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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]





wreck, and amongst these many valuables of goldand silver, which had grown quite discoloured, tothe amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.

CHANEL, some islands near the coast of thecountry of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence.They are numerous and very small, one of thembeing very long and narrow ; forming a channelwith the coast, and giving its name to the rest.

CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, ofthe province and government of Paraguay ; dwell-ing to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and boundedby the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have theirhouses near the lakes, and maintain themselves byfishing.

CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea,and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and go-vernment of Tierra Firme. They are two in num-ber, being situate near the coast, and having be-tween them a shallow or quicksand, by which theyare communicated. They abound in a species ofbirds, from which they take their name.

CHANGO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Chacayan.

CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory orcape of the province and corregimiento of Valdiviain the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues tothe s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers themouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados,with the other cape, which is to thes. called De laBallena.

CHANTACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito,to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of SanPedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies uponthe bank of a small river, being of an excellentclimate.

CHANTALI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of aen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river ofits name.

CHANUSSI, a river of the country of Las Ama-zonas, which runs from c. to w. through the woodslying towards the w. and enters the Guallaga onits ^ sido

CHANXEWATER, an English settlement inthe province and colony of New York ; situatenear the e. arm of the river Delaware.

CHAO, Farallones de, two small islands ofthe S. sea, near the coast of the province and cor-regimiento of Truxillo in Peru.

Chao, Morro de, a mountain of the coast ofthe same corregimiento.

CHAPA, Puerto de, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, in the juris-

diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near therivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of theMontana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.

CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, ormountain of San Antonio. Through it passes asmall river, which runs down from this mountain,and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of avery cold temperature, and lies in the middle of awood. Lat. l°40's.

CHAPADA, Sierra, mountains of the king-dom of Brazil, in the province and captainshipof Todos Santos. They run from e. to w. untilthey reach nearly as far as the coast.

CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan inNueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of this name ; has a good convent ofthe monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, whichis very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds ofseed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many de-licious fruits.

Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate ina plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 fa-milies of Indians, who trade in seeds and otherfruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds.It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ;lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.

Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom ofNueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on ac-count of its size, is navigated by many vessels,and is extremely well stocked with fish ; fromwhich the inhabitants of the immediate settlementsderive their source of commerce.

CHAPAMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Loxa, in the kingdom ofQuito; situate to the s. of the capital.

CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.

CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the provinceand government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Itrises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Inti-nuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs inan inclined course to the e. and enters the Mar-more Grande, forming a good port.

CHAPARIPARI, a river of the province andgovernment of Cumaná, runs e. and enters thesea in the gulf of Triste.

CHAPARRA, Valle de, a valley of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Cumaná in Peru ; inthe vicinity of which is a mine abounding in ametal called chumillo.

CHAPARRAL, a small settlement of the cor-regimiento of Coyaima in the Nuevo Reyno de

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[modesty and simplicity ; their dress is entirely ofwool, and, agreeable to the natural taste, of agreenish blue colour ; it consists of a tunic, a gir-dle, and a short cloak, called ichella, which isfastened before with a silver buckle. The tunic,called chiamal^ is long, and descends to the feet ; itis without sleeves, and is fastened upon the shoul-der by silver broches or buckles ; this dress,sanctioned by custom, is never varied ; but togratify their love of finery, they adorn themselveswith all those trinkets which caprice or vanity sug-gests. They divide their hair into several tresses,Avhich float in graceful negligence over their shoul-ders, and decorate their heads with a species offalse emerald, called glianca, held by them in highestimation ; their necklaces and bracelets are ofglass, and their ear-rings, which are square, ofsilver ; they have rings upon each finger, thegreater part of which are of silver. It is calculatedthat more than 100,000 marks of this metal areemployed in these female ornaments, since theyare worn even by the poorest class.

4. Dwellings . — We have already given someaccount of the dwellings of the ancient Chilians :the Araucanians, tenacious, as are all nations notcorrupted by luxury, of the customs of theircountry, have made no change in their mode ofbuilding. But as they are almost all polygamists,the size of their houses is proportioned to the num-ber of women they can maintain ; the interior ofthese houses is very simple ; the luxury of conve-nience, splendour, and show, is altogether un-known in them, and necessity alone is consultedin the selection of their furniture. They neverform towns, but live in scattered villages or ham-lets on the banks of rivers, or in plains that areeasily irrigated. Their local attachments arestrong, each family preferring to live upon theland inherited from its ancestors, which they cul-tivate sufficiently for their subsistence. The geniusof this haughty people, in which the savage stillpredominates, will not permit them to live irtwalled cities, which they consider as a mark ofservitude.

5. Division of the Araucanian state.— Althoughin their settlements the Araucanians are wanting inregularity, that is by no means the case in thepolitical division of their state, which is regulatedwith much nicety and intelligence. They havedivided it from n. to s. into four tdhal-mapiis, orparallel tetrarchates, that are nearly equal, towhich they give the names of Laiiquen-mapu, themaritime country ; L,elbun-mapu^ the plain coun-try ; Inapire-mapUy the country at the foot of theAndes ; and Pire-mapuj or that of the Andes.

Each uthal-mapu is divided into five aillareguesor provinces; and each aillaregue, into nine reguesor counties. The maritime country comprehendsthe provinces of Arauco, Tucapel, lllicura, Bo-roa, and Nagtolten ; the country of the plain in-cludes those of Encol, Puren, Reposura, Ma-quegua, and Mariquina ; that at the foot of theAndes contains Mar veil, Colhue, Chacaico, Que-cheregua, and Guanagua ; and in that of theAndes is included all the valleys of the cordillerasysituate within the limits already mentioned,which arc inhabited by the Puelches. These moun-taineers, who were formerly a distinct nation, inalliance Avith the Araucanians, are now unitedunder their government, and have the same ma-gistrates. In the second and third articles of theregulations of Lonquilmo, made in the year 1784,the limits of each uthal-mapu are expresslj" defined,and its districts marked out. It declares to beappertaining to that of the cordilleras., the Huilli-ches of Changolo, those of Gayolto and Rucacho-roy, to the s. ; the Puelches and Indian pampas tothe n. from Malalque and the frontiers of Mendozato the Mamil-mapu in the pampas of BuenosAyres ; the whole forming a corporate body withthe Puelches and Pehuenches of Maule, Chilian,and Antuco; so that at present, in case of an in-fraction of the treaty, it may easily be known whatuthal-mapu is to make satisfaction. This divi-sion of Araucania, Avhich discovers a certain de-gree of refinement in its political administration, isof a date anterior to the arrival of the Spaniards,and serves as a basis for the civil government ofthe Araucanians, w'hich is aristocratic, as that ofmany other barbarous nations has been. Thisspecies of republic consists of three orders of no-bility, each subordinate to the other; the toqiiis,the apo~ulmenes, and the ulmenes, all of Avhomhave their respective vassals. The toquis, whomay be styled tetrarchs, are four in number, andpreside over the uthal-mapus. The appellation oftoqui is derived from the verb toquin, which sig-nifies to judge or command ; they are independentof each other, but confederated for the publicAvelfare. The apo-iilmenes or arch-ulmenes go-vern the provinces under their respective toquis.The ulraenes, who are the prefects of the regues orcounties, are dependent upon the apo-ulmenes ;this dependence, however, is confined almost en-tirely to military affairs. Although the ulmenesare the lowest in the scale of the Araucanian aris-tocracy, the superior ranks, generally speaking,are comprehended under the same title, which isequivalent to that of cacique. The discriminativebadge of the toqui is a species of battle-axe, made]

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of a hot and moist temperature, and inhabited by107 families of Indians ; being 15 leagues n.e. ofits capital.

Copan, a river of the province and governmentof Cumaná. It rises in the serrama of Imataca,runs s. and enters the Cuyuni on the side.

COPANDARO, Santiago de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Tuzantla, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in Nueva Espaha. It contains 34families of Indians, and is 10 leagues to the s. ofits head settlement. In it is a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Augustin, Avhicli is one of thebest convents in the kingdom.

COPENAME, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions orcolony of Surinam. It runs n. and unites itselfwith the Sarameca at its mouth, to form anothermouth, and enter into the sea.

COPER, a small settlement of the Nuevo Reynode Granada, in the road which leads from SantaFe to Muzo ; situate upon an height, near themountain Apari, where, upon the descent whichis called Cuesta de Macanazos, and at its skirt,runs the river Villaraisar. Near it has been founda mine of earth, esteemed an excellent antidoteagainst poisons.

COPERE, a settlement of the province and ju-risdiction of Muzo, in the corregimiento of Tunja,of the N uevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a be-nign temperature, produces maize, cotton, yucas^plantains, and the other fruits of its climate. Inthe territory of this curacy rises the river calledVillamisar, memorable for the battle fought thereby the Indians and Captain Luis Lanchero, inwhich the former were routed. It contains 150housekeepers, and 30 Indians.

COPIA, one of the ancient provinces whichwere formed by that of Popayan in the time of theIndians ; and bounded by the province of Car-tama. At present its limits are not known, sincethe Spaniards have changed both the divisions andnames.

COPIAPO, a province and corregimienlo of thekingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by the province ofAtacama, of the archbishopric of Charcas, andkingdom of Peru ; e. by the territory of the city ofRioja, of the province of Tucuman, the cordillerarunning between ; s. by the province of Coquitnbo,and w, by the Pacific ocean. Its extent is 60leagues n. s. and from 20 to three e. w. It very sel-dom rains here ; cattle is therefore scarce, althoughit nevertheless produces every sort of grain, of ex-cellent quality, and fruits of various kinds. Thetemperature is very benign throughout the year.

it has many mines of copper, most pure and richsulphur, loadstone, lapis lazuli, and gold ; some ofwliicJi are worked ; and it is not many years agothat some silver mines also were discovered. Itproduces a kind of small frees, which are plantedand cultivated upon the banks of the streams andaqueducts, called jonM/o hobo, and which distil aliquor, which, being prepared over the fire, servesinstead of pitch for lining the vessels in which thewine in that kingdom is kept. The conger eelabounds upon the coast, and there is a particulartribe of Indians, called Changes, who are devotedto this kind of fishery, living the whole year uponthe coasts, and carrying about their wives and chil-dren upon rafts, until they find out a creek likelyto afford them what they are in search of: thesefish are then bought by the natives, and carried tobe sold at the capital of the kingdom, Santiago.Here is also a trade of sulphur, since it is so finethat it needs never to be purified, and is conse-quently worth three dollars the canlaro [a cantarois about four gallons]. It abounds no less in nitre,on which account all the waters here are brackish,and there is little indeed that is sweet. This pro-vince is very thinly peopled, since it has no otherpopulation than such as is found in the capital,which is called, San Francisco de la Selva. Its in-habitants, which should amount to 5000, of allsexes and ages, are dispersed about in countryfarms. (The province of Copiapo owes its name,according to the Indian tradition, to the greatquantity of turquoises found in its mountains.Though these stones ought, with propriety, to beclassed amongst the concretions, as they arc onlythe petrified teeth or bones of animals, colouredby metallic vapours, we may place them amongstthe precious stones. The turquoises of Copiapoare usually of a greenish blue ; some, however,are found of a deep blue, which are very hard,and known by the name of the turquoises of theold rock. The amazing fertility of the soil of thisprovince has given rise to assertions, which, onthe first blush, might appear fabulous. Mr. San-son, of Abbeville, in his Geography, asserts thatits valleys frequently yield 300 for one. SeeChile.)

Copiapo, a port of the above province andcorregimiento.

Copiapo, a settlement of the same.

Copiapo, a mountain, in which there is a vol-cano, which at different times has occasionedmuch mischief, and is in lat. 26°. (This moun-tain consists entirely of a marble, striped withbands of various colours, which have a very beau-3 u 2

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