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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


mules, poultry, cheese, and salt meats. It haslikewise some mines in its district, which are notaltogetlier neglected, though the advantages de-rived from them would be immensely increased, ifthe number of labourers were greater. It is go-verned by a lieutenant nominated by the governorof Santiago de Veragua. [Lat. 8° 12' n. Long.80“ 40' a;.l

ALAQUES, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tacunga in the kingdom ofQuito.

ALAQUINES, a branch of the head settle-ment of the district of Tamazunchale, and alcaldiamayor of Valles, in Nueva España, situate on theshore of a large river which divides this jurisdic-tion from that of Guadalcazar.

ALARA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Gra-nada. It rises at the foot of the sierra of Gua-moco, and s. of the town of this name; runsand enters the Cauca.

[ALASKE, a long peninsula on the n. w. coastof America, formed by Bristol bay and the oceanon the n. w. and n. and by the ocean and thewaters of Cook’s river on the s. and s. e. At itsextremity are a number of islands, the chief ofwhich, in their order westward, are, Oonemak,Oonala.sha, and Ocumnak, which form part ofthe chain or cluster of islands called the NorthernArchipelago. Captain Cook, on his return in1779, passed through the channel e. of Oonemakisland. See North-avest Coast of America.]

ALATAMALIA, a large river of the provinceand government of Florida. It runs nearly duee. and enters the sea opposite the Georgean isles.[This river, Avliich is navigable, is more properlyof Georgia. It rises in the Cherokee mountains,near the head of a western branch of Savannahriver, called Tugulo. In its descent through themountains it receives several auxiliary streams ;thence it Avinds, with considerable rapidity,through the hilly country 250 miles, from Avhcnceit throAvs itself into the open flat country, by thename of Oakmulgee. Thence, after meanderingfor 150 miles, it is joined by the Oconee, whichlikewise has its source in the mountains. Afterthis junction it assumes the name of Alatamalia,Avhen it becomes a large majestic river ; and flow'-ing Avith a gentle current through forests andplains 100 miles, discharges itself into the Atlan-tic by several mouths. The n. channel glides bythe heights of Darien, about 10 miles above thebar, and after several turnings, enters the oceanbetween Sapelo and Wolf islands. The s. chan-nel, which is esteemed the largest and deepest.

after its separation from the >?. descends gently,,taking its course between MDntosh and Brough-ton islands, and at last by the w. coast of St.Simon’s sound, betAveen the s. end of the islandof that name, and the n. end of Jeky! island.At its confluence with the Atlantic it is 500 yardsAvide.]

ALAUSI, a province and small corregimientoor district of the kingdom of Quito ; bounded «. bythe province of Riobamba, n. w. by Chimbo, Cuenca, w. by the district of Yaguache, ande. by that of Macas. It is Avatered by the riversUzogoche, Gussuntos, Pinancay, Alausi, andothers of less note. It abounds in mountains, themost lofty of Avhich are tOAvard the©.; the countryis pleasant, and yields liberally every kijid offruit and grain that are common either to Americaor Europe. It contains many sugar mills, andthe sugar is the best intlie kingdom. The air hereis mild and healthy, and the climate cannot be saidto be inconveniently hot. It is governed by thecorregidor, who resides in the capital.

Alausi, the capital of the above province. Ithas in its district some mineral fountains of hotwater, established with suitable conveniences bysome families of consideration residing there. Itstrade consists in cloths, baizes, and cotton gar-ments, Avhich are wrought in its manufactories.It has a very good parish church, and a conventof the order of St. Francis. [Lat. 2“ 12' «.Long. 78° 39' ©.]

[ALBANS, St. a township in Franklin county,Vermont, on lake Champlain, opposite N. Heroisland, Avith 256 inhabitants.]

ALBANIA, or Albany, a county of the pro-vince and colony of New York. It contains acertain number of plains fertile in grain, in AA'hich,and in planks of pine, its principal commerce con-sists. The Avinter is extremely cold, and the riverHudson is generally frozen for 100 miles, so a*to bear immense burthens. The gveat cpiautityof snow that falls at this season is useful, not onlybecause it covers the grain, and keeps it from perishing by the frost, but because, when it melts, itso increases the waters of the river, as to facilitatethereby the transportation of the productions ofthe country.

[Albany County Lies Between Ulster AndSaratoga ; Its Extent 46 Miles By 28|ALBANY County lies between Ulster andSaratoga ; its extent 46 miles by 28. By thestate census, .fan. 20, 1796, the number of elec-tors in this county were 6087, and the number oftowns 11.]

Albania, or Albany, the capital of theabove county, founded by the Dutch in 1608,together with tiiat of Orange, on the sliorc of theE 2

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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discoveryof this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662the innermost part of this country was penetratedby Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits. He discovered anation of Indians, whose manners correspondedwith this ; but he did not succeed in establishingmissions, for want of labourers, and from other ob-stacles which arose.

CEUADAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom ofQuito. On its n. side is a large estate calledZeogun.

Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the sameprovince and kingdom, from which the above set-tlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake ofCoraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or"pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing bythe former settlement, becomes united witli anotherriver, formed by two streams flowing down fronrtheparamo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste watersof the lake Colta ; it then passes through the set-tlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly tothe e. and at a league’s distance from the settlementof Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cu-bigies, another river which flows down from themountain of Chimborazo, and following its courseto the«. for some distance, turns to the soon asit reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua,and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhenit passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flowsin so large a body that it can be passed only bymeans of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ;and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it col-lects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and otherrivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and theother cordillera, have their rise in the s. summitof Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi andCotopasci.

CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island ofthe river Taquari, formed by this dividing itselfinto two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in theprovince and government of this name.

CEUICO, a small river of the island of St.Domingo. It rises in the mountains of the e. head,runs n. n. e. and enters the grand river Juna, a littlebefore it runs into the sea.

CHABACONDE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Callahuas in Peru.

(CHABAQUIDDICK Isle belongs to Duke’scounty, Massachusetts. It lies near to, and extendsacross the e. end of Martha’s Vineyard island.)

CHABIN, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile. It

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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vesselstill it enters the S. sea.

CHABUCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile.

CHACAIAM, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru.

CHACAICO, a settlement of Indians of theisland of Laxa in the kingdom of Chile ; situate atthe source and on the shore of the river Renayco.

CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofCozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moisttemperature, and situate on the shore of the largeriver Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spa-niards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 ofPopolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 en-gines or mills for making refined sugar ; and itsterritory produces maize and cotton in abundance ;is three leagues to the e. of its capital.

CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlementand head settlement of the district of the alcaldiamayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature,and surrounded by eight wards within its district ;in all of which there are 160 families of Indians,who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is sevenleagues between the e. and s. of its capital.

CHACANORA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Caxamarca in the samekingdom.

CHACAO, a city of the island of Chiloe in thekingdom of Chile. It is the residence of the go-vernor, is garrisoned with a small guard, and hasthe best port in the island. Lat. 41° 50' s.

CHACAPA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Challana.

Chacapa, another settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chicas and Tarija, in the dis-trict of the former ; annexed to the curacy ofTupisa.

CHACAPALAPA, a settlement of the head set-tlement and alcaldia mayor of Ygualapa in NuevaEspana, is three leagues to the n. of that place.

CHACAPALPA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Santa Olaya.

(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)

CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the pro-province and government of Cumaná in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the mid-dle of the serrania of that province. It isunder the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fa-thers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast ofthe sea of Paria.

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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of goldand silver, which had grown quite discoloured, tothe amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.

CHANEL, some islands near the coast of thecountry of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence.They are numerous and very small, one of thembeing very long and narrow ; forming a channelwith the coast, and giving its name to the rest.

CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, ofthe province and government of Paraguay ; dwell-ing to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and boundedby the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have theirhouses near the lakes, and maintain themselves byfishing.

CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea,and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and go-vernment of Tierra Firme. They are two in num-ber, being situate near the coast, and having be-tween them a shallow or quicksand, by which theyare communicated. They abound in a species ofbirds, from which they take their name.

CHANGO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Chacayan.

CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory orcape of the province and corregimiento of Valdiviain the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues tothe s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers themouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados,with the other cape, which is to thes. called De laBallena.

CHANTACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito,to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of SanPedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies uponthe bank of a small river, being of an excellentclimate.

CHANTALI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of aen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river ofits name.

CHANUSSI, a river of the country of Las Ama-zonas, which runs from c. to w. through the woodslying towards the w. and enters the Guallaga onits ^ sido

CHANXEWATER, an English settlement inthe province and colony of New York ; situatenear the e. arm of the river Delaware.

CHAO, Farallones de, two small islands ofthe S. sea, near the coast of the province and cor-regimiento of Truxillo in Peru.

Chao, Morro de, a mountain of the coast ofthe same corregimiento.

CHAPA, Puerto de, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, in the juris-

diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near therivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of theMontana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.

CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, ormountain of San Antonio. Through it passes asmall river, which runs down from this mountain,and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of avery cold temperature, and lies in the middle of awood. Lat. l°40's.

CHAPADA, Sierra, mountains of the king-dom of Brazil, in the province and captainshipof Todos Santos. They run from e. to w. untilthey reach nearly as far as the coast.

CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan inNueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of this name ; has a good convent ofthe monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, whichis very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds ofseed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many de-licious fruits.

Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate ina plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 fa-milies of Indians, who trade in seeds and otherfruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds.It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ;lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.

Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom ofNueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on ac-count of its size, is navigated by many vessels,and is extremely well stocked with fish ; fromwhich the inhabitants of the immediate settlementsderive their source of commerce.

CHAPAMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Loxa, in the kingdom ofQuito; situate to the s. of the capital.

CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.

CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the provinceand government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Itrises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Inti-nuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs inan inclined course to the e. and enters the Mar-more Grande, forming a good port.

CHAPARIPARI, a river of the province andgovernment of Cumaná, runs e. and enters thesea in the gulf of Triste.

CHAPARRA, Valle de, a valley of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Cumaná in Peru ; inthe vicinity of which is a mine abounding in ametal called chumillo.

CHAPARRAL, a small settlement of the cor-regimiento of Coyaima in the Nuevo Reyno de

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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]

CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.

CHILOSTUTA, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Zedales in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHILPANSINGO, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, surroundedwith fertile fields of wheat. Elevation 1080 me-tres, or 3542 feet.

CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.

to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,


San Lorenzo,Parapacucho,
























Same name, another settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

CHILTAL, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Atacames or Esmeraldas in thekingdom of Quito ; situate in the valley of Chota,on the shore of the river Mira.

CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.

Same name, a river of the province and alcal-diamayor of Tabasco, which runs into the sea.

CHILUA, San Marcos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ;annexed to the Curacy of Huamanguilla.

CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.

3 L 2

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CHIMALAPA, Santa Maria de a settlement of the head settlement of the district andalcaldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, and the whole of itsdistrict is covered with very large trees, especiallyfirs fit for ship-building. Twenty-five leaguesn.w. of its capital,

CHIAMLHUACAN, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Coatepec inNueva Espana. It contains a good convent of thereligious order of St. Domingo, 300 families ofSpaniards, il/wsfees, and Mulattoes, who employthemselves in labour, and in the commerce of seedsand large and small cattle, which are bred in theestates contiguous ; but the latter in no great de-gree, owing to the scarcity of water and pasturewhich prevails here.

Same name, another settlement and headsettlement of the district in the alcaldia mayor ofChaleo, of the same kingdom. It contains 166families of Indians, and a convent of the religiousorder of St. Domingo. Five leagues n. of itscapital.

CHIMALTENANGO, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Guatemala ; situatein the valley of this capital. It is very pleasantand fertile, and peopled with Indians.

CHIMALTEPEC, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 29families of Indians, and is two leagues from thereal of the mines of Cairo.

Same name, another small settlement of thehead settlement of Malcatepec, and alcaldia mayorof Nexapa, very near its head settlement.

CHIMAN, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near the coast of the S. sea, and onthe shore of the river of its name, having a smallport, which is garrisoned by a detachment fromPanama, for the purpose of restraining the inva-sions which are continually made by the Indians.

Same name, a river of this province, and govern-ment, which rises in the mountains on the s. coast,and runs into the sea opposite the island of Nar-ranjal,

CHIMBA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the celebrated talc gold-mine whichwas discovered 36 years ago by a fisherman, whopulling up a plant of large and prickly leaves,called cordon, or fuller’s thistle, for the purpose offuel for his fire, observed that particles of golddropped from its roots; and having more narrowlyinspected it, found pieces amidst the mould ofconsiderable size and of very fine quality. Thus


a mine became established here, and when it wasfirst dug it yielded from 300 to 500 dollars eachcaxon.

Same name, another settlement of the province andcorregimienio of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Andajes.

CHIMBACALLEa settlement of the kingdom of Quito, inthe corregimienio of the district of Las CincoLeguasde la Capital, (ofthe Five Leagues from theCapital), of which this is looked upon as a suburbfrom its proximity.

CHIMBARONGO, a river of the kingdom ofChile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera^and unites itself with that of Tinguiragua to enterthe Napel. This river waters and fertilizes somevery pleasant and delightful valleys, abounding inpastures, whereon breed and fatten an infinite num-ber of cattle. On its shores are two convents, oneofthe religious order of Nuestra Senora de la Mer-ced, for the instruction of the Indians in the Chris-tian faith ; and another a house for novices, whichbelonged to the regulars of the society of Jesuits ;and also within a league’s distance from the latter,is a convent of the order of St. Domingo.

Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienio of Colchagua in the same king-dom ; situate in the Former valley, between therivers Tinguiririca and Teno. There is alsoanother small settlement annexed, with a chapelof ease. In its district is a convent of the religiousorder of La Merced.

[CHIMBO, a jurisdiction in the province ofZinto in South America, in the torrid zone. Thecapital is also called by the same name.]

CHIMBO Y ALAUSI, a province and corregimientoof the kingdom of Quito ; bounded n. oythe serrania of the asiento of Ambato ; s, by thegovernment and jurisdiction of Guayaquil ; e. bythe district of the point of Santa Elena of this govern-ment; and ro. by the province of Riobamba. Its dis-trict is barren and poor, and the country beingmountainous, the inhabitants have no resource forgetting their livelihood other than by acting ascarriers between the provinces of Riobamba andTacunga on the one hand, and the warehouses ofBabahoyo on the other, where also are the royalmagazines ; and thus they bring back goods fromthe provinces of Peru, having for this traffic anumber of requas, or droves of mules, amountingin the whole to 1500 head. This commerce canonly be carried on in the summer, the roads beingimpassable in the winter through the mountains,when they say that these are shut up : at the sameseason the rivers become swollen to such a degree

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as to render it impracticable to cross them. In theroad they usually take lies the steep declivity ofSan Antonio, extremely difficult to be passed.The mules however are so well versed in the man-ner of letting themselves slide down it, that therehas never been an instance of these animals falling.The 'vegetable productions of this province areconfined to bark, and from this no emolument isderived, although it was discovered, after muchsearch and solicitude, by the Lieutenant-colonelDon Miguel de Santistevan. It accordinglj'- pro-vides itself with all that it may require in this wayfrom the adjoining provinces of Riobamba andTacunga. It is of a very cold temperature, fromits being so near to the mountainous desert ofChimborazo. Its natives amount to 2000 souls,the greater part of them being Mustees, and the■whole are divided into seven settlements, of whichthe capital bears the same name ; and althoughthis was formerly the residence of the corregidor,yet has it of late been deserted for the settlementof Guaranda. The seven settlements are,

San Lorenzo, Guaranda,

Asancoto, Guanujo,

Chapacoto, Tomabelas.

San Miguel,

CHIMBORAZO, a verylofty mountain or desert of the cordillera of theprovince and corregimiento of Riobamba, in thekingdom of Quito; which, in the language ofthe country, signifies mountain of the other side.It is covered with everlasting snow, and is theloftiest mountain in the known world, since itsheight, taken by the academicians of the sciencesof Paris, is 3220 toises from the level of the seato its top, which terminates in a cone or truncatedpyramid. Its sides are covered with a kind ofwhite sand or calcined earth with loose stones,and a certain herb called pajon, which affords pas-ture for the cattle of the neighbouring estates.The warm streams flowing from its n. side shouldseem toAvarrantthe idea that within it is a volcano.From its top flow down many rivers, which takedifferent winding courses; thus the Guarandaruns 5. the Guano s. e. and the Machala e. Onits skirt lies the road which" leads from Quito toGuayaquil ; and in order to pass it in safety, it isrequisite to be more cautious in choosing the properseason than were the Spanish conquerors of thisprovince, who were here frozen to death. Northof the town of Riobamba, in lat. 1° 21' 18" s. ac-cording to the observations of M. La Condamine.fThis mountain was visited, on the 23d of June1797, by Humboldt; who with his party reachedits €. slope on that day, and planted their instru-

ments on a narrow ledge of porphyritie rock Avhichprojected from the vast field of unfathomcd snow.A chasm, 500 feet wide, prevented their furtherascent. The air was reduced to half its usualdensity, and felt intensely cold and piercing.Respiration was laborious and blood oozed fromtheir eyes, their lips and their gums. They stoodon the highest spot ever trod by man. Its height,ascertained from barometrical observation, was3485 feet greater than the elevation attained in1745 by Condamine, and 19,300 feet above thelevel of the sea. From that extreme station, thetop of Chimborazo was found, by trigonometricalmeasurement, to be 2140 feet still higher.

CHIMBOTE, a small pointed island of the S.sea, on the coast of Peru, and province and corregimiento of Santa. It lies close to another calledCorcobado.

CHIMBUZA, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Barbacoas, of the kingdom ofQuito, to the s. w. of the river Patia, formed by anarrow canal, through ■which the Avater of thisriver enters, and so forms the same lake into asheet of water of an oblong figure, two leagues inlength, and half a league in breadth. This lakehas another narrow canal, through which the wa-ter issues, and re-unites itself with the sameriver.

CHIMENE, a port of the e. coast of the islandof San Juan in Nova Scotia.

CHIMICA, a small province of the governmentof Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada. It is almost as it were desert and aban-doned, notwithstanding that it produces a goodquantity of maize. The climate is hot and un-healthy ; and although it was formerly peopled bythe Chimicas Indians, none of these are now foundto reside here.

CHIMILAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the province ofSanta Marta. They inhabit the Avoods to the e.of the large river Magdalena, go naked, and haveno fixed abodes. They are cruel and treacherous,and are bounded by the nation of the Guaxiros.

CHIMIRAL, a river of the province and corregimiento of Copiapo in the kingdom of Chile.It rises in the SnoAvy sierra, runs w. and enters thesea in the point of its name. It in many partsruns in so inconsiderable a stream as frequently tobe in all appearance lost before it enters the sea.

CHIMIRAL ALTO, a settlement of this province and kingdom ; situate on the shore of theformer river.

Same name, a point of the coast ef thesame kingdom.

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Belille,Ayacasi,Libitaco,Tofora,Palaqueua,Alahamaca,Toro,Asicnto de Quivio,Colquemarca,Yanqui,Capacmarca,Cancahuana,Llauzeo,Caspi,Quinota,Santo Tomas,Alca,Piiica,TomipampajCotahuassi,Qnillunza,Cupi.

CHUMEHE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito.

CHUMPULL, a settlement of the district andprovince of Toltenbaxo in the kingdom of Chile;situate near the sea-coast in the point of Tiraha.

Same name, a river of this province (Toltenbaxo), whichruns n. n. w. and enters the Callacalla.

CHUNANAS, an ancient nation of Indians ofthe province of Cuzco in Peru. It was subjectedand made tributary to the empire by the Inca Huay-nacapac, thirteenth Monarch of Peru.

CHUNCARA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Cuzco in Peru ; one of those which have re-mained in this kingdom from the time of theIncas. It was the boundary or extent of theconquests of Sinchiroca, eleventh Emperor, andhe left at it a strong garrison to guard against in-vasion from the neighbouring people. Twentyleagues from its capital.

CHUNCHANGA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Yea in Peru.

CHUNCHI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom of Quito ;lying between the rivers Alausi to the n. and Po-mallacta to the w.

Same name, another settlement of the provinceand government of Jaen de Bracamoros in thesame kingdom. It is entirely of Indians, of an hotclimate, atid in its territory towards the n. andtowards the e. are some gold mines, which werein former times worked, but to-day abandoned.Its situation is between the rivers Patacones to thee. and Chinchipe to the w. upon the high roadwhich leads from Loyola to Tomependa.

CHUNCHILEA, a river of the district of Guadalabquen in the kingdom of Chile. It runs n. n. w.and enters the Callacalla.

CHUNCHIPE, a river of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito. It runs s. and forming a bendtowards the e. enters theMaranon.

CHUNCHOS, a barbarous nation of Indians,of the province and government of Tarma in Peru,and much dreaded by the Spaniards, on accountof the repeated incursions made by those savageson their possessions. In Lima they are in a con-tinal state of fear and apprehension of some sud-den attack from these enemies ; for in 1742 theytook and destroyed several settlements and estates,killing many Franciscan monks who were mis-sionaries amongst them. They were, however,once attacked by the brigadier, the Marquis deMena Hermosa, general of Callao, who construct-ed some forts, which are still served with artilleryand troops sufficient to protect them. These In-dians have a chief or prince, called the chuncho,descended, according to their accounts, from theroyal race of the Incas, who would fain layclaim to the monarchy of Peru as his right; andaccordingly, in 1744, represented to the Marquisof Villa Garcia, not without great threats, his in-tention of doing himself justice by force of arms :he is a Catholic, and has added to h is own honours thetitle of King of Peru ; he was brought up at Limaamongst the Spaniards as the son of a cazique,where he was instructed in the rules of government,policy, and military tactics, which he introducedinto his own country, and made known the useof swords and fire-arms. He went to Rome dis-guised as a menial, was introduced to the court ofMadrid, where he kissed the hand of King PhilipV. and the foot of the Pontiff Clement XII. Hehas two sons well instructed and equal in mentalenergies. These Chuiichos Indians are numerous,and live, some of them, in villages, and othersscattered over the mountains and in the woods ;they maintain a secret correspondence with the"Indians of all the other settlements of Peru andQuito, as well as with the Christians and infidelsinhabiting the forests where missions are establish-ed ; by tliis means they know vvhat is passing inall the provinces, cities, and settlements, &c.Many Indians who are malcontents, or fugitivesfrom justice on account oferimeordebt, invariablybetake themselves to the Chunchos, and this is thereason why this nation is so very populous. Theviceroy of Peru uses the greatest precautions, and iscontinually on the alert against any movements ofthe Chunchos or other Indians, and keeps a garri-son of good troops upon his frontiers.

CHUNCHURI, an ancient province of Peruin Las Charcas. It is small, and its natives werethe most valorous and hardy of any in the king-dom. The Inca Roca, fourth Emperor, subjectedthem, having attacked them with 30,000 of hisbest troops.

CHUNGUI, a settlement of the province Huamanga.

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the Nuevo Reynb de Granada ; situate in a greatvalley called the Llano Grande, where is bred alarge proportion of neat-cattle. Upon its side isthe river of its name, which presently enters theSaldana, and is full of fish. It is of a hot tempe>rattire, abounds in maize, cacaoj tobacco, yucas^and plantains ; and amongst the sand of the river’sside is found a great quantity of gold. It contains700 housekeepers, and a little more than 80 In-dians. It is 40 leagues to the s. w. of Santa Fe.

CUENCA, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Quito; bounded n. by the provinceof Riobamba ; s. by that of Jaen de Bracamoros ;e. by that of Guayaquil ; w. by that of Quijosand Macas ; n. e. by that of Chimbo ; and s. that of Loxa. Its temperature is mild,balm and healthy. Great herds of cattle are bredhere, and it consequently abounds in flesh-meats ;likewise in every species of birds, grains, pulse,garden herbs, sugar, and cotton ; the natives mak-ing of the latter very good woven articles, and inwhich they trade, as well as in wheat, chick-peas,bark, French beans, lentils, bams, and sweetmeats.Its mines are of gold, silver, copper, quicksilver,and sulphur; but none of them are worked; alsoin the llanos or plain of Talqui, are some minesof alabaster, extremely fine, though somewhatsoft. Tlie principal traffic of this province arefloor-carpets, cabinet articles, and tapestries, herecalled pawos de cor/e, (cloths of the court), beauti-fully worked, and which are so highly esteemedthat no house in the kingdom, that has any pre-tensions to elegance and convenience, is seen with-out them. It is watered by four large rivers, call-ed Yanuneay, Machangara, Banos, and Tume-bamba ; the latter being also called Matadero, andis the largest. It abounds in bark and cochineal,the latter being gathered in great quantities, andemployed in the dyeing of baizes, which areesteemed the best of any in America. Its tannedhides and prepared skins are equally in high esti-mation. It is, in short, more highly favouredthan any other province in natural riches j and itwould not have to envy any other, were it not thatits inhabitants, who have been called Morlacos,were of a haughty, domineering disposition, greatdisturbers of peace, and more inclined to riot anddiversion than to labour. The capUal is

Cuenca, Santa Ana de, a city founded by GilRamirez Davalos, in 1557, in the valley of Yunquilla, celebrated for its pleasantness and fertility ;this valley is six leagues and an half long, and asmany wide in the middle of the serrania; from thisserrama issue, to water the same valley, four large

rivers, the first called Machangara, which runs r,of the city, and very close to it; the second,which runs to the n, is called Matadero, being alsonearthetown ; the third Yanuneay, at half a quarterofa league’s distance, and the fourth Banos: of allthese united is formed a very large one, which af-terwards takes the name of Paute, and which hasin its environs mines of gold and silver. This cityis large, and one of the most beautiful of any inthe kingdom. The parish church, which was erectedinto a cathedral, and head of the bishopric of theprovince, in the year 1786, is magnificent. Ithas four parishes, (he five following convents, viz.of the religious order of St. Francis, St. Domingo,St. Augustin, St. Peter Nolasco, and a collegewhich belonged to the regulars of the company ofJesuits, two monasteries of nuns, one of La Concep-cion, and the other of Santa Teresa, and an hospi-tal, being one of the most sumptuous, convenient,and well attended possible; the whole of thesebeing very superior edifices. The streets run instraight lines; the temperature is kind, mild, andhealthy ; and the neighbourhood abounds in everykind of flesh, and in whatsoever productions canbe required, as pu)ge, vegetables, and fruits.Some very fine large cheeses are made here, whichresemble those of Parma, and are carried as dain-ties to Lima, Quito, and other parts. The sugarywhich is made in great quantities, is of the finestand most esteemed sort, as are also the conservesof various fruits, which are known by the name ofcaccetas de Cuenca. A few years ago, a hat manu-factory was established here, when a stamp wasmade bearing the resemblance of an EmperorInca, and with the motto, “ Lahore duce, comitefortuna.” This proved one of the best and mostuseful manufactories of any in the city. In theterritory to the s. is the height of Tarqui, cele-brated for being the spot where the base of themeridian was taken by the academicians of thesciences of Paris, M. Godin, Bouger, and La Con-damine, assisted by Jorge Juan and Don Anto-nio de Ulloa, who accompanied them, in 1742.yhis city is subject to tempests, which form on asudden when the sky is clear, and which are ac-companied with terrible thunder and lightning,the women apply themselves to labour, and it isby these that is carried on the great commercewhich exists in baizes which they fabricate, andare held in high esteem, together with other wo-ven articles. It is the native place of the FatherSebastian Sedeno, missionary apostolic of the ex-tinguished company of the Jesuits in the provinceof Mainas- The population of Cuenca is 14,000

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