,planted by the factory, supplying timber ; but theopposite side, of the river is most favourable to theirgrowth ; and at a still greater distance are foundlarge trees of various kinds. The company re-siding in the fort is exposed to many risks, andobliged to inhabit a rock surrounded by frosts andsnows for eight months in the year, being exposedto all the winds and tempests. On account of thedeficiency of pasture, they maintain near the fac-tory no more than four or five horses, and a bullw ith two cows ; for the maintenance of which du-ring the winter, fodder is brought from a fennybottom some miles distant from the river. Thosewho have been hero allirm, that between this riverand the river Nelson there is, at a great distanceup the country, a communication or narrow passof land, by which these rivers are divided; and theIndians who carry on this traffic, have dealingswith the English navigating the river Nelson orAlbany. [See New Britain.]

[CHURCHTOWN, a village so called, in then. e. part of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, about20 miles e.n.e. of Lancaster, and 50w.n.w.oi'Philadelphia. It has 12 houses, and an episcopalchurch ; and m the environs are two forges, which

manufacture about 450 tons of bar iron annually.
reghnienlo of Caxatambo in Peru. Its jurisdictioacomprehends the settlements of


Pal pas,









It has some celebrated fountains of mineral waters,

CHURUBAMBA, settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle.

CHURUMACO, a settlement of the head settle-ment and dlealdia mayor of Cinagua in NuevaEspaña ; situate in a dry and warm country ; onwhich account the seeds scarcely ever come to ma-turity, save those of maize ; melons indeed growin abundance, owing to the cultivation they find,and from water being brought to them from a riverwhich runs at least a league’s distance from thethe settlement. In its district are several herds oflarge cattle, which form the principal branch ofthe commerce of the inhabitants : these consist of80 families of Indians. In its limits are also foundsome ranchos, in which reside 22 families of Spa-niards, and 34 of Mustees and Mulattoes. At ashort distance is the mountain called Ynguaran, inwhich copper mines are found, though this metalhas not been observed much to abound. Fourleagues to the e. of its capital.

CHURUMATAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Yamparaes in Peru, and ofthe archbishopric of Charcas.

CHUSCOS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe ancient province of Panataguas, to the n. ofthe city of Huanuco ; of which little more than itsname is known.

CHYAIZAQUES, a barbarous nation, and

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tirely unknown to tiiis. Its inlmbitants lead aregular life ; they give without cxjicctation of in-demnification, and are governed l!)roughoiit the■whole tribe by the sounding of a bell. In short,they might serve as a model for all the other settle-ments of Indians in the kingdom.

COLLANA, another settlement of the same pro-vince and corregimicnto ; annexed to the curacy ofMecacapaca.

COLLANES, a chain of very lofty mountains,almost continually covered with snow, in the pro-vince and corre"imiento of Riobamba in the king-dom of Quito, to the s. of the river Pastaza, and ofthe mountain runguragua. They take their namefrom the nation of barbarous Indians who livescattered in the woods of these mountains, whichrun from w. to e. forming a semicircle of 20leagues. The mountain which out-tops the rest,they call the Altar.

COLLANI, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of theJesuits in Nuevo Mexico.

COLLATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Olaya.

COLLAY. See Pataz.

COLLETON, a county of the province of Ca-rolina in N. America ; situate n. of the county ofGrenville, and watered by the river Stone, whichunites itself with an arm of the Wadrnoolan. Thatpart which looks to the n, e. is peopled with es-tablishments of Indians, and forms, with the otherpart, an island called Buono, which is a little belowCharlestown, and is well cultivated and in-habited. The principal rivers of this country are,the Idistows, the S. and N. Two or three miles upthe former river, the shores are covered with plan-tations, which continue for more than three milesfurther n. where the river meets with the N. Edis-tow, and in the island formed by both of them,it is reckoned that 20 freeholders reside. Theseare thus called, from the nature of the assignmentand distribution of lands which took place in thenew colonies. But the English governor did notgrant an absolute and perpetual property, save toparticular individuals : the concession was some-times for life, sometimes considered as lineal,sometimes to descend to the wife, children, or re-lations, and sometimes with greater restrictions.The above-mentioned people have, however, theirvote in the assembly, and send to it two members.In the precinct of this county is an Episcopalchurch.

Colleton, another county, of the provinceand colony of Georgia.

Colleton, a settlement of the island of Bar-badoes, in the district of the parish ot TodosSantos.

COLLICO, a small river of the district of Tol-ten Baxo in Ihe kingdom of Chile. It runs h. n.w. and enters the river Tolten.

COLLIQUEN, a llanura, or plain, of thecorregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is fertile, andof a dry and healthy climate, although thinly in-habited and uncultivated.

COLLIUE, a settlement of Indians of the king-dom of Chile, situate on the shore of the riverTolpan.

COLLQUE, an ancient, large, and well peo-pled settlement of Peru, to the n. of Cuzco ; con-quered and carried by force of arms by the IncaHuayna Capac, thirteenth Emperor of Peru.

COLNACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chichos and Tarija in Peru, ofthe district of the second, and annexed to the cu-racy of its capital.

COLOATPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Olinalá, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 29 families of In-dians, who occupy themselves in the commerceof chia^ a white medicinal earth, and cochineal,which abounds in this territory. It lies to then. w. of its head settlement.

COLOCA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru,situate on the shore of the river of La Plata, and tothe n. of its capital.

COLOCINA, San Carlos de, a settlement ofthe province and government of Cartagena, in thedistrict of the town of Tolu; founded in 1776 bythe governor Don J uan Pimienta.

COLOCINA, some mountains of this province andgovernment, also called Betanzi, which run n. formany leagues from the valley of Penco.

COLOCOLO, a settlement of Indians of thekingdom of Chile ; situate on the shore of the riverCarampangue, and thus called from the celebratedcazique of this name, one of the chiefs in the warin which these Indians were engaged with theSpaniards.

COLOLO, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs n. and en-ters the river Negro, near where this enters tireUruguay.

COLOMBAINA, a small settlement of the ju-riscidiction of Tocaima, and government of Mari-quita, and in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; an-nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Amba-leina. It is situate on the shore of the riverMagdalena; is of a very hot temperature, and

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