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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
[Puelclies, in order to satisfy that valiant tribe, whoamount to the fourth part of the population of thestate. Nor have the Araucanians ever Jiad causeto repent of this selection. During the last war,one of these mountaineers, Leviantu, lieutenant-general of Curignancu, harassed the Spaniardsgreatly, and gave their troops constant employ-ment. The army is at present composed of infan-try and of horse. It originally consisted entirelyof the former : but in their first battles witli theSpaniards, perceiving the great advantages whichtheir enemies derived from their cavalry, theysoon began to discipline themselves in the samemanner. Their first care was to procure a goodbreed of horses, which in a short time became sonumerous, that in the year 1568, seventeen yearsafter their first opposing the Spanish arms, theywere able to furnish several squadrons ; and in theyear 1585, the cavalry was first regularly organizedby the Toqui Cadegtiala. The infantry, which theycall narrwntuUnco, is divided into regiments andcompanies : each regiment consists of one thou-sand men, and contains ten companies of one hun-dred. The cavalry is divided in like manner,but the number of liorse is not always the same.They have all their particular standards, but eachbears a star, which is the national device. Thesoldiers are not clothed in uniform, according tothe European custom, but all wear beneath theirusual dress cuirasses of leather, hardened by a pe-culiar mode of dressing ; their shields and helmetsare .also m.ade of the saiiie materi.al.
9. Their army and mode of mailing war . — Thecavalry is .armed with swords and lances; the in-fantry Avith pikes or clubs pointed with iron.They formerly employed boAvs and slings, in theuse of Avhich they AA'ere very dexterous ; but sincethe arrival of the Spaniards, they have almost en-tirely relinquished them ; experience having taughtthem to avoid the destructive eft'ect of their mus-ketry, by immediately closing in, and fightinghand to hand Avith the enemy. The art of njak-ing gunpoAvder is as yet unknoAvn to this Avarlikepeople. Either they regard it but little, or, Avhatis more probable, those Spaniards Avith Avhom theyhave sometimes traded Avould not, if they Avercthemselves acquainted Avith it, communicate tothem the composition. It is, however, believedtlmt they made use at first of the greatest exertionsto obtain the knowledge of this secret, so importantin the present system of warfare. The discoveryof poAvder is Avell ascertained to have been owingmore to accident than to the efforts of human in-genuity, although some pretend that it Avas knoAvn
in China long before the period that it was disco-coA'ered in Europe. The inhabitants of the coun-try relate the following anecdote respecting gun-powder, Avhich, however fabulous and absurd itmay appe.ar, is generally credited. The Arau-canians, on first seeing Negroes Avith the Spaniards,imagined th.at tliey prepared from them the pow-der Avhich tliey used. Soon after, having takenone of those unfortunate men, tliey first coveredliim with stripes from head to foot, and afterw ardsInirned him to a coal, in order, by reducing it topow'der, to obtain the so much Avislied-for secret ;but were soon convinced of the fallacy of theirchemical principles. In their various encountersAvith the Spaniards, they occasionally took fromthem powder and muskets, which, in the subse-quent battles, they employed Avith as much skillas if they had been for a long time accustomed tothem; but as soon as the powder Avas expended,they were forced to resume their former arras.The Dutcli, Avhen they took the city of Valdivia,attempted to form an alliance Avith them, and pro-mised to supply them Avith powder and cannon ;but as they distrusted all Europeans, they Avouldnot listen to their proposal. Before setting out onhis expedition, the general assigns three days forconsultation, in order to consider aneAv the plansof the campaign, and to adopt the best expedients.Upon this occasion every one has the liberty ofoffering his opinion, if he deems it conducive tothe public Avelfare. In the mean time the generalconsults in secret with the officers of his staff uponthe plans Avhich he has formed, and the means ofremedying sinister events. After tiiis the armycommences its march to the sound of drums, be-ing alvAays preceded by several advanced parties,in order to prevent a surprise. The infantry, asAveil as cavalry, jrroceed on horseback ; but oncoming to action, they immediately dismount, andform themselves into their respective comp.anies.Each soldier is obliged to bring from home notonly his arms, but his supply of provisions, ac-cording to the custom of the Romans. As all areliable to military service, so no one in particular isobliged to contribute to the support of the army.The provision consists in a small sack of parchedmeal for each, which, diluted with Av.ater, fur-nishes sufficient food for them until they are enabledto live at free quarters upon the enemy. TheAraucanian troops are extremely vigilant; theyadopt at night the most prudent measures, by en-camping in secure and advantageous positions.On these occasions centinels are placed upon allsides ; and in presence of the enemy tliey re-]
[double their precautions, and sirengthen the poststhey occupy with strong entrenchments. Everysoldier during night is obliged, in order to provehis vigilance, to keep up a fire before his tent :the great number of tliese fires serves to deceivethe enemy, and have at a distance a very singularappearance. They are, besides, well acquaintedwith the art of constructing military works, andof protecting themselves with deep ditches, whichthey guard with branches of thorn, and strew cal-trops in the environs to repress the incursions ofthe enemy’s horse. In short, there are few mili-tary stratagems that they do not employ at a pro-per time and place. The celebrated Spani.di poetErcilla, who fought against them under Don Gar-cia, expresses his admiration at meeting with troopsso well disciplined, and possessing such perfec-tion in tactics, which, to use his expressions, themost celebrated nations in the W'orld have not beenable to attain without great trouble, and after along course of years. When an action becomesnecessary, they separate the cavalry into twowings, and place the infantry in the centre, di-vided into .several battalions, the files being com-posed alternately of pikemen and soldiers armedwith clubs, in such a manner, that between everytwo pikes a club is always to be found. The vice-toqui has the command of the right wing, and thatof the left is committed to an experienced officer.The toqui is present every where, as occasion mayrequire, and exhorts his men with much eloquenceto fight valiantly for their liberties. But of thisthere appears little need, as the soldiers manifestsuch ardour, that their officers have much moredifficulty in restraining their impetuosity than inexciting them to action. Fully impressed withthe opinion, that to die in battle is the greatest ho-nour that a man can acquire in this life, on thesignal for combat being given, they advance des-perately, shouting in a terrific manner ; and not-withstanding the slaughter made among them bythe cannon, endeavour to penetrate the centre ofthe enemy. Though they know full well that thefirst ranks will be exposed to almost certain de-struction, they eagerly contend with each otherfor these posts of honour, or to serve as leaders oftte files. As soon as the first line is cut down,the second occupies its place, and then the third,until they finally succeed in breaking the frontranks of the enemy. In the midst of their furythey nevertheless preserve the strictest order, andperform all the evolutions directed by their officers.The most terrible of them are the club-bearers,who, like so many Hercules, destroy with their
iron-pointed maces all whom they meet in theirway.
10. Division of the spoil . — The spoils of w'ar aredivided among those who have had the good for-tune, to' take them. But when the capture has beengeneral, they are distributed among the whole inequal p arts, called ?eg, so that no preference isshown to ai;y of the officers, nor even to the toqui.The prisoners, according (o tiie custom of all bar-barous nations, are made slaves, until they are ex-changed or ransomed. According to the admapu,one of tliese unfoilunate men must be sacrificed tothe manes of the soldiers killed in the war. Thiscruel law", traces of which are to be found in theannals of almost all nations, is nevertheless veryrarely put in practice, but one or two instanceshaving occurred in tlie space of nearly 200 years.The Araucanians are sensible to the dictates ofcompassion, altliough the contrary is alleged bycertain writers, who having assumed as an incon-trovertible principle, that they never give quarterto their enemies, afterwards contradict themselvesin mentioning the great number of prisoners whohave either been exchanged or ransomed after thewar.
11. Sacrifice after the war . — The sacrifice abovementioned, called pruloneon., or the dance of thehead, is performed in the following manner ; Theofficers, surrounded by the soldiers, form a circle,in the centre of which, in the midst of four poniards,representing the four uthal-mapus, is placed theofficial axe of the toqui. The unfortunate pri-soner, as a mark of ignominy, is then led in upon ahorse deprived of his ears and tail, and placed nearthe axe, with his face turned towards his country.They afterwards give him a handful of small sticksand a sharp stake, with which they oblige him todig a hole in the ground ; and in this they orderhim to cast the sticks one by one, repeating thenames of the principal warriors of his country,while at the same time the surrounding soldiersload these abhorred names with the bitterest exe-crations. He is then ordered to cover the hole, asif to bury therein the reputation and valour oftheir enemies, whom he has named. After thisceremony the toqui, or one of his bravest compa-nions, to whom he relinquishes the honour of theexecution, dashes out the brains of the prisonerwith a club. The heart is immediately taken outby two attendants, and presented palpitating to thegeneral, who sucks a little of the blood, and passesit to his officers, who repeat in succession the sameceremony ; in the mean time he fumigates withtobacco smoke from his pipe the four cardinal]
["points of the circle. The soldiers strip the fleshfrom the bones, and make of them flutes ; then,cutting off the head, carry it round upon a pike,amidst the acclamations of the niuUitude, while,stamping in measured pace, they thunder out theirdreadful war-song, accompanied by the mournfulsound of these horrid instruments. This barba-rous festival is terminated by applying to themangled body the head of a sheep, w hich is suc-ceeded by a scene of riot and intoxication, litheskull should not bo broken by the blows of theclub, they make of it a cup, called raHlonco, '.viilclithey use in their banquets in the manner of the an-cient Scythians and Goths.
12. Congress of peace. — On the termination of awar, a congress is assem.blcd, called by tiie Spa-niards parlamento. and the Araiicanians huinca-eoyag. This is usually held in a delightful plain,between the rivers Biobio and Dnqueco, on theconfines of both territories, whither the Spanishpresident and the Araucanian toqui repair with theattendants agreed upon in the preliminary articles.The four uthal-mapus send at the same time fourdeputiesfwho are usually the tetiarchs themselves,and whose mranimons consent is requisite for theestablishment and ratification of peace. In thecongress which was held after the war of 1723,were present 130 ulraenes, with their attendants,who amounted to the number of 2000 men. Thecamps of the negociating parties were separated byan interval of two miles. The conference is com-menced with many compliments on either side,and in token of future friendship, tlicy bind thestaves of the ulmencs with that of the Spanish pre-sident together, and place them in the midst of theassembly : an Araucanian orator then presents abranch of cinnamon, which is with them the tokenof peace, and placing his left hand upon the bundleof staves, makes, in the Chilian language, a perti-nent harangue on the causes which produced thewar, and the most eligible means of preserving har-mony between the two nations. He then proceedswith much eloquence to point out the losses andmiseries occasioned by war, and the advantageswhich arc derived from peace, to which he exhortsthe chiefs of either party in a pathetic peroration.An interpreter then explains the precise meaningof all that the Araucanian has said. The Spanishpresident replies in another speech adapted to thesubject, which is interpreted in the same manner.The articles of the treaty are then agreed iipon,and are ratified by a sacrifice of several chili-neques, or Chilian camels, which the Araucaniansimmolate for the happy continuance of the peace.After this the president dines at the same table w ith
the toqui and the principal ulmenes, to whom hemakes the customary presents in the name of hissovereign. This parliament is renewed as often asa new president is sent from Spain to Chile, andcannot possibly be dispensed with, as in that casethe Araucanians, imagining themselves despised,would without any other cause commence war.For this reason, there is always a considerable sumready in the royal treasury for the cxpcnces neces-sary on these occasions. On the arrival of a newpresident, an envoy, called the national commis-sary, is dispatched in his name to the four uthal-niapus, to invite the toquis and the other ulmenesto meet him at the place appointed, for the purposeof becoming acquainted Avith each other, and toconfirm the frienrlship contracted Avith his prede-cessors. In this convention nearly the same cere-monies are practised as are made use of on ratify-ing a treaty of peace. The ulmenes collect upontills occasion in great numbers, not only for thepurpose of becoming personally acquainted Aviththe new governor, but to form an opinion, from hismanners and countenance, of his pacific or Avarlikedisposition. A great number of merchants are at-tracted to the place where this meeting is held,and they form a kind of fair, which is mutuallyadvantageous to both nations.
13. System, of religion. — The religious systemof the Araucanians is simple, and Avell adapted totheir free manner of thinking and of living. TheyacknoAvledge a Supreme Being, the Author of allthings, whom they call Pillan, a Avord derivedfrom puUi or pilli, the soul, and signifies the Su-preme Essence ; they also call him Guenu-pillHn^the Spirit of HeaA'en ; Bnla-gen, the Great Being ;Thrticore, the Thunderer ; Vil'Ce?nvoe, the Creatorof all ; P'ilpepi/voe, the Omnipotent ; Alol/gelif,the Eternal ; Jonolu, the Infinite, Sec. The uni-versal government of the Pillan is a prototype ofthe A raucanian polity. He is 1 he trreat toqui of theinvisible Avorld, and as such, has his a]>o-ulmenes,and his ulmenes, to Avhoin he entrusts the adminis-tration of atfairs of less importance, in the firstclass of these subaltern divinitie.s i.sthe Epunanuin,or god of war ; the Meulen, a benevolent deity,the triend of the human race; and the Guecubu,a malignant being, the author of all evil, Avho ap-pears to be the same as the Algue. From henceit appears, that the doctrine of two adverse prin-ciples, called Manicheisin, is very extensive. TheGuecubu is the Mavari of the Oronoques, and theAhernian of the Persians. He is, according to thegeneral opinion of the Araucanians, the efficientcause of all the misfortimes that occur. If a horsetires, it is because tlie Guecubu has rode him. If]3 G
[an earthquake happens, the Guecubu has given ita shock : nor does any one die that is not suffo-cated by the Guccubu. The ulrnenes of theircelestial hierarchy are the genii, who have thecharge of all created things, and who, in concertwith the benevolent Meulen, form a counterpoiseto the enormous power of Guecubu. They are ofboth sexes, male and female, who always continuepure and chaste, propagation being unknown totheir system of the spiritual world. The males arecalled gen^ that is, lords, unless this word shouldbe the same as the ginn of the Arabians. The fe-males are called amei-malghen, which signifiesspiritual nymphs or fairies, and perform for men theoffices of lares, or familiar spirits. There is notan Araucanian but imagines he has one of these inhis service. Nien cai gni amchimalghen, “ 1 keepmy nymph still,” is a common expression whenthey succeed in an undertaking. The Arauca-nians carry still farther their ideas of the analogybetween the celestial government and their own ;for as their ulrnenes have not the right of imposingany species of service or contributions upon theirsubjects, still less, in their opinion, should those ofcelestial race require it of man, since they have nooccasion for it. Governed by these singular opi-nions, they pay to them no exterior worship. Theyhave neither temples nor idols, nor are they accus-tomed to offer any sacrifices, except in cases ofSome severe calamity, or on concluding a peace ;at such times they sacrifice animats, and burn to-bacco, which they think is the incense the mostagreeable to their deities. Nevertheless they in-voke them and implore their aid upon urgent oc-casions, addressing themselves principally to Pillanand to Meulen. To this little regard for religion,is oAving the indifference which they have mani-fested at the introduction of Christianity amongthem, which is tolerated in all the provinces oftheir dominion. The missionaries are there muchrespected, well treated, and have full liberty ofpublicly preaching their tenets, but notwithstand-ing there are but few of the natives who are con-verted. If the Araucanians discover little regardfor their deities, they are, however, very supersti-tious in many points of less importance. Theyfirmly believe in divination, and pay the greatestattention to such favourable or unfirvourable omensas the capriciousness of their imagination may sug-gest. Those idle observations are particularly di-rected to dreams, to the singing and flight of birds,which are esteemed by the whole of them the truestinterpreters of the will of the gods. The fearlessAraucanian, who with incredible valour confrontsdeath in battle, trembles at the sight of an owl.
Their puerile weakness in this respect would ap-pear incompatible with the strength of their intel-lect, if the history of the human mind did not fur-nish us with continual examples of similar contra-dictions. They consult upon all occasions theirdiviners, or pretenders to a knowledge of futu-rity, who are sometimes called gligim or gugol,among whom are some Avho pass for genpugnuygenpiru, &c. which signifies masters of the hea-vens, of epidemic diseases, and of worms or in-sects ; and, like the llamas of Tibet, boast of beingable to produce rain, of having the power to cureall disorders, and to prevent the ravages of theworms which destroy the corn. They are in greatdread of the calcus, or pretended sorcerers, who,they imagine, keep concealed by day in cavernswith their disciples, called ivitnches, man-animals,and who at night transform themselves into noc-turnal birds, make incursions in the air, and shootinvisible arrows at their enemies. Their super-stitious credulity is particularly obvious in the se-rious stories which they relate of apparitions, phan-toms, and hobgoblins; respecting which they haveinnumerable tales. But, in truth, is there a nationon earth so far removed from credulity in that par-ticular, as to claim a right of laughing at the Arau-canians ? They have, nevertheless, some amongthem who are philosophers enough to despise suchcredulity as an absurdity, and to laugh at the follyof their countrymen. They are all, however,agreed in the belief of the immortality of the soul.This consolatory truth is deeply rooted, and in amanner innate with them. They hold that man iscomposed of two substances essentially different :the corruptible body, which they call anca, andthe soul, am or pulli, which they say is ancanoluyincorporeal, and mugealu, eternal, or existing forever. This distinction is so fully establishedamong them, that they frequently make use of theword anca metaphorically, to denote a part, thehalf, or the subject of any thing. As respects thestate of the soul after its separation from the body,they are not however agreed. All concur in say-ing, with the other American tribes, that afterdeath they go towards the w. beyond (he sea,to a certain place called Gulcheman ; that is, thedwelling of the men beyond the mountains. Butsome believe that this country is divided into twoparts, one pleasant, and filled with every thing de-lightful, the abode of the good ; and the other de-solate, and in want of every thing, the habitationof the Avicked. Others are of opinion that all in-discriminately enjoy there eternal pleasures, pre-tending that the deeds of this life have no influenceupon a future state.]
[tains, which they fancy to be of a similar appear-ance, and which, of course, as they suppose, mustpossess the same property of floating upon thewater, assigning as a reason, that they are fearfulafter an earthquake that the sea will again returnand deluge the world. On these occasions, eachone takes a good supply of provisions, and woodenplates to protect their heads from being scorched,yjrovided the Thegtheg, when raised by the wafers,should be elevated to the sun. Whenever theyare told that plates made of earth would be muchmore suitable for this purpose than those of wood,which are liable to be burned, their usual replyis, that their ancestors did so before them.
15. Division of time.— ‘Time is divided by theAraucanians, as with us, into years, seasons,months, days, and hours, but in a very differentmethod. Their year is solar, and begins on the22d of December, or immediately after the southernsolstice ; for this reason they call this solsticeihaumathipantu, the head and tail of the year,and denominate June Udanthipmtu., the dividerof the year, from its dividing it into two equalparts. These two essential points they are ableto ascertain with sufficient exactness by means ofthe solstitial shadows. The year is called tipaniu,the departure, or course of the son, as that lumi-nary departs, or appears to depart, from the tropic,in order to make its annual revolution : it is divid-ed info 12 months of 30 days each, as was that ofthe Egyptians and Persians. In order to com-plete the tropical year, they add five intercalarydays, but in what manner they are introduced weare not able to determine ; it is, however, probablethey are placed in the last month, which in thatcase will have 35 days. These months are calledgenerally ci(/e«, or moons, and must have originallybeen regulated wholly by the phases of the moon.The proper names of them, as near as they can berendered by ours, are the following, which arederived from the qualities, or the most remarkablethings which are produced in each month :Avun-cujenj January, The month of fruit.Cogi~cujen, February, The month of har-vest.
Glor-cujen, March, The month of maize.JUnm-cujen, April, The first month of therimu.
May, The second month of therimu.
June, The first month of foam.July, The second month offoahi.August, The unpleasant month.September, The treacherousmonth.
Hueul-cujeny October, The first month of newwinds.
Inanhueul-cujeny November, The second month ofnew winds.
Huetiru-cujeny December, The month of newfruit.
The seasons, as in Europe, consist of threemonths ; the spring is called peughen, the sum-mer ucan, the autumn guafug, and the winter pu-chnm. To render the distribution of the yearuniform, they also divide the natural day into 12parts, which they call gliagantu, assigning six tothe day, and six to the night, in the manner of theChinese, the Japanese, the Otaheitans, and seve-ral other nations. Thus each gliagantu, or Arau-canian hour, is equal to two of ours. Those of theday they determine by the height of the sun, andthose of the night by the position of the stars ; butas they make use of no instrument for this purpose,it follows that this division, which must necessarilybe unequal, according to the different seasons ofthe year, will be much more so from the imperfectmanner of regulating it. They begin to numbertheir hours, as is general in Europe, from mid-night, and give to each a particular name. Incivil transactions they calculate indifferently,either by days, nights, or mornings; so that threedays, three nights, or three mornings, signify thesame thing.
16. Astronomical ideas.— To the stars in generalthey give the name of huagleny and divide theminto several constellations, which they call palor ritha. These constellations usually receivetheir particular appellations from the number ofremarkable stars which compose them. Thus thepleiades are called cajupal, the constellation ofsix ; and the antarctic cross, melerithoy the con-stellation of four ; as the first has six stars whichare very apparent, and the last four. The milkyway is called rupuepeu, the fabulous road, froma story which, like other nations, they relate of it,and which is considered as fabulous by the astro-nomers of the country. They are well acquaintedwith the planets, which they call gau, a wordderived from the verb gaun, to wash ; from whenceit may be inferred, that they have respecting thesebodies the same opinion as the Romans, that attheir setting they submerge themselves in the sea.Nor are there wanting Fontenelles among them,who believe that many of those globes are so manyother earths, inhabited in the same manner asours ; for this reason they call the sky Guenu-mapuy the country of heaven ; and the moon,Cuyen-mapUy the country of the moon. Theyagree likewise with the Aristotelians, in maintain-]
[ing that the comets, called by them cheruvoe^proceed from terrestrial exhalations, inflamed inthe upper regions of the air ; but they are notconsidered as the precursors of evil and disaster, asthey have been esteemed by almost all the nationsof the earth. An eclipse of the sun is called bythem layanlUy and that of the moon lacujcn^that is, the death of the sun or of the moon. Butthese expressions are merely metaphorical, as arethe correspondent ones in Latin, of defectus solismil lunoi. Their opinions as to the causes of tliesephenomena are not known, but it has been observ-ed that they evince no greater alarm upon these oc-casions than at the most common operations ofnature. Their language contains many wordssolely applicable to astronomical subjects, such asthoren, the late rising of the stars, and otherssimilar, which prove that their knowledge in thisrespect is much greater than what is generallysupposed.
17. A/easwres.— -Their long measures are thepalm, nela; the span, duche ; the foot, namun ;the pace, thecan ; the ell, neveu ; and tlie league,tupu, which answers to the marine league, or theparasang of the Persians. Their greater distancesare computed by mornings, corresponding to theday’s journeys of Europe. Their liquid and drymeasures are less numerous: the gunmpar, aquart ; the can, a pint ; and the wencu, a mea-sure of a less quantity, serve for the first. Thedry measures are the chmigue, which containsabout six pints ; and the gliepu, which is doublethat quantity. With regard to the speculativesciences they have very little information. Theirgeometrical notions are, as might be expected froman uncultivated people, very rude and confined.They have not even proper words to denote theprincipal figures, as the point, the line, the angle,the triangle, the square, the circle, the sphere,the cube, the cone, &c. ; their language, however,is so flexible and copious, that it would be easyto form from it a vocabulary of technical words tofacilitate the acquisition of the sciences to theAraucanians.
18. iiVreiorfc.— Notwithstanding their generalignorance, they cultivate successfully the sciencesof rhetoric, poetry, and medicine, as far as theseare attainable by practice and observation ; forthey have no books among them, nor are there anyof them who know how to read or w rite. Neithercan they be induced to learn these arts, eitherfrom their aversion to every thing that is practisedby the Europeans, or from their being urged by asavage spirit to despise whatever does not belongto their country. Oratory is particularly held in
high estimation, and, as among the ancientRomans, is the high road to honour, and themanagement of public affairs. It is equally valuedamongst the North American Indians. The eldestson of an ulmenwho is deficient in this talent, isfor that sole reason excluded from the right ofsuccession, and one of his younger brothers, orthe nearest relation that he has, who is an ablespeaker, substituted in his place. Their parents,therefore, accustom them from their childhood lospeak in public, and carry them to their nationalassemblies, where the best orators of the countrydisplay their eloquence. From hence is derivedthe attention which they generally pay to speaktheir language correctly, and to jireserve it in itspurity, taking great care to avoid the introductionof any foreign word ; in which they are so parti-cular, that whenever a foreigner settles amongthem, they oblige him to relinquish his name, andtake another in the Chilian language. The mis-sionaries themselves are obligerl to conform to thissingular regulation, if they would obtain the pub-lic favour. These have much to endure fromtheir excessive fastidiousness, as even while theyare preaching, the audience will interrupt them,and with importunate rudeness correct the mis-takes in language or pronunciation which may es-cape them. Many of them are well acquaintedwith the Spanish language, from their frequentcommunication with the neighbouring Spaniards.They, however, make but little use of it, none ofthem ever attempting to speak in Spanish in anyof the assemblies or congresses that have been heldbetween the two nations; on which occasions theyhad much rather submit to the inconvenience oflistening to some tiresome interpreter, than, byhearing another language, to suffer their nativetongue to be degraded. The speeches of theirorators resemble those of the Asiatics, or moreproperly those of all barbarous nations. The styleis highly figurative, allegorical, elevated, and re-plete with peculiar phrases and expressions, thatare employed only in similar compositions ; fromwhence it is called coi/agtucan, the style of parlia-mentary harangues. They abound with parablesand apologues, which sometimes furnish the wdiolesubstance of the discourse. Their orations, not-withstanding, contain all the essential parts re-quired by the rules of rhetoric; which need notexcite our surprise, since the same principle ofnature which led the Greeks to reduce eloquenceto an art, has taught the use of it to these people.They are deficient neither in a suitable exordium, aclear narrative,a well-founded argument, or a pathe-tic peroration : they commonly divide their subject]
[into two or three points, which they call that/, andspecify the number by saying, epu thoy-gei tnn enpiaxin, “ what I am going to say is divided intotv\o points.” They employ in their oratory se-veral kinds of style, but the most esteemed is therachidugiin, a word equivalent to academic.
19. /befry.— Their poets are called gempin,lords of speech. This expressive name is well ap-]died to them, since, possessing that strong enthu-siasm excited by passions undebilitated by the re-straints and refinements of civil life, they follow noother rules in their compositions than the impulseof their imaginations. Of course, their poetry ge-nerally contains strong and lively images, boldfigures, frequent allusions and similitudes, noveland forcible expressions, and possesses the art ofmoving and interesting the heart by exciting itssensibility. Every thing in it is metaphorical andanimated, and allegory is, if we may use the ex-pression, its very soul or essence. The principalsubject of the songs of the Araucanians is the ex-ploits of their heroes. Their verses are composedmostly in stanzas of eight or eleven syllables, ameasure which appears most agreeable to the hu-man ear. They are blank, but occasionally arhyme is introduced, according to the taste orcaprice of the poet.
20. Medical The Araucanians have three
kinds of physicians, the anipives, the vi/eus, andthe machis. The ampixes, a word equivalent toempirics, are the best. They employ in their curesonly simples, arc skilful herbalists, and have somevery good ideas of the pulse, and the other diagnos-tics. The vileus correspond to the regular piiy-sicians. Their principal theory is, that all conta-gious disorders proceed from insects, an opinionheld by many yjhysicians in Europe. For thisreason, they generally give to epidemics the nameof cut am pirn, that is to sny, vermiculous disorders,or diseases of worms. The machis are a supersti-tious class, that are to be met with among all thesavage nations of both continents. They maintaintliat all serious disorders proceed from witchcraft,and pretend to cure them by supernatural means,for which reason they are employed in desperatecases, when the exertions of the ampixes or thevileus are ineffectual. Their mode of cure is de-nominated machitun, and consists in the followingidle ceremonies, which are always performed in thenight. The room of the sick person is lighted witha great number of torches; .and in a corner of it,among several branches of laurel, is placed a largebough of cinnamon, to which is suspended themagical drum ; near it is a sheep ready for sacri-fice, The machi directs the women who are pre-
sent to sing with a loud voice a doleful song, ac-companied with the sound of some little drums,which they beat at the same time. In the meanwhile he fumigates three times with tobacco smokethe branch of cinnamon, the sheep, the singers, andthe sick person. After this ceremony he kills thesheep, takes out the heart, and after sucking theblood, fixes it upon the branch of cinnamon. Henext approaches the patient, and by certain charmspretends to open his belly to discover the poisonwhich has been given him by the pretended sor-cerer. He then takes the magical drum, which hebeats in concert to a song sung by himself and thewomen, who follow him round the room in proces-sion ; when, all at once, he falls to the ground likea maniac, making frightful gesticulations and hor-rible contortions of his body, sometimes wildlyopening his eyes, then shutting them, appearinglike one possessed of an evil spirit. During thisfarcical scene, the relations of the sick interrogatethe machi upon the cause of the malady. To thesequestions the fanatical impostor replies in such amanner as he believes best calculated to promotethe deception, either by naming, as the cause ofthe malady, some person of whom he wishes to berevenged, or expressing himself doubtfully as tothe success of his incantations. In this mannerthese diabolical mountebanks become very fre-quently the cause of horrible murders ; as the re-lations of the sick, supposing the accusation true,put to death without pity those accused of thesepractices, and sometimes involve in their revengethe whole family, should they not be strong enoughto resist their violence. But these malicious fo-menters of discord are careful never to accuse theprincipal families. The machis, though not in-vested with the sacerdotal character, like the ph^'si-cians of most other savage nations, greatly resem-ble in their impostures the shamanis of Kamschatka,the woAArs of Africa, and the piachis of Orenoque,whose tricks are accurately described by the Abbe(lili, in his History of the Orinokians. Thesephysicians, notwithstanding the different systemsthey pursue, sometimes meet to satisfy the solici-tude or the vanity of the relations of the sick ; buttheir consultations, which are called thauman,have generally the same issue as those of the physi-cians of Europe. They have besides these otherkinds of professors of medicine. The first, whomay be styled surgeons, are skilful in replacing dis-locations, in repairing fractures, and in curingwounds and ulcers : they are calletl gutarve,possess real merit, and often perform wonderfulcures. But this is by no means the case with theothers, called cupove, from the verb cupon, to ana-]
[tomize : ' these, infatuated with mnchiism^ dissectbodies in-order to show the entrails, which theysay are infected with magic poison. Nevertheless,by means of this practice, they acquire ideas, by nomeans contemptible, respecting the conformation ofthe human body, for the different parts of whichthey have appropriate names. Before the arrivalof the Spaniards, the Araucanians made use ofbleeding, blistering, clysters, emetics, cathartics,and sudorifics, all which remedies have their pe-culiar names in their language. They let bloodwith the sharp point of a flint fixed in a small stick.This instrument they prefer to a lancet, as theythink it less liable to fail. Instead of a syringe theymake use, like the inhabitants of Kamschatka, of abladder, to which they apply a pipe. Their eme-tics, catliartics, and sudorifics, are almost all ob-tained from the vegetable kingdom.
21. Commerce, — Their internal and exteral com-merce is very limited: not having yet introducedamong them the use of money, every thing is con-ducted by means of barter. This is regulated by akind of conventional tariff, according to which allcommercial articles are appraised, under the name
Cullen. Thus a horse or a bridle forms one pay-ment ; an ox two, &c. Their external commerceis carried on with tlie Spaniards, with whom theyexchange ponchos and animals for wine, or themerchandize of Europe, and their good faith incontracts of this kind has always been highly ap-plauded. “ The Spaniard,” says Raynal in hishistory, “ who engages in this trade, appliesdirectly to the heads of families. When he hasobtained the necessary permission, he proceeds toall the houses, and distributes indiscriminately hismerchandize to all those who present themselves.When he has completed his sale, he gives notice ofhis departure, and all the purchasers hasten to de-liver to him, in the first village he arrives at, thearticles agreed upon ; and never has there been aninstance of the least failure of punctuality.” Wecannot help extracting also the following from theCompendium of the Geographical, Natural, andCivil History of Chile, printed in Bologna, 1776.“ The Spaniards who live in the province ofMaule, and near the frontiers of Araucania, carryon a commerce with these people, which consistsin supplying them with iron Avare, bits for bridles,cutlery, grain, and wine. This trade is conductecialtogether by the way of barter, as it is not pos-sible to persuade the Araucanians to open the goldmines, nor to produce any of that metal. The re-turns therefore are in ponchi, or Indian cloaks,of which they receive more than 40,000 an-
nually ; in horned cattle, horses, ostrich feathers,curiously wrought baskets, and other trifles of asimilar kind. This commerce, although generallyprohibited, is carried on in the Indian country,whither the traders go with their merchandize bybye-roads, and deposit it in the cabins of the na-tives, to whom they readily trust whatever theywish to sell, certain of being punctually paid at thetime agreed upon, which is always the case, theseIndians observing the greatest faith in their con-tracts.”
22. National pride. — The Araucanians, proud
of their valour and unbounded liberty, believethemselves the only people in the world deservingthe name of men. From hence it is, that, besidesthe appellation auca, or free, which they valueso highly,they give themselves metaphorically thenames of cAe, or the nation ; of recAe, pure or un-degenerated nation ; and of huentii, men, a wordof similar signification with the vir of the Latins ;and as the latter is the root of the word virtus, sofrom the former is derived huentugen, which signi-fies the same thing. From this ridiculous prideproceeds the contempt with which they regard allother nations. To the Spaniards they gave, ontheir first knowledge of them, the nickname ofchiapi, vile soldiers ; from whence proceeded thedenomination of chiapeton, by Avhich they areknown in South America. They afterwards calledthem hidnca ; this injurious appellation, Avhichfrom time and custom has lost its odiousness, comesfrom the verb huincun, Avhich signifies to assassi-nate. It is true that in their first battles the Spa-niards gave them too much reason for applying tothem tliesc opprobrious epithets, Avhich serve tothe present time to denote one of that nation.Esteeming themselves fortunate in their barbarity,they call those Indians who live in the Spanishsettlements culme-huinca, or wretched Spaniards.To the other Europeans, the English, French, andItrdians, whom they readily distinguish from eachother, they give the name of mamche, which isequiA'alcnt to the term moro, used by the commonpeople of Spain, to denote all strangers indiscrimi-nately. They call each other that is, bro-
thers, and even apply the same name to tiiose bornin their country of foreign parents.
23. Kindness towards each other . — The benevo-lence and kindness Avith which these people treateach other is really surprising. For the wordfriend^ tliey have six or seven very expressiveterms in their language ; among others, that ofcanap^ Avhich corresponds to the alter ego of theLatins. Those who have the same name call each}
C H I L E.
[Araucanians maj justly claim tlie merit of not be-ing' ill this respect inferior to other nations. Theirgames are very numerous, and for the most partvery ingenious ; they are divided into the seden-tary and gymnastic. It is a curious fact, andworthy of notice, that among the first is tiie gameof chess, which they call comienn^ and which hasbeen known to them from time immeniorial. Thegame of quechu, which they esteem iiighiy, has agreat affinity to tliat of back-gammon ; but insteadof dice they make use of triangular pieces of bonemarked with points, which they throw with alittiehoop or circle, supported by two pegs, as wasprobably i\\e fritillus of the Ro.mans. The youthexercise themselves frequently in wrestling andrunning, ’i'hey are fond of playing at ball, whichis made from a species of rush, and called pilma.^All their gymnsatic games, many of which re-semble those of the European youth, requirestrength, are well suited to their genius, and forthe most part serve as an image of war. Whathas been said of the Araucanians does not altoge-ther apply to the Puelches, or inhabitants of thefourth uthal-mapu, situated in the Andes. These,although they conform to the general custom ofthe nation, always discover a great degree of rude-ness and savageness of manners. Their name sig-nifies eastern-men. They are of lofty stature,and are fond of hunting, which induces them fre-quently to change their habitations, and extendtheir settlements, not only to tiie eastern skirls ofthe Andes, but even to the borders of the lake Aa-gitelguapi, and to the extensive plains of Patago-nia, on the shores of the Atlantic. The Arauca-nians hold these mountaineers in high estimationfor the important services which they occasionallyrender them, and for the fidelity which they haveever observed in their alliance with them.
The wars of the Araucanians with the Spaniards,and concomitant events.
Sect. I. Comprising a period of nine years,from 1550 to 1559.
I. The Toqui Aillavila . — It was in the year1550, that the Araucanians, having resolved tosend succours to the inhabitants of Penco, whowere at that time invaded by the Spaniards, gaveorders to the Toqui Aillavila to march immediatelyto tiieir assistance at the head of 4000 men : heaccordingly passed the great river Biobio, whichseparates the Araucanian territory from that qf thePencones, and boldly offered battle to these ne-wenemies, who had advanced to meet him to theshores of the Andalien. After the first discharge
of musketry, which the Araucanians sustainedwithout being terrified or disconcerted, thus earlymanifesting how little they would regard it whenrendered familiar by habit, Aillavila, with a rapidmovement, fell at once upon the front and flanksof the Spanish army. Tiie Spaniards were con-sequently thrown into much disorder, and theirgeneral was exposed to imminent danger, havinghad his horse killed under him, when Aillavila,hurried forwards by a rash courage, received amortal wound. The Araucanians having lost theirgeneral,-with many of their most valiant officers,then retired, but in good order, leaving the fieldto the Spaniards, who had no disposition to pur-sue them. Valdivia, who had been in many bat-tles in Europe as well as America, declared thathe had never been exposed to such imminent ha-zard of his life as in this engagement.
2. The Toqui L.incoyan . — In the following yearthe Araucanians w('re again led on to tiie attack bya new toqui, Lincoyan ; when such was the ter-ror inspired by their approach, that the Spaniards,after confessing themselves, and partaking of thesacrament, thought proper to take shelter underthe cannon of their fortifications. The event ofthis battle was the cause of the foundation of thechapel dedicated to St. James, which chapel wasbuilt by the Spanish soldiers from sentiments ofgratitude, and from their supposition that the re-treat of Lincoyan, who was unsuccessful in hisfirst attack, was caused by the supernitui'aiagency of the apostle St. James himself, whomthey declared to have seen riding upon a whitehorse with a flaming sword, and striking terrorinto his enemies. The governor, after the elapseof nearly a year, resolved to attack them with areinforcement he had just received from Peru : heaccordinglj^, unobstructed by the tardy operationsof Lincoyan, bent his way towards the shores ofthe Cauten, which divides the Araucanian terri-tory into two nearly equal parts.
3. Imperial founded . — At the confluence of thisriver and that of Daraas, he founded the city ofImperial, so called in honour of the EmperorCharles the Fifth, or, as it is said by some, in con-sequence of finding there eagles with two headscut in wood, and placed as ornaments upon thetops of houses. This city was situated in a beau-tiful spot, abounding with every convenience oflife; and during the short period of its existencebecame the most flourishing of any in Chile. Itsposition on the shore of a large river, of sufficientdepth for vessels to lie close to the walls, renderedit a highly advantageous situation for commerce,and would enable it to obtain immediate succour!
5 a 2
[The celebrafed poet Ercilla was one of the party,ami solicitous of the rcj)utation of having pro-ceeded Anther s. than any other European, hecrossed the gulf, and upon the opposite shore in-scribed on the bark of a tree some verses contain-ing his name, and the time of the discovery, the5Jst January 1559.
26. Cit?/ of Osorno founded. — Don Garciasatisfied with having bee ti the first to discover byland the Archipelago of Chiioe, returned, takingfor his guide one of those islanders, who conduct-cfl liim safely to Imperial through the country ofthe Huiiliches, which is for the most part level,a d abounds in provisions. The inhabitants, whoare similar in every respect to their western neigh-bours the Cunches, made no opposition to hispassage. He there founded, or, according to somewriters, rebuilt the city of Osorno, which increas-ed rapidly, not less from its manufactures ofwoollen and linen stuffs, than from the fine goldprocured from its mines, which were afterwardsdestroyed by tlie Toqui Paillamacu.
Sect. II. Comprising a period of 27 ^ears, from1559 to 1586.
27. Coupolican //. — The campaign of thefollowing year was rendered still more memorableby the numerous battles that were fought betweenthe two armies ; that of the Araucanians was com-manded by Caupolican, the eldest son of the gene-ral of that name ; but though he possessed thecelebrated talents of his father, he was not equallysuccessful in defeating his enemy. lJut of all hisicontests, thalof Quipeo was the most unfortunate ;for here he lost all Ids most valiant officers, andbeing pursued by a detachment of Spanish horse,he slew himself to avoid the melancholy fate of hisfather.
28. The Guarpes subjected. —~T)on Garcia, con-sidering this baftle decisive in every point of view,and finding himself provided with a good numberof veteran troops, sent a part of them, under theeornmand of Pedro Castillo, to complete the con-quest of Cujo, which had been commenced byFrancis de Aguirre. That prudent officer sub-jeclcd the Guarpe.s, the ancient inhabitants of thatprovince, to the Spanish government.
29. St. J uan and Mendoza founded.—We found-ed on the c, limits of the Andes two cities, one ofwhich he called .It. .Tuan, and the other Mendoza,from the family name of the governor. This ex-tensive and fertile country remained for a consider-able time under the government of Chile, but hassince been transferred to the viceroyalty of BuenosAyres, to which, from its natural situation, it ap-
pertains. Whilst in this manner Don Garcia tookadvantage of the apparent calm that prevailed inthe country, he heard of the arrival at BuenosAyres of the person appointed his successor by thecourt of Spain. In consequence of this informa-tion, confiding the government for the present toRodrigo de Quiroga, he returned to Peru, w here,as a reward for his services, he was promoted tothe exalted station which his father had filled.
SO. Villagran reinstated.— ~'VUe governor ap-pointed in place of Don Garcia was his predeces-sor, Francis Villagran, w ho having gone to Eu-rope after he had been deprived of the government,procured his reinstatement therein from the courtof Spain. On his arrival at Chile, supposing,from the information of Don Garcia and Quiroga,that nothing more was necessary to be done withthe Araucanians, and that they were in no condi-tion to give him trouble, Villagran turned his at-tention to the re-acquisition of the province ofTucuman, which, after having been by him, in1549, subjected to the government of Chile, hadbeen since attached to the viceroyalty of Peru.
31. The province of Tucuman restored, after-wards retaken.— Gvegon Castaneda, who had thecharge of this enterprise, defeated the Iferuviancommander, Juan Zurita, the author of the dis-memberment, and restored the country to theobedience of the captains-generalof Chile ; it was,however, retained under their government but ashort time, as they were obliged by the court ofSpain, before the close of the century, to cede itagain to the government of Peru. But neitherDon Garcia nor Quiroga, notwithstanding the longtime they had fought in Chile, had formed a cor-rect opinion of the temper of the people whom theypretended they bad conquered. The invincibleAraucanian cannot be made to submif to the bit-terest reverses of fortune. The few ulraenes whohad escaped from the late defeats, more than everdetermined to continue the war, assembled, imme-diately after the rout of Quipeo, in a wood, wherethey unanimously elected as toqui an officer ofinferior rank, called Antiguenu, who had signa-lized himself in the last battle. He, with a fewsoldiers, retired to the inaccessible marches ofLumaco, called by the Spaniards the Rochela,wheie he caused high scaffolds to be erected tosecure his men from the extreme moisture of thisgloomy retreat. The youth , who were from time totime enlisted, went thither to be instructed in thescience of arms, and the Araucanians still consi-dered themselves free, since they had a toqui.
32. Cahete r/eitrqyec?.— -Antiguenu began nowto make incursions in the Spanish territory, in]
[killed a great number of the inhabitants, and at-tacked the vessels at anchor in the harbour, onboard of which many had taken refuge, who onlyeffected their escape by immediately settingsail.After this he returned in triumph to join Millacal-quin, one of liis officers, to whom he had entrustedtJie guard of the Biobio, with a booty of 2,000,000of dollars, all the cannon, and upwards of 400 pri-soners.
43. Expedition of the Dutch. — Ten days afterthe destruction of Valdivia, Colonel FranciscoCampo arrived there from Peru with a reinforce-ment of 300 men ; but finding it in ashes, he en-deavoured, though ineffectually, to introduce thosesuccours into the cities of Osorno, Villarica, andImperial. Amidst so many misfortunes, an expe-dition of five ships of war from Holland arrived in1600 upon the coast of Chile, which plundered theisland of Chiloe, and put the Spanish garrison tothe sword. Nevertheless, the crew of the commo-dore having landed in the litjLle island of 'i'aicaor Santa Maria, was repulsed with the loss of 23of their men, by the Araucanians wlio dwelt there,and who probably supposed them to lie Spaniards.After a siege of two years and 11 months, Villa-rica, a very populous and opulent city, fell atlength, in 1602, into the hands of the Araucanians.A similar late, after a short interval, was experi-enced by Imperial, the metropolis of the s. colo-nies ; indeed, this city would have fallen somemonths before, liad not its fate been protracted bythe courage of a Spanish heroine, called Ines ^igui-Icra. This lady perceiving the garrison to be dis-couraged, and on the point of capitulating, dis-suaded them from surrendering, and directed allthe operations in person, until a favourable oppor-tunity })resenting itself, she escaped by sea Aviththe bishop and a great part of the inhabitants.She had lost eluringthe siege her husband and bro-ther, and her valour was rewarded by the kingwith an annual pension of 2000 dollars.
44. All the Spanish settlements destroyed. —Osorno, a city not less rich and populous than thepreceding, Avas not able much longer to resist thefate that aAvaited it. It tell under the violent ef-forts of the besiegers, Avho, freed from their atten-tion to the others, Avere able to bring their Avholeforce against it. Thus, in a period of tittle morethan three years, Averc destroyed all the settlementswhich V^aldivia and his successors had establishedand preserved at the expence of so much blood, inthe extensive country betAveen the Biobio and theArchipelago of Chiloe, none of Avhich have beensince rebuilt, as Avhat is at present called Valdiviais no more than a fort or garrison. The sufferings
of the besieged were great, and can scarcely be ex-ceeded by those endured in the most celebratedsieges recorded in history. They Avere compelledto subsist on the most loathsome food, and a pieceof boiled leather was considered a sumptuous re-past by the voluptuous inhabitants of Villarica andOsorno. The cities that Avere taken Avere de-stroyed in such a manner, that at present few ves-tiges of them remain, and those ruins are regardedby the natives as objects of detestation. Althoughgreat numbers of the citizens perished in the de-fence of their walls, the prisoners of all ranks andsexes Avere so numerous, that there was scarcely anAraucanian family who had not one to its share.The women were taken into the seraglios of theirconquerors. Husbands were, however, permittedfor the most part to retain their Avives, and the un-married to espouse the women of the country ; andit is not a little remarkable that ihe Mustees, oroffspring of these singular marriages, became in thesubsequent wars the most terrible enemies of theSpanish name. The ransom and exchange of pri-soners was also permitted. By this means manyescaped from captivity. Some, however, inducedby the love of their children, preferred to remainwith their captors during their lives ; others, whoacquired the affection of the people, by their plea-sing manners or their skill in the arts, establishedthemselves advantageously in the country. Amongthe latter were Don Basilio Roxas and Don An-tonio Bascugnan, both of noble birth, who acquiredhigh reputation among the natives, and have leftinteresting memoirs of the transactions of their owntimes. But those who fell into brutal hands hadmuch to suffer. Paillamachu did not long enjoythe applause of his countrymen : lie died at theend of the year 1603, and Avas succeeded by Hu-necura. In consequence of the disasters the Spa-niards encountered during the reign of the lastmentioned toqui, and under the second govern-ment of Garcia Ramon, in 1608, the court of Spainissued orders, that hereafter there should con-stantly be maintained on the Araucanian frontier abody of 2000 regular troops, for Avhosc support anappropriation of 292,279 dollars annually Avas madein the treasury' of Peru.
45. Court of audience re-estahlished. — On the8th of September in the folloAving year, the royalcourt of audience, Avhich had been suppressed for34 years, Avas again established, though not in itsancient situation, but in the city of St. Jago, tothe great satisfaction of the inhabitants ; sincewhich period it has continued to exist Avith a highreputation for justice and integrity. According tothe royal decree establishing the court of audience,"!
[European gazettes of that period, at which timethe war had cost the royal treasury and individuals1,700,000 dollars.
54. Peace restored . — The same year an accom-modation' was agre(?d on; and by this it was al-lowed that the Araucaiiians should afterwards havea minister resident in the city of St. Jago. Withrespect to the other articles of the peace, it is suf-ficient fo state, that the treaties of Quillan andNegrete were by mutual consent revived. On thedeath of Gonzaga, the court of Spain sent DonAugustin Jaiiregui to govern Chile, who has sincefilled with universal approbation the important of-fice of viceroy of Peru. His successor, DonAmbrosio Benavides, has rendered the countryhappy by his wise and beneficent administration.
Present slate of Chile.
From the brief relation that we have given ofthe occurrences in Chile since its discovery, it willbe seen that its possession has cost Spain moreblood and treasure than all the rest of her settle-ments in America. The Araucanians, occupyingbut a small extent of territory, have with far in-ferior arms not only been able to counterbalanceher power, till then reputed irresistible, but toendanger the loss of her best established possessions.Though the greater part of her officers had beenbred in that school of war, the Low Countries, andher soldiers, armed with those destructive wea-pons before which the most extensives empires ofthat continent had fallen, were considered the bestin the world, yet have these people succeeded inresisting them. The Spaniards, since losingtheir settlements in Araucania, have prudentlyconfined their views to establishing themselvesfirmly in that part of Chile Avhich lies betweenthe s. confines of Peru and the river Biobio,and extends from lat. 24° to 36|° 5. : this they havedivided into 13 provinces. They also possess thefortress of Valdivia, in the country of tiie Cuu-chese, the Archipelago of Chiloe, and the islandof Juan Fernandez.
1. Civil government . — These provinces are go-verned by an officer, who has usually the rank oflieutenant-general, and combines the title of pre-sident, governor, and captain-general of the king-dom of Chile, lie resides in the city of St. Jago,and is solely dependent upon the king, e.xcept incase of war, when, in certain points, he receiveshis directions from the viceroy of Peru. In qua-lity of captain-general he commands the army, andhas under him not only the three principal officersof the kingdom, the quarter-master, the serjeant-
major, and the commissary, but also the four go- .vernors of Chiloe, Valdivia, Valparaiso, and JuanFernandez. As president and governor, he has thesupreme administration of justice, and presidesover the superior tribunals of that capital, whosejurisdiction extends all over the Spanish provincesin those parts. The principal of these is the tri-bunal of audience, or royal senate, whose decisionis final in all causes of importance, both civil andcriminal ; and is divided into two courts, the onefor the trial of civil, and the other for the trial ofcriminal causes. Both are composed of severalrespectable judges, called auditors, of a regent, afiscal or royal procurator, and a protector of theIndians. All these officers receive large salariesfrom the court. Their judgment is final, exceptin causes Avhere the sum in litigation exceeds10,000 dollars, when an appeal may be had tothe supreme council of the Indies. The other su-preme courts are those of finance, of the cruzada,of vacant lands, and the consulate or tribunal ofcommerce, which is wholly independent of anyother of that kind. The provinces are governedby prefects, formerly called corregidors, but atpresent known by the name of sub-delegates ; these,according to the forms of their institution, shouldbe of royal nomination, but owing to the distanceof the court they are usually appointed by thecaptain-general, of whom they style themselvesthe lieutenants, d hey have jurisdiction both ofcivil and military affairs, and their emoluruents ofoffice depend entirely upon their fees, whichare by no means regular. In each capital of aprovince there is, or at least should be, a munici-pal magistracy, called the cabildo, which is com-posed, as in other parts of the Spanish dominions,of several members, called regidores, who are ap-pointed for life, of a standard-bearer, a procura-tor, a forensic judge, denominated the provincialalcalde, an alguazil or high sllerift, and of twoconsuls or burgo-masters, called alcaldes. Thelatter are chosen annually from among the princi-pal nobility by the cabildo itself, and have juris-diction both in civil and criminal causes in thefirst instance.
2. Military force.— The inhabitants are dividedinto regiments, which are obliged to march to thefrontiers or the sea-coast in case of war. In 1792there were 15,856 militia troops enrolled in the twobishoprics of Santiago and Concepcion; 10,218 inthe first, and 5638 in the latter. Besides this re-gular militia, there are a great many city militias,that are commanded by commissaries, who act ascolonels. A sufficient force also of regular troopsfor the defence of the country is maintained by]
[amounts to 790,000 souls, including 70,000 inde-pendent Araucanos.
6. Chilian Creoles . — The Creoles, who form thegreater number, are the descendants of Europeans.Their character, with some slight difference, pro-ceeding from climate or government, is preciselysimilar to that of the other American Creoles ofEuropean origin. The same modes of thinking,and the same moral qualities, are discernible inthem all. This uniformity, which furnishes muchsubject for reflection, has never yet been consideredby any philosopher in its full extent. Whateverintelligent and unprejudiced travellers have ob-served respecting the characters of the French andEnglish Creoles, will perfectly apply to that of theChilian. They are generally possessed of goodtfllents, and succeed in any of the arts to whichthey apply themselves. They would make as greatprogress in the useful sciences as they have doneiji metaphysics, if they had the same motives tostimulate them as are found in Europe. They donot readily imbibe prejudices, and are not tena-cious in retaining them.
7. State of arts and sciences, — As scientificbooks and instruments, however, are very scarce,or sold at an exorbitant price, their talents are eithernever developed, or are wholly employed upontrifles. The expences of printing are also so great,as to discourage literary exertion, so that few aspireto the reputation of authors. The knowledge ofthe civil and canonical laws is held in great esteemby them, so that many of the Chilian youth, afterhaving completed their course of academical edu-cation in Chile, proceed to Lima, which is highlycelebrated for its schools of law, in order to be in-structed in that science. The fine arts are in avery low state in Chile, and even the mechanicalare as yet very far from perfection. We may ex-cept, however, those of carpentry, and the work-ing of iron and the precious metals, which havemade considerable progress, in consequence of theinformation obtained from some German artists,who were introduced into the country by thatworthy ecclesiastic, Father Carlos, of Hainhausenin Bavaria. In a w'ord, the arts and sciences ofChile have for these latter years much engaged theattention of the inhabitants, and it is affirmed thatthe state of the country has already assumed a veryditferent appearance.
8. The peasantry . — The peasantry, though formuch the greater part of Spanish origin, dress inthe Araucanian manner. Dispersed over that ex-tensive country, and unencumbered by restraint,they possess perfect liberty, and lead a tranquiland happy life, amidst the enjoyments of that de-
lightful climate. Raynal observes, the principalpart of these robust men live dispersed upon theirpossessions, and cultivate with their own hands agreater or less extent of ground. They are in-cited to this laudable labour by a sky always clearand serene, and a climate the most agreeably tem-perate of any in the two hemispheres, but moreespecially by a soil whose fertility has excited theadmiration of all travellers.” They are naturallygay and fond of all kinds of diversion. Theyhave likewise a taste for music, and compose versesafter their manner, which, although rutle and in-elegant, possess a certain natural simplicity moreinteresting than the laboured compositions of cul-tivated poets. Extemporaneous rhymes, or im~provisatori, are common among them, and arecalled in their language palladores. Those knownto possess this talent are held in high estimation,and apply themselves to no other occupation. Inthe countries dependent on the Spanish colonies,there is generally no other language than the Spa-nish spoken, but on the frontiers the peasants speakthe Araucanian or Chilian, as well as the former.
9. Di'ess, Sfc . — The men dress in the French,and the women in the Peruvian fashion, exceptthat the women of Chile wear their garments longerthan those of Peru. In point of luxury, there is nodifference between the inhabitants of the two coun-tries ; Lima prescribes the fashions for Chile, asParis does for the rest of Europe. Those who arewealthy make a splendid display in their dress,their servants, coaches, or titles. Chile alone, ofall the American provinces, has enjoyed the supe-rior privilege of having two of its citizens exaltedto the dignity of grandees of Spain ; the one DonFernando Irrazabal, Marquis of Valparaiso ; theother, Don Fermin Caravajal, Duke of St. Carlos.
10. Diseases; small-pox., how cured. — The sa-lubrity of the air, and the constant exercise onhorseback to which they accustom themselves fromchildhood, render them strong and active, andpreserve them from many diseases. 'I'he small-poxis not so common as in Europe, but it makes ter-rible ravages when it appears. This disease Avas,in the year 1766, for the first time introduced intothe province of Maule, where it became very fatal.A countryman who had recovered from it, con-ceived the idea of attempting to cure a number ofunhappy wretches, avIjo had been abandoned, bycoAv’s milk, which he gave them to drink, or ad-ministered to them in clysters. With this simpleremedy he cured all those whom he attended ;while the physicians, Avith their complicated pre-scriptions, saved but a very few. This anecdote issupported by, at the same time tiiat it tends strongly]
rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active.The horned cattle have, through the favourabletemperature of the climate, acquired a larger size,while their flesh has become better and more nu-tritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain awool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep,each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. ofwool ; they breed twice a-year, and have gene-rally two at a birth. The common price of cattlethroughout the country is from three to fourfilippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the sea-ports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation,at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of theport receives four, and the owner six.
The different kinds of trees known in Chileamount to 97, and of these only 13 shed theirleaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 notmentioned in botanical works. _The melons hereare, according to Molina, three feet long, and theonly fruits unknown are medlars, service apples,three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of theindigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species,andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs.weight. There are 13 species of crabs and craw-fish found on the sea-coast, and four species in thefresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds,and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported.The various kinds of esculent fish found upon thecoast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the mostof them differing from those of the n. hemisphere,and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.
Amongst the earths of this country is a claythought to be very analogous to kaolin of theChinese ; another kind called roro, producing anexcellent black dye, and represented by Feuilleand Frazier as superior to the best Europeanblacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Mus-covy grass, is also found here in the greatest per-fection, both as respects its transparency and thesize of its laminae ; of this substance the countrypeople manufacture artificial flowers, and like theRussians, make use of it for glazing their houses.The thin plates which are used for windows are bymany preferred to glass, from their being pliableand less fragile, and possessing what appears to bea peculiar property, of freely admitting the lightand a view of external objects to those within,while persons without are prevented from seeingany thing in the house.
22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the autho-rity of the mother country has been supersededby the aristocracy of the colony. The govern-ment has fallen, peaceably and without resistance,into the hands of the great Creole families, whoseem hitherto to have used their power with tem-per and moderation. See La PijAta.]
[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. partof the state of Tennessee, and between it and theCherokee country.]
CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the provinceand government of Guayaquil in the kingdom ofQuito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, althoughreduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless ofsuch vile habits as constantly to manifest howdeeply idolatry is rooted in them.
[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susque-hannah river, in Pennsylvania.]
[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on theGreat Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by abody of militia from Kentucky. General Harmarsupposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” inH utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort,and on both sides of the river are extensive mea-dows. This name is applied to many differentplaces, in honour of an influential chief who for-merly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]
[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town des-troyed by the forces of the United States in 1780.It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river jthe country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and isbeautifully chequered with meadows.]
CHIMALAPA, Santa Maria de a settlement of the head settlement of the district andalcaldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, and the whole of itsdistrict is covered with very large trees, especiallyfirs fit for ship-building. Twenty-five leaguesn.w. of its capital,
CHIAMLHUACAN, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Coatepec inNueva Espana. It contains a good convent of thereligious order of St. Domingo, 300 families ofSpaniards, il/wsfees, and Mulattoes, who employthemselves in labour, and in the commerce of seedsand large and small cattle, which are bred in theestates contiguous ; but the latter in no great de-gree, owing to the scarcity of water and pasturewhich prevails here.
Same name, another settlement and headsettlement of the district in the alcaldia mayor ofChaleo, of the same kingdom. It contains 166families of Indians, and a convent of the religiousorder of St. Domingo. Five leagues n. of itscapital.
CHIMAN, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near the coast of the S. sea, and onthe shore of the river of its name, having a smallport, which is garrisoned by a detachment fromPanama, for the purpose of restraining the inva-sions which are continually made by the Indians.
CHIMBA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the celebrated talc gold-mine whichwas discovered 36 years ago by a fisherman, whopulling up a plant of large and prickly leaves,called cordon, or fuller’s thistle, for the purpose offuel for his fire, observed that particles of golddropped from its roots; and having more narrowlyinspected it, found pieces amidst the mould ofconsiderable size and of very fine quality. Thus
a mine became established here, and when it wasfirst dug it yielded from 300 to 500 dollars eachcaxon.
CHIMBACALLEa settlement of the kingdom of Quito, inthe corregimienio of the district of Las CincoLeguasde la Capital, (ofthe Five Leagues from theCapital), of which this is looked upon as a suburbfrom its proximity.
CHIMBARONGO, a river of the kingdom ofChile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera^and unites itself with that of Tinguiragua to enterthe Napel. This river waters and fertilizes somevery pleasant and delightful valleys, abounding inpastures, whereon breed and fatten an infinite num-ber of cattle. On its shores are two convents, oneofthe religious order of Nuestra Senora de la Mer-ced, for the instruction of the Indians in the Chris-tian faith ; and another a house for novices, whichbelonged to the regulars of the society of Jesuits ;and also within a league’s distance from the latter,is a convent of the order of St. Domingo.
Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienio of Colchagua in the same king-dom ; situate in the Former valley, between therivers Tinguiririca and Teno. There is alsoanother small settlement annexed, with a chapelof ease. In its district is a convent of the religiousorder of La Merced.
[CHIMBO, a jurisdiction in the province ofZinto in South America, in the torrid zone. Thecapital is also called by the same name.]
CHIMBO Y ALAUSI, a province and corregimientoof the kingdom of Quito ; bounded n. oythe serrania of the asiento of Ambato ; s, by thegovernment and jurisdiction of Guayaquil ; e. bythe district of the point of Santa Elena of this govern-ment; and ro. by the province of Riobamba. Its dis-trict is barren and poor, and the country beingmountainous, the inhabitants have no resource forgetting their livelihood other than by acting ascarriers between the provinces of Riobamba andTacunga on the one hand, and the warehouses ofBabahoyo on the other, where also are the royalmagazines ; and thus they bring back goods fromthe provinces of Peru, having for this traffic anumber of requas, or droves of mules, amountingin the whole to 1500 head. This commerce canonly be carried on in the summer, the roads beingimpassable in the winter through the mountains,when they say that these are shut up : at the sameseason the rivers become swollen to such a degree
CHINACOTA, a small settlement of the jurisdiction and government of Pamplona in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot tempe-rature, produces sugar-cane, plantains, maize, andis extremely fertile in wheat ; but this not withoutcultivation. The natives amount to about 90 poorfamilies, and as many Indians. It is situate in anextensive valley, from whence it derives its title,and which is also called. Of Meer Ambrosio, fromthe Indians having killed here the GermanGeneral Ambrosio de Alfinger, by whom it w^as dis-covered in 1531. Four leagues n. e. of Pam-plona.
CHINANTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espaha. It contains 40 fami-lies of Chinantecas Indians, and is very fertile,and abounding in maize and cotton. Eightyleagues s. of Mexico.
CHINANTEPEC, Santa Catalina, asettlement and head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guayacocotla in NuevaEspana. Its territory is somewhat extensive, andthe settlements or wards belonging to it are far re-moved from each other, the greater part of thembeing situate within the deep glens, or on theheights, so that the roads to them are very diffi-cult. It contains, in all, 1340 families of In-dians.
CHINATAGUAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru ; situate to the n. of the city of Gua-nuco. They are descendants of the Panataguas,of whom few remain at the present day, and ofwhom but little is known.
CHINATOS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit theforests to the n. e. 1 to the e. of the city of Pam-plona. They are relics of the Chitareros, whohave been always found very troublesome, fromtheir proximity to the aforesaid city.
CHINAUTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teuzitlan in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy ofthis capital. It contains 108 families of Indians,and lies a league and an halPs distance from thesame capital.
Same name, formerly the name of the provinceor district now called Chunchasuyu in Peru, tothe is. of Cuzco. Its natives were valorous, andresisted for eight months the Emperor Pachacutec,who subjected it to his controul. The country ispleasant, fertile, and abounding in cattle. Hereare to be seen vestiges and ruins of some magnifi-cent fabrics, which belonged to the Incas, andwhich strike the imagination with wonder and sur-prise, at viewing the immense stones used in theirarchitecture, and when it is considered that theIndians knew not the use of engines, whereby theymight raise them.
CHINCHAYCOCHA, a large lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It ismore than nine leagues in length and three inwidth ; and from it rises the river Pari or Paria,also called Xauxa, towards the n. side. Thisriver runs s. dividing the province of Xauxa, andgiving it its name, both in Xauxa Alta, or High,and Baxa, or Low ; it then turns e. and after run-ning for more than 40 leagues, flows back to the n.until it enters the Maranon on the s. side. M. Dela Martiniere, with his accustomed error, says that
a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the placecalled the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all ofthem, to the mountains, although in the same yearthey returned back again to the settlement.
CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful.It has besides the parish church a convent or houseof entertainment of the religious order of St.Francis.
CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of theinfidel Indians of the province and government ofSanta Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence itlies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the e.by the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that ofChuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements,each governed by its captain or cazique, subject,in a certain degree, to the above government.These people, though they refuse to adopt the Ca-tholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spa-niards, trading with them in wax, cotton, andmaize. This nation, by the incursions which tlieymade, used at first to give frequent alarm to theprovince, and once had the address to capture thecity of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui en-deavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither henor the Spaniards could avail aught with them■until they were reduced by the missionaries, theregulars of the extinguished company of the Je-suits ; since that time they have been stedfast insupporting the Spaniards against the other infidels,serving them as a barrier, and having for their ownline of defence the river Guapay. They are veryvalorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they aredescended from the nations which are found to thee. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the num-ber of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastise-ment of the Portuguese, who were about to inflictcondign punishment on them for having treache-rously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in thetime of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal.They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fattentheir prisoners that these might become better fare ;but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniardshas caused them by degrees to forget this barbarouspractice, and even to give them a disgust at theirsavage neighbours, who still continue in the samepractices. They are at the present day so greatlyincreased in numbers, that they are one of themost numerous nations of America ; are besidesvery neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon forthem to rush out of their dwellings in the middleof the night to plunge and wash themselves in ariver in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.
immediately after parturition, invariably do thesame, and on their return lay themselves on a heapof sand, which they have for this purpose in thehouse; but the husband immediately takes to hisbed, and being covered all over with very largeleaves, refuses to take any other nourishment thana little broth made of maize ; it being an incorri-gible error of belief amongst them that these cere-monies will be the cause of making their childrenbold and warlike. They have shewn great powerand address in their combats with our troops whenthese first endeavoured to enter their territories,and they threw themselves in such an agile and un-daunted manner upon our fire-arms that it wasfound necessary, on our part, to insert in the rantsa lance-man between every two fusileers : the vare, moreover, so extremely nimble that it isimpossible to take them prisoners but by sur-prise.
CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and go-vernment of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdomof Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ;dividing the government from that of Guatemala,and touching upon the province of Costarica.It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous,and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded onall sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred num-bers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Pa-nama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S.sea are found crabs which distil a purple colourused for dyeing cotton, which, although it mayfade a little, can never be entirely eradicated.They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable pro-ductions ; with which they carry on a trade, nowfallen much to decay, with the city of Panama.The capital is Santiago de Alanje.
Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), whichrises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea,serving as limits to that province, and dividing itfrom that of Costarica in the kingdom of Gua-temala.
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Spaniards, and the rest having fled, and thuspenetrating n. have confounded themselves withother nations. It abounds in maize, plantains,and cacao of an excellent quality ; its gold minesrender it rich and well peopled ; it also carries on,through this branch of revenue, a great commercewith the province of Popayan, the nativ'es of thatplace coming here to purchase gold, and leavingin exchange whatever is necessary for the comfortand convenience of life. There is no inconsider-able number of Negro slaves employed in work-ing the mines, and in 1750 they amounted to20,000, without mentioning the men of colour,such as the Mustees and Mulattoes, and even Whiteswho are engaged in this lucrative concern. Theclimate is warm, but moist from the continualrains, and consequently unhealthy. This countryabounds in tigers, wild boars, alligators, parrots,monkeys of various sorts, and a multitude of rep-tiles and insects, especially in vipers and ve-nomous snakes ; such as corales, exis, and rattle-snakes. Here are also an infinite variety of beau-tiful sorts of wood, curious balsams, herbs, fruits,and flowers. It was subject to the government ofPopayan, until it became divided in the time ofDon Fernando Guerrero. All the gold which istaken out of the mines here, and which is the cur-rent money, was formerly carried to be coined atthe mint of Santa Fe, until that the house ofValencia established another, at its own cost, in thecity of Popayan ; this privilege having been firstgranted that house by the mayoralty, though itwas afterwards taken away and added by the kingto the crown, upon the payment of a compensationof 100,000 reals per annum to the original pro-prietors. This province extends 48 leagues froms. to n. and is 39 in width from e. to w. Thecapital is the city of Nevita.
[Choco, Canal of. In the interior of the pro-vince of Choco, the small ravine (quebrada) Dela Raspadura unites the neighbouring sources ofthe Rio de Noanama, called also Rio San Juan,and the small river Quito : the latter, the RioAndageda, and the Rio Zitasa, form the Riod’Atrata, which discharges itself into the Atlanticocean, while the Rio San Juan flows into the S.sea. A monk of great activity, cure of the villageof Novita, employed his parishioners to dig asmall canal in the ravine De la Raspadura, bymeans of which, when the rains are abundant,canoes loaded with cacao pass from sea to sea.Th is interior communication has existed since1788, unknown in Europe. The small canal ofRaspadura unites, on the coasts of the two oceans,
C H O
two points 75 leagues distant from one ano-ther.]
[CHOCOLATE Creek, a head-water of Tiogariver in New York, whose mouth lies 10 miless. w. of the Painted post.]
[CHOCOLOCO-CA, which the Spaniards callCastro Vireyna, a town of Peru, 60 leagues s. e.of Lima, is very famous for its silver mines,which are at the top of a great mountain alwayscovered with snow, and but two leagues from thetown. The stones of the mine are, of a dark bluecolour ; these being calcined and powdered, thensteeped in water and quicksilver, the filth is sepa-rated, and the silver melted and formed into bars.These veins are not very rich, but the metal is veryfine. They make plenty of wine here, where itattains a greater degree of perfection, owing to thepureness of the air, than it is observed to have else-where.]
CHOCONTA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold but healthy temperature, beingsituate upon a llanura. It produces abundanceof wheat, maize, papas, barley, and garlic, of thewhole of which an abundant crop is gathered ;these indeed form the principal branches of itscommerce, as they supply all the neighbouringprovinces. It was , in the time of the Indians alarge, rich, and populous city, and the barrierof the province of Tunja; also the place wherethe zipas held a garrison of their best troops.This city was entered by Gonzalo Ximinez deQuesada in 1537, when he gave it the name ofEspiritu Santo, from this festival having beencelebrated here. After the conquest of the Spa-niards it became a became a curacy of the relio-ionof St. Domingo, and was one of those which wasconsidered the first step to the advantages to bederived from these missions. It was close to thissettlement that the sanguinary conflict took placewhich was fought between Michua, king of Tunja,and Saguanmachica, zipa or king of Bogota, inwhich both princes fell dead upon the field ; atpresent it is a small village of Indians, who amountto the number of 200, besides 400 other inhabi-tants, who consist of whites. Ten leagues n. ofSanta Fe, and as many from Tunja, just midwaybetweeen these two jurisdictions.
C H O C H O
constitution left the lower people little more free-dom than they would have possessed under thegovernment of the Aztec kings.]
The capital is the city of the same name, foundedas far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexi-can empire, when this nation was at enmity withthat of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the mostpopulous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitantsand 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moc-tezuma, in the attack against the republic ofTlaxclala ; the latter place never having been sub-jected to the Mexican yoke. This was the citywhich of all others most thwarted the designs ofHernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discoveredin the conspiracy they had laid against him, whenthey pretended to receive him with open arrhs anda peaceable and friendly disposition, and weremade by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ;after which he and his whole army escaped un-injured. This city has many monuments denotingits antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatrywas here carried to its highest pitch, yet the lightof the gospel has spread widely around its enliven-ing rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature,rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate ona level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a goodconvent of the order of St. Francis, which is alsoa house of studies. Its inhabitants are composedof 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mu-lattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On alofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on thec. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in whichis venerated the image of the blessed virgin,which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rente-dios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e.of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98°14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at presentestimated at about 16,000 souls.]
CHONE, a settlement which in former timeswas considerable, but now much impoverished, inthe ancient province of Cara, which is at presentunited to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon theshore of the river Chones to the n. and is of anhot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.
CHONES, a large river of the province ofCara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w.and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTos-sagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Cama-ron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n.stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges stillremain. Where it runs into the sea it forms thebay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca andthe n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly twomiles and an half wide.
CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a verycold temperature, from its being situate in the vi-cinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chon-tales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabi-tants amount to 24 families of Indians, who tradein cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the coun-try, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quan-tities. It is watered by rivers which pass at alittle distance, and is annexed to the curacy ofTepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayorof Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-,on account of this great distance, combined withthe badness of the roads, that the natives so sel-dom can avail themselves of any instruction in theholy faith ; dying, as they often do, without theadministration of the sacraments. Indeed, there isonly one day in the year, which is the 29th ofSeptember, and on which the Indians celebrate thefestival of their titular saint Michael, when theyare visited by their curate, who then hears theirconfessions and says mass. At this time this settle-ment has somewhat the appearance of a Catholicpeople ; but being all the rest of the year left tothemselves, it is not to be wondered that many re-lapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idola-try. Three leagues w. of its capital.
CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and government of Guayaquil in the kingdomof Quito; situate near a small torrent, re-nowned for the stones which it washes down, of acertain crystallized matter, which being polished,resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings,and other trinkets.
CHONTALES, a district of the corregimientoor alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom ofGuatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is butsmall, and its natives have this name from the Spa-niards, who would by it express their natural un-couthness and stupidity.
C H U
C H U
Belille,Ayacasi,Libitaco,Tofora,Palaqueua,Alahamaca,Toro,Asicnto de Quivio,Colquemarca,Yanqui,Capacmarca,Cancahuana,Llauzeo,Caspi,Quinota,Santo Tomas,Alca,Piiica,TomipampajCotahuassi,Qnillunza,Cupi.
CHUNCARA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Cuzco in Peru ; one of those which have re-mained in this kingdom from the time of theIncas. It was the boundary or extent of theconquests of Sinchiroca, eleventh Emperor, andhe left at it a strong garrison to guard against in-vasion from the neighbouring people. Twentyleagues from its capital.
Same name, another settlement of the provinceand government of Jaen de Bracamoros in thesame kingdom. It is entirely of Indians, of an hotclimate, atid in its territory towards the n. andtowards the e. are some gold mines, which werein former times worked, but to-day abandoned.Its situation is between the rivers Patacones to thee. and Chinchipe to the w. upon the high roadwhich leads from Loyola to Tomependa.
CHUNCHOS, a barbarous nation of Indians,of the province and government of Tarma in Peru,and much dreaded by the Spaniards, on accountof the repeated incursions made by those savageson their possessions. In Lima they are in a con-tinal state of fear and apprehension of some sud-den attack from these enemies ; for in 1742 theytook and destroyed several settlements and estates,killing many Franciscan monks who were mis-sionaries amongst them. They were, however,once attacked by the brigadier, the Marquis deMena Hermosa, general of Callao, who construct-ed some forts, which are still served with artilleryand troops sufficient to protect them. These In-dians have a chief or prince, called the chuncho,descended, according to their accounts, from theroyal race of the Incas, who would fain layclaim to the monarchy of Peru as his right; andaccordingly, in 1744, represented to the Marquisof Villa Garcia, not without great threats, his in-tention of doing himself justice by force of arms :he is a Catholic, and has added to h is own honours thetitle of King of Peru ; he was brought up at Limaamongst the Spaniards as the son of a cazique,where he was instructed in the rules of government,policy, and military tactics, which he introducedinto his own country, and made known the useof swords and fire-arms. He went to Rome dis-guised as a menial, was introduced to the court ofMadrid, where he kissed the hand of King PhilipV. and the foot of the Pontiff Clement XII. Hehas two sons well instructed and equal in mentalenergies. These Chuiichos Indians are numerous,and live, some of them, in villages, and othersscattered over the mountains and in the woods ;they maintain a secret correspondence with the"Indians of all the other settlements of Peru andQuito, as well as with the Christians and infidelsinhabiting the forests where missions are establish-ed ; by tliis means they know vvhat is passing inall the provinces, cities, and settlements, &c.Many Indians who are malcontents, or fugitivesfrom justice on account oferimeordebt, invariablybetake themselves to the Chunchos, and this is thereason why this nation is so very populous. Theviceroy of Peru uses the greatest precautions, and iscontinually on the alert against any movements ofthe Chunchos or other Indians, and keeps a garri-son of good troops upon his frontiers.
CHUNCHURI, an ancient province of Peruin Las Charcas. It is small, and its natives werethe most valorous and hardy of any in the king-dom. The Inca Roca, fourth Emperor, subjectedthem, having attacked them with 30,000 of hisbest troops.
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but very little known, of Indians, of the NuevoReyno de Granada, bordering upon the riverFusagasuga. They are few, and live dispersed inthe woods, having a communication with the Faecesand Fusungaes.
[CHYENNES, Indians of N. America, theremnant of a nation once respectable in point ofnumber. They formerly resided on a branch ofthe Red river of Lake Winnipie, which still bearstheir name. Being oppressed by the Sioux, theyremoved to the w, side of the Missouri, about15 miles below the mouth of Warricunne creek,where they built and fortified a village ; butbeing pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux,they fled to the Black hills, about the head of theChyenne river, where they wander in quest of thebuffalo, having no fixed residence. They do notcultivate. They are well disposed towards thewhites, and might easily be induced to settle on theMissouri, if they could be assured of being pro-tected from the Sioux. Their number annuallydiminishes. Their trade may be made valuable.]
[CIACICA. See Cicasica.]
[CIBOLA, or Civola, the name of a town in,ana also the ancient name of, New Granada inTierra Firroe, S. America. The country here,though not mountainous, is very cool ; and theIndians are said to be the whitest, wittiest, mostsincere and orderly of all the aboriginal Americans.When the country was discovered, they had eachbut one wife, and were excessively jealous. Theyworshipped water, and an old woman that was amagician ; and believed she lay hid under one oftlicir
CIBOO, Minas de, some rough and craggymountains, nearly in the centre of the island of St. Domingo, where some gold mines are worked, andfrom whence great wealth was procured at the be*ginning of the conquest.
CICASICA, a province and corregimiento ofPerú ; bounded n. and n. e. by the mountains ofthe Andes, and the province of Larecaxa ; e. bythe province of Cochabamba ; s. e. by that of Pariaand coTTCgirnicnto of Oruro ; on the s . it is touchedby the river of Desaguadero ; s. w, by the provinceof Pacages ; and n. w.. and w. by the city of La Paz.It is one of the greatest in the whole kingdom,since the corregidor is obliged to place here 12lieutenants for the administration of justice, on ac-count of its extent. It is five leagues from n. to j.and 80 from e. to w. Its temperature is various ;in some parts there are some very cold serrantasyin which breed every species of cattle, in proportionto the number of estates found there. That partwhich borders upon the Andes is very hot andmoist, but at the same time fertile, and aboundingin all kinds of fruits and plantations of sugar-cane,and in cacao estates, the crops of which are verygreat, and produce a lucrative commerce ; the useof this leaf, which was before only common to theIndians, being now general amongst the Spaniardsof both sexes and all classes ; so that one basket-ful, which formerly cost no more than five dollars,will now fetch from 10 to 11 ; vines are also culti-vated, and from these is made excellent wine. Thisprovince is watered by the river La Paz, which isthe source of the Beni ; also by a river descendingfrom the branches of the cordillera, and which, inthe wet season, is tolerably large. At the riverCorico begins the navigation by means of rafts tothe settlement of Los Reyes. Amongst the pro-ductions of this province may be counted Jesuitsbark, equal to that of Loxa, according to the ex-periments made at Lima. This province begins atthe river Majaviri, which divides the suburbs ofSanta Barbara from the city of La Paz, and hereis a little valley watered by the above river, and init are a few houses or country-seats belonging tothe inhabitants of the above city. This valley,which is of a delightful temperature, extends asfar as the gold mine called Clmquiahuilla, onthe skirt of the cordillera, where was foundthat rich lump of gold which weighed 90 marks,the largest ever seen in that kingdom, with the pe-culiarity, that upon assaying it, it was found tohave six different alloys ; its degrees of perfec-tion differing from 18 to 23 j ; and that beingvalued in Spanish money, it proved to be worth11,269 dollars reals. This prize was carried tothe royal treasury, and upon this occasion theMarquis of Castelfuerte, then viceroy, receivedthe thanks of his majesty. In the territory ofCinco Curatos (or Five Curacies) of the Andes arefound in the forests excellent woods, such as cedars,corcoholos, &c. and many fine fruits, also tobacco.It had formerly very rich mines of gold and silver,which are still known to exist in other mountainsbesides that of Santiago, but the natives have no in-clination to work them. The aforementionedmountain has the peculiarity of abounding in eithersort of the said metals. In the asiento of the minesof Arica, there is a gold mine which produces butlittle. From the wo^ of the flocks are made sora«
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CINCO-SEÑORES, a settlement of the pro-vince of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya ; one of the missions of the BabosariganesIndians, held there by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits. Within eight leagues to the s.of its district is a great unpeopled tract, called Delas Manos, (Of the Hands), from the infidel Indianshaving nailed up against some temples in thoseparts many hands of some unfortunate Spaniards•whom they had killed, when the latter had en-tered the country under the idea of making pro-selytes.
CINGACUCHUSCAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians, who inhabit the woods to the s. of theriver Marañon. In 1652 they were united to thePandabeques, and established themselves in thesettlement of Xibaros of the missions of Maynas,with the exception of some few, who still remainin their idolatry, and lead a wandering life throughthe woods.
CINTU, a spacious llanura or plain, of theancient province of Chimu, now Truxillo, on thecoast of the S. sea. It was taken possession of byHuaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor of the Incas.It is very fertile, and of a good and healthy cli-mate ; but it is but little inhabited.
CIPOYAY, a country and territory of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay, called also theprovince of Vera, towards the e. and where thenation of the Guaranis Indians dwell. It is of ahot climate, but very fertile, abounding in woods,and well watered by many rivers ; some of whichrun from e. to w. and enter the Uruguay, andothers from s. to n. and enter the Plata.
CIPRE, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It takes its course from e. to w. and opposite tlieriver Sola, empties itself into that of Esmeraldas,on the w. side, in lat. 28' n.
CIRANDIRO, a settlement and the capital ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guimeo in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a hot tempera-ture, and inliabited by 90 families of Tarascos In-dians. In its vicinity is the estate of Quichandio,in which eight families of Spaniards, and 15 ofMustees and Mulattoes, are employed in makingsugar. Also in the estate of Santa Maria are fivefamilies of the former. It is 75 leagues to the w.and one-fourth to the s. w. of Mexico.
[CIRENCESTER. See Marcus Hook.]
CIUAPA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile,towards the «. It is notorious from a species offish caught in it, called tache, of an extrem.ely deli-cate flavour. It runs into the S. or Pacific sea,terming a small port of little depth.
CIUDAD REAL, a city of the province andgovernment of Paraguay ; founded in 1557. byRui Diaz Melgarejo, on the shore of the river Pi-quiri, three leagues from Parana. It Was des-troyed by the Mamalukos Indians of San Pablo ofBrazil, in 1630, and in its place was substituted therich town of Espiritu Santo, the territory of whichabounds in fruits, vines, and mines of copper.In the vicinity of the present town is a great wa-terfall, formed by the above river, upwards »f3p 2
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kingdom of Chile. It rises from one of the lakesof Avendafio, runs w. and then turning s. entersthe river Laxa. On its shore the Spaniards havea fort, called Yumbel, or Don Carlos de Austria,to restrain the Araucanos Indians.
[CLAVERACK, a post-town in Columbiacounty. New York, pleasantly situated on a largeplain, about two miles and a half e. of Hudsoncity, near a creek of its own name. It containsabout 60 houses, a Dutch church, a court-house,and a goal. The township, by the census of 1791,contained 3262 inhabitants, including 340 slaves.By the state census of 1796 tkere appears to be412 electors. It is 231 miles from Philadelphia. 1
[CLERK’S Isles lie s, w. from, and at theentrance of Behring’s straits, which separate Asiafrom America. They rather belong to Asia, beingvery near, and s. s. w. from the head-land whichlies between the straits and the gulf of Anadir inAsia. They have their name in honour of thatable navigator, Captain Clerk, the companion ofCaptain Cook. In other maps they are called St.Andrea isles.]
[CLERMONT, a post-town in Columbia coun-ty, New York, six miles from Red hook, 15from Hudson, 117 miles n. of New York, and212 from Philadelphia. The township contains867 inhabitants, inclusive of 113 slaves.]
[Clermont, a village 13 miles from Camden,S. Carolina. In the late war, here was ablock-house encompassed by an abbatis; it wastaken from Colonel Rugely of the British militia,in December 1781, by an ingenious stratagem ofLieutenant-colonel W ashington.]
[CLIE, Lake Le, in Upper Canada, about 38miles long and 30 broad; its waters communicatewith those of lake Huron,]
[CLINCH Mountain divides the waters ofHolston and Clinch rivers, in the state of Tennessee.In this mountain Burk’s Garden and MorrisesNob might be described as curiosities.]
[Clinch, or Peleson, a navigable branch ofTennessee river, which is equal in length to Hol-ston river, its chief branch, but less in width. Itrises in Virginia, and after it enters into the stateof Tennessee, it receives Powel’s and Poplar’screek, and Emery’s river, besides other streams.The course of the Clinch is s. w. and s. w. by w . ;its mouth, 150 yards wide, lies 35 miles belowKnoxville, and 60 above the mouth of the Hiwasse.It is beatable for upwards of 200 miles, andPowel’s river, nearly as large as the main river, isnavigable for boats 100 miles.]
[CLINTON, the most n. county of the state ofNew York, is bounded n. by Canada, e. by thedeepest waters of lake Champlain, which line se-parates it from Vermont, and s. by the county ofWashington. By the census of 1791, it contained16 14 inhabitants, including 17 slaves. It is di-vided into five townships, viz. Plattsburgh, thecapital. Crown Point, Willsborough, Champlain,and Peru. The length from n. to s. is about 96miles, and the breadth from e. to w. including theline upon the lake, is 36 miles. The number ofsouls was, in 1796, estimated to be 6000. By thestate census, in Jan. 1796, there were 624 personsentitled to be electors. A great proportion of thelands are of an excellent quality, and produce
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COCHABAMBA, a province and corregUmiento of Peru ; bounded n. by the cordillera of theAndes, e. by the heiglits of Intimuyo, e. by theprovince of Misque, s. by that of Chayanta orCharcas, s. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, w.and n. w. by that of Cicasica. It is 40 leagues inlength from n. to s. and 32 in width. This pro-vince may with justice -be called the granary ofPeru, since it produces an abundance of every kindof seed, through the mildness of its climate. Inthe higher parts are bred a tolerable quantity oflarge and small kinds of cattle. It is watered byseveral small rivers of sweet water, which fertilizethe valleys ; and in these are some magnificentestates. Almost all these small rivers becomeunited in the curacy of Capinota ; and their wa-ters, passing through the provinces of Misque andCharcas, become incorporated in the large riverwhich passes on the e. side of Santa Cruz de laSierra. In former times some mines were workedhere, and from 1747, forward, great quantities ofgold have been extracted from the lavaderos, orwashing-places, upon the heights of Choqueca-mata, although this metal is not now found therein the same abundance. Some veins of it are, how-ever, to be seen in the cordillera, although theserender but little emolument. The greatest com-merce carried on in this province depends upon itsown productions ; and the market-place of thevalley of Arque is so stocked with articles as tohave the appearance of a continual fair. It hasalso some glass kilns, as it abounds greatly in glass-wort ; likewise many sugar estates, and streams ofhot waters. Its repartirniento used to amount to186,675 dollars, and its alcavala to 1493 dollarsper annum. Its inhabitants may amount to 70,000;and these are divided into 17 curacies, two othersbeing annexed. The capital is the town of Oro-pcsa, and the rest are,
I Inhabited by a hardy, sober, and active race,Cochabamba (as Azara observes) has risen of late
years to a considerable state of prosperity in themanufactory of glass, cotton, &c. with which, du-ring the late war, it has supplied the whole inte-rior. Blessed with fertility and a moderate cli-mate, it bids fair to be the Manchester of Peru, for1,000,000 pounds of cotton are already annuallyconsumed in its manufactures. Its surface aboundsin a variety of salts and mineral productions, andits forests teem with woods and roots for dyeing.To these Haenke has particularly turned his atten-tion, and has pointed out, besides several new ma-terials for manufacture, other processes for dyeing,worthy of our adoption in Europe. This pro-vince joined the new government of Buenos Ayresin September 1810. See La Pcata.]
Same name, an extensive valley, watered bythe pleasant streams of the river Condorillo, of theprovince of this name (Condorillo) ; in which was founded theprincipal settlement of the Indians, now calledOropesa.
COCHACASA, an ancient settlement of Indians, in the province of Chinchasuyu in Peru.It was one of the celebrated conquests of the here-ditary prince of the Incas, Yahuar Huacae, son ofthe Emperor Inca Roca, sixth in the series ofthese inonarcbs.
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venerated an image of Oar L idy, the most cele-brated for miracles of any in the whole kingdom.The wonderful things, indeed, that have beenwrought here, have caused it to be the object ofgreat devotion ; accordingly an handsome templehas been erected, and the riches and ornamentswhich adorn the same are exceedingly valuable.People conse here from all the distant provinces tooffer up their prayers, to implore the protection ofthe Holy Virgin, and to thank her for benefits re-ceived. The festival here celebrated is on the 8thof September, when the quantity of people as-sembled is so large as to give the place, for thespace of 12 days, t!ie‘ appearance of a fair.
COCHE, an island of the North sea, near the coastof Nueva Andalucia, and belonging to the islandof Margarita. It is nine miles in circumference,and its territory is low and barren. It was cele-brated for the pearl-fishery formerly carried onhere. It is four leagues to the e. of Cubagiia.
[COCHECHO, a n.w. branch of Piscataquariver in New Hampshire. It rises in the Bluehills in Strafford county, and its mouth is fivemiles above Hilton’s point. See Piscat.xqua.J
COCHEIRA, Cumplida, a river of the coun-try of Brazil. It rises to the n. of the gold minesof La Navidad, runs w. and enters the Tocantineson the e. side, between the Salto de Ties Leguasand the settlement of the Portal de San Luis.
COCHIMATLAN, a settlement of the headsettlement of Almololoyan, and alcald'ia mayor ofColima, in Nueva Espana. It contains 100 fami-lies of Indians, whose trade consists in the manu-facturing of salt, and the cultivation of their gar-dens, which produce various kinds of fruits. Twoleagues to the w. of its head settlement.
COCHINOCA, a settlement of the provinceand governmeist of Tucuman, in the jurisdictionof the city of Xnjui. It has an hermitage, withthe dedicatory title of Santa Barbara, which is achapel of ease, and three other chapels in the set-tlement of Casivindo. The Indians of this placemanufacture gunpowder equal to that of Europe,and in its district are some gold mines.
COCHOAPA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Tlapa in Nueva Espana; situate upon a dryand barren plain. It contains 150 families of In-dians, who are busied in the cultivation of cotton,the only production of the place.
COCHUY, a province of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, to the n. e. ; bounded by the provinceof Chita. It has now the name of Laches, fromhaving been inhabited by this nation of Indians.It is very thinly peopled, of a hot climate, andabounding in Avoods.
[COCKBCRNE, a township in the n. part ofNew Hampshire, Grafton county, on the e. bankof Connecticut river, s, of Colebrooke.]
[COCKERMOUTH, a town in Grafton county,New Hampshire, about 15 miles n. e. of Dart-mouth college. It was incorporated in 1766, andin 1775 contained 118 inhabitants ; and in 1790,373.]
[COCKSAKIE. See Coxakie.]
COCLE, a large river of the province and go-vernment of Panama in the kingdom of TierraFirmc. It is formed by the union of the Penomeand the Nata, which run to the right and left ofthe mountain of Toabre, becoming navigable fromthat part to their entrance into the sea. A contra-band trade was in former times constantly carriedon through this river into the S. sea ; for whichreason Don Dionisio de Alcedo (the father of theauthor of this Dictionary) built a fort which de-fended its entrance, as likewise a rvatch-tower orsignal-house, to give notice of any strange vesselswhich might enter the river for the above pur-poses. The English took this tower, and built an-other fort by it in 1746, having been assisted by acompany of at least 200 smugglers. These w eredislodged in their turn by the aforesaid president,who inflicted condign punishment upon the headsof all the offenders.
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rapid current, between high banks on eacli side,and pours the whole body of its water over a per-pendicular rock of about 40 (some say more) feetin height, which extends quite across the riverlike a mill-dam. The banks of the river, imme-diately below the falls, are about 100 feet high.
A bridge 1100 feet long, and 24 feet wide, restingon 13 piers, was erected, at the expence of 12,000dollars, in 1794, a mile below the falls, from whicha spectator may have a grand view of them; butthey appear most romantically from Lansinburghhill, five miles e. of them. 1
(COHONGORONTO is the name of Potow-raack river before it breaks through the Blueridge, in lat, 39° 45' n. Its whole length to theBlue ridge may be about 160 miles ; from thenceit assumes the name of Potowmack, which see.)
COIABAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chilques and Masques inPeru; annexed to the curacy of Calpi. Anearthquake was experienced in this province in1707, Avhich desolated many settlements ; whenalso happened that extraordinary phenomenonwhich is accredited and related by Don CosineBueno, geographer of Lima, as having takenplace ; which was, that a small estate was by thisearthquake removed from one side of the river tothe other, together with the house, garden, andinhabitants, without their perceiving any thinghad happened ; and as the event took place atmidnight, Avhen they were all asleep, that theywere not a little surprised to find themselves esta-blished in the curacy of Colcha. This extraordi-nary occurrence, however, has its precedent ina similar circumstance which happened in thekingdom of Quito.
COIACHI, a settlement of the missions whichwere held at the expence of the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara,and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 18 leagues andan half between the s. w. and s. e. of the town andreal of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
COIAIMA, a settlement and head settlementof the corregimiento of this name in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,produces cacao, sugar-cane, maize, ^uca<!, plan-tains, and an infinite quantity of cattle and swine ;but it is much infested with reptiles and insects,vipers, snakes, spiders, and mosquitoes. It alsoabounds in gold, and the Indians to the number of450, who go to Santa Fe to pay their tribute, pro-ceed in companies, and are accustomed to collect
in four or five daj's, on Die shores of the river Sal-dana, as much gold as is necessary for the tributethey are obliged to pay in the city.
COIOACAN, a district and alcaldia mayor ofNueva España. It is one of the most pleasant,and fertile in wheat, maize, barley, and other seeds.Nearly the whole of its population live in coun-try houses, in gardens and orchards which pro-duce quantities of fruit, such as pears of severalkinds, peaches, apples, prunes, plums, damsons,pomegranates, quinces, oranges, and lemons, withwhich a great commerce is carried on rviththe cityof Mexico. In some parts of this province clothsand baizes are fabricated. It belongs to thejurisdiction of the marquisate Del Valle de Oax-aca ; to which the tributes are paid, the king re-taining the sum of four tomines, (a Spanishcoin weighing the third part of a drachm.) Thesettlements of this district are,
San Angel, Chapultepec,
San Augustin de las Nuestra Senora de los
The capital, which bears the same name, is alarge, pleasant, fertile, and well peopled town. Ithas shady arbours, country houses, and orchardsand gardens, which serve as a recreation to thepeople of Mexico, from whence it is distant twoleagues to the s. s. e. Its population amounts to1885 Indian families. It has a good convent ofthe religious order of St. Dominic, and manywork-shops, in which are fabricated cloths, baizes,and serges. Long. 99° 4'. Lat. 19° 20'.
COIOMEAPA, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Theacan in Nueva Espana. It contains 300families of Indians, and 20 of Mustees and Mu-lattoes. Twelve leagues s. e. of its capital.
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COIUCA, San Miguel de, a settlement andhead settlement of tlie district of the government ofAcapulco in Nueva Espana. It contains 137 fa-milies of Indians, and is nine leagues to the n. e.of its capital. Close by this, and annexed toit, is another settlement, called Chinas, with 120families.
Coiuca, with the dedicatory title of San Agus-tin, another settlement of the head settlement andalcaldin mayor of Zacatula in the same kingdom ;containing 32 families of Indians and some Mus-tees, and being annexed to the curacy of itscapital.
COIUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva Es-pana ; situate on a plain surrounded bj^ heights.It is annexed to the curacy of its capital, andcontains 37 families of Indians, being; 15 leagrucsdistant from its capital.
(COKESBURY College, in the town ofAbington, in Harford county, Maryland, is an in-stitution which bids fair to promote the improve-ment of science, and the cultivation of virtue. Itwas founded by the methodists in 1785, and has itsname in honour of Thomas Coke and FrancisAsbury, the American bishops of the methodistepiscopal church. The edifice is of brick, hand-somely built on a healthy spot, enjoying a fine airand a very extensive prospect. The college waserected, and is wholly supported by subscriptionand voluntary donations. The students, who areto consist of the sons of travelling preachers, annualsubscribers, members of the society, and orphans,are instructed in English, Latin, Greek, logic,rhetoric, history, geography, natural philosophy,
and astronomy ; and when the finances of the col-lege will admit, they are to be taught the Hebrew,French, and German languages. The rules forthe private conduct of the students extend to theiramusements ; and all tend to promote regularity,encourage industry, and to nip the buds of idlenessand vice. Their recreations without doors arewalking, gardening, riding, andbathiiig; withindoors they have tools and accommodations for thecarpenter’s, joiner’s, cabinet-maker’s, or turner’sbusiness. These they are taught to consider aspleasing and healthful recreations, both for thebody and mind.]
COLAN, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Piura in Peru, on the coast of thePacific ; annexed to the curacy of Paita. its terri-tory produces in abundance fruits and vegetables,which are carried for the supply of its capital.All its inhabitants are either agriculturists or fisher-men. It is watered by the river Achira, alsocalled Colan, as well as the settlement ; and thoughdistinct from Cachimayu, it is not so from Cata-mayu, as is erroneously stated by Mr. La Marti-niere. [Here they make large rafts of logs, whichwill carry 60 or 70 tons of goods ; with these theymake long voyages, even to Panama, 5 or 600leagues distant, 'fhey have a mast with a sailfastened to it. They always go before the wind,being unable to ply against it ; and therefore onlyfit for these seas, where the wind is always in amanner the same, not varying above a point or twoall the way from Lima, till they come into the bayof Panama ; and there they must sometimes w'aitfor a change. Their cargo is usually wine, oil,sugar, Quito cloth, soap, and dressed goat-skins.The float is usually navigated by three or four men,who sell their float where they dispose of theircargo ; and return as passengers to the port theycame from. The Indians go out at night by thehelp of the land-wind with fishing floats, moremanageable than the others, though these havemasts and sails too, and return again in the davtime with the sea-wind.] Lat. 4° 56' s.
Colan, the aforesaid river. See Cat am a yu.
COLATPA, a settlement of the head settlementof Olinalá, and alcald'in mayor of TIapa, in NuevaEspana. It contains 29 families of Indians, whoemploy themselves in the commerce of chia, av/hite medicinal earth, and cochineal, which aboundin their territory : n. w. of its head settlement.
COLAZA, a small and ancient province, ex-tremely fertile and delightful, belonging at the pre-sent day to the province of Popayán in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It was discovered by Sebas-tian de Benalcazar in 1536. Its inhabitants, whowere a warlike and cruel race, are entirely extir-pated.
COLCHA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento oi Lipes, and archbishopric of Charcas,in Peru. It was formerly the capital, and pre-serves in its cluirch an image of the blessed virgin,sent thither by the Emperor Charles V. It is nowannexed to the curacy of San Christoval.
COLCHAGUA, a province and^ corregimientoof the kingdom of Chile ; bounded on the e. bythe cordillera Nevada ; s. by the province ofMaule, the river Teno serving as the boundary ;and w. by the sea. It is 40 leagues in length frome. to w. and 32 in width from n. to s. Here aresome gold mines, and there were several others,the working of which has been discontinued : hereare also some copper mines. It abounds in wheat,large and small cattle, horses and mules. In apart called Cauquencs are some hot baths, whicharc much frequented, from the salutary affects theyproduce, especially upon those affected with theFrench disease, leprosy, spots on the skin, orwounds. The inhabitants of this province amountto 15,000 souls, and its capital is the town of SanFernando.
COLCHAGUA, a settlement of this province andcorregimiento, which is the head of a curacy ofanother, and contains four chapels of ease.
(COLCHESTER, a township in Ulster county.New York, on the Popachton branch of Delawareriver, s. w. of Middletown, and about 50 miless. w. by s. of Cooperstown. By the state censusof 1796, 193 of its inhabitants are electors.)
(Colchester, a large township in New Londoncounty, Connecticut, seltled in 1701 ; about 15miles tc. of Norwich, 25 s. e. of Hartford, and 20n. w. of New London city. It is in contemplationto have a post-office established in this town.)
(Colchester, a post-town in Fairfax county,Virginia ; situate on the n. e. bank of Ocquoquamcreek, three or four miles from its confluence withthe Potowmack ; and is here about 100 yardswide, and navigable for boats. It contains about40 houses, and lies 16 miles s. w. of Alexandria,106 n. by e. of Richmond, and 172 from Phila-delphia.)
(Colchester River, Nova Scotia. See Cohe-QUIT.)
much incommoded by mosquitos ; so that its po-pulation is much reduced, and those that remainapply themselves to the cultivation of sugar-canes,maize, yucas^ and plantains.
COLONCHE, a small settlement of Indians,of the district and jurisdiction of Santa Elena,in the government of Guayaquil, and kingdomof Quito ; situate on the s. shore of a river,from whence it takes its name, in lat. 1° 56' s.The said river rises in the mountains of thedistrict, and enters the S. sea, opposite the islandof La Plata.
COLONIES OF THE English. See thearticles Virginia, Carolina, New England,New York, Jersey, Massachusetts, RhodeIsland, Pennsylvania, Nova Scotia ; of theJ3utch, see Surinam, Berbice, Corentin,CuRAZAo ; of the Portuguese, San Gabriel;of the French, Cayenne, St. Domingo, Mar-tinique; of the Danes, St. Thomas. (See gene-ral Tables of Dominions, &c. in the introductorymatter.)
COLOPO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs from s. e. to n. w. at an almostequal distance between the rivers Esmeraldas andVerde, and runs into the S. sea, in the bay of SanMateo, in lat. 58' n.
COLORADA, a river of tlie jurisdiction andalcaldta mayor of Penonomé, in the governmentof Panama, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It risesin the mountains to the s. and enters the Pacificnear the settlement of Anton.
Colorado, a river of the province and corre-^imiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile. Itrises in its cordillera, to the n. runs e. and spendsitself in various lakes, on account of the level oftlie country. The geographer Cruz errs in makingit enter the river Maipo.
COLORADOS, a barbarous nation of Indians,of the province and corregimiento of Tacunga inthe kingdom of Quito, who inhabit some moun-,tains of the same name, very craggy and rugged,abounding in animals and wild beasts, such asbears, lions, tigers, deer, squirrels, monkeys, andmarmosets. These Indians, although the greaterpart of them are reduced to the Catholic faith bythe extinguished company of the Jesuits, aregiven to superstition ; they are divided into twoparts, the one called the Colorados of Angamarca,since tlieir principal settlement bears this title, andthe other the Colorados of St. Domingo ; they now,belong to the province and government of Esme-raklas, and live retired in the woods, and upon thebanks of the rivers Toachi and Quininay, wherethe missionaries of the religion of St. Domingo ofQuito exercise their apostolical zeal. The princi-pal settlement of this place, being situate on the w.shore, is called St. Domingo. The commerce ofthese Indians, and by which they subsist, is incarrying to Guayaquil, the province by whichthey are bounded , w dod for making canoes and rafts,sugar-canes, achiote, and agi pepper, and bring-ing back in exchange cattle, fish, soap, and othernecessary eft'ects.
COLOTLIPAN, a settlement of the head set-
of Atengo, and alcald'ia mayor of Chilapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 27 families of Indians,and is two leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.
COMALA, another settlement, in the head settle-ment of Almololoyan, and alcald'ia mayor of Co-lima. It contains 67 families of Indians, who ex-ercise themselves in the cultivation of the lands.Two leagues to the n. e.- of its head settlement.
COMALTEPEC, another, in the alcald'ia mayorof Tecocuilco. It contains 78 families of Indians,who cultivate nothing but cochineal and maize,and these only in as much as is nece.ssary for theirsustenance.
COMANJA, a settlement of the head settlementof Tirindaro, and alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, inthe province and bishopric of Mechoacan. Itcontains 13 families of Indians, and is one leagueto the s. of its head settlement.
=COMANJA==, another settlement and real of minesin the alcald'ia mayor oi Lagos, of the kingdom andbishopric of Galicia ; the population of which con-sists of 30 families of Spaniards, Mustees, andMulattoes, and 50 of Indians, who live by thecommerce of and labour in the mines, which,although these inhabitants are little given to in-dustry, produce good emolument. This settle-ment is at the point of the boundary which dividesthe settlements of this kingdom from the king-dom of Nueva Espana. Seven leagues e. of itscapital.
COMAO, a province of the country of LasAmazonas, to the s. of this river, from the mouthof which it is 40 leagues distant, extending itselfalong the banks of the same; discovered in 1745by Francisco de Orellana. The territory is leveland fertile, and the climate moist and hot. Itabounds in maize, and has some plantations ofsugar-cane. It is watered by different rivers, allof which abound in fish, as do also its lakes ; andin these an infinite quantity of tortoises are caught.This province belongs to the Portuguese, and ispart of the province of Para.
COMARU, or De los Angeles, a settle-
ment of the missions held by the Portuguese in thecountry of the Amazonas, on the shore of the riverNegro.
COMARU, another settlement in the provinceand captainship of Pará, and kingdom of Brazil ;situate on th.e s. shore of the river of Las Ama-zonas, on a point or long strip of land formed bythe mouth of the river Topayos.
COMATLAN, another settlement, the head set-tlement of the district of the alcald'ia mayor of Te-quepexpa ; of a hot temperature. It contains 20families of Indians, who live by cultivating thelands. Fifteen leagues to the s. of its capital.
COMAUUINI, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions,on the shores and at the mouth of which they haveconstructed the fort of Amsterdam. It runs n. andafterwards turning to the s. s. e. enters the Co-tica.
COMAYAGUA, or Valladolid, a city andcapital of the province of Honduras in the king-dom of Guatemala ; founded by the CaptainAlonzo de Caceres, by the order of Pedro de Al-varado. It was at first called Nuestra Senora dela Concepcion, and by this title there is still namedan hospital which is well endowed and served.Here are also some convents of the religious orderof La Merced, and a very good church, erectedinto a bishopric in 1539. One hundred and tenleagues from the capital Guatemala. Lat. 20° 58'n. Long. 87° 5 P
Bishops who have presided in Comayagua.
1. Don Fray Juan de Talavera, of the orderof St. Jerome, prior of his convent of NuestraSenora del Prado, near Valladolid : being nomi-nated first bishop, he refused the appointment.
2. Don Christoval de Pedraza, elected bishopfrom the renunciation of the former; at the sametime nominated protector of the Indies, and resi-dentiary judge to the conquerors Pedro Alvaredoand Francisco de Montejo, in 1539,