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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W. It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.
ACAPONETA, the alcaldía mayor of the kingdom of Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdiction is reduced. It enjoys various hot and cold temperatures, and has therefore the crops peculiar to both climates; and the same are sown in its district, and produce abundantly. The capital is the town of the same name, situate between the two rivers St. Pedro and de Cartas ; the latter dividing Nueva España from the provinces of Rosario and Cinaloa, as also the bishoprics of Durango and Gaudalaxara, from whence it is distant 83 leagues, W. N. W. It has a convent of the order of St. Francisco. Long. 105° 40' 30". Lat. 22° 43' 30".
ACAPULCO, the capital city of the government of Nueva España, situate on the coast of the S. sea. Its inhabitants amount to nearly 400 families of Chinese, Mulattoes, and Negroes. It has a parish church, with two vicars, and two convents, one of the order of St. Francis, and the other of St. Hyppolite de la Casidad, which is a royal hospital ; an office of public accounts, with an accountant and treasurer for the managing and keeping the accounts of the duties produced by the goods brought in the China ships. The city is small, and the churches and houses are moderately ornamented. The greater part of the city is on the seashore. The air is of an extremely hot and moist temperature ; for, independent of its being in the torrid zone, it is entirely shut oxit from the N. winds, being surrounded by lofty serranias. These circumstances render it very unhealthy, especially in the wet season, on account of the damps and seawinds blowing from the S. E. to the great detriment of the inhabitants and merchants who come to trade here ; this being the principal cause why there are scarcely more than eight Spanish families who reside here. It is equally in want of every sort of provision, owing to the reduced and barren state of the land, and is forced to seek its necessary supplies from the Indian settlements within its jurisdiction. The only commerce which it can be said to have, is afair which is held on the arrival of the ships from China ; and when these depart, there are no other means for the people of maintaining a trade, and if the above resource should happen to fail for three or four years, the place must inevitably be abandoned. At the distance of a musketshot, and on a promontory running far into the sea, is situate the castle and royal fort of San Diego, mounted with 31 pieces of artillery, the greater part of them 24 pounders, for the defence of the entrance of the port, which is safe, and so spacious, that 500 ships can lay at anchor in it with ease. It is surrounded by lofty rising grounds. Its principal mouth is on the S. side, formed by an Island of an oblong figure, and somewhat inclining to the S. W. The same Island forms also Acatlan mouth, which they call chica, or little. The canals on either side of the Island are 25 fathoms deep. The governor of the castle has the rank of castellano, with the title of lieutenant general of the coasts of the S. sea ; and for the defence of these coasts, there are three companies of militia, composed of the the whole of the inhabitants, namely, one company of Chinese, Acatlan another of Mulattoes, and the third of Negroes, who run to arms whenever they hear the cannon fired three times at short intervals. In the settlements of its neighbourhood they grow cotton, maize, and other seeds, vegetables and fruits. They have cattle of the large and small kind, and some tobacco, all of which productions are sufficient for the use of the castle and the city, which is 80 leagues distant from Mexico. — [The famous cut in the mountain, (Abra de San Nicholas), near the bay de la Langosta, for the admission of the sea winds, was recently finished. The population of this miserable town, inhabited almost exclusively by people of colour, amounts to 9000 at the time of the arrival of the Manilla galleon (nao de China). Its habitual population is only 4000. The chief trade of Acapulco continues still to be its commerce with Manilla. The Manilla ship arrives once a year at Acapulco, with a cargo of Indian goods, valued at 12 or 1300,000 dollars, and carries back silver in exchange, with a very small quantity of American produce, and some European goods. Lat. according to Humboldt, 16° 50' 29". Long, by ditto, 99° 46'. Lat. according to the Spaniards, 16° 50' 30". Long, by ditto, 160°. Both longitudes being measured from the meridian of Greenwich.] ACARAGA, a river of the province and government of Paraguay. It rises in the province of the Parana, and running n. enters the Uruguay where is the city of Asuncion. It is navigable by canoes throughout, and abounds in fish.
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AGUADILLA, a river of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the moun-tains on the s. and enters the large river Chagrevery near its mouth, and the castle of this name.Here ships take in water, on account of the conve-nience of a bay, for the defence of which there is,upon the shore, a battery belonging to the samecastle, which was built under the directions ofDon Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.
AGUADORES, River of the, in the islandof Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast ofthis island, having at its mouth a watch-tower andguard to give notice of vessels which may enter theport of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it isseven leagues distant.
AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in theyear 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Quere-taro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of SierraGorda.
AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of thejurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It hasa convent of the religious order of St. Francis, andin 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families ofIndians, including the wards of its district; 17leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n.Long. 103° 33' w.
AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Santiago de las Atalayas, and government ofSan Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It isof a hot temperature, and produces the same fruitsas the other settlements of this province.
AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro,^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold tem-perature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo,and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain theirlivelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteenleagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.
AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlementof the province and government of Mainas in thekingdom of Quito ; one of those which belongedto the missions held there by the Jesuits, andthus called from the nation of Indians of whom it iscomposed. It was founded in 1670 by the fatherLorenzo Lucero.
AGUAPAI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It rises between the Pa-rana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of SanCarlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c.enters the last of the above rivers not far from thesettlement of La Cruz.
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anti government of Darien, near the n. coast, andthus "called from an eagle Avitli two heads, whichwas caught here in 1608, and which Avas sent tothe queen, Doha Maria-Ana of Austria, motherof Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampyground, which is round, and has a very narroAVinlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena.
Aguila (point), a point or cape of the larger island ofthe Malvinas or Falkland isles ; thus named fromhaving been discovered by the French frigate, theAguila, or Eagle. It is one of those whith formtlie great bay or port.
AGUILUSCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldiamayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishop-ric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of In-dians, who employ themselves in sowing seed,cutting Avood, manufacturing vessels of fineearth en-Avare, and saddle-trees for riding.
AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast of TierraFirme, and of the province and government ofSanta Marta, between this city and Cape Chichi-bacoa. It is the part of land which projects far-thest into the sea.
Aguja, Point of the. See article Eguille.
AGUSTIN, San, a capital city of the pro-vince and government of E. Florida, situate on thee. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land.It has a good port, which was discovered by Ad-miral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus-.tin’s day in the year 1565, which was his reasonfor giving the place this title, which has, however,been tAvice changed. He also built here a goodcastle for its defence. The city has a very goodparish church, and a convent of the Franciscanorder; and, as far as relates to its spiritual con-cerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who hasat various times proposed the erection of anabbey, but has not obtained his wish, although ithad been approved by the council of the Indies.
It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops,and another for the community ; it has also anhermitage, Avith the dedicatory title of Santa Bar-bara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586;by Captain Davis, Avith the Bucaniers, in 1665 ;but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In1702 it Avas besieged by the English, under thecommand of Colonel Moore, who, failing in hisattempts to take the castle, which Avas defended bythe governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibitedhis revenge by burning and destroying the town.In 1744 the English returned to the siege, underthe command of General Oglethorp, who wasequally unsuccessful, in as much as it w^as mostvaliantly defended by the governor, Don Manuelde Montiano, who defied the bombardment of theenemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ;the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizon-tal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, withgood bomb-proof casemates, and mounted Avith 50pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, anexcellent covered way. The city, although it isencompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its de-fence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ced-ed, Avith the whole of the province, to the English,by the King ofSpain, in the peace of Versailles, in1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783,when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. Thebreakers at the entrance of the harbour haveformed two channels, whose bars have eight feet ofwater each. Long. 81° 40'. Lat. 29° 58'.
Agustin, San, a settlement and real of mines,of the province of Tarauraara, in the kingdotli ofNueva Vizcaya, which was formerly a populationof some consequence, and wealthy withal, fromthe richness of its mines, Avhich -have lately falleainto decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon theinhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S,Felipe de Chiguagua.
Agustin, San, another settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldiamayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva España. It contains20 families of Indians, and is distant a little morethan a league from its head settlement.
Agustin, San, another, in the head settlementof the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor ofXicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, whotrade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four leaguen. of its head settlement.
mules, poultry, cheese, and salt meats. It haslikewise some mines in its district, which are notaltogetlier neglected, though the advantages de-rived from them would be immensely increased, ifthe number of labourers were greater. It is go-verned by a lieutenant nominated by the governorof Santiago de Veragua. [Lat. 8° 12' n. Long.80“ 40' a;.l
ALAQUINES, a branch of the head settle-ment of the district of Tamazunchale, and alcaldiamayor of Valles, in Nueva España, situate on theshore of a large river which divides this jurisdic-tion from that of Guadalcazar.
[ALASKE, a long peninsula on the n. w. coastof America, formed by Bristol bay and the oceanon the n. w. and n. and by the ocean and thewaters of Cook’s river on the s. and s. e. At itsextremity are a number of islands, the chief ofwhich, in their order westward, are, Oonemak,Oonala.sha, and Ocumnak, which form part ofthe chain or cluster of islands called the NorthernArchipelago. Captain Cook, on his return in1779, passed through the channel e. of Oonemakisland. See North-avest Coast of America.]
ALATAMALIA, a large river of the provinceand government of Florida. It runs nearly duee. and enters the sea opposite the Georgean isles.[This river, Avliich is navigable, is more properlyof Georgia. It rises in the Cherokee mountains,near the head of a western branch of Savannahriver, called Tugulo. In its descent through themountains it receives several auxiliary streams ;thence it Avinds, with considerable rapidity,through the hilly country 250 miles, from Avhcnceit throAvs itself into the open flat country, by thename of Oakmulgee. Thence, after meanderingfor 150 miles, it is joined by the Oconee, whichlikewise has its source in the mountains. Afterthis junction it assumes the name of Alatamalia,Avhen it becomes a large majestic river ; and flow'-ing Avith a gentle current through forests andplains 100 miles, discharges itself into the Atlan-tic by several mouths. The n. channel glides bythe heights of Darien, about 10 miles above thebar, and after several turnings, enters the oceanbetween Sapelo and Wolf islands. The s. chan-nel, which is esteemed the largest and deepest.
after its separation from the >?. descends gently,,taking its course between MDntosh and Brough-ton islands, and at last by the w. coast of St.Simon’s sound, betAveen the s. end of the islandof that name, and the n. end of Jeky! island.At its confluence with the Atlantic it is 500 yardsAvide.]
ALAUSI, a province and small corregimientoor district of the kingdom of Quito ; bounded «. bythe province of Riobamba, n. w. by Chimbo, s.by Cuenca, w. by the district of Yaguache, ande. by that of Macas. It is Avatered by the riversUzogoche, Gussuntos, Pinancay, Alausi, andothers of less note. It abounds in mountains, themost lofty of Avhich are tOAvard the©.; the countryis pleasant, and yields liberally every kijid offruit and grain that are common either to Americaor Europe. It contains many sugar mills, andthe sugar is the best intlie kingdom. The air hereis mild and healthy, and the climate cannot be saidto be inconveniently hot. It is governed by thecorregidor, who resides in the capital.
Alausi, the capital of the above province. Ithas in its district some mineral fountains of hotwater, established with suitable conveniences bysome families of consideration residing there. Itstrade consists in cloths, baizes, and cotton gar-ments, Avhich are wrought in its manufactories.It has a very good parish church, and a conventof the order of St. Francis. [Lat. 2“ 12' «.Long. 78° 39' ©.]
ALBANIA, or Albany, a county of the pro-vince and colony of New York. It contains acertain number of plains fertile in grain, in AA'hich,and in planks of pine, its principal commerce con-sists. The Avinter is extremely cold, and the riverHudson is generally frozen for 100 miles, so a*to bear immense burthens. The gveat cpiautityof snow that falls at this season is useful, not onlybecause it covers the grain, and keeps it from perishing by the frost, but because, when it melts, itso increases the waters of the river, as to facilitatethereby the transportation of the productions ofthe country.
[Albany County Lies Between Ulster AndSaratoga ; Its Extent 46 Miles By 28|ALBANY County lies between Ulster andSaratoga ; its extent 46 miles by 28. By thestate census, .fan. 20, 1796, the number of elec-tors in this county were 6087, and the number oftowns 11.]
and it is, indeed, pretty generally believed thatthis cross was left here by the above apostle.
CARACARES, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It is 26 leagues inlength, and has many fertile islands, inhabited bybarbarian Indians, and empties itself through acanal into the river Paraná on the e. side. It isin 30° 41' s. lat.
CARACAS, Santiago de Leon de, a capitalcity of the province of Venezuela, founded byDiego Losada in the year 1566, in a beautiful andextensive valley of more than four leagues inlength. It is of a very mild temperature, beingneither troubled with excessive heat or cold. It iswatered by four rivers, which fertilize its territory,and make it abound as well in delicate waters asin exquisite fruits and flowers: the streets are wideand straight, the buildings elegant and convenient,and it is ornamented by four marts. It is the seatof the bishopric, erected in the city of Coro in1532, and translated to this spot in 1636. It hasa beautiful cathedral church, besides some parishchapels, which are Nuestra Señora de Alta Gra-cia ; San Pablo, which is also an hospital, andNuestra Señora de la Candelaria, out of the wallsof the city. There is also an hospital De la Ca-ridad (of charity) for women ; a convent of the re-ligious order of Santo Domingo, in which is heldin high respect the wonderful image of the Virginof the Rosary, presented by Philip II. There isanother convent of San Francisco, in which ispreserved a piece of the wood of the cross left bythe Governor Don Martin de Robles Villafañate ;another of our Lady of La Merced ; a monasteryof religious women of La Concepcion ; another ofthe Carmelites Descalzas (barefooted) ; a college andseminary for the education of youth, with five ca-thedrals ; four hermitages dedicated to San Mau-ricio, Santa Rosalia de Palermo, La Divina Pas-tora, and La Santisima Trinidad. Charles II.granted to this city the privilege of allowing itsalcaldes to govern the province in the vacancy ofa governor ; and Philip V. permitted a commer-cial company of Biscayans to be established, whoreaped considerable affluence, especially in the ar-tiles of cacoa and sugar, the chief source of its re-venues ; but this company was abolished in thereign of Charles III. in the year 1778 ; which cir-cumstance was considered by the city and the pro-
vince as a most considerable privilege. The num-ber of inhabitants amounts to about 1000, besidesan infinity of people of colour by whom it is in-habited. The natives have shown themselves tobe of an ingenuous disposition, clever, affable, andcourteous. Its arms are a grey lion rampant in afield of silver, having between his arms a scollop-shell of gold, with the cross of Santiago ; and thecrest is a crown with five points of gold. It wassacked in 1566 by Sir Francis Drake, who camethither in an English cruiser ; also by the Frenchin 1679. It is three leagues distant from the portof Guaira. Long. 67° w. Lat. 10° 30' n.
The bishops who have presided in this city.
1. Don Rodrigo Bastidas, dean of the holychurch of St. Domingo, the chief of the visitationof the bishopric of Puertorico; elected on the 27thOctober 1535, and who died in 1542.
2. Don Miguel Gerónimo Ballesteros, dean ofthe church of Cartagena of the Indies ; electedin 1543.
3. Don Fr. Pedro de Agreda, of the order ofSt. Domingo, collegiate of San Gregorio of Val-ladolid ; presented to this bishopric in 1558, andtaking possession of it 1560. In his time the citywas sacked by the English : he died in 1580.
4. Don Fr. Juan de Manzanillo, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; presented in the year 1582 ; he re-built the church, and died in 1593.
5. Don Fr. Diego Salinas, of the order of St.Domingo, native of Medina del Campo, colle-giate of San Gregorio de Valladolid, prior in dif-ferent convents, procurator-general in the court,and elected bishop in the year 1600 : in the fol-lowing year he died.
6. Don Fr. Pedro Martin Palomino, of the orderof St. Domingo ; elected in 1601 : he died the sameyear.
7. Don Fr. Pedro de Oña, native of Burgos, ofthe order of our Lady of La Merced ; he was even-ing lecturer in the university of Santiago, electedbishop in 1601, canonized in the convent of Val-ladolid, and before he came to his church, waspromoted to the bishopric of Gaeta, in the king-dom of Naples, in 1604.
8. Don Fr. Antonio de Alcega, of the order ofSt. Francis ; he Avas formerly married, and heldthe office of accountant to the royal estates in Yu-catán, when he became a widower, and giving allhe possessed as alms to the poor, he took to a re-ligious life, and Philip III. being charmed withhis virtues presented him to this bishopric in1664 ; he celebrated the synod in Caracas theyear following, and died in 1609.
9. Don Fr. Juan de Bohorques, native of Mex-
twice with so much credit ; he entered upon thegovernment in the same year.
24. Sancho de Alquiza, a captain of infantry ;who began to govern in the year 1601, and con-tinued until the year 1610, when he was succeededby,
25. Don Martin de Robles Villafañate, who go- ,verned the province with great credit and prudenceuntil his death.
26. Don Francisco de la Hoz Berrio, native ofSanta Fe. He entered upon the government in1616, and governed until the year 1622. He wasdrowned returning to Spain in the fleet which waslost in the falls of Metacumbe, close to the Ha-vannah.
27. Don Francisco Nuñez Melian, who suc-ceeded the former, and governed until the year 1632.
28. Don Rui Fernandez de Fuenmayor, fromthe last-mentioned year to 1638,
29. Don Marcos Gelder de Calatayud, a knightof the order of Calatrava ; he was promoted herefrom the government of Santa Marta in 1639, andgoverned until the year 1644, when he died.
32. Don Pedro de Porras y Toledo, who beganto govern in 1660, and remained in office untilthe year 1665.
37. Don Joseph Francisco de Cañas, colonel ofinfantry, and knight of the order of St. Jago ; hecame over to Caracas under a particular commis-sion in 1716, and became provisional successor onaccount of the death of the proper governor.
38. Don Francisco de Portales.
39. Don Lope Carrillo.
40. Don Sebastian Garcia de la Torre, colonelof infantry ; from the year 1730 to 1733
41. Don Martin de Lardizábal, alcalde del cri-men of the royal audience of Aragon; who wassent out with a commission to consider the griev-ances of the province preferred against the com-pany of Guipuzcoana.
42. The Brigadier-general Don Gabriel de Zu-loaga. Count of Torre-alta, captain of the grena-diers of the regiment of the royal Spanish guards ;he governed from 1737 to 1742.
43. The Brigadier-general Don Luis de Castel-lanos, also captain of the regiment of guards ; to1749.
44. Don Fray Julian de Arriaga y Rigera Bai
lio, of the order of St. Juan ; vice-admiral of theroyal armada : he governed to 1752, when he waspromoted to the office of president of trade.
45. Don Felipe Ricardos, lieutenant-general ofthe royal armies.
46. Don Felipe Ramirez de Esteñoz, a briga-dier-general.
47. Don Joseph Solano y Bote, captain in theroyal armada ; to the year 1771, when he was pro-moted to the presidency of St. Domingo.
48. The Brigadier-general the Marquis of LaTorre, knight of the order of Santiago ; he enteredCaracas in the aforesaid year, and governed untilthe year 1772, when he was promoted to be go-vernor of the Havannah.
49. Don Joseph Carlos de Aquiero, knight ofthe order of St. Jago ; who had served in the warof Italy as captain of the provincial grenadiers,and afterwards in the regiment of Spanish guards :he then held the government of Nueva Vizcaya,and afterwards, on account of his singular disinte-restedness, nominated to this in 1777 ; but he re-turned to Spain.
50. Don Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga, colonelof infantry : in the aforesaid year he left the go-vernment of Louisiana for this, and exercised ittill the year 1784, when lie was promoted to theHavannah, being succeeded by,
51. Don Manuel Gonzales, knight of the orderof St. Jago, brigadier of the royal armies ; he wasnominated as provisional successor.
52. The Colonel Don Juan Guillelmi, who hadserved in the corps of artillery ; he was promotedto the government in 1785.
[INDEX TO ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CON-CERNING THE City of Caracas.
1. Foundation. --- 2. Privileges. --- 3. Temperalure.--- 4. Meteorology. --- 5. Cyanometrical observa-tion. --- 6. Oxigen and nitrogen gas. --- 7. Va-riation of the needle. --- 8. Inclination of the dip-ping needle. --- 9. Situation. --- 10. Its waters. ---11. Streets. --- 12. Public squares. --- 13. Houses.--- 14. Public buildings. --- 15. Archbishopric. ---16. Cathedral. --- 17. Religious customs. --- 18.Religious costumes of the women. --- 19. Festi-vals. --- 20. The stage, & c. --- 21. Inhabitants. ---22. Freed persons or tradesmen. --- 23. The uni-versity. --- 24. Police. --- 25. Communications withthe interior. --- 26. With Spain. --- 27. Geogra-phical and statistical notices of the captainship-general of Caracas, and present history.
1. Foundation. --- This city, situate in 10° 31'n. lat. and 69° 3' w. long, from the meridian ofParis, was founded by Diego Losada in 1567, 47]
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[ of the captives as he thought fit, and his country-men presented to his choice the most beautiful oftheir daughters in reward of his valour. It wasprobably this last-mentioned testimony of publicesteem and gratitude that gave rise in these islandsto the institution of polygamy, which, as hathbeen already observed, prevailed universally amongthem, and still prevails among the Caribes of S.America ; an institution the more excusable, astheir women, from religious motives, carefullyavoided the nuptial intercourse after pregnancy.Though frequently bestowed as the prize of suc-cessful courage, the wife, thus honourably obtain-ed, was soon considered of as little value as thecaptive. Deficient in those qualities which alonewere estimable among the Caribes, the femaleswere treated rather as slaves than companions:they sustained every species of drudgery ; theyground the maize, prepared the cassavi, gatheredin the cotton, and wove the hammoc; nor werethey allowed even the privilege of eating in pre-sence of their husbands. Under these circum-stances, it is not wonderful that they were less pro-lific than the women of Europe. Father JosephGumilla, in his account of the nations borderingon the Orinoco, relates (tom. i. p. 207. Fr. trans-lation), that the Caribes of the continent punishtheir women caught in adultery like the ancientIsraelites, “ by stoning them to death before anassembly of the people ;" a fact not recorded by anyother writer. We know but little concerning theirdomestic economy, their arts, manufactures, andagriculture ; their sense of filial and paternal ob-ligations, their religious rights and funeral cere-monies. Such further information, however, inthese and other respects, as authorities the leastdisputable afford, we have abridged in the follow-ing detached observations. Besides the ornamentswhich we have noticed to have been worn by bothsexes, the women, on arriving at the age of pu-berty, were distinguished also by a sort of buskinor half boot made of cotton, which surrounded thesmall part of the leg. The same sort of brodequinor buskin is worn by the female Hottentots andother nations of Africa; a distinction, however, towhich such of their females as had been taken inthe chance of war dared not aspire. In otherrespects, both male and female appeared as nakedas our first parents before the fall. Like them, asthey knew no guilt, they knew no shame ; nor wasclothing thought necessary to personal comfort,where the chill blast of winter is never lelt. Theirhair was uniformly of a shining black, straight, andcoarse ; but they dressed it with daily care, andadorned it with great art, the men, in particular,
decorating their heads with feathers of various co-lours. As their hair thus constituted their chiefpride, it was an unequivocal proof of the sincerityof their sorrow, when, on the death of a relationor friend, they cut it short like their slaves andcaptives, to whom the privilege of wearing longhair was rigorously denied. Like most other na-tions of the new hemisphere, they eradicated, withgreat nicety, the incipient beard, and all super-fluous hairs on their bodies ; a circumstance whichhas given rise to the false notion that all the Abo-rigines of America were naturally beardless. Onthe birth of a child, its tender and flexible skullwas confined between two small pieces of wood,which, applied before and behind, and firmlybound together on each side, elevated the fore-head, and occasioned it and the back part of theskull to resemble two sides of a square ; a customstill observed by the miserable remnant of Red Ca-ribes in the island of St. Vincent. It has beensaid by anatomists, that the coronal suture of newborn children in the West Indies is commonlymore open than that of infants born in colder cli-mates, and the brain more liable to external in-jury. Perhaps, therefore, the Indian custom ofdepressing the os frontis and the occiput, was ori-ginally meant to assist the operation of nature inclosing the skull. They resided in villages whichresembled an European encampment, for their ca-bins were built of poles fixed circularly in theground, and drawn to a point at the top ; theywere then covered w ith leaves of the palm tree. Inthe centre of each village was a building of supe-rior magnitude to the rest: it was formed withgreat labour, and served as a public hall or statehouse, wherein we are assured that the men (ex-cluding the women) had their meals in common.These halls were also the theatres where their youthwere animated to emulation, and trained to mar-tial enterprise by the renown of their warriors andthe harangues of their orators. Their arts and ma-nufactures, though few, displayed a degreeof inge-nuity which one would have scarcely expected tofind amongst a people so little removed from astate of mere animal nature as to reject all dress assuperfluous. Columbus observed an abundance ofsubstantial cotton cloth in all the islands which hevisited ; and the natives possessed the art of stain-ing it with various colours, though the Caribes de-lighted chiefly in red. Of this cloth they madehammocs, or hanging beds, such as are now usedat sea ; for Europe has not only copied the pat-tern, but preserved also the original name. Allthe early Spanish and French writers expressly as-sert, that the original Indian name for their swing-
close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they arethree in number, small and desert.
Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coastof the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extend-ing itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. Thee. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerousto be passed.
Carnero, Punta del, another point of landon the coast of the same kingdom.
CAROLINA, a province of N. America, andpart of that extensive country anciently calledFlorida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the trueFlorida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic.It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its ex-tent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. ton. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30®to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by JuanPonce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settledby the Spaniards then, but abandoned until thereign of Charles IX. king of France, when theFrench established themselves in it, under thecommand of admiral Chatilon, protector of theProtestants. He founded a colony and a fort call-ed Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina tothe country, in lionour to his monarch. This es-tablishment, however, lasted but a short time, forit was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put tothe sword the new colonists, and went away underthe impression that they had now left the countryin a perfectly abandoned state. But the English,at this time, were maintaining a footing here, un-der the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, thoughthey were not under any formal establishmentuntil the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when thecountry was granted as a property to the followingnobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke ofAlbemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, JohnAshley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, GeorgeCarteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley;by these it was divided into as many counties,and by them names were given to the rivers, settle-ments, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and
jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. andthey had an absolute authority to form establish-ments and governments, according to the laws andstatutes laid down by that famous and renownedphilosopher John Locke ; accordingly the govern-ment partook largely of the despotic, and therulers had the power of acknowledging or renounc-ing laws, of conferring titles, employments, pro-motions, and dignities, according to their owncaprice. They divided the population into threeclasses: The first was composed of those entitledthe Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acresof land; the second were two lordships, with thetitle of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ;and the third, who were called Landgraves, a titlecorresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000acres. This last body formed the high council-chamber, and the lower was composed of the re-presentatives of the counties and cities, both ofthese together forming the parliament, this beingthe real title, and not assembly, as in the othercolonies. The first establishment was the city ofCharlestown, between two navigable rivers calledAshley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylumto the Europeans, who on account of religiousdisturbances fled from Europe, and who havingsuffered great distresses there, had afterwards toencounter a very unfriendly reception from theIndians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728,when this city was taken under the protection ofthe English crown ; a corresponding recompencehaving been paid to the lords, the proprietors, whoyielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ;the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keep-ing his eighth share. From that time it was divid-ed into two parts, called North and South. The cli-mate differs but little from that of Virginia, al-though the heat in the summer is rather morepowerful here ; the winter, however, is shorterand milder ; the temperature is serene and theair healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are fre-quent, and this is the only part of this continentwherein have been experienced hurricanes; althoughthey are but rare here, and never so violent as in theislands. The half of March, the whole of April,May, and the greater part of June, the season ismild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearlyall September, the heat is intense ; but the winteris so mild, especially when the w.tw. wind prevails,that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fer-tile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and allkinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisiteflavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, iscovered with all kinds of trees. The principal
der of Santiago, a commander of tlie galleons; hewas deposed and sent to Spain for having marriedwithout a licence; and in his place the audience ofSanta Fe nominated as provisional governor,
32. Don Francisco Rexe Corbalan, until arrivedthe right owner in,
33. Don Clemente Soriano, colonel of militia,in 1616 ; he died in the following year.
34. Don Pedro Zapata, colonel of militia, of theorder of Santiago ; nominated as governor jyrotempore in 1648.
35. Don Fernando de la Riva Agiicro, of theorder of Santiago, a field-officer, being governorof Puertorico ; he entered Cartagena in 1649, andwas promoted to the presidency of Panama in1634.
36. Don Pedro Zapata, twice nominated as pro-prietor in the aforesaid year ; but dying, his placewas filled pro tempore by,
37. Don Francisco Rexe Corbalan.
38. Don Juan Perez de Guzman, of the habitof Santiago, a field-officer, and governor of An-tioquia ; nominated provisionally, and afterwardsappointed to the government of Puertorico.
39. Don Diego de Portugal, colonel of militia,knight of the order of Alcantara; nominated in1659, through the circumstance of Don FernandoAgiiero being appointed governor of Cartagena inCadiz.
40. The Licentiate Don Manuel Martin de Pa-lomeque, nominated by the king ; he afterwardsbecame oidor of St. Domingo.
41 . Don Juan Perez de Guzman, the second timenominated as proprietor; he entered in 1661, andwas removed to the presidency of Panama in 1664.
42. Don Benito de Figueroa Barrantes, of thehabit of Alcantara, a field-officer ; he went as go-vernor of Larache in Africa in 1665, and fromthence to be president of Panama.
43. Don Joseph Sanchez Xiraenez, who wasgovernor of the island of Santa Catalina, nomi-nated to this government, which he did not exer-cise, having been found poniarded and killed inhis bed.
44. Don Antonio de Vergara Azearate, knightof the order of Santiago, nominated previouslyin 1668.
45. Don Pedro de Ulloa Ribadeneyra, of theonler of Santiago ; nominated in 1669.
46. Don Joseph Daza, general of the artillery.
47. Don Rafael Caspir y Sanz, colonel of mi-litia, native of Tortosa, nominated in 1678 ; inwhose time happened those weighty disputes withthe bishop Don Antonio de Benavides; he wassucceeded by,
48. Don Juan de Pando y Estrada, a field-of-ficer ; w ho took possession in 1684.
49. Don Martin de Ceballos y la Cerda, in 1686.
50. Don Diego de los Rios, a field-officer ; inhis time happened the sacking and taking of Car-tagena by the French, in 1695.
51. Don Juan Diaz Pimienta, knight of theorder of Caltrava, a field-officer, gentleman of thecluamberto the Emperor Leopold, of the house ofthe Marquises of Villareal, noted for his valourand military conduct in the siege of Buda, wherehe was wounded ; nominated as governor to con-sole the afflicted natives of Cartagena, taking withhim a certain number of Spansih troops from thekingdom of Galicia ; he entered in 1696, diedin 1706.
52. Don Joseph de Zuniga y la Cerda, of noless credit than the former ; he was governor ofFlorida at the time that he w'as elected to this, in1712, and which he exercised until 1718, whenhe returned to Spain in the unlucky fleet of Anto-nio Ubilla, which was lost in the channel of Baha-ma, the frigate in which he sailed being the onlyvessel saved.
53. Don Alberto de Bertodano, a renowned bri-gadier in Flanders, where he had lost an arm inaction ; he was nominated in 1720, and exercisedthe government until his death, in 1722.
54. Don Luis de Aponte, colonel of the regi-ment of the crown, afterwards brigadier, an officerof the greatest skill and renown of any in thearray ; he was nominated in 1723, and exercisedthe government until his death.
55. Don Juan Joseph de Andia, Marquis ofVillaherraosa, brigadier-general; nominated throughthe death of the general ; he entered Cartagena in1712, and governed till 1730, when he was pro-moted to the presidency of Panama.
56. Don Antonio de Salas, who had becui colo-nel of the regiment of infantry of Saboya ; he e.u-tered in 173i, and died in 1735.
57. Don Pedro Fidalgo, brigadier and captainof the royal Spanish guards ; promoted to this go-vernment in 1736 : he died in 1739.
58. Don Melchor de Navarrete, who was king^slieutenant ; he entered as provisional governorthrough the death of the proprietor : in his timethe town was besieged by the English until the ar-rival of the right owner,
59. Don Basilio de Gante ; who had risen <o therank of brigadier, at that time king’s lieutenantof the fortified town of Ceuta, when he was pro-moted to the government of this, in 1742 : he ex-ercised it till 1739, when he returned to Spain.
60. Don Ignacio de Sala, lieutenant-general, ua-
tive of Barcelana, a celebrated engineeer; also re-nowned in the constructing of the land-gate or en-trance to Cadiz : he was promoted to this govern-ment for the purpose of inspecting and repairingthe towers which had been destroyed by AdmiralVernon, which commission, after he had executed,he returned to Spain in 1755, and died director-general of the body of engineers.
61. Don Fernando Morillo Velarde, knight ofthe order of Alcantara, colonel of infantry, at thattime king’s lieutenant, when he received the go-vernment on account of the proprietor having goneto fortify the town of Portobelo.
62. Don Diego Tabares, knight of the order ofSantiago, brigadier-general ; promoted to this go-vernment from that of Camana in 1755, and go-verned till 1761, when arrived his successor,
63. Don Joseph de Sobremonte, Marquis of thisname, a brigadier, who was captain of the regimentof Spanish guards when he was nominated : he go-verned till 1770, when he died.
64. Don Gregorio de Sierra, also captain of gre-nadiers of the express regiment of Spanish guards ;he entered Cartagena in 1771, and died in 1774.
65. Don Juan Pimienta, colonel of the regi-ment of the infantry of Zamora, in rank a briga-dier, and knight of the distinguished order ofCharles III. ; he entered into the possession of thegovernment in 1774, and died in 1781.
66. Don Roque de Quiroga, king’s lieutenant ofthe fortified town, or Plaza ; promoted as provincialgovernor through the death of his antecessor, un-til arrived, under the king’s appointment, the pro-prietor,
67. Don Joseph de Carrion y Andrade, a bri-gadier, who before had been governor of thePlaza of Manilla, and had rendered himself re-nowned when it was besieged by the Emperor ofMarruecos, being nominated to this government in1774 : he died in 1785.
CARTAGO, a city of the province and go-vernment of Popayan, founded by the BrigadierGeorge Robledo in 1540, who gave it this name,with the dedicatory title of San Juan, his patron;the greater part of the military in it having comefrom the city of Cartagena in Europe. It did liebetween the rivers Otun and Quindio; but the
continual invasions it has experienced from thePijaos and Pimaes Indians, who are a bold andwarlike people, determined its inhabitants to re-move it at the end of the I7th century to the spotwhere it now stands ; having bought for that pur-pose some land of Tomasa Izquierdo, on the bankof an arm of the river of La Vieja, which is alarge stream, and navigable for canoes and rafts,and which is at the distance of rather better thana quarter of a mile from the large river Cauca,into which the above river enters, forming beforethe city an island, which abounds in animals of thechase, and in cattle, and having on its banks ex-cellent fishing. This city is of a dry and healthyclimate ; and although hot, the atmosphere is al-ways clear and serene. It is situate upon a leveland somewhat elevated plain , of beautiful appear-ance ; the streets are spacious, wide and straight.It has a very large grand square. Its buildingsare solid and of good structure, and universallyroofed over with straw, having, however, the wallsof solid stone from the top to the bottom ; othersare built of brick, and others with rafters of wood,the walls being of clay, (which they call imbulidoSyor inlaid), so solid as to resist the force of the mostviolent earthquakes, as was experienced in onethat happened in 1785. At a small distance fromthe city are various lakes or pools of water, whichthey call denegas, formed by nature, assisted byart. It is the residence of the lieutenant-gover-nor of the government of Popayan, of two ordi-nary alcaldes, two of La Hermandad, two member*of an inferior court, a recorder, a procurator-gene-ral, a major domo de propiosy and six regidors^the cabildo enjoying the privilege of electing andconfirming these officers yearly. It has also a bat-talion of city militia, and two disciplined compa-nies ; also some royal cofiers, which were broughtfrom the city of Anserma. Besides the church ofMatriz, in which is venerated, as the patroness, theHoly Virgin, under the image of Nuestra Senorade la Paz, (this being the pious gift of PhilipIII.) it has five parishes, viz. Santa Ana, SantaBarbara, Llano de Buga, Naranjo, Micos, andPueblo de los Cerritos. The territory is extremelyfertile and pleasant, abounding as well in fruitsand pulse as in birds of various sorts ; and in nopart whatever are plantains so various, or of sofine a quality. Tlie coffee is good, and the cacao,which is of two sorts, is excellent, and is calledyellow and purple hayna. Of no less estimationis the tobacco, with which a great traffic wasformerly carried on at Choco. The district of thiscity abounds in trees, medicinal herbs and fruits,and in an exquisite variety of cacao plants; also
in beautiful singing birds ; and in its rivers aremany sorts of fish of a fine flavour, particularly thepatah. It is not without mines of gold, and laba~deros or washing places, but these are not worked,save by a few day-labourers. In the church of themonks of San Francisco is venerated an image of themost Holy Mary, with the title of La Probezuypainted on a piece of cotton-stuff, adorned with twofine pieces of silver, the natives payitig great de-votion to this superb work, from the wonderfulthings that have been said to have been effectedthrough the prayers offered up to her of whom thisis the semblance. This city has been the nativeplace of,
Don Melchor de Salazar, governor of Choco,and founder of the city Toro.
Of the Doctor Don Francisco Martinez Bueno,presbyter and visitor of the bishopric of Popayan ;a man of great literature.
Of the Doctor Don Manuel de Castro y Rada ; amost exemplary curate.
Of the Father Joseph Vicuna, who, after havingbeen a celebrated Jesuit, became a monk in thecollege of missions for propagating the faith in Po-payan, and died whilst preaching to the AndaquiesIndians.
Of the Father Estevan de Rivas, who, after hav-ing filled the title of jurist with great credit, be-came a Franciscan monk, and died an exemplarypenitent in his convent at Cartagena.
Of the Doctor Don Francisco Felipe del Campo,professor de prima of canons in the university ofSanta Fe ; a celebrated orator.
Of the Doctor Don Geronirao de Rivas, trea-surer and dignitary of the holy church of Popayan,provisor and ecclesiastical governor of that bishop-ric.
Of the Doctor Don Joseph de Renteria, assessorof the viceroyalties of Santa Fe and Lima, honoraryoidor of the audience of Charcas : all of whomhave borne testimony to the clearness and acutenessof their understandings and excellence of their dis-positions. But for all the information on thesesubjects, we have to thank Don Manuel del Cara-po, the son of the last mentioned, who resides inthis court, and to whom the merits thus severallyapplied, unitedly belong.
The arms of this city are three imperial crownswith a sun, and its inhabitants amount to about 5000or 6000 : 25 leagues n. e. of Popayan, in 4° 46'n. lat.
Cartago, another capital city, of the provinceof Costa Rica, in the kingdom of Guatemala,situate 10 leagues from the coast of the N. sea, and17 from that of the S. in each of which it has agood port ; it was formerly rich and flourishing, onaccount of its commerce w ith Panama, Cartagena,Portobclo, and the Havanah ; but it is at the presentday reduced to a miserable village of very few in-habitants, and without any commerce. It has, be-sides the parish church, a convent of monks of St.Francis, and is in 9° 42' s. lat.
Cartago, a river of the same province and go-vernment as is the former city : it runs w. and en-ters the S.sea, in the port of La Herradura.
Carteret, a cape or extremity of the coast ofthe same province, and one of those which formLong bay. See Roman.
CARUALLEDA, Nuestra Senora de, acity of the province and government of Venezuela,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; founded byFrancis Faxardo in 1568, and not in 1560, as ac-cording to Coleti : it has a small but insecure port.The town is also a miserable place, having sufferedmuch injury, a short time after its foundation, bythe violent disturbances caused in its neighbour-hood by the Governor Don Luis de Roxas : 80leagues e. of Coro.
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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of goldand silver, which had grown quite discoloured, tothe amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.
CHANEL, some islands near the coast of thecountry of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence.They are numerous and very small, one of thembeing very long and narrow ; forming a channelwith the coast, and giving its name to the rest.
CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, ofthe province and government of Paraguay ; dwell-ing to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and boundedby the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have theirhouses near the lakes, and maintain themselves byfishing.
CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea,and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and go-vernment of Tierra Firme. They are two in num-ber, being situate near the coast, and having be-tween them a shallow or quicksand, by which theyare communicated. They abound in a species ofbirds, from which they take their name.
CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory orcape of the province and corregimiento of Valdiviain the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues tothe s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers themouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados,with the other cape, which is to thes. called De laBallena.
CHANTACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito,to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of SanPedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies uponthe bank of a small river, being of an excellentclimate.
diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near therivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of theMontana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.
CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, ormountain of San Antonio. Through it passes asmall river, which runs down from this mountain,and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of avery cold temperature, and lies in the middle of awood. Lat. l°40's.
CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan inNueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of this name ; has a good convent ofthe monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, whichis very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds ofseed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many de-licious fruits.
Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate ina plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 fa-milies of Indians, who trade in seeds and otherfruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds.It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ;lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.
Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom ofNueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on ac-count of its size, is navigated by many vessels,and is extremely well stocked with fish ; fromwhich the inhabitants of the immediate settlementsderive their source of commerce.
CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.
CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the provinceand government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Itrises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Inti-nuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs inan inclined course to the e. and enters the Mar-more Grande, forming a good port.
left the government, in the year 1655, to the suc-cessor,
25. Don Martin de Muxica, knight of the orderof Santiago, a renowned officer, and one who hadgained much renown in the armies of Ital}^ andFlanders.
26. Don Pedro Porter de Casanate, A. D.1659.
27. Don Francisco Meneses Bravo de Sarabia,who led from Spain a body of troops, in order tosubdue the Indians; this he accomplished; andin the year 1664 rebuilt the cities which had beendestroyed in 1599 : his government lasted untilthe year 1668, when he was deposed by the vice-roy of Peru.
28. Don Angel Peredo, knight of the order ofSantiago ; he was appointed as an intermediategovernor upon the deposition of his antecessor,and governed during the following year, 1669.
» 29. Don Juan Enriquez, native of Lima, knightof the order of Santiago, governed until the year1677.
33. Don Juan Andres de Ustariz, native of Se-villa, until the year 1715, when was elected,
34. Don Gabriel Cano dc Aponte, brigadier-general of the royal armies, in whose time theAraucanos again declared war, when he obligedthem to renew the peace ; died A.D. 1728.
35. Don Juan de Salamanca, colonel of the mi-litia of that kingdom ; he was an intermediate go-vernor, and at his death,
36. Don Joseph de Santiago Concha, Marquisde Casa Concha, kinght of the order of Calatrava,chief auditor of the royal audience of Lima, nomi-nated by the viceroy.
37. Don Alonso de Obando, Marquis de Obatido,vice-admiral of the royal armada ; appointed bythe viceroy, the Marquis de Villa Garcia, as inter-mediate successor, until the year 1736.
38. Don Joseph Manso de Velasco, Count otSnperunda, knight of the order of Santiago ; hewas at that time captain of the grenadiers of theregiment of Spanish guards, and ranked as briga-dier; well recommended by his valour and ex-ploits, when he was appointed to this presidencyin the aforesaid year ; he governed until the year1746, when he was promoted to the viceroyalty ofPeru.
39. Don Domingo Ortiz de Rozas, knight ofthe order of Santiago, was at that time governor ofBuenos Ayres, and Avas elected to this presidencyin the aforesaid year ; he founded several toAvns,
on which account the king gave him the title ofConde de Poblaciones ; governed until the year1754, when returning to Spain, he died.
40 Don Manuel Arnat y J unient, knight of theorder of San Juan, colonel of the regiment of dra-goons of Sagunto, of the rank of brigadier, ap-pointed to this presidency ; which he filled untilthe year 1761, when he was promoted to the vice-royahy of Peru.
41. Don Mateo de Toro de Zambrano y Urueta,appointed as intermediate successor by the former,upon his departure from Lima, until the arrival ofthe right successor,
42. Don Antonio Guill, formerly colonel of theregiment of infantry of Guadalaxara, and thenranked as brigadier, being governor and captain-general of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; promotedto this presidency in the aforesaid year, 1761, andexercised it until his death, in 1768.
43. Don Mateo de Toro Zambrano y Urueta, thesecond time of his being nominated as intermediatesuccessor by the audience in the vacancy, untilwas nominated by the viceroy of Peru,
44. Don Francisco Xavier de Morales, knightof the order of Santiago, brigadier of the royalarmies, who being captain of the grenadiers of theregiment of the royal Spanish guards, was madegeneral of the militia in Peru, and Avas nominatedas intermediate successor by the viceroy to thispresidency, Avhich he enjoyed till his death in theyear 1772.
45. The aforesaid Don Mateo de Toro Zam-brano y Urueta, then Count of La Conquista, knightof the order of Santiago, and lieutenant-colonel ofthe royal armies, nominated for the third time bythe royal audience during the vacancy, until ar-rived the right successor,
46. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, brigadier of the royal armies,Avho had been colonel of the regiment of dragoonsof Sagunto ; Avas appointed to this presidencyA.D. 1773, and enjoyed it until 1782, Avhen heAvas promoted to the viceroyalty of Peru.
47. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, brigadier ofthe royal armies, was nominated in the same year,1782.
[INDEX TO THE ADDITIONAL HISTORY ANDINFORMATION RESPECTING CHILE.
Chap. 1. Origin and language of the Chilians.— Conquest o f the Peruvians^ and state of Chilebefore the arrival of the Spaniards.— What werethen its political establishments^ government, andarts.
1. Language.— 2. Original state.— 3. Divided intofree and subjugated.— Agricidture.—b. Civi-
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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.
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as to render it impracticable to cross them. In theroad they usually take lies the steep declivity ofSan Antonio, extremely difficult to be passed.The mules however are so well versed in the man-ner of letting themselves slide down it, that therehas never been an instance of these animals falling.The 'vegetable productions of this province areconfined to bark, and from this no emolument isderived, although it was discovered, after muchsearch and solicitude, by the Lieutenant-colonelDon Miguel de Santistevan. It accordinglj'- pro-vides itself with all that it may require in this wayfrom the adjoining provinces of Riobamba andTacunga. It is of a very cold temperature, fromits being so near to the mountainous desert ofChimborazo. Its natives amount to 2000 souls,the greater part of them being Mustees, and the■whole are divided into seven settlements, of whichthe capital bears the same name ; and althoughthis was formerly the residence of the corregidor,yet has it of late been deserted for the settlementof Guaranda. The seven settlements are,
San Lorenzo, Guaranda,
CHIMBORAZO, a verylofty mountain or desert of the cordillera of theprovince and corregimiento of Riobamba, in thekingdom of Quito; which, in the language ofthe country, signifies mountain of the other side.It is covered with everlasting snow, and is theloftiest mountain in the known world, since itsheight, taken by the academicians of the sciencesof Paris, is 3220 toises from the level of the seato its top, which terminates in a cone or truncatedpyramid. Its sides are covered with a kind ofwhite sand or calcined earth with loose stones,and a certain herb called pajon, which affords pas-ture for the cattle of the neighbouring estates.The warm streams flowing from its n. side shouldseem toAvarrantthe idea that within it is a volcano.From its top flow down many rivers, which takedifferent winding courses; thus the Guarandaruns 5. the Guano s. e. and the Machala e. Onits skirt lies the road which" leads from Quito toGuayaquil ; and in order to pass it in safety, it isrequisite to be more cautious in choosing the properseason than were the Spanish conquerors of thisprovince, who were here frozen to death. Northof the town of Riobamba, in lat. 1° 21' 18" s. ac-cording to the observations of M. La Condamine.fThis mountain was visited, on the 23d of June1797, by Humboldt; who with his party reachedits €. slope on that day, and planted their instru-
ments on a narrow ledge of porphyritie rock Avhichprojected from the vast field of unfathomcd snow.A chasm, 500 feet wide, prevented their furtherascent. The air was reduced to half its usualdensity, and felt intensely cold and piercing.Respiration was laborious and blood oozed fromtheir eyes, their lips and their gums. They stoodon the highest spot ever trod by man. Its height,ascertained from barometrical observation, was3485 feet greater than the elevation attained in1745 by Condamine, and 19,300 feet above thelevel of the sea. From that extreme station, thetop of Chimborazo was found, by trigonometricalmeasurement, to be 2140 feet still higher.
CHIMBUZA, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Barbacoas, of the kingdom ofQuito, to the s. w. of the river Patia, formed by anarrow canal, through ■which the Avater of thisriver enters, and so forms the same lake into asheet of water of an oblong figure, two leagues inlength, and half a league in breadth. This lakehas another narrow canal, through which the wa-ter issues, and re-unites itself with the sameriver.
CHIMICA, a small province of the governmentof Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada. It is almost as it were desert and aban-doned, notwithstanding that it produces a goodquantity of maize. The climate is hot and un-healthy ; and although it was formerly peopled bythe Chimicas Indians, none of these are now foundto reside here.
CHIMILAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the province ofSanta Marta. They inhabit the Avoods to the e.of the large river Magdalena, go naked, and haveno fixed abodes. They are cruel and treacherous,and are bounded by the nation of the Guaxiros.
CHIMIRAL, a river of the province and corregimiento of Copiapo in the kingdom of Chile.It rises in the SnoAvy sierra, runs w. and enters thesea in the point of its name. It in many partsruns in so inconsiderable a stream as frequently tobe in all appearance lost before it enters the sea.
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Spaniards, and the rest having fled, and thuspenetrating n. have confounded themselves withother nations. It abounds in maize, plantains,and cacao of an excellent quality ; its gold minesrender it rich and well peopled ; it also carries on,through this branch of revenue, a great commercewith the province of Popayan, the nativ'es of thatplace coming here to purchase gold, and leavingin exchange whatever is necessary for the comfortand convenience of life. There is no inconsider-able number of Negro slaves employed in work-ing the mines, and in 1750 they amounted to20,000, without mentioning the men of colour,such as the Mustees and Mulattoes, and even Whiteswho are engaged in this lucrative concern. Theclimate is warm, but moist from the continualrains, and consequently unhealthy. This countryabounds in tigers, wild boars, alligators, parrots,monkeys of various sorts, and a multitude of rep-tiles and insects, especially in vipers and ve-nomous snakes ; such as corales, exis, and rattle-snakes. Here are also an infinite variety of beau-tiful sorts of wood, curious balsams, herbs, fruits,and flowers. It was subject to the government ofPopayan, until it became divided in the time ofDon Fernando Guerrero. All the gold which istaken out of the mines here, and which is the cur-rent money, was formerly carried to be coined atthe mint of Santa Fe, until that the house ofValencia established another, at its own cost, in thecity of Popayan ; this privilege having been firstgranted that house by the mayoralty, though itwas afterwards taken away and added by the kingto the crown, upon the payment of a compensationof 100,000 reals per annum to the original pro-prietors. This province extends 48 leagues froms. to n. and is 39 in width from e. to w. Thecapital is the city of Nevita.
[Choco, Canal of. In the interior of the pro-vince of Choco, the small ravine (quebrada) Dela Raspadura unites the neighbouring sources ofthe Rio de Noanama, called also Rio San Juan,and the small river Quito : the latter, the RioAndageda, and the Rio Zitasa, form the Riod’Atrata, which discharges itself into the Atlanticocean, while the Rio San Juan flows into the S.sea. A monk of great activity, cure of the villageof Novita, employed his parishioners to dig asmall canal in the ravine De la Raspadura, bymeans of which, when the rains are abundant,canoes loaded with cacao pass from sea to sea.Th is interior communication has existed since1788, unknown in Europe. The small canal ofRaspadura unites, on the coasts of the two oceans,
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two points 75 leagues distant from one ano-ther.]
[CHOCOLATE Creek, a head-water of Tiogariver in New York, whose mouth lies 10 miless. w. of the Painted post.]
[CHOCOLOCO-CA, which the Spaniards callCastro Vireyna, a town of Peru, 60 leagues s. e.of Lima, is very famous for its silver mines,which are at the top of a great mountain alwayscovered with snow, and but two leagues from thetown. The stones of the mine are, of a dark bluecolour ; these being calcined and powdered, thensteeped in water and quicksilver, the filth is sepa-rated, and the silver melted and formed into bars.These veins are not very rich, but the metal is veryfine. They make plenty of wine here, where itattains a greater degree of perfection, owing to thepureness of the air, than it is observed to have else-where.]
CHOCONTA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold but healthy temperature, beingsituate upon a llanura. It produces abundanceof wheat, maize, papas, barley, and garlic, of thewhole of which an abundant crop is gathered ;these indeed form the principal branches of itscommerce, as they supply all the neighbouringprovinces. It was , in the time of the Indians alarge, rich, and populous city, and the barrierof the province of Tunja; also the place wherethe zipas held a garrison of their best troops.This city was entered by Gonzalo Ximinez deQuesada in 1537, when he gave it the name ofEspiritu Santo, from this festival having beencelebrated here. After the conquest of the Spa-niards it became a became a curacy of the relio-ionof St. Domingo, and was one of those which wasconsidered the first step to the advantages to bederived from these missions. It was close to thissettlement that the sanguinary conflict took placewhich was fought between Michua, king of Tunja,and Saguanmachica, zipa or king of Bogota, inwhich both princes fell dead upon the field ; atpresent it is a small village of Indians, who amountto the number of 200, besides 400 other inhabi-tants, who consist of whites. Ten leagues n. ofSanta Fe, and as many from Tunja, just midwaybetweeen these two jurisdictions.
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CHOCOPE, San Pedro y San Pablo de,a small settlement of the province and corregi-miento of Truxillo in Peru ; situate in the valleyof Chicama, watered and fertilized by the river ofthis name. It produces in abundance grapes,sugar-canes, olives, and every kind of Europeanfruit of the most excellent flavour. It was formerlya large population, since that the few inhabitantswho had been lel't at Concepcion, and those ofLicapa in the same valley, have incorporatedthemselves here. It has a very large and handsomechurch, although this underwent some damagefrom an earthquake experienced in this provincein 1759; the settlement suffered much also in 17S6,as did all the other towns of the coast, as, verycontrary to the custom of the climate here, it rainedwithout cessation for a period of 40 days, fromfive o’clock in the evening to the same hour in thefollowing morning, so that the houses were almostall entirely destroyed. Itis 10 leagues from the capi-tal, in the royal road which leads to Lima, andwhich is called De Valles. Lat. 7° 52' s.
[CHOCORUA, a mountain in Grafton county,New Hampshire, on the n. line of Strafford county,n. of Tamworth.]
[CHOCUITO. See Chucuito.]
CHOGUY. See Laches.
[CHOISEUL Bay, on the n. w. coast of theislands of the Arsacides, w. of port Praslin. Theinhabitants of this bay, like those at port Praslin,have a custom of powdering their hair with lime,which burns it and gives it a red appearance.]
CHOLCO-COCHA, a great lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru,upon the heights of the mountains of the Andes.It is navigated by rafts made by the Indians;fish it has none, from the excesisve cold of itswaters ; from it springs the river Caica-mayu.Mr. De la Martiniere confounds this lake, whichis called Chocolo-cocha, with the city of CastroVireyna, maintaining that the Indians call it bythe latter name, but which is erroneous.
CHOLOSCOPO, San Mateo de, a settlementof the district, and alcaldia mayor of Mexilcaltzingo,in Nueva Espana, somewhat more thanhalf a league’s distance to the m. of ^his place.It contains 102 families of Indians, and has ahandsome convent of the strict observers of St.Francis, which is also a college for studies.
CHOLULA, a district and jurisdiction of analcaldia mayor in Nueva España. Its extent isvery limited, being only three leagues in length atthe widest part ; but it is nevertheless well filled withinhabitants ; its territory is level, and very fertilein wheat, maize, and pepper, which is here calledchile^ as also in other seeds, of which abundant cropsare gathered ; it formerly acquired agreat emolumentfrom the sale of cochineal, but this is laid asideand entirely abandoned. The Spaniards, Mustees^and Mulattoes, busy themselves in making clothsand woven stuffs of cotton, and they have manyworkshops, by which they supply with these articlesthe other provinces. Its population consists of 43settlements of Indians, which are,
San Juan Quantlazingo, Sta. Maria Quescomate,Santiago de Momospan, San Bernardino,
Santa Barbara, Sta. Clara Ocovica,
Todos Santos, Sta. Maria Malacatepe»
San Luis, que,
San Gregorio de Saca- Sta. Maria Coronango,pecpan, S. Miguel Coztla,
S. Francisco de Quapan, San Francisco Ocotlan
S. Diego Cuaucotla, San Antonio, ^
S. Sebastian, San Francisco,
S. Juan Cuautla, San Mateo,
Tonanchin, San Gabriel,
Santa MariaZacatepeque, San Lucas,
San Geronimo, San Martin,
San Pablo Zochimehua, San Lorenzo,
San Andres de Oiolula, TIantenango,
San Francisco Acate- Santa Isabel,peque, Los Santos Reyes,
San Bernardo Tlaxcal- S. Pablo Ahuatempa,zingo, S. Mateo, distinct from
S.AntonioCacalotepeque, the other,
Santa Ana, S. Miguel Papalotla,
San Martin TIanapa, S. Andres de Cholula.
[The district of Cholula contained in 1793 apopulation of 22,423 souls. The villages amount-ed to 42, and the farms to 45. Cholula, Tlax-clala, and Huetxocingo, are the three republicswhich resisted the Mexican yoke for so many cen-turies, although the pernicious aristocracy of theiff
3. Don Fray Geronimo de Corella, of the orderof St. Jerome, native of Valencia, descended fromtlic Connls of Cocentayna ; prior of the convent ofhis country, and afterwards of tliat of NuestraSehora del Prado, when he was elected bishop ofthis diocese in J562.
4. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda, of the orderof preachers ; promoted to the archbishopric ofCharcas in 1577.
5. Don Fray Caspar de Andrada, a Franciscanmonk, and native of Toledo ; collegian of thecollege of San Pedro and San Pablo of Alcala deHenares, guardian of the convents of S. Juan dclos Reyes in Toledo and in Madrid, visitor of theprovinces of Arragon, a celebrated preacher, andelected to this bishopric in 1588 ; he governed 24years, and died in 1612.
6. Don Fray Alonso Galdo, a monk of theorder of St. Dominic, native of Valladolid, present-ed in 1612; he visited its bishopric, was of ex-emplary conduct, and being full of years and in-firmities, he requested that a coadjutor might benominated in 1628 ; and this was,
7. Xion Fray Luis de Canizares, a religiousminim of St. Francis of Paula, native of Madrid ;he was lecturer in his convent, and in that ofAlcala, calificador and consultor of the inquisitionin Valladolid ; nominated through the nuncio ofof his holiness; was visitor of the province of An-dalucia, bishop of Nueva Carceres in Philippines,and promoted to this see, where he died, in 1645.
8. Don Juan Merlo de la Fuente, doctoral c^Lnonof the church of the Puebla de los Angeles, electedbishop of Nuevo Segovia in the Philippines,which oflBce he did not accept, and was bishophere in 1648.
9. Don Pedro de los Reyes Rios of Madrid,native of Seville, monk of the order of San Benito,master, preacher in general, theological doctor,and poser to the cathedrals of the university ofOviedo, difinidor and abbot of the monasteries ofSan Isidro de Dueilas, San Claudio de liCon, andSan Benito de Sevilla, preacher to Charles II.elected bishop of this church, and before he wentover to it, promoted to that of Yucatan in 1700.
10. Don Fray Juan Perez Carpintero; electedin the same year, 1700.
11. Don Fray Angel Mnldonado, native ofOcaila, monk of San Bernardo, doctor and pro-fessor of theology in the university of Alcala ; hewrote in defence of the right of Philip V. to thecrown of Spain ; presented to the bishopric ofHonduras, and after taking possession, promotedto the church of Antequara in 1702.
12. Don Fray Antonio Guadalupe Lopez Por-
tillo, native of Guadalaxara in Nueva Espaha,of the order of St. Francis, a man of great learn-ing and virtue, domestic prelate of his holinessBenedict NHL; presented to the bishopric ofComayagua in 1725 ; he died in 1742.
13. Don Flay Francisco Molina, of the orderof St. Basil, master of theology, abbot of the mo-nastery of Cuellar, thrice of that of Madrid, andtwice difinidor general of Castille ; elected in1743.
14. Don Diego Rodriguez Rivas de Velasco,native of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito, doc-tor of both laws in the university of Alcala, col-legian of the college of Los Verdes, titular arch-deacon of the holy church of Guatemala; electetlbishop in 1750, and promoted to the bishopric ofGuadalaxara in 1762.
15. Don Miguel Anselmo Alvarez de Abreu,native of Teneriffe, secretary of the bishop, of Se-govia, and canon in the church of Canarias, judgeof the apostolical chamber, and of the tribunal ofthe holy crusade, auxiliary bishop of the Puebla dclos Angeles, presented to this in 1762, and pro-moted to that of Antequera in 1767.
16. Don Isidore Rodriguez ; he died in 1767.
17. Don Antonio de Macarulla, elected in 1767,and promoted to that of Durango in 1773.
18. Don Francisco Joseph de Palencia, elected,in 1773.
19. Don Fray Antonio de San Miguel, in 1776,until 1783.
20. Don Joseph Antonio de Isabella, in 1783.
(COMBAHEE Ferry, on the above river, is 17miles from Jacksonsborough, 15 from Pocotaglio,and 52 from Charlestown.
COMBAPATA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tinta in Peru ; situate uponan eminence near the royal road which leads fromLa Plata to Lima. Its natives say that it has thebest and most healthy temperature of any in thekingdom, and they mention some persons whohave lived here to the age of 140 years.
COMBEIMA, a large river of the province
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on the banks of the river of its name, near wherethis river joins that of Florido. It is garrisonedby a captain, a lieutenant, a serjeant, and 33 sol-diers, to guard against the irruptions of the infidelIndians. In its vicinity are the estates of La Ci-enega, Sapian, and El Pilar. Fifty-eight leaguesto the n.n.e. of the city of Guadalaxara.
CONCHUCOS, a province and corresimientoof Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Huama-chucos, n. e. by that of Pataz, and separated fromthence by the river Marafion, e. and s. e. by theprovince of Huraalies, and s. by that of Caxa-tambo. It is 52 leagues in length, and in someparts 20 in width. It is of a very irregular figure,and of various temperature, according to the dif-ferent situation of its territories ; cold in all theparts bordering upon the cordil/era, mild in someparts, and in others excessively hot. It is 'V-erypleasant, and it has all kinds of fruits, which itproduces in abundance, and in the same mannerwheat, barley, and pot herbs. On its skirts arefound numerous herds of cattle of every species,and from the wools of some of these are made thecloth manufactures of the country, which meetwith a ready demand in the other provinces. Theprincipal rivers by which it is watered are three ;and these are formed by various streams : the oneof them enters that of Santa to the zo. and theother two the Marafion. The most s. is called DeMiraflores, and the other, which is very large,keeps the name of the province. Here are somemines of silver, which were formerly very rich ;as also some lavaderos, or washing places of gold,of the purest quality, the standard weight of itbeing 23 carats. Also in the curacy of Llamelinare some mines of brimstone, and a fountain orstream, the waters of which, falling down into adeep slough, become condensed and converted intoa stone called Catachi, in the form of columns muchresembling wax-candles, of a very white colour.The same substance is used as a remedy againstthe bloody flux, and it is said, that being madeinto powders, and mixed Avith the white of an egg,it forms a salve which accelerates in a Avonderfulmanner the knitting of fractured bones. It com-prehends 15 curacies, Avithout the annexed settle-ments, all of Avhich, the former and the latter, are
as folloAVS :
Huari del Rey, the ca-pital,
San Luis de Huari,
CONCHUCOS, a river of the province and cor-regimiento of the same name in Peru, Avhich risesin the cordillera. It runs s. and enters the Ma-ranon near the settlement of Uchos in the provinceof Andahuailas.
(CONCORD, a post-toAvn of New Hampshire,very flourishing, and pleasantly situated on thew. bank of Merrimack river, in Rockinghamcounty, eight miles above Hookset falls. Thelegislature, of late, have commonly held their ses-sions here ; and from its central situation, and athriving back country, it will probably become thepermanent seat of government. Much of the tradeof the upper country centres here. A liandsoraetall bridge across the Merrimack connects thistown Avith Pembroke. It has 1747 inhabitants,and Avas incorporated in 1765. The Indian nameAvas Penacook. It was granted by Massachusetts,and called Rumford. Tlie compact part of thetown contains about 170 houses, a Congregationalchurcli, and an academy, which was incorporatedin 1790. It is 54 miles w. n. w. of Portsmouth,58 s. w. of Dartmouth college, and 70 n. fromBoston. Lat. 43” 12' n. Long. 71° 31' a?.)
(Concord, in Massachusetts, a post-town, oneof the most considerable towns in Middlesexcounty ; situated on Concord river, in a healthyand pleasant spot, nearly in the centre of thecounty, and 18 miles n. w. of Boston, and 17 e.of Lancaster. Its Indian name Avas Musquetequid;and it owes its present name to the peaceable man-ner in which it was obtained from the natives.The first settlers, among whom Avere the Rev.Messrs. Buckley and Jones, having settled- the
COROICO, a settlement of the province andeorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; situate on theshore of the river of its name, where there is aport for small vessels. This river rises in the cor-dillera of Ancuma, to the s. of the settlement ofPalca, and to the e. of the city of La Paz. It runsin a very rapid course to the e. and forming acurve turns n. and enters the w. side of the Beni,in lat. 16° 50' s.
CORONA-REAL, a city of the province ofGuayana, and government of Curaana, foundedon the shores of the river Orinoco in 1759, by theRear-Admiral Don Joseph de Iturriaga, for whichpurpose he assembled together some wanderingpeople of the provinces of Caracas and Barcelona.At present, however, it is as it were desert andabandoned, since its inhabitants have returned totheir former savage state of life, having been con-stantly pursued and harassed by the CharibesIndians, against whom they could no longer main-tain their ground, after that the king’s garrisonhad been withdrawn, and since, owing to the dis-tance at which they were situate from the capital,it was in vain for them to look for any succourfrom that quarter.
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dians, and to its district belong nine other settle-ments. It lies one league to the n. of its capital.
COROPA, a spacious country of the provinceand government of Guayana, which extends itselfbetween the river Coropatuba to the s. w. the Ma-ranon to the s. the Avari to the e. the mountainsof Oyacop of the Charibes Indians to the n. andthe mountains of Dorado or Manoa to the n.w.The whole of its territory is, as it were, unknown.The Portuguese possess the shores of the Maranonand the sea-coast as far as the bay of Vicente Pin-zon ; the Dutch of the colony of Surinam, by theriver Esequevo or Esquivo, called also Rupununi,have penetrated as far as the Maranon, by the riverParanapitinga. The mountains, which some haverepresented as being full of gold, silver, and pre-cious stones, sparkling in the rays of the sun, aremerely fables, which, at the beginning of the con-quests, deceived many who had gone in search ofthese rich treasures, and fell a sacrifice to thefatigues and labours which they experienced inthese dry and mountainous countries. The Por-tuguese have constructed here two forts, called Paruand Macapa. Mr. De la Martiniere, with hisusual want of accuracy, says that the Portuguesehave a settlement called Coropa, at the mouth ofthe river Coropatuba, where it enters the Maranon ;the Coropatuba joins the Maranon on the n. side,in the country of Coropa, and at the settlement ofthis name ; this settlement being nothing more thana small fort, and lying in the province of Topayos,on the s. shore of the Maranon, and being knownby the name ofCurupa, in the chart published in1744, and in that of the Father Juan Magnin, in1749.
COROPATUBA. See Curupatuba.
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Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.
COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.
COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.
CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered
with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.
(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)
(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)
CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}
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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, foundedin ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.]t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of theAntilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its terri-tory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain sea-sons, from the low situation. It has many rivers,streams, and fountains, with three very good andconvenient ports. It was for a long while desert,until some English settled themselves in it, andbegan to cultivate it; afterwards the French pos-sessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it thefollowing year to the knights of Malta, from whomit was bought, in 1664, by the West India com-pany. In 1674, it was incorporated with the pos-sessions of the crown by the king of France. Itsinhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St.Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to acompany of Danes, of Copenhagen, who nowpossess it. It was the first of the Antilles whichwas occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues
from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight fromPuertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and fivefrom that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugarscane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which renderit very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W.India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is ina high state of cultivation, and has about 3000white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A greatproportion of the Negroes of this island have em-braced Christianity, under the Moravian mission-aries, whose influence has been greatly promotiveof its prosperity.
The official value of the Imports and Exportsof Santa Cruz were, in
1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.
1810, 422,033, 89,949.
And the quantities of the principal articles im--
ported into Great Britain were, in
Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w.See West Indies.]
Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Ad-miral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for thecrown of Spain, that making the tenth time of itsbeing captured.
Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n.coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sand-bank of Cumplido.
Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the provinceand government of Honduras, called Triunfo dela Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between theport of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues fromthe gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.
Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or LargeBay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines.Lat. 50° 10' s.
==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magel-lan. It runs into the sea.
Cruz, Santa, a small river of the provinceand captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be-tween the Grande and the Dulce, opposite theshoals ofS. Antonio.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcaptainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It risesnear the coast, runs n. and enters the sea betweenthe point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,
Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx
known by the name of Carenas. It is of a kind,warm, and dry temperature, and more mild thanthe island of St. Domingo, owing to the refreshinggales which it experiences from the n. and e. Itsrivers, which are in number 15S, abound in richfish ; its mountains in choice and vast timber ;namely cedars, caobas^ oaks, ('ranadillos, guaya-canes^ and ebony-trees ; the fields in singing birds,and others of the chase, in flourishing trees andodoriferous plants. The territory is most fertile,so that the fields are never without flowers, and thetrees are never stripped of their foliage. Some ofthe seeds produce two crops a year, the one ofthem ripening in the depth of winter. At the be-ginning of its conquest, much gold was taken fromhence, and principally in the parts called, at thepresent day, lagua, and the city of Trinidad ; andthe chronicler Antonio de Herera affirms that thismetal was found of greater purity here than in theisland of St. Domingo. Some of it is procured atthe present day at Holguin. Here are sorne veryabundant mines of copper and load-stone; andartillery was formerly cast here, similar to thatwhich was in the fortified places of the Havana,Cuba, and the castle of the Morro. Here was es-tablished an asiento of the mines, under the reign ofthe King Don J uan de Eguiluz, when no h ss aquan-tity than lOOG quintals of gold were sent yearly toSpain. In the jurisdiction of the Havana, an ironmine has been discovered some little time since, ofan excellent quality, and the rock crystal foundhere is, when wrought, more brilliant than thefinest stones. In the road from Bayamo to Cuba,are found pebbles of various sizes, and so perfectlyround that they might be well used for cannon-balls. The baths of medical warm waters are ex-tremely numerous in this island. It contains 1 1large and convenient bays, very secure ports, andabundant salt ponds, also 480 sugar engines, fromwhich upwards of a million of arrobas are em-barked every year for Europe, and of such anesteemed and excellent quality, as without beingrefined, to equal the sugar of Holland or France ;not to mention the infinite quantity of this articleemployed in the manufacturing of delicious sweet-meats ; these being also sent over to Spain andvarious parts of America. It contains also 982herds of large cattle, 617 inclosures for swine, 350folds for fattening animals, 1881 manufactories, and5933 cultivated estates ; and but for the want ofhands, it might be said to abound in every neces-sary of life, since it produces in profusion yiicas,sweet and bitter, and of which the cazave bread ismade, coffee, maize, indigo, cotton, some cacaoand much tobacco of excellent quality ; this being
one of the principal sources of its commerce, anrJthat which forms the chief branch of the royalrevenue. This article is exported to Europe inevery fashion, in leaf, snuff, and cigars, and is heldsuperior to the tobacco of all the other parts ofAmerica. The great peculiarity of this climateis, that we find in it, the whole year round, themost Belicate herbs and fruits, in full season, nativeeither to Europe or these regions ; and amongstthe rest, the pine is most delicious. The fields areso delightful and so salutary, that invalids go to-reside in them to establish their health. Throughoutthe Avhole island there is neither wild beast or ve-nomous animal to be found. Its first inhabitantswere a pacific and modest people, and unacquaintedwith the barbarous custom of eating human flesh,and abhorring theft and impurity. These haveb-3corne nearly extinct, arid the greater part ofthem hung themselves at the beginning of the con-quest, through vexation at the hardships inflictedupon them by the first settlers. At the presentday, the natives are the most active and industriousof any belonging to the Antilles islands. Thewomen, although they have not the complexion ofEuropeans, are beautiful, lively, affable, of acutediscernment, lovers of virtue, and extremely hos-pitable and generous. The first town of this islandwas Baracoa, built by Diego Velazquez in 1512.,It is divided into two governments, which are thatof Cuba and that of the Havana : these are sub-div'ided into jurisdictions and districts. The go-vernor of the Havana is the captain-general ofthe whole island, and his command extends as faras the provinces of Louisiana and Movila ; and hisappointment has ever been looked upon as a si-tuation of the liighest importance and confidence.He is assisted by general officers of the greatestabilities and merits in the discharge of his office.When the appointment becomes vacant, the vice-roy of the Havana, thfbugh a privilege, becomesinvested with the title of Captain-General in thegovernment. The whole of the island is onediocese; its jurisdiction comprehending the pro-vinces of Louisiana, and having the title of thoseof Florida and the island of Jamaica. It is suf-fraganto the archbishopric of St. Domingo, erectedin Baracoa in 1518, and translated to Cuba bybull of Pope Andrian VI. in 1522. It numbers21 parishes, 90 churches, 52 curacies, 23 convents,3 colleges, and 22 hospitals. In 1763 some swarmsof bees were brouglit from San Agnstin de LaFlorida, which have increased to such a degree,that the wax procured from them, after reservingenough for the consumption of all the superiorclass, and independently of that used in the
cliurclies for divilie worship, was exported, in 1776,to the quantity of 12,550 arrobas, from a singleport of the Havana ; and all of it of as good aquality as is the wax of Venice. Although thecapital of this island is the city of its name, theHavana is, at the present day, looked upon as theprincipal. Here the governor and captain-generalof the kingdom resides ; and it has gained thispreference from the excellence of its port, and fromother qualifications, which will be found treated ofunder that article. We must here confine our-selves to what we have already said, a more diffuseaccount not corresponding to our plan, though,and if all were said of which the subjectwould admit, a very extensive history might bemade. The population consists of tiie followingcities, towns, and places.
Cilies. Las Piedras,
Havana, . Cubita,
Earacoa, San Pedro,
Trinidad, Arroyo de Arenas,
Santa Maria del Rosario, Pilipinas,
San Juan de Taruco, .liguam,
Bayamo, El Prado,
Puerto del Principe, Moron,
S. Felipe and Santiago,
S. J uan de los Remedies, El Cano,
Santi Espiritus, Managua,
Santa Clara, Guines,
G uanavacoa, Rio Elanco,
[Cuba, which, in 1774, contained only 371,628inhabitants, including 44,328 slaves, and from 5 to6000 free Negroes, possessed, in 1804, a popula-tion of 432,000 souls. The same island, in 1792,exported only 400,000 quintals of sugar ; but, in1804, its annual exportation of that article hadrisen to 1,000,000 of quintals. By a statement ofthe export of sugar from the Havana, from 1801 to1810 inclusive, it appears that the average for thelast 10 years has been 2,850,000 arrohas, or about644,000 cwt. a year. Notwithstanding this, Cuba
Santiago de las Vegas.
El Ciego,Cacarajicaras,Pinal del Rio.
requires annual remittances from Mexico. Thenumber of Negroes introduced into Cuba, from1789 to 1803, exceeded 76,000 souls ; and duringthe last four years of that period, they amounted to34,500, or to more than 8600 annually. Accord-ingly, the population of the island, in 1804, con-sisted of 108,000 slaves, and 324,000 free persons,of whom 234,000 were whites, and 90,000 freeblacks and people of colour. The white popula-tion of Cuba forms therefore or .54 of thewhole number of its inhabitants. In Caracas, thewhites constitute .20 of the total population ; inNew Spain almost .19; in Peru .12; and in Ja-maica .10.
In speaking of the origin, manners, and customs,&c. of the natives of Cuba, we are to be understoodas giving also an account of those of Hispaniola,Jamaica, and Puerto Rico; for there is no doubtthat the inliabitants of all those islands were of onecommon origin ; speaking the same language, pos-sessing the same institutions, and practising similarsuperstitions. The fairest calculation as to theirnumbers, when first discovered, is 3,000,000. But,not to anticipate observations that will more pro-perly appear hereafter, we shall now proceed to theconsideration, -- 1. Of their persons and per sonalendowments.— 2. Their intellectual faculties anddispositions.— 3. Their political institutions.—4. Their religious riles. — 5. Their arts.
1. iYrsows. — Both men and women wore no-thing more than a slight covering of cotton clothround the waist; but in the women it extendedto the knees : the children of both sexes appearedentirely naked. In stature they were taller, butless robust than the Caribes. Their colour wasa clear brown, not deeper in general, accordingto Columbus, than that of a Spanish peasant whohas been much exposed to the wind and the sun.Like the Caribes, they altered the natural con-figuration of the head in infancy ; but after a dif-ferent mode (the sinciput, or fore-part of the headfrom the eye-brows to the coronal suture, was de-pressed, which gave an unnatural thickness andelevation to the occiput, or hinder part of the skull);and by this practice, says Herrera, the crown wasso srengthened that a Spanish broad-sword, insteadof cleaving the skull at a stroke, would frequentlybreak short upon it ; an illustration which gives anadmirable idea of the clemency of their conquer-ors ! Their liair was uniformly, black, withoutany tendency to curl ; their features were hardand unsightly ; the face broad, and the nose flat;but their eyes streamed with good nature, and al-together there was something pleasing and invitingin the countenances of most of them, which pro-]
16. Don Pedro Valdes, who was the first whowas invested with the captainship-general of theisland, which he executed until 1601.
17. Don Gaspar Ruiz de Pereda, until 1608.
18. Sancho de Alquiza, until 1616.
19. Don Francisco Venegas, until 1620.
20. The Doctor Damian Velazquez, until 1625.
21. Don Juan Bitriande Biamonte, until 1630,when he was removed to the presidency of Panama.
22. Don Francisco de Kiano y Gamboa, until1634.
23. Don Alvaro de Luna y Sarmiento, until1639.
24. The Colonel Don Diego Villalva, until1647.
25. The Colonel Don Francisco Gelder, until1650.
26. The Colonel Don Juan Montana, until1656.
27. The Colonel Don Juan de Salamanca, until1658.
28. The Colonel Don Rodrigo de Flores, until1663.
29. The Colonel Don Francisco Orejo Gaston,until 1664.
30. The Colonel Don Francisco Ledesma, until1670.
31. The Colonel Don Joseph de Cordoba, until1680.
32. Don Diego Antonio de Viana, until 1687.
S3. The Colonel Don Severino Manzaneda,
34. Don Diego de Cordoba, until 1695.
35. The Colonel Don Pedro Benitez> until 1704.
36. The Brigadier Don Pedro Alvarez, until1706.
37. Don Laureano de Torres, until 1708.
38. Don Luis Chacon, until 1712.
39. I’he Brigadier Don Vicente Raja, until1716.
40. The Brigadier Don Gregorio Guazo, until1718.
41. The Brigadier Don Dionisio Martinez de laVega, formerly colonel of the regiment of Galicia,until 1724.
42. Don Diego Penalosa, until 1725.
43. The Brigadier Don Juan Francisco Guemesy Horcasitas, formerly colonel of the regiment ofGranada, in 1734, until 1746, when he was pro-moted to the vice-royalty of Mexico.
44. The Brigadier Don Francisco AntonioTineo, captain of the regiment of Spanish guards,an ofBcer of singular accomplishments ; he enteredin the aforesaid year, and died a few days after hisarrival.
45. The Brigadier Don J uan Francisco Cagigal,of t-he order of Santiago ; he was governor of thegarrison of Cuba at the time that he was nominated,through the death of the predecessor, in 1747 ; hewas intermediate viceroy of Mexico, in 1756.
46. The Brigadier Don Juan de Prado, in-spector of the infantry, nominated in 1760 ; in histime the English besieged and took the Havana ;he was deposed from his situation, and made amember of the council of war, in 1763.
47. Don Ambrosio Funes de Villalpando, Countof Rida, a grandee of Spain, of the order of San-tiago, lieutenant-general of the royal armies ; no-minated to take possession of the place which hadbeen surrendered by the English in the treaty ofpeace, and to fortify the post of the Cabana, whichhe effected, and returned to Spain in 1765.
48. The Brigadier Don Diego Manrique ; hedied the same year, a short time after his arrival.
49. Don Pasqual de Cisneros, lieutenant-gene-ral of the royal armies, twice intermediate go-vernor.
50. Don Antonio Maria Bucareli Bailio, of theorder of San Juan, lieutenant-general of the royalarmies, in 1766 ; promoted to the vice-royalty ofMexico in 1771.
51. The Marquis de la Torre, knight of theorder of Santiago, lieutenant-general ; he cameover here in the same year, being at the time go-vernor of Caracas, and ruled until 1777, when hereturned to Spain.
52. The Lieutenant-general Don Diego JosephNavarro, who had been captain of grenadiers ofthe regiment of Spanish guards, and found* him-self exercising the government of the garrison ofTarragena in Cataluua, when he was nominatedto this, and in the same year that he left the formerplace ; this he kept until 1783, when he returnedto Spain.
53. Don Joseph de Espeleta, brigadier and in-spector of the troops of America ; nominated asintermediate successor in the aforesaid year.
Cuba, with the dedicatory title <rf Santiago,a capital city of the' former island (Cuba), founded byDiego Velazquez in 1511, with a good port de-fended by a castle, called the Morro, as is that ofthe Havana. It is the head of a bishopric suffra-gan to the archbishopric of St. Domingo, erected^in 1518. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Domingo, and another of St. Francis ;it was at first populous and rich, and even at onetime contained 2000 house-keepers, but since thata commerce was established in the Havana,through the excellence of its port, and that thecaptain-general and the bishop have fixed their.
4 A 2
CURAMPA, an ancient settlement of the pro-vince of Chinchasuyu in Peru. The Prince Ya-huar Huacar, eldest, son of the first Emperor, theInca Roca, took it by force of arms, and subjectedit to the crown. It was then one of the strongplaces of the province.
CURAUAUA, a river of the kingdom of Chile,in the district and jurisdiction which belonged tothe city Imperial. It runs w. and forms Avith theEyou the great lake of Puren, out of which it runson the 5. w. side, uniting itself with the Cauten,or the Imperial.
CURASAY a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Maynas in the king-dom of Quito. It rises in the paramos of 'i'a-cunga, and after running e. for more than 90leagues, enters the Napo ; first collecting the wa-ters of the Soetuno, Noesino, and Turibuno, onthen, and on the s. the Villano. The woods onthe s. are inhabited by some barbarous nations ofIquitos, Ayacores, and Scimugaes Indians, and the«. parts by the Yates and Zaparas.
enters the Orinoco, near the Angostura, or narrowpart.
CURASENI, a small river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs e. and entersthe Orinoco between the settlements of the missionsAvhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, called Santa Teresa, and San Ignacio.
CURAZAICILLO, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Mainas in the kingdomof Quito. It rises in the country of the AbijirasIndians, runs e. and turning afterwards to the n.enters the Napo, close to the settlement of Oravia.
CURIANCHE, an habitation or palace, builtby the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac,of very large stones, and covered with straAv; fromAvhence the city of Cuzco has its origin. Thispalace was afterwards dedicated to the sun, andbecame converted into a temple, being the mostbeautiful and rich structure of any in Peru, in thetime of the Indians; the inside of it being casedAvitb gold, and the outside with silver, these metals
s;iges the walls were cut Tery crooked, admittingfor a certain space only one person to pass at atime, and this sidewise, and with great difficulty,when shortly afterwards two raio^ht pass abreast.The exit was by a rock, worked in the same nar-row manner on the other side ; and this was alto-gether a plan adopted through prudence, and forthe better security against any sudden assault,since here a single man might defend himselfagainst a great number. In a magnificent chapelof the cathedra! is venerated a miraculous crucifix,which was presented by the Emperor Charles V.and which is called De los Temblores, from thecity having invoked it as a patron in the tremen-dous earthquake which happened here in 1590;also an image of Nuestra Senora de Helen, whichthey call La Linda, (the Beautiful), the gift of thesame royal hand. It is the second city of Peru,and inferior only to the capital of the kingdom.It was governed, after the time of the conquestsmade by the Spaniards, by a secular cabildo, com-posed of two ordinary alcaldes, a royal ensign,an alguaxil mayor, a provincial alcalde, a depo-sitor-general, 12 perpetual regidors, two alcaldesof the inquisition, and a regidor, nominated an-nually, with the title of judge of the natives, whois entrusted with the causes of the Indians; thesehaving also a protector, nominated every twoyears by the viceroy of Lima. This cabildo main-tains, through the grant of the Emperor CharlesV. the same privileges as the cabildo of Burgos.The city has also many other prerogatives, withthe title of Gran Ciudad, and Cabeza, or head ofthe kingdoms and provinces of Peru, in rewardfor its having supported the crown against thetraitor Diego de Almagro, in the conflicts that hemaintained with Francis Pizarro, and from itsliaving taken him prisoner in 1553, in the cele-brated battle of Las Salinas, a league from Cuzco ;also from its having refused to acknowledge thetitle of governor of Peru, assumed by Diego deAlmagro the younger, supporting, in preference,the legitimate government. Again, when the Li-centiate Christoval Vaca de Castro arrived, think-ing to be governor, the people of Cuzco took himprisoner, under the orders of the lieutenant-gover-nor, Diego Salazar de Toledo, and the ordinaryalcalde, Antonio Ruiz de Guevera, and kept himin confinement until he was beheaded in that placeby the same person that executed his father. Forthese services, and for the valuable presents,which on several occasions it has made to thecrown, this city was allowed to be by the laws ofthe Indies, and, as appears by its records, one ofthe first cities in all Castilla, having a priority of
vote ; and in 1783, it was ordered by the king ofSpain, that in consideration of the resistance itoffered in the late rebellion of the Indians of theprovince of Tinta and the other immediate pro-vinces, it should be endowed with the title ofMost Noble, Most Loyal, and Most Faithful, andthat it should enjoy the same privileges as Lima.In 178i, the office of corregidor was extinguished,and his Majesty established an intendant and go-vernor vice-patron; and in 1787, the tribunal ofroyal audience, composed of a president, fouroidors, and aJiscaL It has for arms a golden castleupon a blue field, with various trophies andcolours on the sides, and an eagle at the top. Ithas been the native place of many illustrious men,and of these are,
Don Bernardo de Aviza y Ugarte, oidor ofPanama, bishop of Cartagena and Truxillo, andelected archbishop of Charcas.
Don Cayetano Marcellano y Agramont, bishopof Buenos Ayres, and archbishop of Charcas.
Don Gabriel de Ugarte, royal ensign of the saidcity.
Don Diego Esquivel and Navia, dean of itschurch.
Don Ignacio de Castro, curate of San Geronimoand rector of the university.
Don Francisco Espinosa and Medrano, alias ElLunarejo, magistral canon of its church,
Don Francis Xavier de Lagos, penitentiarycanon.
The Father Maestro Fray Pedro de la Sota, ofthe order of La Merced ; a subject who was oftenconsulted by the viceroys in matters of the utmostimportance.
The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, a celebratedhistorian of Peru.
Its jurisdiction, although it may retain the titleof province, is so reduced as to extend merely asfar as the district of the city, notwithstanding itformerly comprehended all the neighbouring pro-vinces, until the president, Lope Garcia de ()astro,established in each of these separate corregidors.Its principal commerce consists in the very largequantity of sugar which is made in the neighbour-ing jurisdictions, and where the inhabitants havemany sugar plantations ; that of San Ignacio dePachachaca, in the boundaries of the jurisdictionof Abancay, and formerly belonging to the re-gulars of the extinguished company of Jesuits,being the most celebrated. Tliere is made here avast quantity of baize and ordinary cloth, calledpanete, woven stuffs, saddles, floor-carpets, andtucuyo, which is an ordinary kind of linen usedas clothing by the poor; galloons of gohl, silver,
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 4]
GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL
AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.
PABLILLO, a settlement of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon in N. America ; situate w. of the garri- son of Santa Engracia.
PABLO, S. or Sao Paulo. See Paulo.
Pablo, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru, of the arch- bishopric of Charcas. It was also called Santa Isabel de Esmoruco, and was the residence of the curate.
Pablo, another, of the province and corregi- miento of Otavalo in the kingdom of Quito, at the foot of a small mountain, from which issues a stream of^ water abounding in very small fish, called prenadillas, so delicate and salutary even for the sick, that they are potted and carried to all parts of the kingdom.
Pablo, another, of the head settlement of the district of S. Juan del Rio, and alcaldia mai/or of Queretaro, in Nueva Espana; containing 46 families of Indians.
Pablo, another, of the province and corregi- miento of Tinta in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Cacha.
Pablo, another settlement or ward, of the head settlement of the district of Zumpahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Marinalco in Nueva Es- pana.
Pablo, another, of the head settlement of the district, and alcaldia mayor of Toluca in the same kingdom, containing 161 families of Indians ; at a small distance n. of its capital.
Pablo, another, a small settlement or ward
P A B of the alcaldia mayor of Guanchinango, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Pahuatlan.
Pablo, another, and head settlement of the district, of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta, in the same kingdom ; of a cold temperature, and con- taining 51 Indian families.
Pablo, another, of the missions which were held by the Jesuits, in the province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Tizcaya; situate in the middle of the S 2 >rra of Topia, on the shore of the river Piastla.
Pablo, another, of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana ; situate on the skirt of a mountain of the serrania, and on the shore of the river Sacaguar, s. of the settlement of Piritu.
Pablo, another, a small settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texmelucan, and alcaldia mayor of Guajozinco in N ueva Es- pana.
Pablo, another, of the district of Chiriqui, in the province and government of Veragua, and kingdom of TierraFirme; a league and an half from its head settlement, in the high road.
Pablo, another, of the missions held by the Portuguese Carmelites, in the country of Las Amazonas, and on the shore of this river.
Pablo, another, of the missions which were held by the French Jesuits, in the province and government of French Guayana; founded in 1735, on the shore of the river Oyapoco, and