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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they arethree in number, small and desert.
Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coastof the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extend-ing itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. Thee. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerousto be passed.
Carnero, Punta del, another point of landon the coast of the same kingdom.
CAROLINA, a province of N. America, andpart of that extensive country anciently calledFlorida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the trueFlorida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic.It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its ex-tent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. ton. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30®to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by JuanPonce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settledby the Spaniards then, but abandoned until thereign of Charles IX. king of France, when theFrench established themselves in it, under thecommand of admiral Chatilon, protector of theProtestants. He founded a colony and a fort call-ed Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina tothe country, in lionour to his monarch. This es-tablishment, however, lasted but a short time, forit was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put tothe sword the new colonists, and went away underthe impression that they had now left the countryin a perfectly abandoned state. But the English,at this time, were maintaining a footing here, un-der the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, thoughthey were not under any formal establishmentuntil the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when thecountry was granted as a property to the followingnobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke ofAlbemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, JohnAshley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, GeorgeCarteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley;by these it was divided into as many counties,and by them names were given to the rivers, settle-ments, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and
jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. andthey had an absolute authority to form establish-ments and governments, according to the laws andstatutes laid down by that famous and renownedphilosopher John Locke ; accordingly the govern-ment partook largely of the despotic, and therulers had the power of acknowledging or renounc-ing laws, of conferring titles, employments, pro-motions, and dignities, according to their owncaprice. They divided the population into threeclasses: The first was composed of those entitledthe Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acresof land; the second were two lordships, with thetitle of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ;and the third, who were called Landgraves, a titlecorresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000acres. This last body formed the high council-chamber, and the lower was composed of the re-presentatives of the counties and cities, both ofthese together forming the parliament, this beingthe real title, and not assembly, as in the othercolonies. The first establishment was the city ofCharlestown, between two navigable rivers calledAshley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylumto the Europeans, who on account of religiousdisturbances fled from Europe, and who havingsuffered great distresses there, had afterwards toencounter a very unfriendly reception from theIndians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728,when this city was taken under the protection ofthe English crown ; a corresponding recompencehaving been paid to the lords, the proprietors, whoyielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ;the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keep-ing his eighth share. From that time it was divid-ed into two parts, called North and South. The cli-mate differs but little from that of Virginia, al-though the heat in the summer is rather morepowerful here ; the winter, however, is shorterand milder ; the temperature is serene and theair healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are fre-quent, and this is the only part of this continentwherein have been experienced hurricanes; althoughthey are but rare here, and never so violent as in theislands. The half of March, the whole of April,May, and the greater part of June, the season ismild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearlyall September, the heat is intense ; but the winteris so mild, especially when the w.tw. wind prevails,that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fer-tile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and allkinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisiteflavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, iscovered with all kinds of trees. The principal
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Black, Granville, Craven, and a half-moon; onthe n. a line, and in front of the river Ashley thebastion of Colliton, and the covered half-moon ofJohnson, with a draw-bridge to pass the line, andanother to pass the half-moon. Besides these worksof regular fortification, it has a fort erected upona point of land at the entrance of the river Ashley,which commands the channel and the vessels : butthe bastions, the palisade, and the ditch on theland-side, having suffered much damage in anhurricane, and it being thought by the GovernorNicholson, that they were of too great an extent todefend themselves, they were by his command de-stroyed. This city is, as it were, a continual fair,being the market for the fruits of the whole pro-vince : the streets are well projected, and the edi-fices are grand and of fine architecture, especiallythe church, which is magnificent, spacious, andone of the best in all N . America : there are severalother churches belonging to different sects, and theFrench protestants have a very fine one in the prin-cipal street. The town consists of 800 housesbuilt of wood as to the greater part, although thereare some of stone ; all of them having glass win-dows, and manifesting a degree of elegance and or-nament in their structure : is the residence of thegovernor of the province, and in it is held the ge-neral assembly and the tribunal of judicature.Here are many rich nobles and opulent merchants,and almost all its inhabitants exhibit a costly ap-pearance, and live in a state of consummate luxury.It has a public library, which owes its establishmentto Doctor Thomas Bray. The liberty of con-science enjoyed in this city, and which was grantedto its inhabitants a short time after its foundation,caused it to become very populous. This effectwas further heightened by the extensive commerceit enjoyed ; and thus has it, with many other qua-lities of pre-eminence, become one of the finest set-tlements in America.
[Charleston, the metropolis of S. Carolina,is the most considerable town in the state; situatein the district of the same name, and on the tongueof land formed by the confluent streams of Ashleyand Cowper, which are short rivers, but large andnavigable. These waters unite immediately belowthe city, and form a spacious and convenient har-bour, which communicates with the ocean just be-low Sullivan’s island, which it leaves on. the n. sevenmiles s, e. of Charleston. In these rivers the tiderises in common about six feet and a half; but uni-formly rises 10 or 12 inches more during a nighttide. The fact is certain ; the cause unknown.The continual agitation which the tides occasionin the waters which almost surround Charleston,
the refreshing sea-breezes which are regularly felt,and the smoke arising from so many chimneys,render this city more healthy than any part of thelow country in the s. states. On this account it isthe resort of great numbers of gentlemen invalidsfrom the W. India islands, and of the rich plantersfrom the country, who come here to spend thesickly months, as they are called, in quest of healthand of the social enjoyments whicli the city affords ;and in no part of America are the social blessingsenjoyed more rationally and liberally than here.The following statement exhibits the greatest andleast height of Fahrenheit’s thermometer for severalyears past in Charleston.
State of the weather for 1807, ending Decem-ber 31.
Thermometer, highest~ ’ lowest
30° 1' to 30° 77'
1 to 13142 inches IfN.E. S.W,
Ditto meanBarometerHygrometerFall of rainPrevailing windsDays of rain
Do. of thunderDo. of snow
Unaffected hospitality — affability — ease of man-ners and address — and a disposition to make theirguests welcome, easy, and pleased with themselves,are characteristics of the respectable people ofCharleston. In speaking of the capital, it oughtto be observed, for the honour of the people ofCarolina in general, that when, in common with theother colonies, in the contest with Britain, they re-solved against the use of certain luxuries, and evennecessaries of life, those articles which improve themind, enlarge the understanding, and correct thetaste, were excepted ; the importation of bookswas permitted as formerly. The land on whichthe town is built is flat and low, and the waterbrackish and unwholesome. The streets are prettyregularly cut, and open beautiful prospects, andhave subterranean drains to carry off’ filth and keep]
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Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.
COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.
COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.
CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered
with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.
(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)
(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)
CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}