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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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from which they are enabled to make sugar. It isintersected by three rivers, which are of no usewhatever to it, being too low in their beds ; but theyunite and form the Pachachaca, which enters theprovince of Abancay, and has more than 40 bridgesof wood and cord thrown over it in different parts.There are innumerable veins of gold and silver orein this province, which are not worked, from thewant of energy, and from the poverty existingamong the inhabitants ; and thus only some tri-fling emoluraeul is now and then derived from oneor the other. It was otherwise in former times,but these mines are now almost all filled with water.Some mines of quicksilver have been discovered,but the working of them has been forbid. Hereis little of the cattle kind, and no cloth manufac-tures peculiar to the country arc made here, withthe exception of a sort of thick quilt, which theycall Chuces ; and a kind of grain is gathered here,known by the name of Maino. This province wasunited to the empire of Peru by Capac Yupan-qui V. Emperor of the Incas. The language of thenatives is the same as that which is most universalthroughout the kingdom. The capital formerlyconsisted of a large and w ell ordered settlement,which was called Tintay, but which is at presentbut thinly inhabited, on account of the scarcity ofwater, and from a plague, in which almost all itsinhabitants perished. The number of souls in thewhole of the province may amount to 15,000. Iteontains 50 settlements within its jurisdiction. Theyearly tribute received by the corregidor used toamount to 800,100 dollars, and the duties paidupon the alcavahif (a centage on goods sold), to688 dollars.
The settlements of its jurisdiction are ;
AINACOLCA, a gold mine of the province andcorregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is famousfor the excellent quality of this metal, but it is verydifficult to be worked, on account of the hardnessof its stone.
AIOCUESCO, Santa Maria de, the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofAntequera, in the province and bishopric of Me-choacan in Nueva España. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains a convent of the religious orderof Santo Domingo, and 400 Indian families, whocarry on some commerce in the cochineal, (theplant producing which they cultivate), and a veryconsiderable one in the manufacture of Pulgues^on account of the abundance of Magueyes whichare found here. Seven leagues s. of its capital.
AIOTITLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcaldia mayor of Amola in NuevaEspana, immediately upon the coast of the S. sea,and situate between two deep ravines. Its tem-perature is very hot and troublesome to live in, onaccount of the various venomous animals and in-sects that abound in its territory. It contains 76Indian families, whose trade consists in makingtroughs and trays very finely painted. This set-tlement, in which there is a convent of the orderof St. Francis, is beautifully surrounded withplantations. Fifteen leagues distant from its capital.
Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, ofVilla Rica.
CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province andkingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shoreof a river thus called.
Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in thisprovince, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.
Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runsn. and enters the sea.
CASAUATAI, a river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake ofthe Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. ofthe Maraiion, and following its course towards then. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter theUcayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receivethe waters of the Zapofe.
CASCABELES, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito :it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, andenters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruinsof the city of Mocoa.
CASCAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Conturnaza ; in the district of whichthere is, at three leagues distance, a large piece ofhewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of ayard wide on every face, particularly rough andunpolished.
Cascas, a large swamp of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos, which isformed from different arms of the rivers Sarare andApure, and communicates itself with the lake ofArechona ; both of these lakes being near the lastriver, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain de-sert of Chisgas.
(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreadsn. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and capeSmall Point on the n. e. Within these points,which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 smallislands, some of which are inhabited, and nearlyall more or less cultivated. The land on theseislands, and on the opposite coast on the main, isthe best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast ofthis country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoitbay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. Thewaters of Casco extend several arms or creeks ofsalt water into the country. The waters go upMeadow’s river, where vessels of a considerablesize are carried by the tide, and where it flowswithin one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. Onthe e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the seacalled Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscotriver, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag,which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens tothe waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; itsextent is not great, but it has several valuable millsupon it. Rayal’s river, called by the nativesW estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from
CATAMARCA, S. Fernando de, a city ofthe province and government of Tucumán, found-ed by Juan Gomez Zurita, in 1538, in the fertileand extensive valley of Conando. It has a fort torepress the encroachments of the Indians. Thename of Canete was given it in honour to the vice-roy who then commanded in Peru ; this was after-wards changed to London, in honour to the queenof England, wife of Philip II. king of Spain. Theinquietudes caused amongst the inhabitants by theinfidel Indians induced Don Geronimo Luis deCabrera, son of a governor of that province, in1663, to remove it to another not less fertile val-ley, and to give it the name of San J uan de la Ri-vero ; and lastly, by the permission of the king,in 1683, it was transferred to a spot in the valleyof Catamarca ; where it still remains, under thesame title, at 80 leagues distance from its first sta-tion. It has, besides the parish church, a conventof the Recoletos monks of St. Francis, with thededicatory title of San Pedro de Alcantara ; anhospital of Merced ; aud a house of residence,which formerly belonged to the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits. On the w. side of the val-ley is a mountain in which there are gold mines ;and on the w. also from n. to s. runs a serrama^ theskirts of which are for many leagues covered withestates and cultivated grounds, and filled, fromthe abundance of fine pastures, with lage and smallcattle and with mules. A tolerably large riverruns through the valley in the rainy season, andterminates in some lakes M’hich are formed by itabout 30 leagues s. of the city. The commerce ofthis city is very small, so that there is no coin cur-rent ; and even the payments of the royal dutiesare paid in effects, and in the productions of thecountry, such as cotton, linens, pepper, brandy,and wheat. Lat. 27° s.
Catamarca, a settlement of the same provinceand government ; situate in the district of thiscity.
Mapoyes, runs w. and enters the Orinoco close tothe torrent of Los Atures.
CATARAQUA, or Catarakui, a copiousriver of the province and country of the IroqueesIndians. It rises from the lake Ontario, runs n. e.and continues its course as far as Quebec, fromwhence it takes the name of St. Lawrence, andthen enters the sea.
CATARUBEN, a settlement of the missions ofSan Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; one of the seven which were held bythe regulars of the company of Jesuits, and be-longing to the nation of the Salivas Indians. TheCaribes burnt and destroyed it in 1684.
(CATAWESSY, a township in Northumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania ; situate on the s. e. bankof the e. branch of Susquehannah river, oppositethe mouth of Fishing creek, and about 20 milesn. e. of Sunbury.)
(CATHERINE’S Isle, St, a small island inthe captainship of St. Vincent’s in Brazil, be-longing to the Portuguese, 47 leagues s. of Cana-nea island. It is about 23 miles from n. to s. in-habited by Indians, wiio assist the Portugueseagainst their enemies, the natives of Brazil. Lak27° 10' s. Long. 47° 15' w.)
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CHACAYACU, a river of the province ofQuixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs frome. to w. then turns its course to s. w. and shortlyafter, passing tlirough the settlement of Loreto,enters the river Suno on its w. shore.
CHACHAGUI. See Tambo Pintado.
CHACHAPOIAS, a province and corregimientoof Peru ; bounded e. and s. by the mountains ofthe infidel Indians, n. w. by the provinces ofLuya and Chillaos, and w. by C.axaraarca. Itsgreatest length is 38 leagues from n. w. to s. e. andits breadth is nearly as great. Its temperatuse isfor the most part mild, though in some places ex-ceedingly hot, and in others equally cold, since abranch of the cordillera intersects it. Upon thisaccount also it abounds greatly in all productions,such as wheat, maize, and other seeds, and in allkinds of herbs and fruits. It produces a good pro-portion of sugar ; but the principal sources of itscommerce are cotton and tobacco ; these produc-tions belonging peculiarly to the district of Mayo-bamba, three leagues distant to the s. e. and beingheld in great estimation. The women spin cot-ton, of which they manufacture canvass for thesails of ships, also for bags : they spin likewiseanother sort of delicate thread, of which theymake linen for garments ; the men employingtliemselves in the looms and in the cultivation ofcotton and tobacco : of this they used to gatheryearly 600 measures, consisting of 200 mazos orrollos each, each mazo being valued at one real.At present less is cultivated, from the prohibitionof commerce, so that the settlement has becomemuch poorer, and the price of the cotton for mak-ing sails is now at two reals per lb. ; thougli thatwhich is very fine, at a dollar. As there is no cur-rent coin, the inhabitants make barters in kind forthe necessaries they want. Thus also they pay liieirtributes, duties, and taxes ; and the treaties amongstthem for canvass and linen cloths are consequentlyvery large, the prices being regulated amongstthemselves. They cultivate coca, and with thisthey supply some of the neighbouring provinces.
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They breed cattle of every sort, horses, sheep, andcows ; of whose hides, when tanned and dried bythe fire, they manufacture trunks, saddles, chests,&c. It has but a tew mines, and of these, oneonly is gold, and a few of salt are worked. It iswatered by several rivers ; but the principal arethe Moyobamba and the Uccubaraba. Its inha-bitants amount to 10,000, and are divided into 43settlements. Its reparti mi etHo amounted to 32,000dollars ; and it paid nearly 256 for alcavala,
San Juan de la Fron- Nixaque,tera, Corobamba,
Santa Ana, Pomacocha,
San Lazaro, Quispis,
El Santo Christo de Bur- Santo Tomas,
San Christoval de las Junvilla,
San Pedro de Utac, Yambrasbamba,
Santo Tomas de Guillai, Chirta,
San lldefonso, Yapa,
La Magdalena, San Miguel de los 01-
Moyobamba, city, Palanca,
Y rinari, Thoe,
Chachapoias, a river of the above province,which runs «. w. and enters the Marafion.
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Ingenio del Oro
And in the district of Tarija,
Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,
San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.
The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.
(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)
CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for
the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.
Rio Hondo or Thequila,
San Agustin de Losi-
CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.
CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.
(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)
settlement of Naiilingo, and alcaldm mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espaila, the name of which sig-nifies the place of six fountains. It is situate inthe most lofty part of a rugged and mountainoussierra, on which account its temperature is everywhere cold, and subject more than any other partof its district to continual fogs and rains. Itscommerce consists in maize, which it produces inabundance, and in the breeding of swine, both ofwhich articles are carried for sale to Vera Cruz.Its inhabitants are also engaged in the mule-droveswhich pass through these parts in tlieir way tothe windward coasts, and which proceed over aroad so rough and stony that they are under thenecessity of descending and ascending precipicesby means of steps or artificial passages hewn outof the rocks ; and however difficult this might ap-pear to some, they do not experience any gleatdelay, although the animals are very heavilyloaded, and the road be rendered still more difli-cult, if, as it often happens, the journey be per-formed in the winter season. This very stonyroute is a narrow pass or defile which shortens theway leading to the province of La Guasca. Theinhabitants of this settlement are composed of 236families of Indians. It lies three short leagues tothe n. of its capital.
CHICONCUAUTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Guachinango inNueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, andcontains 270 families of Indians, including thethree other small settlements of its district. Sixleagues to the e. of its capital.
CHICUAS, a nation of Indians of Peru. It isat present reduced to merely a settlement of theprovince of Condesuyos, in which is found abun-dance of cochineal, made use of by the natives indyeing of wool ; this being the branch of com-merce by which they maintain themselves.
CHIETLAN, a head settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Yzucar in Nueva Espaila. It was for-merly the corregbniento, and is at present embo-died with this jurisdiction. It is of a warm andmoist temperature, but very pleasant, and coveredwith gardens full of flowers, fruits, and vegetables.The territory also abounds in wheat, maize, andother seeds, and particularly in dates, the wholeof the district being covered with palms. Its in-habitants consist of 267 families of Spaniards,Mustees, and Mulattocs, and of 356 families of In-dians, including those dwelling in the settlementswhich belong to this district. It abounds like-wise in garbanzos, or Spanish pease, anniseed, andmelons, all of which are of the best quality of anj^in the whole kingdom. It lies three leagues s. ofits capital.
The aforesaid settlements are,
San Nicolas de Tenaxcalco,
Santiago de Azalan.
CHIGUACHI, a settlement of the corregimi-ento of Ubaqué in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ;situate behind the mountains of Guadalupe andMonserrat, of the city of Santa Fe, from whence itis distant five leagues to the c. It is of a delight-ful temperature, and abounds in wheat, maize,barley, potatoes, sugar-cane, and plantains. Itsinhabitants consist of 200 families of Spaniards,and a very tew Indians.
CHIGUAGUA, San Felipe de, a town ofthe province of Taraumara, and kingdom ofNueva Viscaya ; situate near the river San Pedro.Its population consists of 2000 families of Spa-niards, and some of Mustees and Mulattoes. Thetown is large and well built, and the liouses arehandsome ; amongst otlier buildings, the most con-
raent and head settlenient of the district of the al-caldia mayor of Tepozcolula in the same kingdom.It is of a mild temperature, and contains a conventof the religious order of St. Domingo, and 128 fa-milies of Indians, who occupy themselves in thetrade of cochineal, as likewise of certain seedswhich they sow in ihe ranchos. Four leagues tothe n. by s. of its capital.
Chilapa, San Pedro de, another, of the headsettlement of the district of Huitepec, and alcaldiamayor of Ixquintepec, in the same kingdom. Itcontains 30 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto the n. with a slight inclination to the e. of itscapital.
CHILAQUE, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Olintla, and alcaldia mayorof Zacatlan, in Nueva España. It is situate in adelightful glen surrounded by rocks, and is water-ed by various streams, being distant five leaguesfrom its head settlement.
CHILATECA, S. JUAN DE, a settlement ofthe head settlement of the district of Cuilapa, andalcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas, in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 52 families of Indians, whotrade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, and collectcoal and timber, all of which form branches oftheir commerce. Five leagues to the s.e. of itshead settlement.
CHILCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canete in Peru, with a small butsafe and convenient port. It abounds in saltpetre,which its natives carry to Lima for the purpose ofmaking gunpowder, on which account they arefor the most part muleteers or carriers. In itsvicinity are the remains of some magnificent build-ings which belonged to the Incas of Peru. Thename of Chilca is given by the Indians of the samekingdom, as also by those of the kingdom of Quito,to a small tree or shrub which is a native of hotclimates, and which, when burnt to ashes, isoften used as lye for the use of the sugar en-gines.
Chi DC A, a beautiful and extensive valley ofthis province, which, although it be not irrigatedby any river, stream, or fountain, by which itmight be fertilized, produces an abundant harvest ofmaize. The seed of this is accustomed to beburied in the ground with heads of pilchards, anabundance of which fish is found upon the coast;and thus, by the moisture arising from this prac-tice, and by the morning dews, the soil becomessuflaciently moistened to produce a very fair crop.The same method is observed, and the same effectproduced, with regard to other fruits and herbs ;but for drinking and culinary uses, the little
water that is procured is drawn from wells. Lat.12° 3P 5. Long. 76° 35' w.
CHILCHAIOTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofZochicoatlan in Nueva España; situate on theside of a hill. It is of a hot temperature, contains26 families of Indians, and is 11 leagues to the n.of its capital.
CHILCHOIAQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of TIacolula, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a very ex-tensive glen, surrounded by heights which beginin the neighbourhood of Xilotepec, and run some-what more than a league in length. The popula-tion is very scanty, and the temperature bad ;indeed, out of the many families which formerlyinhabited it, 19 only are remaining ; these employthemselves in the rancherias^ agriculture beingindispensably necessary to their maintenance,owing to the barrenness of the territory of the dis-trict. At the distance of a league to the n. of Xa-lapa, and on the side of the royal road leading to^^exico, is the great mill of Lucas Martin. Herethe lands are fertilized by the large river Cerdeilo ;by the waters of which also other settlements arcsupplied, as likewise some of ihe ranchos^ whereinemployment is found for upwards of SO familiesof Spaniards, some Mustees^ and many Indians.Four leagues to the s. w. of its head settlement.
GHILCHOTA, the alcaldia mayor and juris-diction of the province and bishopric of Mecho-aedn. It is very mean, and reduced to a few smallsettlements, which lie so nigh together, that theirsituations are pointed out to tlie traveller by crossesstuck up in the roads. Its population consists of470 families of Tarascos Indians, and about 300 ofSpaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees\ who are,for the most part, scattered in the agriculturalestates of its district, where, from the fertility of thesoil, wheat, maize, and other seeds, are cultivatedin abundance. The country is agreeable, and wellstocked with every kind of fruit trees. The capi-
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los Llanos. Its inhabitants amount to about 200,besides 100 Indians.
CHIPATA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofthe jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of an hot temperature, and it ishealthy, though by no means abounding in theproductions peculiar to its climate. Its inhabi-tants are very few, and the number of Indians is 50.It was one of the first settlements entered by theSpaniards, and where the first mass ever celebratedin that part of the world was said by the Friar Do-mingo de las Casas, of the order of St. Domingo ;and is situate very close to the city of Velez.
[CHIPAWAS. See Chepawas.]
[CHIPPAWYAN Fort, in N. America, fromwhence M‘Kenzie embarked, on the lake of theHills, when he made his way as far as the N. sea,in 1789.1
[CUJPPEWAY River runs s. w. into Missis-sippi river, in that part where the confluent watersform lake Pepin.]
CHIPURANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Mainas. It rises in the mountainswhich are to the s. of Yurimaguas ; runs in a ser-pentine course from s. to n. and enters the Gual-laga on the e. side, in lat. 7° 8' s.
CHIQUILIXPAN, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Zayula inNueva Espana. It contains 50 families of In-dians, and in the mountains in its vicinity aresome mines of copper, which have been workedat different times ; but not having produced a be-nefit proportionate with the expences incurred, theyhave been abandoned. It is, 15 leagues n. w. ofits head settlement.
CHIQUINQUIRA, a settlement of the corregi-miento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold temperature, but is healthy ; itssituation is delightful, and it abounds in produc-tions. It is watered by a river which runs throughthe centre of it, the waters of which are unwhole-some : at a small distance another river passesthrough a plain ; this is called Balsa, or Raft, since,before the bridge was thrown across it, it was passedby rafts. It rises from the lake Fuguene, andabounds in most exquisite fish. The settlement,which was formerly but small, is now of great note,and its inhabitants are about 500, besides 70 In-dians. It has a good convent of the religious orderof S. Domingo, and is noted for the sanctuary ofthe virgin of its title. Under the large altar, atwhich is placed this image, there is a small foun-tain of water, renowned for the curing of infirmities,as is also the earth which is extracted from thence;it being by no means the least part of the prodigy,that although this earth has been constantly takenout for upwards of 200 years, the excavation formedthereby is comparatively exceedingly small. Thefaith in, and devotion towards this image, arethroughout the kingdom very great, and not lesaso with regard to strangers, who visit it in greatnumbers from far distant provinces. This settle-ment is nine leagues from Tunja, and 15 to then. zeJ. of Santa Fe.
CHIQUITI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It runs from s. w. to n. e. between the rivers Vichiand Cuche, and enters on the s. side into the riverof Las Esrneraldas.
CHIQUITOI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is at presentdestroyed, and the few surviving inhabitants after-wards collected together at the settlement of San-tiago de Cao, and it then became merely a smallestate or hamlet, preserving its original name, andbeing inhabited by a few Indians.
CHIQUITOS, a numerous and warlike nation of Indians of Perú, whose country or territory ex-tends from lat. 16° to 20° s. It is bounded w. bythe province and government of Santa Cruz de laSierra ; on the e". it extends itself for upwards of140 leagues as far as the lake of Los Xarayes ; onthe n, as far as the mountains of the Tapacures,the which divide this country from that of Moxos ;
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Spaniards, and the rest having fled, and thuspenetrating n. have confounded themselves withother nations. It abounds in maize, plantains,and cacao of an excellent quality ; its gold minesrender it rich and well peopled ; it also carries on,through this branch of revenue, a great commercewith the province of Popayan, the nativ'es of thatplace coming here to purchase gold, and leavingin exchange whatever is necessary for the comfortand convenience of life. There is no inconsider-able number of Negro slaves employed in work-ing the mines, and in 1750 they amounted to20,000, without mentioning the men of colour,such as the Mustees and Mulattoes, and even Whiteswho are engaged in this lucrative concern. Theclimate is warm, but moist from the continualrains, and consequently unhealthy. This countryabounds in tigers, wild boars, alligators, parrots,monkeys of various sorts, and a multitude of rep-tiles and insects, especially in vipers and ve-nomous snakes ; such as corales, exis, and rattle-snakes. Here are also an infinite variety of beau-tiful sorts of wood, curious balsams, herbs, fruits,and flowers. It was subject to the government ofPopayan, until it became divided in the time ofDon Fernando Guerrero. All the gold which istaken out of the mines here, and which is the cur-rent money, was formerly carried to be coined atthe mint of Santa Fe, until that the house ofValencia established another, at its own cost, in thecity of Popayan ; this privilege having been firstgranted that house by the mayoralty, though itwas afterwards taken away and added by the kingto the crown, upon the payment of a compensationof 100,000 reals per annum to the original pro-prietors. This province extends 48 leagues froms. to n. and is 39 in width from e. to w. Thecapital is the city of Nevita.
[Choco, Canal of. In the interior of the pro-vince of Choco, the small ravine (quebrada) Dela Raspadura unites the neighbouring sources ofthe Rio de Noanama, called also Rio San Juan,and the small river Quito : the latter, the RioAndageda, and the Rio Zitasa, form the Riod’Atrata, which discharges itself into the Atlanticocean, while the Rio San Juan flows into the S.sea. A monk of great activity, cure of the villageof Novita, employed his parishioners to dig asmall canal in the ravine De la Raspadura, bymeans of which, when the rains are abundant,canoes loaded with cacao pass from sea to sea.Th is interior communication has existed since1788, unknown in Europe. The small canal ofRaspadura unites, on the coasts of the two oceans,
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two points 75 leagues distant from one ano-ther.]
[CHOCOLATE Creek, a head-water of Tiogariver in New York, whose mouth lies 10 miless. w. of the Painted post.]
[CHOCOLOCO-CA, which the Spaniards callCastro Vireyna, a town of Peru, 60 leagues s. e.of Lima, is very famous for its silver mines,which are at the top of a great mountain alwayscovered with snow, and but two leagues from thetown. The stones of the mine are, of a dark bluecolour ; these being calcined and powdered, thensteeped in water and quicksilver, the filth is sepa-rated, and the silver melted and formed into bars.These veins are not very rich, but the metal is veryfine. They make plenty of wine here, where itattains a greater degree of perfection, owing to thepureness of the air, than it is observed to have else-where.]
CHOCONTA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold but healthy temperature, beingsituate upon a llanura. It produces abundanceof wheat, maize, papas, barley, and garlic, of thewhole of which an abundant crop is gathered ;these indeed form the principal branches of itscommerce, as they supply all the neighbouringprovinces. It was , in the time of the Indians alarge, rich, and populous city, and the barrierof the province of Tunja; also the place wherethe zipas held a garrison of their best troops.This city was entered by Gonzalo Ximinez deQuesada in 1537, when he gave it the name ofEspiritu Santo, from this festival having beencelebrated here. After the conquest of the Spa-niards it became a became a curacy of the relio-ionof St. Domingo, and was one of those which wasconsidered the first step to the advantages to bederived from these missions. It was close to thissettlement that the sanguinary conflict took placewhich was fought between Michua, king of Tunja,and Saguanmachica, zipa or king of Bogota, inwhich both princes fell dead upon the field ; atpresent it is a small village of Indians, who amountto the number of 200, besides 400 other inhabi-tants, who consist of whites. Ten leagues n. ofSanta Fe, and as many from Tunja, just midwaybetweeen these two jurisdictions.
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down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.
CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.
[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]
CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.
CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.
[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]
[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]
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of Key in Brazil. It runs s. and turning e. en-ters the lake Mini.
CHUIGOTES. See Chiugotob.
Same name, a river of the above province (Cicasica),which rises at the end of the cordillera of Ancuma,begins its course to the e. and forming a large bendtowards the n. enters the Beni just at its source,and where it keeps the name of the Chuquiavo.
CHUMA, a river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which flows down from the mountains ofBogota. It waters the territory of Merida, pass-ing opposite the city, and enters through the s.side into the lake of Maracaybo.
CHUMATLAN, a settlement of the head settle-nidnt of Zozocoles, and alculdia mayor of Papantla,in Nueva Espana. It is situate at the top of anhigli mountain, and from it may be seen all the set-tlements belonging to this jurisdiction. Its popu-lation amounts to 183 families of Indians, and itlies to the n. of its head settlement, three leaguesdistant from this, and 14 from the capital.
CHUMBE, a village of the province and corre-gimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito. Itis to the xd. of Tarqui, and on the w. shore of oneof the torrents rising in fhe river Paute. Not farfrom it are some excellent hot baths, of which nouse is made. LHere the stately melastoma and theembothriuin are growing at an elevation of 12,000feet, according to Humboldt, who visited this vil-lage in 1802. Lat. 3° 10' s.]
CHUMBI, a settlement of the province and cor-of Parinacochas in Peru, where thereis a pious sanctuary, with an excellent painting ofthe blessed virgin, said to have been given by apontitf to the curate of this settlement when he wasat Rome.
CHUMBILLA, a mountain of the province andcorregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ; celebratedfor a rich silver mine. It lies three leagues froma small settlement called Canaria, which is at pre-sent abandoned and deserted.
CHUMBIVILCAS, a province and corregi-miento of Peru. It is bounded n. by the provinceof Quispicanchialgo, and by that of Chilquesand Masques on the n. w. ; by those of Cota-bamba and Aymaraez on the jr. ; by that of Con-dcsuyos de Arequipa on the s . ; and on the e. bythat of Canes and Cauches. Its temperature isfor the most part cold, although in some placestemperate, so that it produces the fruits peculiar toeither climate ; such as wheat, barley, maize, pa-pas, and other seeds, though none in abundance,but plenty of neat cattle. In this province arefound the lofty and vast snowy mountains calledCondesuyos del Cuzco. It lies on the boundariesof the province of Parinacocha, being separatedfrom it by the river which flows down from theprovince of Camana. Here much cloth peculiarto the country is manufactured ; and in its districtare many mouths of gold and silver mines, themounds and pits of which, together with the re-mains of several mills for working metal, indicatethat in former times they were probably worked tono small advantage. They gather here a greatquantity of Cochineal, which is called macno, withwhich cloths are dyed of very fine colours. Ithas likewise fountains and mineral streams of hotwater, and is subject to earthquakes. Its reparti-mento used to amount to 85,800 dollars, and its al-cavala to 685 dollars per annum. Its inhabitants,including the district of Condesuyos, amount to16,000 souls, who live in the 22 following set-tlements :
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corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Anco.
CHUNIANIS, a barbarous nation of Indiansof the lands of Magellan, in the vicinity of thestraits of Magellan. It is a tribe descended fromthe Huyellanes. They are numerous and fero-cious ; the men and women go entirely naked ;their arms are bows and arrows, the latter beingpointed with well-filed flints ; they are robust, ofgreat strength, and fine appearance. Some tra-vellers pretend that these are the fabulous giantsof whom so many have written.
CHUPACHOS, a river of Peru, which flowsdown from the mountains of the Andes. It risesfrom the lake Patancocho, in lat. 10° 4P s . ;washes the country of the Chupachos Indians, fromwhence it takes its name, and finishes its courseby emptying itself into the Mollobamba, on the®,side, in lat. 7° 21' s.
CHUPANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. Itrises iu the cordillera of the Andes, to the n. of thecity of Guanuco in Peru, and after collecting thewaters of several other rivers in its protractedcourse, enters the river Maranon in a very broadstream.
CHUPAS, an extensive valley or plain of theprovince and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru,near to the city. It is celebrated for the battlewhich was fought here by the Licentiate Baca deCastro, of the royal council of Castille, governor ofPeru, on the 16th September 1542, against thearmy of the rebels commanded by Diego de Al-magro the younger, and son of the conqueror of thesame name, when the latter was routed and takenprisoner with the loss of more than 700 men.
CHUQUIABO. See PAZ.
CHUQUICARA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Guamachuco. It rises in thesame province, and enters the river Santa, chang-ing its own name to this, immediately that it touche*the boundary of this jurisdiction, which it divide*from those of Truxillo and Guamachuco.
CHUQUINGA, a settlement close to that ofNasca, and nearly upon the shore of the riverAmancay, where there is a narrow pass, throughwhich two men cannot without great difficulty goabreast ; for on one side rises the mountain nearlyperpendicular, and on the other is a precipicewhich runs into the river ; this is the spot where asignal victory was obtained by the rebel FranciscoHernandez Giron, in 1554, against the BrigadierAlonzo de Alvarado, both of them leaders of fac-tions, maintaining the separate interests enkindledin the civil wars of Peru.
CHUQUIRIBAMBA, a large settlement of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Loxa inthe kingdom of Quito ; on the shore of a smallriver which enters the Catamayu, on which ac-count some maintain that it is the origin of thelatter. It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile