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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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ALACLATZALA, a branch of the head set-tlement of the district of S. Luis, of the coast andalcaldia mayor of TIapa in Nueva España. Itcontains 125 Indian families, and is one leaguefrom the settlement of Quanzoquitengo.

ALACRANES, some islands, or rather somehidden rocks, of the N. sea, in the bay of Mexico,opposite the coast of Yucatan. Those who navi-gate these parts are accustomed to pass round be-yond them for fear of venturing amongst them, al-though there are some good cliannels among them,and withgood soundings. They are for the most partbarren, producing nothing beyond a herb calledmoron, -And deficient in fresh water ; neither do theyproduce any animal except the mole, which isfound here in prodigious numbers. There are,however, a quantity of birds, of three distinct sorts,each forming a community of itself, and entirelyseparated from the other two ; and it has beenobserved, that if one party may have fixed uponany place for building their nests, the others neverthink of disturbing them, or driving them from it ;but the noise these birds make is so great, that onecannot pass near them without suffering consider-ably from their united clamours.

[ALADAS, a parish situate about 14; leaguess. e, of Corrientes, in Lat. 28° 15' 20" s. Long. 58°SO' e».]

ALAHUIZTLAN, San Juan de, a branchof the head settlement of the district of Escateopan,and alcaldia mayor of Zaqualpa, in Nueva España.It contains 270 Indian families.

ALAIN, a river of the province and govern-ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It risesin the country of the Locamas Indians, runs fromj. to n. and turning to the n. n. e. enters the Pucaré.

ALAMEDA, a settlement of the missions be-longing to the religious of St. Francis in NuevoMexico.

ALAMILLOS, a settlement of the province ofTaraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the missions which belonged to the religious ofSt Francis. It is close to the town and real ofthe mines of Santa Eulalia.

ALAMO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of the new kingdom of Leon, situ-ate 15 leagues to the s. e. of the Point.

ALAMOS, Real de Los, Real de Los, a settlement andreal of the mines of the province of Sinaloa inNueva España. It is situate s. e. of the SierraMadre, and surrounded by rich silver mines,which would produce abundantly but for want oflabourers. There are in its district five estatesthat are fertile in maize, French beans, and sugar-cane. The spiritual concerns of all these parts

are under the direction of a curate, whose jurisdic-tion extends as far as the river Mayo, which flowsdown from the sierra. It is 20 leagues distantfrom the town of Tuerte, and between these liesthe valley of Maquipo. [Population 7900 souls]

Alamos, with the dedicatory title of S. Jorge,a town of the province and captainship of Para inBrazil, founded by Jorge del Alamo, who gaveit his name, in a place called La Vigia. It has amagnificent parish church, with the title of NuestraSenora de Nazareth, with a large and good fort,and well furnished with artillery. Also, at the dis-tance of a league and an half from the settlement,is a house of charity belonging to the religiousorder of the Capuchins of La Piedad.

Alamos, another town of the province and go-vernment of Sonora, in the line that divides theconfines of this jurisdiction and the province ofOstimuri, between the rivers Hiaqui and LaSonora.

Alamos (Sonora near Coro de Guachi), another settlement of the same pro-vince and government as the former, situate tothe s. of the garrison of Coro de Guachi.

Alamos, another of the missions belonging tothe abolished society of Jesuits, in the provinceof Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.It is 27 leagues s. w. and a quarter of a league s.of the real of the mines and town of S. Felipe deChiguaga.

Alamos, another settlement and real of thesilver mines of the province and government ofCinaloa.

ALANGASI, a settlement of the kingdom ofQuito, in the district of the corregimiento of theCinco Leguas de la Capital. In its territory is afountain of hot medicinal waters.

Alangasi, a river of the above corregimiento,and rising in the desert mountain of Sincholagua ;over it there is a large bridge, composed of a singlearch, but so strong, that when, in 1660, a partof the mountain fell upon it, and precipitated onehalf of it into the stream, the other half still re-mained firm and immoveable. This bridge isbuilt of mud and stone.

ALANIS, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Maracaibo, in the district of the cityof Merida, situate in the way whicE leads fromthis city to the new kingdom of Grenada.

ALANGI, Santiago de, a city and headsettlement of the district of the province of Chi-riqui and government of Santiago de Veragua,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It is small, butabounding in fruits and cattle ; in which a regulartrade is carried on for supplying the city of Pa-nama. This trade consists principally in pigs.

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river Hudson. It is small, but has a great tradefrom the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. Itcontains 350 houses, buiH afterthe Dutch fashion ;and that of the magistracy, which consists ofa mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is verybeautiful. The city is defended by a regular fortwith four bastions, the rest of the fortification con-sisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alli-ances have been made with the Indians. It wastaken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to thisprovince by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles «.of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank,and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, byenumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, ofwhich 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inha-bitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style,with the gable end to the street, which custom thefirst se^ttlers brought from Holland; the newhouses arc built in the modern style. Its inhabit-ants are collected from various parts of tlie world,and speak a great variety of languageJ^, but theEnglish predominates ; and the use of efery otheris gradually lessening. Albany is urfrivalled forsituation, being nearly at the head of sloop navi-gation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world.It enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural em-porium of the increasing trade of a large extent ofcountry ay. and w. — a country of an excellent soil,abounding in every article for the W. Indiamarket; plentifully watered with navigable lakes,creeks, Snd rivers ; settling with unexampled rapid-ity ; and capable of aftbrdingsubsistenceto millionsof inhabitants. The public buildings are, a lowDutch church, of ancient and very curious con-struction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presby-terians, one for Germans'or Higli Dutch, and onefor Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a hand-some brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry II udson,whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boatto Aurnnla, the spot on which Albany now stands.The improvements in this city have, of lateyears, been very great in almost all respects.Wharfs have been built on the river, the streetshave been paved, a bank instituted, a new andhandsome style of building introduced. One milen. of this city, in its suburbs, near the manor-houseof lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are veryingeniously constructed extensive and usefulworks, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappeesnuff, roll and cut tobacco of dilferent kinds,chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, split-pease, and hulled barley. These valuable worksare the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who un-fortunately lost a complete set of similar works byfire, in Jidy 1791, with the stock, valued at

37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy ofremark, and is evincive of the industry and enter-prise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre«sent buildings and machinery were begun andcompleted in the short space of eleven mouths.These works are decidedly superior to any of thekind in America. All the articles above enume-rated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manu-factured by the aid of water machinery. For theinvention of this machinery, the proprietor hasobtained a patent. These Avorks give employ-ment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a num-ber of workmen.] Long. 73° 42' w. Lat. 42°40' n.

Albania, or Albany, a large river of NewFrance, which takes its rise from the lake Chris-tinaux, runs n. e. and enters the sea at Hudson’sbay.

Albania, or Albany, a fortress in New SouthWales, N. America. [Lat. 32° 17' n. Long. 81°51' a;.]

ALBARICOQUES, Point of the, a cape onthe n. coast, in the head settlement of the islandof Santo Domingo, and in the French territories.It lies between the Trou d’Enfers and Cape Bom-bon.

ALBARRACIN, Desert of, a very loftymountain, always covered with snow, in tlie newkingdom of Granada.

ALBARRADA, a settlement of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile, situate on the shore of theriver Cauchupil.

Albarrada, another settlement, with the dedi-catory title of San Miguel, in the head settlementof the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor ofTentitlan, in Nueva España. It contains 22Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its headsettlement.

ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant riverof the new kingdom of Granada, which descendsfrom the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the coun-try and the city of Merida, running n. of thiscity until it enters the lake Maracaibo.

ALBEMARLE, a county of the province andcolony of N. Carolina, and that part of it whichis most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It pro-duces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and thewinter is very temperate. This colony was esta-blished in 1670 by the lords and proprietors of it,who equipped, at their own expence, three ships,and a coiisiderable number of persons, with provi-sions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchan-dize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment ;to which they sent resources yearly, in the pro-portion . required, until it appeared tube in a fit

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Massachusetts, incorporated in 1797, it beingformerly the n. part of Stoughton.)

CANUARI, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs to the n.and enters the Rio Grande of the Portuguese, be-tween the Mbouqui and the Pobatini.

CANUEIRAS, a point of the n. extremity ofthe island of Santa Catalina, on the coast ofBrazil.

CANUERALES, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cuyo in the kingdom ofChile, situate near the river Diamante.

CANUTO, a river of the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It rises in the mountain Ta-cazuruma, runs nearly s. and enters the river ofLa Portuguesa.

CANXA, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Orizavá, and alcaldía mayor of Yxmi-quilpan, in Nueva España.

(CANY Fork, in the state of Tennessee, is ashort navigable river, and runs n. w. into Cum-berland river, w. of the Salt lick, and oppositeSalt Lick creek, 50 miles in a straight line fromNashville.)

CANZE, a river of the colony and govern-ment of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessedby the Dutch. It rises between the Berbice andthe Corentin, and after a very round-about course,enters the former, close to its mouth, or where itruns into the sea.

CAO, Santa Maria Magdalena de, asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofTruxillo in Peru, situate in the valley of Chicama.It was the capital in the time of the Indians, andthe number of these 200 years ago was 3000 ; butnow it is reduced to a wretched state, and occu-pies a small spot on the other side of the river,being nine leagues distant from its capital.

Cao, with the dedicatory title of Santiago, todistinguish it from another settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento, although they areboth equally poor and reduced. Its inhabitantsmaintain themselves by the cultivation of maize,wheat, rice, and vegetables, which they carryfor sale to the other provinces, so that they arefor the most part a race of carriers, and indeedpossess no inconsiderable droves of mules. It issix leagues from its capital, just by the sea.

CAOBAS, River of the, in the island of St.Domingo, in that part possessed by the French.It rises in the valley of San Juan, runs to the w.and afterwards changing its course to the n. w. en-ters the Artibonito.

CAORA, a river which runs down from themountains of Guayana to the s. of the lake

Cassipa, into which it enters ; and afterwardsrunning out at the n. side of this lake, it findsits way through a subterraneous passage, until itempties itself into the Orinoco, on its s. shore.The borders of this river are inhabited by anation of barbarous Indians, who wander con-tinually through the forests without any fixedabode. They are cannibals as well as the otherIndian tribes around them, and with whom theykeep up a continual warfare.

CAPACA, a settlement of the province of Culi-acan in Nueva España ; situate near the head set-tlement.

CAPACHICA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; situate onthe w. shore of the lake Titicaca.

Capachica, a narrow strip of land formed bythe great lake Titicaca. Of these strips there arethree, and this appears, for the distance of a league,to be completely divided from any main land.

CAPACHO, a village under the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Christoval, in the new kingdom ofGranada ; of a warm temperature ; abounding insugar-cane, from which much sugar is manufac-tured, and in cacao ; but it is much infested bythe barbarian Indians, called the Motilones (short-haired), who destroy the plantations. It contains200 house- keepers, and is 24; leagues n. e. ofPamplona, in the road which leads to Mérida andLa Grita, and eight leagues from the city of SanChristoval.

CAPACMARCO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

CAPAIA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Soraica.

Capaia, another settlement in the province ofBarcelona, and government of Cumana; situate onthe coast, on the banks of a river of the samename.

Capaia, a river of the same province and go-vernment, which rises in the serranía, and aftermaking many turnings runs into the sea, near thecape Codera towards the e.

CAPAIAN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction ofthe city of Rioja.

CAPAIRE, a settlement of the province of Ve-nezuela, and government of Maracaibo ; situatevery near the coast, at the point Colorada, on theshore of the river Guepe.

(CAPALITA, a large town of North America,and in the province of Oaxaca. The countryround abounds with sheep, cattle, and excellentfruit.)

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CARACAS.

[ments ; the very cornices appear to have beendipped in gold, whilst superb carpets are spreadover the part of llie floor whereon the seats of ho-nour are placed ; the furniture is arranged in thehall in such a manner that the sofa, which formsan essential part of it, stands at one end withchairs on the right and left, and opposite the prin-cipal bed in the house, which stands at the otherextremitj, in a chamber, the door of which is keptopen, or is equally exposed to view in an alcove.These apartments, always very elegant and high-ly ornamented, are in a manner prohibited to thosewho inhabit the house : they are only opened, witha few exceptions, in honour of guests of superiorrank.

14. Public buildings. — The city of Caracaspossesses no other public buildings than such asare dedicated to religion. The captain-general,the members of the royal audience, the intendant,and all the officers of the tribunal, occupy hiredhouses ; even the hospital for the troops is a pri-vate house. The contaduria, or treasury, is theonly building belonging to the king, and its con-struction is far from bespeaking the majesty of itsowner. It is not so with the barracks ; they arenew, elegantly built, and situate in a spot where thesight breaks upon the city, and are two storieshigh, in which they can conveniently lodge 2000men. They are occupied only by the troops ofthe line ; the militia having barracks of their own,consisting of a house, at the opposite part of thecity.

15. Archbishopric. — Caracas is the seat of thearchbishopric of Venezuela, the diocese of whichis very extensive, it being bounded on the n. bythe sea, from the river Unare to the jurisdiction ofCoro ; on the e. by the province of Cumana, onthe s. by the Orinoco, and on the w. by thebishopric of Merida. Caracas was erected intoan archbishopric in 1803. The annual revenueof the archbishopric depends on the abundance ofthe harvests and the price of commodities, onAvhich they take the titlies : these tithes are equallydivided between the archbishopric, tlie chapter,the king, and the ministers of religion. Thefourth part, belonging to the prelate, amounted onan average, before the war terminated by the treatyof Amiens, to 60,000 dollars per annum. Thedecrease of cultivation will for a long time pre-vent the episcopal revenues amounting to theabove sum. Indeed the archbishop does noteven enjoy the whole of this fourth part of thetithes, the king having reserved to himself theapplication of the third of this quarter, and charg-ing upon it certain pensions. The seat of this

archbishopric was established at Coro in 1532,and translated to Caracas in 1636.

16. Cathedral. — The cathedral church does notmerit a description but from the rank it holds inthe hierarchy ; not but that the interior is deco-rated with hangings and gilding, and that thesacerdotal robes and sacred vases are sufficientlysplendid, but that its construction, its architec-ture, its dimensions, and its arrangements, arevoid of majesty and regularity. It is about 250feet long and 75 broad ; it is low and supported inthe interior by 24 pillars in four rows, which runthe whole length of the cathedral. The two centrerows form the nave of the church, which is 25feet broad ; the other two rows divide the aisles atequal distances of 12| feet, so that the nave aloneis of the width of the two aisles, which are on itsright and left. The chief altar, instead of being,like the Roman altars, in the centre, is placedagainst the wall. The choir occupies one halfof tlie nave, and the arrangement of the churchis such, that not more than 400 persons can seethe officiating priest at whatever altar he may beperforming tlie service. The exterior does notevince any taste or skill in the architect ; thesteeple alone, without having received any em-bellishment from art, has at least the merit of aboldness to which the cathedral has no pretensions.The only clock in Caracas is in this steeple ; itstrikes the quarters, and keeps time pretty well.The humble architecture of the first church inCaracas springs from a source highly honourableto the inhabitants, and which we are thereforebound to relate : The episcopal chair having beentranslated from Coro to Caracas, (as we have be-fore observed), in 1636, there was no necessityuntil this period for a cathedral in this city ; andwhen they had begun to carry into execution aproject of erecting a magnificent church, therehappened, on 11th June 1641, a violent earth-quake, which did great damage in the city. Thiswas regarded as an admonition of heaven to makethe fabric more capable of resisting this sort ofcatastrophe, than of attracting the admiration ofthe curious. From this time, therefore, they nolonger thought of, or rather they renounced, all ideasof magnificence, to give the building nothing butsolidity. But as they have never since expe-rienced any shock of an earthquake, they haveresumed the project of building a handsome ca-thedral.

17. Religious customs, — The people of Caracas,like all the Spaniards, are proud of being Chris-tians, and are very attentive to the duties of re-ligion, that is to the mass, days of obligation, to]

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[crowded with poor of both sexes, who Iiave noother subsistence than what tliey derive from alms,and who prefer these means of living to that oflabour. It is feared that the indiscriminate cha-rity exhibited liere is productive of the worst ef-fects ; that it affords to vice the means of remain-ing vicious. The police are indeed acquaintedwith these abuses, but cannot repress them withoutthe imputation of impiety. To form a correct ideaof the number of mendicants that wander in the.streets, it is but necessary to know that the arch-bishop distributes generally alms every Saturday ;that each mendicant receives a half-escalin, orl-16th of a dollar ; and that at each of these piousdistributions there is given a sum of from 75 or 76dollars, wliich should make the number of beggarsat least 1200 ; and in this list are not included thosewho are ashamed to beg publicly, and to whomthe worthy prelate D. Francis d’lbarra, a Creoleof Caracas, distributes certain revenues in secret.The cabildo^ composed of 22 members, and se-conded by the alcaldes de barrio, who are magis-trates distributed throughout the wards of the city,would be more than sufficient to manage the af-fairs of the police ; but the presence of the higherauthorities, who wish to share the prerogatives ofcommand, has made a division of all matters ofpolice between the governor, the lieutenant-go-yernor, and a member of the audience, who, underthe title of judge of the province, exercises its func-tions in conjunction with the authorities just men-tioned.

25. Communications with the interior. — Caracas,the centre of all the political, judicial, fiscal, mili-tary, commercial, and religious concerns of its de-pendencies, is also naturally that of all the com-munication in the interior. The roads are almostevery where just traced, and nothing more. Themud and overflowing of the rivers, over whichthere are neither bridges nor passage-boats, renderthem impracticable in the rainy season ; and in nopart of the year are they convenient. They countthe distance by a day’s journey, and not by leagues :but a fair computation of a day’s journey is 10leagues, of 2000 geometrical paces each. Theorders transmitted by the governor to the severaltowns of the interior arrive there by expre.ss, andcommunications of whatever nature are returnedby the same means. There are no regular courierssetting out from the capital, excepting for Mara-caibo, Puerto Cabello, Sante Fe, Cumana, andGuayana. All the towns situate on the roads tothese four chief places enjoy the advantages of apost. The courier for Maracaibo sets out fromCaracas every Thursday evening at six o’clock ;

it carries the letters of Victoria, Tulmeco, Mara-cay, Valencia, St. Philip, Puerto Cabello, andCoro ; it is 10 days going from Caracas to Mara-caibo, and arrives from Maracaibo at Caracas ol’ vevery 15th day, but from Puerto Cabello everyTuesday. On the 6th and 22d of each month,a courier sets out from Caracas for Santa Fe ; itcarries the letters of San Carlos, Guanare, Araux,Tocayo, Barquisimeto, Barinas, Merida, Carta-gena, Santa Marta, and Peru ; and arrives, or oughtto arrive, the 4th and 20th of each month ; it isgenerally 42 days in going from Caracas to SantaFe. The courier of Cumana and Guayana arrivesat Caracas once a month ; it proceeds, or stops,according to the state of the roads and rivers.Five days after its arrival at Caracas it sets outagain. The letters for Guayana go directly fromBarcelona by a courier ; and those for Cumana andMargareta by another. This arrives at its placeof destination in 12 days, and that of Guayanain SO days.

26. With Spain . — The official letters from Spainarrive at Caracas every month. A king’s packetsails on one of the first three days of each monthfrom Coruna, touches at the Canaries to leavetheir letters, then sails for the Havanah, andleaves in its way to Puertorico the letters addresser!as well for that island as for tim government ofCaracas. The latter are immediately forwardedby one of the little vessels kept for this service.During war the mail from Spain, instead of touch-ing at Puertorico, leaves the letters for Caracasand its dependencies at Cumana, and those for thekingdom of Santa Fe at Cartagena, and finally al-ways proceeds to the Havanah, from whence itsdeparture for Spain is regular and periodical.The answers from Caracas, even those that are of-ficial, are sent to Spain by the merchant vesselswhich sail from Guaira to Cadiz.

27. Geographical and statistical notices of thecapt amship'general of Caracas, and present his-torij. — Depons’ Voyage to the e. part of TierraFirme, or the Spanish main, in S. America, com-prises an ample description of this region ; and isthe principal authority for the anterior and subse-quent notices. This territory is situate betweenthe 12th degree of«. latitude and the equinoctial.It comprehends

Venezuela, containing

500,000 inhabitants

Maracaibo,

100,000

Cumami,

80,000

Spanish Guayana,

54,000

Isle of Margareta,

14,000

728,000 ]

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C H A

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It was conquered and united to the empire byInca Roca, the sixth Emperor.

CHALLAPATA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienlo of Paria in Peru.

CHALLAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla or Pataz in Peru,in the district of which is an estate called Huasil-las, where there is a house of entertainment be-longing to the religion of St. Francis, in whichreside the missionaries who assist in the conversionof the infidel Indians of the mountains.

CHALOUPES, PUERTO DE LAS, a port inthe island of Guadalupe, and on the n. coast, issmall, and lies between the Punta Antigua (OldPoint) and the Mole bay.

CHALUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Amaraez in Peru ; situate onthe shore of the river Pachachaca.

CHALUANI, a settlement of the same provinceand corregimiento as the former ; annexed to thecuracy of Sirca.

CHAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo. It rises at the foot of thesnowy sierra, runs, making the form of two SS, tothe e. and rt;. and passing by to the s. of the cityof Merida, returns n. and enters the great lake ofMaracaibo at the side opposite its mouth.

Chama, a large and fertile valley of the sameprovince and government, to the s. of the lake.

CHAMACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

CHAMACON, a river of the province and go-vernment of Darien in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; it rises in the mountains of the e. coast,and runs from s. e. to n. w. until it enters the largeriver Atrato near its mouth.

CHAMACUERO, San Francisco de, a set-tlement and head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zelaya in the province and bi-shopric of Meohoacan. It contains 690 families ofIndians, and more than 30 of Spaniards, Mustees,and Mulaltoes, with a convent of the order of St.Francis ; is five leagues to the n. of its capital.

CHAMAL, a settlement of Indians of the Chi-chimeca nation, in the head settlement of the dis-trict of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a valley of the samename. Its inhabitants having been reduced atthe beginning of the 18th century, and having re-quested a priest, one was sent them of the religionof St. Francis ; but no sooner did he arrive amongstthem than they put him to death, eating his body,and at the same time destroying the settlement.They were, however, afterwards reduced to thefaith, rather through the hostilities practised against

them by their neighbours than a desire of embrac-ing it. It is five leagues from Nuestra Senorade la Soledad.

CHAMANGUE, a river of the province andgovernment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs through the territory of the city ofAvila from n. w. to s. e. and enters the river Coca,on the w. side, in lat. 46° s.

CHAMARI, a small river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas, which runs s. s. e. andenters the river Madera opposite that of Guayapa-ranna.

CHAMARIAPA, a settlement of the provinceof Barcelona, and government of Curaana, in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which areunder the care of the religious observers of St.Francis, the missionaries of Piritu. It is to thew. of the mesa (table land) of Guanipa.

CHAMAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Mangas.

CHAMAYA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Ma-ranon.

CHAMBA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, towardsthe s. It runs from e. to w. passes near the settle-uient of Vilcabamba, and then enters the river Ma-lacatos.

(CHAMBERSBURG, a post town in Pennsyl-vania, and the chief of Franklin county. Itis situated on the e. branch of Conogocheaguecreek, a water of Potow.mac river, in a rich andhighly cultivated country and healthy situation-.Here are about 200 houses, two Presbyterianchurches, a stone gaol, a handsome court-housebuUt of brick, a paper and merchant mill. It is58 miles e. by s. of Bedford, 11 w. zo. of Shippens-burg, and 157 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 57'n. Long. 77° 40' a-'.)

CHAMBIRA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito ;situale at the source of the river of its name. Itrises to the e. of the settlement of Pinches, betweenthe rivers Tigre and Pastaza, and runs nearly pa-rallel to the former, where it enters, with a muchincreased body, into the Maranon.

(CHAMBLEE River, or Sorell, a water ofthe St. Lawrence, issuing from lake Champlain,300 yards wide when lowest. It is shoal in dryseasons, but of sufficient breadth for rafting lumber,&c. spring and fall. It was called both Sorcll andRichlieu when the French held Canada.)

CHAMBLI, a French fort in the province and

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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of whichgreat quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital,and near to the settlement of Turmeque.

CHIROBIO, a river of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela. It runs e. and enters thesea opposite the island Tarata.

CHIRTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Yambrasbamba.

CHIRU, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorand jurisdiction of Penonome in the kingdom andgovernment of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shoreof the S. sea, upon an extensive plain.

Same name, a river of this jurisdiction, which risesin the mountains of Penonome, and enters the S.sea near the settlement of Anton.

Same name, a very small island of the same juris-diction, close upon the coast, and called El Fa-rallon.

CHISAHALO, a settlement of theprovince and corregimienlo of Tacunga in thekingdom of Quito.

==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature.Its productions correspond with those of a similarclimate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a veryfew whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.

CHISGAS, Paramo de, a very lofty mountain covered with eternal snow, in the provinceand government of San Juan de los Llanos of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, between the riversApure and Sinaruco.

CHISLOCA, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; be-longing to the district of the former. It is annexedto the curacy of Tupisa.

CHISME, a settlement of the head settlementof Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor of Villalta.It contains 71 families of Indians, and lies 18leagues from its capital.

CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s.coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo,in the territory possessed by the French ; lyingbetween the settlement and parish of the English,and the point of Burgados.

CHISQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Canta in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Atabillos Altos.

CHISQUILLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee,two miles and a half from English ferry, on Newriver, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Longisland, on Holston.]

CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty ofSanta Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It isbounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. bythe country bt the Laches Indians, or province ofCochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of theOrinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, aGerman, and he was the first who entered it withhis companions in 1535. This territory is fertile,abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which isextremely large, as also in other seeds, and hasgoats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hotand unhealthy temperature, and has palms similarto those of Palestine and Barbary, producing ex-cellent dates. The capital is of the same name.This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bo-gota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly en-titled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwardsof 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twenty-four leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.

Same name, another settlement, which is the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofVillalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tempe-rature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is threeleagues and a half to the s. of its capital.

CHITAGA, Punta de, a bridge in the province and government of Merida, to the s. ofthe city of Pamplona, and upon the river of thisname.

CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians;bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct fromit, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They in-habit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains ofBogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto,and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people,and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535,having joined company with the Jiraras, theytook and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.

CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregi-mienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the NuevoReyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliytemperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains,cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from whichare made fine and much esteemed conserves.

CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pam-plona ; they are mixed with some families of theLaches. This nation is extremely numerous, andpass a wandering life without any fixed abode ;they go entirely naked, and are much given to sen-sual gratifications ; some of them have embraced2

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down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.

CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.

[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]

CHOPTANK, a large navigable river of theprovince and colony of Maryland, [emptying it-self into Chesapeak bay.]

CHOPTANK, Little, another (river) of the same pro-vince Maryland. It runs w. and enters the sea in the bay ofChesapeak.

CHOQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Acros.

CHOQUECAMATA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregtmiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CHOQUELIMPE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arica in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Copia.

CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.

CHORAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Jesus.

CHOROMA, a settlement of the province andcorrregimiento of Chichas and Tarija, in the dis-trict of the former, and annexed to the curacy ofTupisa.

CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.

CHORONI, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, between the mountain of Ocumaraand the port of Chuapo.

CHOROS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the hard lot of being scantily sup-plied Avith Avater, even as much as is necessary lordrinking.

Same name, a point of the coast of this provinceand kingdom (Chile).

Same name, an island near the coast and point ofits name (Choros),

CHORRERA, a settlement of the jurisdictionand akaldia mayor of Nata in the kingdom ofTierra Firme; situate near the coast of the S.sea.

Same name, a creek of the island of Cuba, onthe 71. coast, having a fort for its protection, witha detacliment of troops from the Havana.

CHORILLO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

Same name, another (settlement), in the province and corregimento of Cercado in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Surco.

CHORRILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cañete in Peru; situate onthe coast, close to the point of China.

CHORROS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHORROU, Chike du, a rivulet and establishmentof the French, in their possessions inGuayana.

CHORUNGA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Andaray ; situate in thevalley of its name.

CHOSAPACK, a large andbeautiful bay on the coast of the province and colony of Virginia]]. [See Chesapeak.]

CHOSCHAMA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacaiia.

[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]

CHOTA, Todos Santos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru.

[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]

3 N

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of Key in Brazil. It runs s. and turning e. en-ters the lake Mini.

Same name, a settlement of this province (Rey) ; situate onthe sea-coast, and lying between this and the lakeMini.

CHUIGOTES. See Chiugotob.

CHUILLE, a river of the province and go-vernment ot Darien in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It has its source in the mountains towardsthe e. runs n. e. and enters the river Tarena.

CHUIRIEUI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It runs n. and enters theIguy near the mission of San Miguel.

CHULK, a small port or creek of the coast ofthe S. sea, in the province and corregimiento ofArequipa. It is shallow, insecure, and exposedto the ,v. w. winds.

==CHULIHUCANI, a settlement of tlie province and government of Potosiin Peru.

CHULINA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Charazani.

CHULISANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Cachi.

CHULUMANI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cicasica in Peru.

Same name, a river of the above province (Cicasica),which rises at the end of the cordillera of Ancuma,begins its course to the e. and forming a large bendtowards the n. enters the Beni just at its source,and where it keeps the name of the Chuquiavo.

CHUMA, a river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which flows down from the mountains ofBogota. It waters the territory of Merida, pass-ing opposite the city, and enters through the s.side into the lake of Maracaybo.

Same name, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHUMATLAN, a settlement of the head settle-nidnt of Zozocoles, and alculdia mayor of Papantla,in Nueva Espana. It is situate at the top of anhigli mountain, and from it may be seen all the set-tlements belonging to this jurisdiction. Its popu-lation amounts to 183 families of Indians, and itlies to the n. of its head settlement, three leaguesdistant from this, and 14 from the capital.

CHUMBE, a village of the province and corre-gimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito. Itis to the xd. of Tarqui, and on the w. shore of oneof the torrents rising in fhe river Paute. Not farfrom it are some excellent hot baths, of which nouse is made. LHere the stately melastoma and theembothriuin are growing at an elevation of 12,000feet, according to Humboldt, who visited this vil-lage in 1802. Lat. 3° 10' s.]

CHUMBES, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Vilcas Huaman in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Vizchongo.

CHUMBI, a settlement of the province and cor-of Parinacochas in Peru, where thereis a pious sanctuary, with an excellent painting ofthe blessed virgin, said to have been given by apontitf to the curate of this settlement when he wasat Rome.

CHUMBICHA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tucuman in Peru; situate to thew. of the valley of San Fernando de Cata-inarca.

CHUMBICOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Piura in Peru ; situate on theshore of a small river of the same name.

CHUMBILLA, a mountain of the province andcorregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ; celebratedfor a rich silver mine. It lies three leagues froma small settlement called Canaria, which is at pre-sent abandoned and deserted.

CHUMBIVILCAS, a province and corregi-miento of Peru. It is bounded n. by the provinceof Quispicanchialgo, and by that of Chilquesand Masques on the n. w. ; by those of Cota-bamba and Aymaraez on the jr. ; by that of Con-dcsuyos de Arequipa on the s . ; and on the e. bythat of Canes and Cauches. Its temperature isfor the most part cold, although in some placestemperate, so that it produces the fruits peculiar toeither climate ; such as wheat, barley, maize, pa-pas, and other seeds, though none in abundance,but plenty of neat cattle. In this province arefound the lofty and vast snowy mountains calledCondesuyos del Cuzco. It lies on the boundariesof the province of Parinacocha, being separatedfrom it by the river which flows down from theprovince of Camana. Here much cloth peculiarto the country is manufactured ; and in its districtare many mouths of gold and silver mines, themounds and pits of which, together with the re-mains of several mills for working metal, indicatethat in former times they were probably worked tono small advantage. They gather here a greatquantity of Cochineal, which is called macno, withwhich cloths are dyed of very fine colours. Ithas likewise fountains and mineral streams of hotwater, and is subject to earthquakes. Its reparti-mento used to amount to 85,800 dollars, and its al-cavala to 685 dollars per annum. Its inhabitants,including the district of Condesuyos, amount to16,000 souls, who live in the 22 following set-tlements :

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purchase, obtained an act of incorporation, Sep-tember 3, 1655 ; and this was the most distantsettlement from the sea-shore of New England atthat time. The settlers never liad any contest withthe Indians ; and only three persons were ever kill-ed by them within the limits of the town. In1791, there were in this township 225 dwellinglionses, and 1590 inhabitants ; of the latter therewere 80 persons upwards ot 70 years old. For 13years previous to 1791, the average number ofdeaths was 17 ; one in four of whom were 70 yearsold and upwards. The public buildings are, aCongregational church, a spacious stone gaol, thebest in New England, and a very handsome countycourt-house. The town is accommodated withthree convenient bridges over the river ; one ofwhich is 208 feet long, and 18 feet wide, supportedby 12 piers, built after the manner of Charles riverbridge. This town is famous in the history of therevolution, having been the seat of the provincialcongress in 1774, and the spot where the first op-position was made to the British troops, on thememorable 19th of April 1775. The generalcourt have frequently held their sessions here whencontagious diseases have prevailed in the capital.Lat. 42° 20'

(Concord, a small river of Massachusetts,formed of two branches, which unite near thecentre of the town of Concord, whence it takes itscourse in a n. e. and n. direction through Bed-ford and Billerica, and empties itself into Merri-mack river at Tewksbury. Concord river isremarkable for the gentleness of its current, whichis scarcely perceivable by the eye. At low watermark it is from 100 to 200 feet wide, and from threeto 12 feet deep. During floods. Concord riveris near a mile in breadth ; and when viewed fromthe town of Concord, makes a fine appearance.)

(Concord, a township in Delaware county,Pennsylvania.)

(Concord, a settlement in Georgia, on the e.bank of the Mississippi, about a mile from the s.line of Tennessee, 108 miles h. from the mouth ofYazoo river, and 218 bclov/ the Ohio.)

CONDACHE, a river of the province and go-vernment of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. Itruns n. e. and traversing the royal road whichleads from Baza to Archidono, enters the river Co-quindo on its s. side, in 37' lat.

(CONDE, Fort, or Mobile City, is situate onthe w. side of Mobile bay, in W. Florida, about40 miles above its mouth, in the gulf of Mexico.Lat. 30° 59' n. Long. 88° 11' a'.)

CONDE, a small river of the province andcountry of the Iroquees Indians, in New France or

VOL. I.

Canada. It runs n. and enters the lake On-tario.

CONDE, another of the same name. SecV E H D E .

(CONDECEDO, or Desconocida, a cape orpromontory of N. America, in the province ofYucatán, *100 miles w. of Merida. Lat. 20° 50' n.Long. 90° 45' w.)

CONDEBAMBA, a large and beautiful valleyof the provitice and fo?TCg7'??//f>«/o of Huamachucoin Peru ; celebrated for its fertility.

CONDES, River of the, in the straits of Ma-gellan. It runs into the sea opposite the islandSanta Ana.

CONDESA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cartagena; situate near the coast,at the mouth of the Dique, which forms a com-munication between the sea and the grand riverMagdalena.

CONDESUIOS DE Arequipa, a provinceand corregimiento of Peru : bounded n. by that ofParinocochas, e. by that of Chumbivilcas, s. e.by that of Canes and Canches, and s. by that ofCollahuas. It is generally of a cold temperature,even in the less lofty parts of the cordillera ; ofa rough and broken territory, and with very badroads. Nevertheless, no inconsiderable proportionof wheat is grown in the low grounds, as likewise ofmaize, and other seeds and fruits, such as grapes,pears, peaches, apples, and some flowers. Upontlie heights breed many vicunas, huanacos, andvizcachas, and in other parts is obtained cochineal,here called macno, and which is bartered by theIndians for baizes of the manufacture of the country,and for cacao. It has some gold mines whichwere worked in former times, and which, on ac-count of the baseness of the metal, the depth of themines, and hardness of the strata, have not pro-duced so much as formerly they did, althoughthey are not now without yielding some emolu-ment : such are those of Airahua, Quiquimbo,Araure, and Aznacolea, which may produce alittle more than the expences incurred in Avorkirigthem. The gold of these mines is from 19 to 20carats, and they produce from tliree to four ounceseach cfljjow. They are Avorked by means of steeland powder, and the metals are ground in mills.The greater part of the natives of tliis province oc-cupy themselves in carrying the productions of thevalley of Mages, of the province of Carnana, suchas Avines and brandies, to the other provinces ofthe sierra; also in the cultivation of seeds, andsome in working the mines. It is watered by somesmall rivers or streams, which, incorporate them-selves, and form t-wm large rivers. The capital is3 T

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