Search for "Santa Cruz de la Sierra" "CRUZ, Santa, de la Sierra"
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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Brocal de la Mina de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru ;finnexed to the curacy of Santa Barbara.
CHACMA, or Chamaca, a valley of the pro-vince of Cuzco and kingdom of Peru, near thecoast of the S. sea. It was well peopled in formertimes, and abounds now in sugar-cane, from whichsugar is made. It was conquered and united tothe empire by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor.
CHACO, a province of the kingdom of Peru,called the Gran Chaco, is an extensive country ;having as its boundary to the e. the river Para-guay, and being bounded on the [n.e. by the pro-vince of the Chiquitos Indians ; on the n. by thatof Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the zo. it touchesupon the provinces of Mizque, Tomina, Porna-bamba, Pilaya, Paspaya, Tarija, and Tucuman.On the s. it extends as far as the jurisdiction of thegovernment of Buenos Ayres, which is its farthestlimits. Towards the n. it is 150 leagues widefrom e. to w. and 250 leagues long from n. to s. ;but to make these distances, it requires manymonths, owing to the unevenness and roughness ofthe territory. It is called Chaco, or, with morepropriety, Chacu, which, in the Quechuan lan-guage, signifies junta, or company, from the cir-cumstance of its having been formed of Indians ofseveral countries, who had fled from the conquer-ing arms of the Incas, and afterwards from thoseof the Spaniards. Towards the w. it has someserraniasj which are branches of the cordilhrn ;where, on account of their immense height, thecold is very great ; but in the low grounds, whichare for the most part plains, the temperature is hot.It is full of thick woods, and in many parts isswampy and wet ; particularly in the part lyingtowards the e. on the road to Paraguay. In thewet season, which lasts from the month of Novem-ber to April, the rivers leave their beds and formvarious lakes, some of which dry up, and someremain. This province has some rivers of note ;such are the Salado and the Bermejo ; is one of themost fertile provinces in America, and would, ifit were cultivated, afford, in the greatest abun-dance, those productions wnich are now thrownaway upon the infinite number of barbarous na-
tions who inhabit it. It produces a great varietyof fine woods and fruit-trees; such as walnuts andnuts, although different from those of Europe, butwhich arc extremely well tasted ; beautiful cedars ;quebrachos^ thus called on account of their hard-ness ; guqyacanes, carob-trees, balsams, marias,palms, some of which are more than 30 yards inheight; almonds, cacaos, ceihas, whicli are verylarge trees, bearing in the pods a remarkable softwool, used for quilts, since it cannot be spun ; cot-ton-trees, mistoles, of the heart of which the In-dians make darts and cimeters ; myrrh, sarzafraz-trees, bark, and others, which have the interiorbark so delicate and white as occasionally to serveinstead of writing paper; others there are, whicli,at one or two yards up their stems, form a kind ofbarrel or pipe, and being of a very tough bark,are accustomed to be ripped open by the Indians,and thus serve as vessels, in which these keep theirliquor called chieha ; it is from this that theywhimsically call this plant palo borracho, ordrunken tree. In this province are found alsocanes for walking sticks, as fine as those of Asia ;and in the trunks of trees, in holes of the rocksand below the ground, are quantities of honey andwax wrought by bees, of which there are reckonedto be more than 12 sorts : some of the wax, besidesbeing transparent, is extremely fragrant and deli-cious to the taste, whilst some is so sour as to re-semble the juice of boiled lemons. One sort ofthese bees fabricate, with great skill, excellenthives of mud upon the branches of trees, and ofthe shape of a decanter, which are so hard thatthey will not break in falling down upon theground ; they, morever, are filled Avith exquisitewax and Avell-flavoured honey. The fruit-treeswhich this province produces, are oranges, cedars,lemons, apples, pears, melocotones^ (or peaches en-grafted on quinces), figs, nuts, prunes, and olives,also passion-floAvers ; all of which have beenbrought hither from the city of Santiago de Gua-dalcazar. Here are palms Avhich have cups con-taining 25 kernels each, differing only slightlyfrom the palms of Europe by having a flavour ofthe cocoa, and being somewhat larger. Here isalso a plant called chahuar, having prickles likethe savine, of which are made threads similar tohemp, for the manufacture of nets, bags, and somesorts of coarse garments : its root serves as food forthe Indians, as do also yucas, potatoes, and others.It has an innumerable quantity of birds, namely,Avild pigeons, ducks, herons, mountain-peacocks’pheasants, crows, condors, partridges, falcons,SAvans, periguanas, ostriches, parrots, and onekind of bird which exactly imitates an organ, and
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at that critical moment received fresh succours,that were sent from Cuzco by his brother the Mar-quis Don Francisco Pizarro, he would have fallena sacrifice, with the whole of the Spanish army, tothat undertaking : but being invigorated by thisassistance, he succeeded in routing the Indians,and in obliging them to surrender to the Spanishgovernment. In 1539 the Marquis Don Fran-cisco Pizarro, seeing the importance of making anestablishment here, resolved upon building of atown, giving a commission to Captain Pedro Au-zures to execute the same. This person actuallyput into effect the plan suggested, founding thetown in exactly the same spot in which formerlystood the settlement of Chuquisaca. Here manyof its conquerors settled and became citizens, andthey gave it the name of La Plata, or Silver, fromsome mines of this metal which are found in themountain of Porco, which lies at a small distancefrom this city, and from which the Inca Emperorswere accustomed to extract immense emolument.Notwithstanding this name it has never lost itsoriginal title, Chuquisaca, although indeed it isbadly pronounced by the Spaniards ; since the In-dians, and with great propriety, will have it Cho-quezaca, Choquechaca, or Choquisacha; all ofwhich, however pronounced, signify, the first,moun-tains of gold ; the second, cunchos of gold, orfields of brambles with yellow twigs ; and the third,bridges of gold. Although this province is exten-sive, it is composed of various others, which weshall notice under their proper heads. This keepsits present name, from being the one of all theothers the most abounding in minerals, seeds, andcattle ; as well as being the one best peopled withIndians. It is watered by many large rivers ; andthe whole of it composes an archbishopric, towhich arc suffragan the bishoprics of La Paz,Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tucuman, Paraguay,and Buenos Ayres. It belongs to the viceroyaltyof this latter place since the time that this waserected, and that the government was entrusted tothe royal audience established in 1559. The afore-said district comprehends in its jurisdiction allthe following provinces and corregimientos :Tomino, Cochabamba,
Oruro, Atacama ;
In which are contained 188 settlements and cura-cies, in which there were in 1651 about 100,000Indians. The capital of the whole jurisdiction is
the aforesaid city of Chuquisaca or La Plata. —[Charcas joined the new government of BuenosAyres in 1810. See La Plata,]
Those who have been Presidents in the RoyalAudience of Charcas.
1. The Licentiate Pedro Ramirez de Quinones,first president, in 1559.
2. The Licentiate Juan de Matienzo, a cele-brated jurisconsult, in 1580.
3. The Licentiate Zepeda, in 1588.
4. The Licentiate Alonso Maldonado de Torres,in 1606.
5. Don Juan de Lizarazu, knight of the orderof Santiago ; he passed over to the presidency ofQuito in 1612.
6. Don Diego de Portugal, in 1614.
7. Don Alonzo Perez de Salazar, who was pre-sident of Quito, and was promoted to this, wherehe governed until the year 1620.
8. Don Juan de Caravajal y Sande, promotedin 1633.
9. Don Dionisio Perez Manrique, knight ofthe order of Santiago, collegiate in the collegeof Los Manriques de Alcala, rector of the uni-versity there, oidor of Lima, and president ofQuito, from whence he was removed to be pre-sident of this audience of Charcas in 1646 ; whence,having exercised it till 1654, he was removed tothat of Santa Fe.
10. Don Pedro Vazquez de Velasco, who pre-sided until the year 1661.
11. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, pro-moted in 1678 ; he was made archbishop of theholy church of Charcas, remaining in the presi-dency until 1688.
12. Don Diego Mesia, native of Lima, oidor ofits royal audience, and formerly of that of Quito ;he was promoted to the presidency of Charcas in1688.
13. Don Jorge Manrique de Lara, who wasoidor of Panama, afterwards of Charcas, as alsopresident.
14. Don Gabriel Antonio Matienzo, president in1723.
15. Don Francisco de Herboso, who was ap-pointed in 1725, and presided until 1732.
16. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, and native of Lima.
17. Don Juan Francisco Pestana, adjutant-major of the regiment of Spanish guards ; he wasnominated in 1752, and presided until 1769.
18. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, who enteredin the above year, and presided until 1777.
19. Don Agustin de Pinedo, who succeededthe former, and governed until 1782.
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territory, where the noble families of Loxa havetheir best possessions.
CHUQUISACA, La Plata,a city and capital of the province of Peru, foundedby Pedro Anzures in 1539, who gave it this name.It had a settlement of Indians on the same spot.The first founders called it La Plata, from thecelebrated mine of this metal (silver) in the moun-tain of Porco, close to the aforesaid settlement,and from whence immense wealth was extractedby the emperors the Jncas of Peru. This city issituate on a plain surrounded by pleasant hills,which defend it from the inclemency of the winds ;the climate is mild and agreeable, but during thewinter, dreadful tempests, accompanied with thun-der and lightning, are not unusual ; the edificesare good, handsome, and well adorned, havingdelightful orchards and gardens. The waters aredelicate, cold, and salutary, and divided intodifferent aqueducts, by which they are carried tothe public fountains, forming an object at onceuseful and ornamental. Its nobility is of the firstand most distinguished families of Peru, who havemany privileges and distinctions. The cathedralconsists of three naves ; it is very rich, and adorn-ed with fine furniture and beautiful paintings.It contains convents of the religious orders of St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Francis, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, with a good hospital, ahandsome college and a magnificent church whichbelonged to the regulars of the company ; alsothree monasteries of nuns, the one of Santa Clara,the other of Santa Monica, and the third of theCarmelites ; a royal university with the title ofSan Francisco Xavier, the rector of which wasuniversally of the college of the regulars of thecompany of the Jesuits. It has also two housesof study for youth, the one the seminary of SanChristoval, and the other the college of San Juan,which were likewise under the controul of theJesuits until the year 1767 ; also an hermitage de-dicated to San Roque. It was erected into abishopric by the pontiff Julius III. in 1551, andafterwards into a metropolitan in 1608, with anarchbishop, five dignitaries, six canons, four pre-bends, and as many more demi-prebends. Thetribunal of audience was erected here in 1559, andafterwards those of the inquisition of the cruzada.Its arms are a shield divided horizontally, havingin the upper part two mountains with a cross uponeach, in the middle a tree with two columns on thesides, in the lower part to the left two lions rampant,
on the right two towers with two lions, a standardbeing in the middle, and the whole embossedupon a silver field. At the distance of six leaguesfrom this city passes the river Pilcoraayu, bywhich it is supplied with good fish, and upon theshores of the Cachimayu, which is only twoleagues distant, the nobility have many rural seats.In 1662 a great insurrection took place hereamongst the Mustees and the people of colour.It is the native place of several illustrious persons,and amongst others of the following :
Don Rodrigo de Orozco, Marquis of Mortara,captain-general of the principality of Cataluna,and of the council of state and war.
Fra}/ Antonio de Calancha, a monk of St. Au-gustin, a celebrated author.
Don Rodrigo de Santillana, oidor of Valladolid,and afterwards in his country.
The venerable Friar Martin de Aguirre, of theorder of St. Augustin.
Don Alonso Corveda de Zarate, canon of Lima,and professor of languages.
The Father Maestro Diego Trexo, a Do-minican monk.
The Father Juan de Cordoba, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits, a celebrated theo-logist.
Its archbishopric has for suffragans, the bishop-rics of Santa (3ruz de la Sierra, La Paz, Tucu-man, and La Ascencion of Paraguay ; and to itsdiocese belong 188 curacies. Its inhabitants inand about it amount to 13,000, of which 4000 areSpaniards, 3000 Mustees, 4500 Indians, and 15,000Negroes and Mulattoes. It is 290 leagues fromCuzco, in lat. 19° 31' s.
Archbishops of the church of La Plata.
1. Don Frau Tomas de San Martin, a monk ofthe order of St. Dominic, a master in his order,and one of the first monks who passed over intoPeru with the Friar Vicente de Valverde; he W 2 isprovincial there, returned to Spain with the Licen-tiate Pedro de la Gasca, and as a reward for hislabours, presented by the king to the first arch-bishopric of Charcas, in 1553: he died in 1559.
2. Don Fraj/ Pedro de la Torre, who waselected, but not consecrated ; and in his place,
3. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda.
4. Don Fernan Gonzalez de la Cuesta, who laidthe foundation of the cathedral church.
5. Don Fray Domingo de Santo Tomas, of theorder of St. Dominic, a noted preacher, and one ofthose who went over to Peru with the Fray VicenteValverde ; he was prior in different convents, andgeneral visitor of his order in those kingdoms.
6. Don Fernando de Santillana, native of Se-
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COCHABAMBA, a province and corregUmiento of Peru ; bounded n. by the cordillera of theAndes, e. by the heiglits of Intimuyo, e. by theprovince of Misque, s. by that of Chayanta orCharcas, s. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, w.and n. w. by that of Cicasica. It is 40 leagues inlength from n. to s. and 32 in width. This pro-vince may with justice -be called the granary ofPeru, since it produces an abundance of every kindof seed, through the mildness of its climate. Inthe higher parts are bred a tolerable quantity oflarge and small kinds of cattle. It is watered byseveral small rivers of sweet water, which fertilizethe valleys ; and in these are some magnificentestates. Almost all these small rivers becomeunited in the curacy of Capinota ; and their wa-ters, passing through the provinces of Misque andCharcas, become incorporated in the large riverwhich passes on the e. side of Santa Cruz de laSierra. In former times some mines were workedhere, and from 1747, forward, great quantities ofgold have been extracted from the lavaderos, orwashing-places, upon the heights of Choqueca-mata, although this metal is not now found therein the same abundance. Some veins of it are, how-ever, to be seen in the cordillera, although theserender but little emolument. The greatest com-merce carried on in this province depends upon itsown productions ; and the market-place of thevalley of Arque is so stocked with articles as tohave the appearance of a continual fair. It hasalso some glass kilns, as it abounds greatly in glass-wort ; likewise many sugar estates, and streams ofhot waters. Its repartirniento used to amount to186,675 dollars, and its alcavala to 1493 dollarsper annum. Its inhabitants may amount to 70,000;and these are divided into 17 curacies, two othersbeing annexed. The capital is the town of Oro-pcsa, and the rest are,
I Inhabited by a hardy, sober, and active race,Cochabamba (as Azara observes) has risen of late
years to a considerable state of prosperity in themanufactory of glass, cotton, &c. with which, du-ring the late war, it has supplied the whole inte-rior. Blessed with fertility and a moderate cli-mate, it bids fair to be the Manchester of Peru, for1,000,000 pounds of cotton are already annuallyconsumed in its manufactures. Its surface aboundsin a variety of salts and mineral productions, andits forests teem with woods and roots for dyeing.To these Haenke has particularly turned his atten-tion, and has pointed out, besides several new ma-terials for manufacture, other processes for dyeing,worthy of our adoption in Europe. This pro-vince joined the new government of Buenos Ayresin September 1810. See La Pcata.]
Same name, an extensive valley, watered bythe pleasant streams of the river Condorillo, of theprovince of this name (Condorillo) ; in which was founded theprincipal settlement of the Indians, now calledOropesa.
COCHACASA, an ancient settlement of Indians, in the province of Chinchasuyu in Peru.It was one of the celebrated conquests of the here-ditary prince of the Incas, Yahuar Huacae, son ofthe Emperor Inca Roca, sixth in the series ofthese inonarcbs.
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Bishops who have presided in Santa Cruz de laSierra.
1. Don Antonio Calderon, native of Vilches,dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bisliop ofPuertorico and Panama; first bishop in 1605;died at the advanced age of upwards of 100years.
2. Don Fray Fernando de Ocampo, of the re-ligious order of St. Francis, a native of Madrid.
3. Don Juan Zapata y Figueroa, native ofVelez-Malaga ; he was canon and inquisitor ofSeville ; presented to the brishopric of Santa Cruzin 1634.
Fray Juan de Arguinao, a religiousDominican, native of Lima, was prior and provin-cial in his religion, first professor of theology andwriting in that university, qualificator of the in-quisition ; presented to the bishopric of Santa Cruzin 1646, and promoted to the archbishopric ofSanta Fe in 1661.
5. Don Fray Bernardino de Cardenas, native ofLima, of the order of St. Francis ; promoted fromParaguay to this bishopric in 1666.
6. Don Fray Juan de Rivera, of the order ofSt. Augustin, native of Pisco in Peru ; first pro-fessor of theology.
7. Don Fray Juan de Esturrizaga, of the orderof preachers, native of Lima.
8. Don Pedro de Cardenas y Arbieto, native ofLima, collegian of the royal college of San Mar-tin, canon of its holy church.
9. Hon Fray Juan de los Rios, of the order ofSt. Dominic, a native of Lima, provincial of hisreligion in the province of San Juan Bautista delPeru.
10. Don Fray Miguel Alvarez de Toledo, ofthe order of Nuestra Sexiora de la Merced, electedin 1701.
11. Don Miguel Bernardo de la Fuente, deanof the holy church of Truxillo, elected in 1727.
12. Don Andres de Vergara and Uribe, electedin 1744 ; he died in 1745.
13. Don Juan Pablo de Olmedo, native of Tu-cuman, elected in 1745, died in 1757.
14. Don Fernando Perez de Obiitas, native ofArequipa, elected in the aforesaid year, died in1760.
15. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, nativeof Lima, elected in 1760, promoted to the arch-bishopric of Charcas in 1766.
16. Don Juan Domingo Gonzalez de la Ri-gucra, elected the aforesaid year, and promotedto the archbishopric of the holy metropolitanchurch of Lima in 1780.
17. Don Alexandro de Ochoa, elected in 1782.
Cruz, Santa, a city of the above province,which was once the capital ; founded by Nuno deChaves in 1557, after that he had passed along theshores of the river Paraguay to discover a commu-nication with the other provinces. Its inhabitants,however, not being able to stay in it through theincessant sallies of the Indians who surroundedthem, were under the necessity of changing theirsettlement ; but disagreeing in the choice of place,some of them united together, and founded the cityof Santiago del Puerto, and others that of SanLorenzo de la Frontcra, which is to-day the capi-tal, the former city being entirely abandoned.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementand alca’d'ia mayor of Jochimilco in Nueva Es-pana ; situate in a mountainous and cold country,containing 46 families of Indians, who live by cut-ting timber and making fuel. It is two leagues tothe cU. of its capital.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement ofSt. Francisco del Valle, and akaldia mayor ofZultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 28 fa-milies of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation ofthe land, and cutting bark from trees. Ten leaguesfrom its head settlement.
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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, foundedin ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.]t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of theAntilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its terri-tory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain sea-sons, from the low situation. It has many rivers,streams, and fountains, with three very good andconvenient ports. It was for a long while desert,until some English settled themselves in it, andbegan to cultivate it; afterwards the French pos-sessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it thefollowing year to the knights of Malta, from whomit was bought, in 1664, by the West India com-pany. In 1674, it was incorporated with the pos-sessions of the crown by the king of France. Itsinhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St.Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to acompany of Danes, of Copenhagen, who nowpossess it. It was the first of the Antilles whichwas occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues
from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight fromPuertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and fivefrom that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugarscane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which renderit very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W.India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is ina high state of cultivation, and has about 3000white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A greatproportion of the Negroes of this island have em-braced Christianity, under the Moravian mission-aries, whose influence has been greatly promotiveof its prosperity.
The official value of the Imports and Exportsof Santa Cruz were, in
1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.
1810, 422,033, 89,949.
And the quantities of the principal articles im--
ported into Great Britain were, in
Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w.See West Indies.]
Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Ad-miral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for thecrown of Spain, that making the tenth time of itsbeing captured.
Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n.coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sand-bank of Cumplido.
Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the provinceand government of Honduras, called Triunfo dela Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between theport of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues fromthe gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.
Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or LargeBay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines.Lat. 50° 10' s.
==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magel-lan. It runs into the sea.
Cruz, Santa, a small river of the provinceand captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be-tween the Grande and the Dulce, opposite theshoals ofS. Antonio.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcaptainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It risesnear the coast, runs n. and enters the sea betweenthe point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,
Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx