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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,
ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir- ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha- bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]
Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.
[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow- smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis- sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre- tended rights acquired by certain European na- tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig- nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of
commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea- sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]
ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.
ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle- ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.
Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]
Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.
ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre- gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.
ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua- temala, in the division and district of that city.
ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.
ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work- shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.
Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle- ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.
ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay- man and Gomez.
ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).
ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.
ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the
also De Piedras ; at its top is, according to the ac-count of Don J nan de la Cruz, the Bugio delGato, which serves as a watch-tower, which othersmaintain is situate upon the point Canoa, just byits side.
CARUPANO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, on the sea-shore, at the cape of Tres Pun-tas i there are in its district 25 small estates ofcacao, 35 of sugar-cane, a few of yucas and otherfruits ; some of them belonging to its inhabitants,and others to tlie inhabitants of Margareta andCumana.
CARUPARABAS, a nation of Indians but littleknown, who inhabit the woods and shores of therivers which run into the Negro.
(CARVEL OF St. Thomas, a rock between theVirgin isles e. and Porto Rico on the w. at a smalldistance it appears like a sail, as it is white andlias two points. Between it and St. Thomas, passesSir Francis Drake’s channel.)
(CARVEL, a township in Plymouth county,Massachussetts. Here is a pond with such plentyof iron ore, that 500 tons have been dragged out ofthe clear water in a year. They have a furnaceupon a stream which runs from the pond ; and theiron made of this ore is better than that made outof bog ore, and some is almost as good as refinediron.)
CASABLANCA, San Gabriel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Teutitlan, andalcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan, in Nueva Espana:it contains 34 families of Indians, who live by thecommerce of salt from some saMnes which they havein their district, at about a league’s distance fromthis settlement ; here are also some crops of maize :it is of a hot temperature, and lies two leagues fromits head settlement.
Casablanca, also with the dedicatory title ofSanta Barbara, a town of the province and cor-regimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile,situate on the coast : it formerly belonged to thejurisdiction of Valparaiso, from which it was se-parated.
CASANARE, a large river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada ; on the shores of which arevarious settlements of the missions, which underthis name were held at the expence of the regularsof the society of Jesuits, and which are at presentunder the care of the monks of St. Domingo : itrises in the paramos or mountain-deserts of Chita,of the district of the city of Pamplona, and afterrunning many leagues, divides itself into twobranches : the one, named the Uruhi, enters theMeta ; and the other, named the Sirapuco, entersthe Orinoco, first receiving those of Purare andTacoragua. To the w. of this river are the reduc-ciones of the Pantos Indians, and to the n. those ofthe Pautes ; to the e. and upon a plain, is the riverSan Salvador, aftbrding an handy port for commu-nication with the Meta and the Orinoco : it is after-wards entered by the river Tame, which pours intoit in a large stream from the same sierras, and hasupon its banks the two numerous nations, the reduc-ciones of the Giraras and Botoyes Indians.
Casanare, a settlement of Indians, of the reduc-ciones which were made by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits, in the same province and govern-ment as the former river : it consists of the AchaguasIndians, being situate on the shore of that river,with a good and well-frequented port : it is fertile^and abounds in maize, yucas, and above all incattle : its natives, who are very numerous, employthemselves in making little trunks of cane neatlypainted of various colours, and mats and sieves^which they call manares : here are also some whiteinhabitants, and the reduccion is now under the careof the religion of St. Domingo.
CASAPA, a settlement of the missions which
place on the 12th of January 1809 ; the Englishin this brave contest having been commanded byLieutenant-colonel Marques, and Captain Yeo.JBesides the capital tliere are in this island thetowns of Armire, inhabited by Jews, as likewisethose of Matuiri, Matahuri, Courrou, and Cona-nama, inhabited by French, Negroes, Mustees, andMulattoes ; but few by Indians, these living for themost part retired in the mountains and Avoods tothe s. These towns were converted to the faith bythe society of the Jesuits, who had here establisheda mission, Avhich afterwards fell to decay.
(The province of Cayenne is bounded on the n.by the Dutch colony of Surinam; w. by tlie woodsand mountains inhabited by barbarians, and s. bythe country of the Portuguese on the borders of theMaranon.) The principal rivers which water it,and which empty themselves into the Atlanticocean, are the Cabo, Apurvaca, Cayenne, Vuya,and Barca. Its chief commerce is in sugar, Avhichis manufactured in various mills by the Negroes.(In 1752 the exports of the colony were 260,541 lbs.of arnotto, 80,365 lbs. sugar, 17,919 lbs. cotton,26,881 lbs. coffee, 91,916 lbs. cacao, beside timberand planks.)
Cayenne, the capital of the above island, issmall, well built, and populous. It is at the n.point of the island, at the foot of the castle of Sanljuis, and defended by two other redoubts, the onecalled Courrow, and the other Sinarari, with ahandsome, convenient, and large port ; the greaterpart of the houses, which amount to about 200, arebuilt of wood. Besides the parish called San Sal-vador, there is a fine one which belonged to the Je-suits, as also an excellent house for the governor.The form of the city is an irregular hexagon, wellfortified ; in Lat. 5“ n. Long. 52° 16' w.
Cayenne, a river of the above province, (whichrises in the mountains near the lake of Parime, runsthrough the country of the Galibis, a nation ofCaribe Indians, and is 100 leagues long; theisland which it environs being 18 leagues in circuit.)
CAYETANO, San , a settlement of the provinceand government of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; situate on the mountain of the di-vision of Maria ; six leagues to the n. n. e. of theswamp which takes the name of this town. It isone of those new establishments founded in the year1776 by the Governor Don Juan Pimienia.
Indians, on the banks of a river between the settle-ments of San Louis, and San Francisco Xavier.
(CAYLOMA, a jurisdiction under the bishop ofArequipa, 32 leagues e. of that city, in S. America,in Peru, famous for the silver mines in the moun-tains of the same name, which are very rich,though they have been worked for a long time.The country round it is cold and barren. Thereis an office here for receiving the king’s fifths andvending quicksilver. See Cailloma.)
(CAYMANS, three small islands, 55 leaguesn. n. w. of the island of Jamaica, in the West Indiesthe most s. of which is called the Great Caymans,which is inhabited by 160 people, who are descend-ants of the old Buccaniers. It has no harbour forships of burden, only a tolerable anchoring placeon the s. w. The climate and soil are singularlysalubrious, and the people are vigorous, and com-monly live to a great age. 'I'hey raise all kinds ofproduce for their own use and to spare. Theirchief employment is to pilot vessels to the adjacentislands, and to fish for turtle ; with w hich last theysupply Port Royal and other places in great quan-tities. Great Caymans lies in Lat. 19° 15' n. Long.81° 33' w.)
(CAYUGA, a beautiful lake in Onondaga,county, Ncav York, from 35 to 40 miles long,about two miles wide, in some places three, andabounds with salmon, bass, cat-fish, eels, &c. Itlies between Seneca and Owasco lake, and at the n.end empties into Scayace river, which is the 5 . e.part of Seneca river, Avhose waters run to lake On-tario. On each side of the lake is a ferry-house,where good attendance is given. The reservationlands of the Cayuga Indians lie on both sides of thelake, at its n. end.)
CAZERES, San Augustin de, or San Martin
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DEL PUERTO, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; founded by Gaspar de Kodas, on thespot of the Matanza of Valdivia, in 1676. It haschanged its place several times, on account of thebadness of.its temperature : and, lastly, in the year1588, it was removed by Francisco Redondo tothe spot where it now stands : is one league fromthe river Cauca, on a very steep declivity, whichis also of an unhealthy temperature, althoughabounding greatly in gold mines, which are,however, but little worked. Jt is the nativeplace of,
Fr. Marcos Vetancur, provincial of St. Domingoin Santa Fe:
Fr. Lorenzo de Figueroa, of the province ofSan Francisco :
Don Andres de Vetancur, elected bishop ofLa Concepcion in Chile;
Fr. Diego de Figueroa, provincial of San Augus-tin in Santa Fe : and
Don Luis de Vetancur, precentor of Quito, in-quisitor of Lima, and bishop-elect of Popayan ;all brothers, and men of singular virtue andlearning.
CECILIA, Dona, a settlement of the provinceand government of Santa Marta in the kingdomof Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the largeriver Magdalena, opposite the lake Zapatosa, threeleagues from the town of Mompox.
(CEDAR Point, a port of entry in Charlescounty, Maryland, on the e. side of Potowmacriver, about 12 miles below port Tobacco, and 96s. by w. of Baltimore. Its exports are chiefly to-bacco and Indian corn, and in 1794 amounted invalue to 18,593 dollars.)
Cedar, a river of the province and colony of
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Pennsylvania, which traverses New Jersey, andenters the sea.
CELAYA, a town of the intendancy of Gua-naxuato in the kingdom of Nueva Espana.Sumptuous edifices have been recently constructedhere, as also at Queretaro and Guanaxuato. Thechurch of the Carmelites of Celaya has a fineappearance ; it is adorned with Corinthian andIonic columns. Its height is 1833 metres, or 6018feet.
CENGUYO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Yrimbo, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan,and kingdom of Nueva Espaiia. It contains 60families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. zo.of its head settlement.
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11. Don Juan Zapata y Sandoval, nativeof Mexico, of the order of St. Augustin ; he cameto Spain, was regent of the college of San Gabrielde Valladolid, and elected bishop of Chiapa in1612 ; then promoted to the archbishopric of Gua-temala in' 1622.
12. Don Bernardino de Salazar y Frias, nativeof Burgos, canon of Jaen, .collegiate in the collegeof San Antonio de Portaceli de Siguenza ; pre-sented to the bishopric in 1622 : he died in 1623.
13. Don Alonzo Munoz, dean of the holy churchof Mexico, professor of theology ; he died beforehe was consecrated.
14. Don Agustin Ugarte de Saravia, elected in1628 ; he was promoted in 1630 to the arch-bishopric of Guatemala.
15. Don Fray Marcos Ramirez de Prado, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Madrid ; he studiedin Salamanca arts and theology with great credit,was guardian of the convent of Lucena, vice-com-missary general of the Indies, and guardian of theconvent of Granada, when he was elected bishopof Chiapa in 1632 ; he entered its church in 1635,and was promoted to that of Mechoacan in 1639.
16. Don Fray Christoval de Lazarraga, a monkof the order of St. Bernard, native of Madrid, wasmaster and professor in Salamanca, abbot of themonastery of that city, and qualificator of the in-quisition ; he was presented to the bishopric ofChiapa in 1639, and promoted to that of Carta-gena of the Indies in 1641.
17. Don Fray Domingo de Villaescusa, a monkof the order of St. Jerome, collegian in the col-lege of San Lorenzo el Real, prior of the monas-tery of Espeja, and of those of Parral de Segovia,of San Geronimo de Guisando of Madrid, visitorof the two Castillas, and general of his order ; waspresented to the bishopric of Chiapa in 1641, go-verned until 165 1 , when he was promoted to thechurch of Y ucatan.
18. Don JFrqy Francisco Nunez de la Vega, amonk of the order of St. Dominic.
19. Don Christoval Bernardo de Quiros, nativeof Tordelaguna, canon of the churches of Are-quipa, Quito, and of Lima, pro visor and vicar-general of the archbishopric, and judge of the in-quisition ; he was elected in 1660, and was pro-moted to the archbishopric of Popayan in 1670.
20. Don Manuel Fernandez de Santa Cruz ySahagun, a native of Palencia in Castilla deCuenca, in the university of Salamanca, first canonof Segovia, was elected in 1672, and before he ar-rived was promoted to Guadalaxara.
23. Don J uan Bautista Alvarez de Toledo, na-
tive of the town of San Salvador, in the provinceof G uatemala, of the religious order of St. Francis,professor in his religion, and prelate of many con-vents ; he was elected in 1708, and promoted to thearchbishopric of Guatemala in 1714. ,
25. Don Fray Joseph Cubero Ramirez de Arel-lano, a monk of the order of Nuestra Senora de laMerced ; elected in 1734, governed 19 years, until1753, when he died.
26. Don Fray Joseph Vidal de Montezuma, ofthe order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, a nativeof Mexico ; elected in 1753, governed till 1767,when he died.
27. Don Miguel de Cilieza y Velasco ;• electedin the above year, governed until 1768, when hedied.
28. Don Fray Lucas Ramirez, of the order ofSt. Francis ; he was promoted to the archbishopricof Santa Fe in 1769.
29. Don Fray Juan Manuel de Vargas y Ri-vera, a native of Lima, monk of the order of Nues-tra Senora de la Merced ; elected in the afore-said year of 1769, governed until 1774, when hedied.
30. Don Antonio Caballero y Gongora, untilthe following year of 1775, when he was promotedto the church of Yucatan.
31. Don Francisco Polanco, until 1785, whenhe died ; and,
32. Don Joseph Martinez Palomino Lopez deLerena, elected in 1786.
CHIAPANTONGO, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofXilotepec in Nueva Espana ; annexed to thecuracy of its capital, from whence it lies twoleaffues to the n. It contains 102 familes of In-dians.
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CUTI, a river of the province and captainship of Maranan in Brazil. CUTIGUBAGUBA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate on the shore of the river of Las Amazonas ; to the n. of the city of Para. Cutiguba, an island of the river of Las Amazonas, opposite the city of Para.
CUTUBUS, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the river Besani. CUTUCUCHE, a river of the province and government of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It flows down on the s. side of the skirt of the mountain and volcano of Cotopacsi, and united with the Alaques, forms the San Miguel, which laves part of the llanura of Callo, runs near the settlement of Mulahalo, and by a country seat and estate of the Marquisses of Maenza, who have here some very good cloth manufactories. This river runs very rapid, and in 1766, owing to an eruption of the volcano, it inundated the country, doing infinite mischief; again it was, a second time, thrown out of its bed, though the damage it then did was nothing like what it was on the former occasion.
CUTUN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. COTUNLAQUE, a pass of the road which leads from the city of Quito to Machache, almost impracticable in the winter time, and only noted for being a place of infinite difficulty and vexation to such as are obliged to travel it. CUTUPITE, Cano de, an arm of the river Orinoco, in the province and government of Guayana, one of those which form ifs different mouths or entrances; it is that which lies most close to the coast of Tierra Firme, aud which, with the coast, forms part of the canal of Manao.
CUYO, Cotio, or Cujo, a large province of the kingdom of Chile, and part of that which is called Chile Oriental or Tramontano, from its being on the other side of the cordiUera of the Andes; bounded e. by the country called Pampas ; n. by the district of Rioxa, in the province and government of Tucuman ; *. by the lands of Magellan, or of the Patagonians; and®, by the cordillera of the Andes, which is here called the Western, Cismontana, part of those mountains. It is of a benign and healthy climate ; and although in the summer, the heat on the llanuras is rather oppressive, extremely fertile, and abounding, independently of the fruits peculiar to the country, in wheat, all kinds of pulse, wine, and brandies, which were formerly carried to the provinces of Tucuman aud Buenos Ayres, although this traffic has of late fallen into decay, from the frequent arrivals of vessels from Spain. It abounds in all kinds of cattle, and in the cordiUera, and even ia the pampas, are large breeds of vicunas, huanacos, vizcachas, turtles, two kinds of squirrels, ostriches, tigers, leopards, and an infinite quantity of partridges, pigeons, and turtledoves. The flesh of the swine and mules is esteemed the best in all America; and, generally speaking, victuals areso cheap that it may be procured at little or no expence. The skirts of the mountains are covered with beautiful woods, and their tops are overspread with snow. Throughout nearly the whole province is found a great quantity of glasswort, and in the cordiUera are some mines of silver, especially in the valley of Iluspallata, which were formerly worked by fusion, to the great detriment of the metal, but which are to this day worked in the same manner as those of Peru, and consequently afford greater emolument. Here are also some gold mines, and others of very good copper. The rivers which water this province all rise in the cordiUera, and the most considerable of them are the Tunuyan, which is the first to the s. those of Mendoza, San Juan, Jachal, and the Colorado to the n. e. In the cordiUera, near the high road leading from Santiago to Mendoza, is the great lake of the Inca, wherein are said to be great treasures deposited by the Incas at the beginning of the conquest, to keep them from the Spaniards. This lake is bottomless, and it is thought to be formed of the snows melted and flowing down from the mountainous parts of the district. On the side towards Chile the lake has a vent by six or seven small branches, forming the river of Aconcagua ; and from the opposite side issue some other streams in a contrary direction, and form the Mendoza. In the very heat of summer this
lake is as cold as snow itself, This province, like all the others of the kingdom which lie to the s. e. of the cordilfcra, is ever subject to terrible tempests of thunder and lightning, accompanied with boisterous winds and rains from October to March; the same not happening in the provinces which lie to the to. The Indians of this province are of a darker complexion than those of any other ; but they are also of loftier stature, better made, agile, and extremely addicted to the chase, in which they greatly excel, and more particularly in the taking of ostriches, which abound in the llanuras to \X\cs. ; and by all of these exercises they become so light and active as to be able to keep pace with a horse. These Indians are generally known here by the name of Guapes, and are descendants of the Pampas, their neighbours to the e. with whom they trade in the fruits of the country in exchange for clothes and other articles, money not being known amongst any of these barbarians. The Guapes are of a docile and generous disposition, but of great spirit, and very warlike, robust, and well formed. This country, considering its extent, is but thinly peopled, since its inhabitants amount to only 25,000 of all sexes and ages, according to the latest calculation. The capital is the city of Mendoza. [See Chile.] _ _
[ CUYOACAN, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, containing a convent of nuns founded by Hernan Cortes, in which, according to his testament, this great captain wished to be interred, " in whatever part of the world he should end his days." This clause of the testament was never fulfilled.] CUYOCUYO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. CUYOTAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Quishuares. CUYOTEPEC, San Bartolome de, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Antequera, in the province and bishopric of Oaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a middle temperature, contains 358 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic. In its district are sown in abundance various kinds of seeds and American aloes, of which is made pulque: Four leagues s. of its capital. CUYUANA, an island of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, formed by two arms of the river Cudiivara or Purus, which separate before they c u z enter the Maranon. It is large, and of an irregular square figure. CUYUM, or Cuyuni, a large river of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana. Its origin is not known for certain ; but, from the accounts of the Caribes Indians, it is somewhere near the lake Parime, in the interior of the province, and to the n. e. of the said lake. It runs nearly due from n. to s. making several turnings, until it enters the Esquivo. By this river the Dutch merchants of this colony, assisted by the Caribes, go to entrap the Indians, to make them labour in the estates ; and they have built two forts on either side of the mouth of this river.
CUZABAMBA, a large settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lamas in Peru ; close to which passes a small river of the same name, and which afterwards unites itself with the river Moyobamba. Cuzabamba, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Tacunga, of the kingdom of Quito.
CUZALAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Ayotitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Amola, in Nueva Espana. Its population is very small, and its inhabitants employ themselves in the cultivation of seeds and breeding of cattle. Nine leagues to the w. of its head settle ment. CUZAMALA, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Azuchitlan in Nueva Espana, lying 10 leagues to the n. of its capital, and being divided from the same by two large rivers. It is of a hot and dry temperature ; its population is composed of 36 families of Spaniards, 30 of Mustees, 48 of Mulattoes, and 53 of Indians, who speak the Taracan language. The trade here consists in large cattle, in the cultivation of maize, and making cascalote. Some emolument also is derived from renting the lands belonging to the capital and the neighbouring settlements. CUZCATLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of San Salvador in the kingdom of Guatemala. CUZCO, as it is called by the Indians, a city, the capital of a corregimiento in Peru, the head of a bishopric, erected in 1536, founded by the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac, in 1043, who divided it into Hanam Cozco and Hurin Cozco, which signify Cuzco Lofty and Low, or Superior and Inferior ; the former towards the n. and the second towards the s. It is situate upon a rough and unequal plain formed by the skirts of various mountains, which are washed by