Search for Chiloé* Chiloe* CHILOE*
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and LittleMance.]
CASTRO, a capital city of the province andgovernment of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile;peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Cas-tro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has agood port; is inhabited by some good and opu-lent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthytemperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of aregular and beautiful form ; has, besides the pa-rish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis,and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was.sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. ofthe city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.
Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete,«. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes,and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga andHuanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. bythat of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of\^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabi-tants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900,although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as,and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been dis-covered here, nor are there any other roads to itthan merely such as are opened through passes inthe snow, or where no obstruction is ofered bythe copious streams which every where precipi-tate themselves down from the mountains, andwhich are particularly large in the rainy season,which is from October to Slarch. Its productionsare wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in someglens, where the cold is not so great, fruits andcattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of whichthey turn to some profit. This province is wa-tered by rivers, some of which descend from theprovinces of the coast of the S. sea, and othersfrom the further side of the cordillera, runningtowards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it isalso watered by the Canete, which rises from theChicha, and collects other streams in this province ;by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called.firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-
cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters theprovince of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters ofthis province, notwithstanding they are very abun-dant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and withoutdoubt this arises from the cold which prevailshere. This province is but thinly peopled, and itsinhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard,amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of sixcuracies, to which there are 29 other settlementsannexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; thisis a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot,where the cold is most intense : close to it runs ariver, which is made use of for working the millsof the silver mines ; which, although they pro-duce this metal of a good quality, they are by nomeans well stocked with it. The town has a con-vent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estatescalled Huallanto and Huallanga, in which theraare churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leaguesfrom Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from
la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The
ements of the province
CATA, a settlement of the province and govern-
C H A
Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discoveryof this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662the innermost part of this country was penetratedby Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits. He discovered anation of Indians, whose manners correspondedwith this ; but he did not succeed in establishingmissions, for want of labourers, and from other ob-stacles which arose.
Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the sameprovince and kingdom, from which the above set-tlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake ofCoraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or"pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing bythe former settlement, becomes united witli anotherriver, formed by two streams flowing down fronrtheparamo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste watersof the lake Colta ; it then passes through the set-tlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly tothe e. and at a league’s distance from the settlementof Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cu-bigies, another river which flows down from themountain of Chimborazo, and following its courseto the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon asit reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua,and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhenit passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flowsin so large a body that it can be passed only bymeans of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ;and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it col-lects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and otherrivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and theother cordillera, have their rise in the s. summitof Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi andCotopasci.
CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island ofthe river Taquari, formed by this dividing itselfinto two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in theprovince and government of this name.
C H A 351
runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vesselstill it enters the S. sea.
CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofCozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moisttemperature, and situate on the shore of the largeriver Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spa-niards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 ofPopolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 en-gines or mills for making refined sugar ; and itsterritory produces maize and cotton in abundance ;is three leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlementand head settlement of the district of the alcaldiamayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature,and surrounded by eight wards within its district ;in all of which there are 160 families of Indians,who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is sevenleagues between the e. and s. of its capital.
(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)
CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the pro-province and government of Cumaná in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the mid-dle of the serrania of that province. It isunder the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fa-thers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast ofthe sea of Paria.
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,
l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,
And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.
Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.
Coquimbo or La Se-
San Juan de la Fron-tera,
San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,
Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,
Estancia del Rey or
Fernandez. The capi-
Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.
Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.
Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.
De la Sal,
Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.
1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-
[lized state.— ‘6 The metals.— 1 . Substitute forwriting.
Chap. II. Fi rst expedition of the Spaniards inChile.— Encounters with the natives., with varioussuccess, until the alliance formed between theSpaniards and Promaucians.
1. Almagvo marches against Chile. —2. Road fromPeru to Chile.-— o. Kindhj received at Copiapo.—4. First European blood shed.— 5. Battle withthe Promaucians.— Q. Expedition abandoned,and why.—l. Valdivia marches against Chile.—8. Province of St. Ja go describe'd.—'il. The ca-pital founded.— \0. Steady enmitnj of the Mapo-chinians.—l\. The mine of Quillota.— 12. The
compassionate ulmena. 13. Recruits fom
Peru, under Monroy.—-\t^. Stratagem of theQuillotanes.-—\5. Serena founded.— \Q. Pro-maucian cdlies.—ll . Valdivia sets sail for Peru,and returns with men and supplies.— \8. Con-cepcion founded.
Chap. III. Of the character and manners of theAraucanians .
1. Local situation.— 2. Character .-—3. Dress.—
4. Dwellings.— b. Division of the Araucanian
state.— 6. Its political form.-— 7. Civil institu-tions.— 8. Military system.— 3. Their arms,and mode of making av/r.— -10. Division of thespoil.— 1\. Sacrifice after the war. — \2. Con-gress of peace.— 13. System of religion.—!^.Funeral ceremonies.— \b. Division of time.—16. Astronomical ideas.— \7. Measures.— \8.Phetoric.— \9. Poetry . — 20. Medical skill.— -21. Commerce.— 22. National pride.— 23. Kind-ness towards each other.— 2^. Mode of saluta-tion. 25. Proper names.-— 20. Domestic em-
ployments. — 27. Food. -— 28. Music, and otherdiversions.
Chap. IV. The wars of the Araucanians with theSpaniards, and concomitant events.
1. The Toqui Aillavila.—2. The Toqui Lincoyan.—3. Imperial founded.---!^. Villariqa founded. —
5. The Cunches.—G. Valdivia founded.-— 7 . For-tresses of Fiiren, Tucapel, and Araiico built.—8. City of the Frontiers founded. -— 9. Threeprincipal military offices instituted at Concepcion.
— \Q. The Toqui Caupolican. 11. Valdivia
slain.— Lautaro appointed lieutenant-general,—12. The mountain Mariguenu. 13. The Go-
vernor Villa gr an. —1^. Conception destroyed.—15. The small-pox appears.-— \0. Decision ofthe audience of Lima 1 'especting the governors.-—17. Concepcion rebuilt, and destroyed by Lau-taro.— Lautaro arrives at Santiago.— 19.Death of Lautaro.— 20. Caupolican raises thesiege of Imperial.— 21. The Governor Don Gar-
cia Hurtado de Mendoza.— 22. Caupolican takenprisoner and impaled.— 23. Cahete founded.—24. The Cur.ches, their curious embassy and stra-tagem.— 25. Archipelago of Chiloe discovered.-—26. City of Osorno founded.— 27 . Caupolican theSecond.— 28. The Guarpes subjected.— 29. St.Juan and Mendoza founded,— 30. Villagran re-instated. — 31. The province of Tucuman re-stored, afterwards retaken. 32. Cahete de-stroyed.— 33. Pedro Villagran. ---34. The To-qui Pcdllataru,— 35. Archipelago of Chiloe sub-jected; description of the same ; its inhabitants,fc.-—36. The court of audience established.—
37. Suppression of the tribunal of audience.— -
38. Description of the Pehuenches .—39 . De-scription of the Chiquillanians . — 40. Landingand defeat of the English.— ^1. Nature oj thewar in anno 1589. — 42. Independence restored.--43. Expedition of the Dutch.-— All theSpanish settlements destroyed.— 1^5. Court of au-dience re-established.— i6. Ineffectual efforts ofPhilip III. to establish a lasting peace. — VI .Second expedition of the Dutch.— F8. Secondexpedition o f the English.— ^9. Peace at lengthconcluded.-— 50. Last expedition of the Dutch.— 51. Dreadful earthquake. — 52. Commercewith the French.— 53. How the Pehuenches be-came inimical to the Spaniards.— 51. Peace re-stored.
Chap. V. Present state of Chile.
1. Civil government.— 2. Military force.— -3. Ec-clesiastical government. 4. The cities anddwellings.— 5. Population.— 6. Chilian Creoles.—7. ^ate of arts and sciences.— 8. The pea-santry .—9. Dress, S;c.— 10. Diseases; small-pox, how cured.— 11 . Manners, moral and phy-sical. 12. Internal and external commerce,
mines, imports, and exports. — 13. Natural divi-sions.— U. Poliiiced divisions.— 15. Climate.— -16. Of rain. — 11 . Winds.— -IS. Meteors.— 19.Volcanoes. — 20. Earthquakes. —21. Some de-tail of productions.— 22. Present revolution.
Origin and language of the Chilians .—Conquestof the Peruvians, and state of Chile before thearrival of the Spaniards.-— What was then itspolitical establishments, government, and arts.Of the origin and huiguage of the Chilians, notraces are to be found further back than the middleof the 15th century, -which was the time when (hePeruvians first began (heir conquests in this de-lightful country. It is the general opinion thatAmerica was settled from the n. e. part of Asia,but the opinion entertained by the Chilians is, (hat '3 E 2
C H I L E.
[tors of the battle, saw themselves compelled to sus-tain the vigorous attack of tlie enemy, aud advanc-ing with their horse, began a furious battle, Avhichcontinued with great loss upon either side till nightseparated the combatants- Although the Promau-cians had been very roughly handled, they lost notcourage, but encamped in the sight of their enemy,determined to renew the attack the next morning.The Spaniards, however, though by the custom ofEurope the_y considered themselves as victors,having kept possession of the field, were very dif-ferently inclined. Having been accustomed tosubdue immense provinces with little or no resist-ance, they became disgusted willi an enterprisewhich could not be effected without great fatigue,and the loss of much blood, since in its prosecutionthey must contend with a bold and independent na-tion, by whom they were not believed to be im-mortal.
6. Expedition abandoned, and whp. — Thus all,by common consent, resolved to abandon this ex-pedition ; but they Avere of various opinions re-specting their retreat, some being desirous of re-turning to Peru, while others wished to form a set-tlement in the n. provinces, where they had beenreceived Avith such hospitality. The first opinionwas supported by Almagro, Avhose mind began tobe impressed by the suggestions contained in theletters of his friends. Accordingly Ave find him re-turning Avith his army to Peru in 1538: he tookpossession of the ancient capital of that empire ;and after several ineffectual jiegociations, fought abattle with the brother of Pizarro, by Avhom he Avastaken, tried, and beheaded as a disturber of thepublic peace. His army having dispersed attheir defeat, afterAvards reassembled under the titleofthe soldiers of Chile, and e.xecuted ncAv disturb-ances in Peru, already sufficiently agitated. Suchwas the fate of the first expedition against Chile,undertaken by the best body of European troopsthat had as yet been collected in those parts. Thethirst of riches Avas the moving spring ofthe ex-pedition, and the disappointment of their hopes ofobtaining them, the cause of its failure. FrancisPizarro, having by the deatli of his rival obtainedthe absolute command ofthe Spanish possessions inS. America, lost not sight of the conquest of Chile,which he conceived might, in any event, prove animportant acquisition to him. Among the adv’en-turers avIio hatl come to Peru, were two officerscommissioned by the court of Spain, under thetitles of Governors, to attempt this expedition. Tothe first, called Pedro Sanchez de FIoz, Avas com-mitted the conquest of the country as far as tlic riverMaule ; and to the other, Carmargo, the remainder
to the Archipelago of Chiloe. Pizarro, jealous ofthese men, under frivolous pretexts, refused to con-firm the royal nomination, and appointed to thisexpeditioi! his quarter-master, Pedro de Valdivia,a prudent and active officer, who Inid gaiticd ex-perience in the Italian Avar, and wiiat was still agreater recommendation, Avas attached to his party ;directing him to take De Hoz with him, Avho Avasprobably more (o be feared than his colleague, andto ailoAv him every advantage in the partidon ofthe lands.
7. Valdivia marches against Chile. — This officerhaving determined to cstabiisli a pennanent settle-ment in the country, set out on his march in theyear 1540, Avith 200 Spaniards, and a numerousbody of Peruvian auxiliaries, accompanied bysome monks, several Avomen, and a great numberof European quadrupeds, Avith CAmry tiling requisitefor a new colony. He pursued the same route asAlmagro ; but, instructed by the misfortunes of hispredecessor, he did not attempt to pass the Andesuntil midsummer. He entered Chile Avithout in-curring any loss, but very difi’erent Avas the recep-tion lie experienced from the inhabitants of the n.provinces from that Avhich Almago had met Avith.Those people, informed of the fate of Peru, amifreed from the submission they professed to owe theInca, did not consider themselves obliged to respecttheir invaders. They of course began to attackthem upon all sides, Avith more valour than con-duct. liike barbarians in general, incapable ofmaking a common cause Avihli each other, and fora long time accustomed to the j'oke of servitude,they attacked them by hordes or tribes, as theyadvanced, without that steady firmness Avhich cha-racterises the valour of a civilized people. TheSpaniards, hoAvever, notwithstanding the ill-com-bined opposition of the natives, traversed the pro-vinces ofCopiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, and Meli-pilla, and arrived, much harrassed, but Avith littleloss, at that of Mapocho, now called St. Jago.
8. Province, of St. Jago described. — This pro-vince, Avhich is more than 600 miles distance fromthe confines of Peru, is one of the most fertile andpleasant in the kingdom. Its name signifies theland of many people;” and from the accounts ofthe first Avriters upon Chile, its population corres-ponded thercAvith, being extrcnsciy numerous. Jtlies upon the confines of the principal mountainof the Andes, and is 140 miles in circiimfereiicc.It is watered by the rivers Maypo, Colina, Lampa,and Mapocho, Avhich last divides it into two nearlyequal parts; and after pursuing a subterraneouscourse for the space of five miles, again shows it-self Avith increased copiousness, and disdiarges itsl
[in case of a siege. Modern geographers speak ofit as a city not only existing in the present time,but as very stongly fortified, and the seat of abishopric, when it has been buried in ruins formore than 200 years.
4. Villarua founded. — About the same time hedispatched Alderete, one of liis officers, with 60men, to form a settlement on the shore of the greatlake J^auquaiy to which he gave the name of Vil-larica, from the great quantity of gold that hefound in its environs. In the mean time, havingreceived fresh reinforcements, he commenced hisinarch towards the s. still kept in view byliincoyan, whom timid caution constantly pre-vented from offering himself to his enemy.
5. The Clinches. — In this manner the Spanishcommander traversed, with little loss, the Avholeof Araucania from n. to s. ; but at his arrivalat the Calacalla, which separates the Arau-canians from the Cunches, he found the latter inarms determined to oppose his passage. Whilehe was deliberaling what measures to pursue, awiiman of the country, called Recloma, had theaddress to jiersuade the Cunchese general to fa-vour the strangers ; and without foreseeing theconsequences, he permitted them to pass unmo-lested. The Cunches form one of the most valiantnations of Chile : they inhabit that tract of countrywhich lies upon the sea, between the river Cala-ealla, at present called Valdivia, and the Archi-pelago of Chiloe. They are the allies of theAraiicanians, and mortal enemies to the Spaniards,and are divided into several tribes, which, likethose in the other parts of Chile, are governed bytheir respective uhnenes.
6. Valdivia founded. — The Spanish com-mander having passed the river with his troops,founded upon the southern shore the sixthcity, called Valdivia, being the first of theAmerican conquerors who sought in this man-ner to perpetuate his family name. This set-tlement, of which at present only the fortress re-mains, in a few years attained a considerable de-gree of celebrity, not only from the superior fine-ness of the golcl dug in its mines, which obtainedit the privilege of a mint, but from the excellenceof its harbour, one of the most secure and plea-sant in the S. sea. The river is very^ broad,and so deep, that ships of the line may anchorwithin a few feet of the shore ; it also forms seve-ral other harbours in the vicinity.
7. For tresses of Puren, Tucapel, and Araucobuilt. — Valdivia, satisfied with the conquests, orrather incursions, that he had made, turned back,and in repassing the provinces of I\iren, Tucapel,
and Arauco, built in each of them, in 1553, a for-tress, to secure the possession of tire others ; as hewell knew that from these provinces alone he hadto apprehend any attempt that might prove fatalto his settlements. Ercilla says, that in this expe-dition the Spaniards had to sustain many battleswith the natives ; which is highly probable, as thecontinuance of Lincoyan in command can on noother principle be accounted for. Without re-flecting upon the imprudence of occupying solarge an extent of country with so small a force,Vahlivia had the farther rashness, on his return toSantiago, to dispatch P'rancis de Aguirre, with200 men, to conquer the provinces of Cujo andTucuman, situated to the e. of the Andes.
8. Cilj/ of the Frontiers founded. — The Spanishgeneral, indefatigable in his plans of conquest, re-turned also himself to Araircania; and in theprovince of Encol founded the seventh and lastcity, in a country fertile in vines, and gave it thename of the City of the Frontiers. This name,from events which could not possibly have been inthe calculation of Valdivia, has become strictlyapplicable to its present state, as its ruins are, inreality, situated upon the confines of the Spanishsettlement in that part of Chile. It was a richand commercial city, and its wines were trans-ported to Buenos Ayres by a road over the cor-dilleras.
9. Three principal military offices instituted atConcepcion . — After having made suitable provi-sions for this colony, Valdivia returned to his fa-vourite city of Concepcion, where he institutedthe three principal military offices ; that of quar-ter-master-general, of serjeant-major, and of com-missary ; a regulation which has, till within a fewyears, prevailed in the royal army of Chile. Atpresent only two of these offices exist ; that of thequarter-master-general, who is also called the in-tendant, and resides in the city of Concepcion,and that of the serjeant-major.
10. The Toqui Caupolican. — The next toquiwho distinguished himself in the Araucanianwars, and who succeeded Lincoyan in command,was Caupolican ; he evinced a spirit of much en-terprise and cunning, and succeeded in drivingthe S])aniards from the forts of Arauco and Tuca-pel, which Avereby his orders completely destroyed.In a succeeding battle we find this commander,from the loss of a number of his men, flying inconfusion before the Spanish artillery, and suffer-ing all the horror and disgrace attendant upon anapparent defeat, when, in a momentous crisis, ayoung Araucanian, called Lautaro, whom Valdi-via in one of his incursions had taken prisoner,]
[thinking he had freed himself from a rival, he be-lieved he had lost his chief co-operator in the glo-rious work of restoring his country. As soon ashe received the mournful news, he quitted thesiege of Imperial, which was reduced to the lastextremity, and returned with his army to thefrontiers to protect them from the incursions of theenemy.
21. The Governor Don Garcia Hurtado deMendoza .—The next person this general had toencounter, proved more formidable than any ofthe former Spanish chiefs; it was Don GarciaHurtado de Mendoza, wlio was appointed to thegovernraetit by his father, the Marquis of Canete,viceroy of Peru.
22. Cuupolican taken prisoner and impaled.— -He took possession of the island of Quriquina, andduring his stay there, wiiich was almost the wholewinter, he did not fail to send embassies to theAraucanians, expressing the w ish of coming to anamicable accommodation ; but they were not in-clined to listen to any proposals, and on the 6thof August military operations again commenced,and the result of several battles wliic h were foughton this occasion was, that the Araucanians were ge-nerally defeated, and that they eventually lost theirleader Caupolican, who being taken prisoner bythe Spaniards was, by the command of DonGarcia, and with the entire disapprobation of theSpanish army, put to an ignotninious death.
23. Canete founded . — But it should be remark-ed, that the Spanish general having proceeded inhis marches to the province ofTucapel, and hav-ing come to the place where Valdivia had beendefeated, built there, in contempt of his con-querors, a city which he called Canete, from thetitular appellation of his family ; and that, con-sidering the Araiicanian Avar as already terminated,he gave orders for the rebuilding of the city ofConcepcion,
24. The Ctinches, their curious embassy and
stratagem.— -\i Avas in 1558 that the above com-mander first marched with a numerous body oftroops against the Clinches, a people who had notyet been opposed to the Spanish arms. These,when they first heard of the arrival of the strangers,met to deliberate whether they should submit, orresist their victorious forces ; and an Araucanianexile, called Tunconobuf who Avas present at theassembly, and who was desired to give his opinionupon the measures proposed, replied in the fol-lovt ing terms : Be cautious how you adopt
either of these measures ; as vassals you Avill bedespised, and compelled to labour ; as enemies, youwill be exterminated. If you wish to free your-
selves of these dangerous visitors, make them be-lieve you are miserably poor ; hide your pro-perty, particularly your gold ; tliey Avill not re-main where they have no expectation of findingthat sole object of their Avishes ; send them sucha present as will impress them Avith an idea of yourpoverty, and in the mean time retire to thewoods,” The Clinches approved the wise counselof the Araucanian, and commissioned him, AVithnine natives of the country, to carry the presentAvhich he had recommended to the Spanish gene-ral. Accordingly, clothing himself and compa-nions in Avretched rags, he appeared Avith ei'erymark of fear before that officer, and after compli-menting him, in rude terms, presented him a bas-ket containing some roasted lizards and Avild fruits.The Spaniards, who could not refrain from laugli-ter at the appearance of the ambassadors and theirpresents, began to dissuade the governor from pur-suing an expedition Avhich, from all appearances,would prove unproductive. But although lie waspersuaded that these people Avere poor and Avretch-ed, yet, lest he sliould discover too great facilityin relinquishing his plan, he exhorted his troopsto prosecute the expedition he had undertaken,assuring them, that further on, according to theinformation he liad received, they avouIcI find acountry that abounded in all the metals. Havingtherefore inquired of the Cunches the best road tothe s. Tnncoaobal directed him toAvards the w.which was the most rough and mountainous; andthe same, being applied to for a guide, gave himone of his companions, whom he charged to con-duct the army by the most desolate and difficultiiroads of the coast. The guide pursued so strictlythe instruction of the Araucanian, that the Spa-niards, who in their pursuit of conquest Avere ac-customed to surmount Avith ease the severestfatigues, acknowledged that they had never before,in any of their marches, encountered difficultiescomparable with these.
25. Archipelago pf Chiloe d/sforerer/.— Havingat length overcome all obstacles, they came to thetop of a high mountain, from Avhence they dis-covered the great Archipelago of Anced, morecommonly called Chiloe, wliose channels Averecovered with a great number of boats navigatedwith sails and oars. From these islanders the Spa-niards experienced every mark of politeness andhumanity, and constantly regaled by them, theycoasted the Archipelago to the bay of Reloncavi,when some Avent over to the neighbouring islands,where they found land well cultivated, and womenemployed in spinning wool mixed with feathers ofsea birds, with Avhich they made their clothes.]
[order to practise his troops, and subsist them attlie expence of the enemy ; and after defeatingone of V^illagran’s sons, who, with n large force,
I came to give him battle, he marched against Ca-
nete ; but V^illagran, convinced of the imposibilityV of defending it, anticipated him by withdrawing
all the inhabitants, part of whom retired to Impe-rial, and part to Concepcion. The Araucanians, ontheir arrival, did not fail to destroy this city ; tlieyset it on lire, and in a short time it was entirelyconsumed.
i 33. Pedro Villagr an. -—In the mean time Vil-
lagran, more the victim of grief and mental anxietythan of his disoider, died, universally regretted bythe colonists, who lost in him a wise, humane,and valiant commander, to whose prudent con-duct they had been indebted for the preservationof their conquests. Before his death he ap-pointed as his successor, by a special commis-sion from the court, his eldest son Pedro, whose‘ mental endowments were no way inferior to hisfather’s. The death of the governor appeared toAntiguenu to present a fav;ourable opportunity toundertake some important enterprise. Havingformed his army, which consisted of 4000 men,into two divisions, he ordered one, under the com-mand of his vice-toqui, to lay siege to Concep-I cion, in order to attract thither the attention of the
1 Spaniards, while with the other he marched against
the fort of Arauco. The siege was protracted toa considerable length ; the commanders thereforedetermined to settle the affair by single combat;but after having fought, with the greatest obstinacyfor the space of two hours, they were separated bytheir men. But what force had not been able toeffect, was performed by famine. Several boats; loaded with provisions had repeatedly attempted
in vain to relieve the besieged : the vigilance ofthe besiegers opposed so insuperable an obstacle,|j| that Bernal, the commander, saw himself at length
'■ compelled to abandon the place. The Araucanians
J permitted the garrison to retire without molestation,
and contented themselves with burning the housesand demolishing the walls. The capture of An-gol, after that of Cahete and Arauco, appearedI easy to Antiguenu, but the attempt cost him his
I • life ; for after the most brilliant feats of valour andintrepidity, he was forced along with a crowd ofsoldiers who fled, and, falling from a high bank intoa river, Avas drowned.
34. The U'oqui Paillataru — Antiguenu had for' , successor in the toquiate Paillataru, the brother or
I cousin of the celebrated Lautaro. During the same
:i time a change was made of the Spanish governor.
Rodrigo de Quiroga, Avho bad been appointed to
’ ‘ VOI.. I.
that office by the royal audience of Lima, beganhis administration by arresting his predecessor,and sending him prisoner to Peru. Having re-ceived a reinforcement of 300 soldiers in 1665,he entered the Araucanian territory, rebuilt thefort of Arauco, and the city of Canete, con-structed a new fortress at the celebrated post ofQiiipeo, and ravaged the neighbouring provinces.Towards the end of the following year he sent theMarshal Ruiz Gamboa with 60 men to subject theinhabitants of the Archipelago of Chiloe ; thatofficer encountered no resistance, and founded inthe principal island the city of Castro and the portof Chacao.
35. Ar hipelago of Chiloe subjected ; descriptionof the same, iis inh(d)itanis, &c. — The islands ofthe Archipelago amount to 80, and have to all ap-pearance been produced by earthquakes, owingto the great number of volcanoes, with whichthat country formerly abounded. Every part ofthem exhibits the most unquestionable marks offire. Several mountains in the great island ofChiloe, which has given its name to the ArchipC'lago, are conqmsed of basaltic columns, whichsome authors s rongly urge could have been pro-duced only by the operation of fire. The nativeinhabitants, though descerided from the continentalChilians, as them appearance, their manners, andtheir language all evince, are nevertheless of a verydifferent character, being of a pacific, or rather atimid disposition. They made no opposition, aswe have already observed, to the handful of Spa-niards who came there to subjugate them, although^their population is said to have exceeded 70,000 ;nor have they ever attempted to shake off the yokeuntil the beginning of the last century, Avhen an in-surrection of no great importance was excited, andsoon quelled. The number of inhabitants at presentamounts to upwards of 11,000; they are dividedinto 76 districts or ulrnenates, the greater part ofwhich are subject to the Spanish commanders, andare obliged to render personal service for fifty daysin the year, according to the feudal laws, whichare rigidly observed in this province, notwithstand-ing they have been for a long time abolishedthroughout the rest of the kingdom. 'I'iieseislanders generally possess a quickness of'ctipacity,and very readily learn whatever is taught them.They haAm a genius for mechanical arts, an<l excelin carpentry, cabinet-making, and turnery, from thefrequent occasions Avhich they have to exercisethem, all their churches and houses being built ofwood. They are very good manufaefurersof linenand woollen, Avith which they mix the feathers ofsea-birds, and form beautitul coverings for their]
[beds. From their swine, which are very nume-rous, they make excellent haras, the most esteemedof any in S. America. Notwithstanding thegreat quantity of timber taken from them, theseislands are covered with thick woods ; and as itrains there almost incessantly, the cultivatedgrounds continue w'et the whole year. From henceit follows that the inhabitants, although they havecattle, make no use of them for ploughing, but tillthe earth in a very singular manner. About threemonths- before sowing time they turn their sheepupon their lands, changing their situation everythree or four nights. When the field is sufficientlymanured in this manner, they strew the grain overit. One of their strongest men then attempts toharrow it by means of a machine formed of twolarge sticks of hard wood, made sharp, and fas-tened together, which he forces against the groundwith his breast, and thus covers the seed. Not-withstanding this imperfect tillage, a crop of wheatwill yield them ten or twelve for one. They alsoraisegreat quantities of barley, beans, peas, qidnoa^and potatoes, which are the largest and best of anyin Chile. From the excessive moisture of the at-mosphere, the grape never acquires sufficient ma-turity to be made into wine, but its want is suppliedby various kinds of cider, obtained from applesand other wild fruits of the country. The neces-sity they are under of often going from one islandto another, where the sea is far from deserving thename of the Pacific, renders the Chilotes excellentsailors. Their 'pirogues are composed of three orfive large planks seAved together, and caulked Avitha species of moss that groAvs on a shrub. Theseare in great numbers throughout the Avhole of theArchipelago, and are managed Avith sails and oars,and in these frail skiffs the natives Avill frequentlyventure as far as Concepcion : and here it maynot be improper to observe, that the Indians, Avhoform the principal part of the sailors of the S. seas,are very cictive and docile, and excellent seamen.These people are fond of fishing, an occupation towhich they are led from the great variety of fishwith which their coasts abound. Large quantitiesof these are dried and seiit to foreign countries.They likcAvisc dry the testaceous kinds, particularlythe conchs, the chimps, and thepfio’cs. P'or thispurpose they arrange them in a long trench, co-vering them Avith the targe leaves of the panlcetincloria. Over these they place stones, on Avhichthey make a hot fire for several hours. They thentake the roasted animals from their shells, andstring them upon threads, Avhich they hang forsome time in the smoke : in this manner they findthem to keep very well, and so carry them to Cujo,
and other places at a distance from the sea. Assoon as the Christian religion was preached inChiloe, it was readily embraced by the natives, whohave ever since continued faithful and obedient toits precepts. Their spiritual concerns are underthe direction of the bishop of Concepcion, andtheir temporal were administered by a governorappointed by the captain-general of Chile ; but in1792 it was vested in the viceroyalty of Lima.The Spaniards at present established in this Archi-pelago amount to about 15,000, and its commerceis conducted by means of three or four shipswhich trade there annually from Peru and Chile.These purchase of the natives large quantities ofred cedar boards, timber of different kinds, suitablefor carriages, upwards of 2000 ponchos of variousqualities, hams, pilchards, dried shell-fish, whitecedar boxes, cloaks, embroidered girdles, and asmall quantity of ambergris, which is found uponthe shores; giving in exchange wine, brandy, to-bacco, sugar, herb of Paraguay, salt, and severalkinds of European goods. Independently of theabove trade, Chiloe has of late years been made anentrepot of illicit commerce betAveen the Spanishcolonies, and English and N. American shipsengaged in the S. sea fishery.
36. The court of audience established . — But toreturn to our history, the continuation of the war,and the great importance of the conquest, finallyinduced Philip II. to erect a court of royal audi-ence in Chile, independent of that of Peru. Thissupreme tribunal, embracing the political, as Avellas military administration of the kingdom, andbeing composed of four judges of law, and a fiscal,made, on the 13th of August 1567, its solemn entryinto Concepcion, Avhere it fixed its residence. Im-mediately on assuming its functions, it remoA^edQuiroga from the government, and gave the com-mand of the army, Avith the title of general, to RuizGamboa. The military government of the royalaudience Avas soon found to be inadequate to thepurpose of its establishment, and accordingly DonMclehor de Bravo was, in 1568, invested with thetriple character of president, governor, and cap-tain-general of Chile. BetAveen him and Paillatarusome serious battles Avere fought, though not suchas to alter the general state of alfairs, when, untiltlie death of the latter commander, (a period ofabout four years), the tAvo belligerent nations ob-served a truce or suspension of arms. This Avasprobably OAving in a great measure to the generalconsternation caused by a dreadful earthquakewhich Avas felt throughout the country, and did greatinjury to the Spanish settlements, partieularly thecity of Concepcion, which Avas entirely destroyed.]
[ChiquUIanians, whom some have erroneously sup-posed to be a part of the Pehuenches, live to then. e. of them, on the e. borders of the Andes.These are the most savage, and of course the leastnumerous of any of the Chilians ; for it is an esta-blished fact, that the ruder the state of savage life,the more unfavourable it is to population. Theygo almost naked, merely wrapping around themthe skin of the guanaco : their language is guttural,and a very corrupt jargon of the Chilian. It isobservable that all the Chilians who inhabit the e.valleys of the Andes, both the Pehuenches, thePuelches, and the Huilliches, as well as the Chi-quillanians, are much redder than those of theircountrymen who dwell to the zo. of that mountain.All these mountaineers dress themselves in skins,paint their faces, live in general by hunting, andlead a wandering and unsettled life. They are noother, as we have hitherto observed, than the somuch celebrated Patagonians, who have occasion-ally been seen near the straits of Magellan, and havebeen at one time described as giants, and at an-other as men a little above the common stature. Itis true, that they are, generally speaking, of a loftystature and great strength.
40. Landing and defeat of the Engish. — Nowwhilst the Araucanians endeavoured to oppose theprogress of the Spaniards in their country, andwhilst Don Alonzo Sotomayor, who succeeded Ro-drigo Quiroga in the government, was strenuouslyexerting his influence to [suppress the Pehuenchesand the Chiquillanians on the e. the English alsohad planned an expedition to these remote parts.On the 21st July 1586, Sir Thomas Cavendishsailed with three ships from Plymouth, and in thefollowing year arrived on the coast of Chile. Helanded in the desert port of Quintero, and endea-voured to enter into a negociation with the nativesof the country. But his stay there was of shortcontinuance ; he rvas attacked by Alonzo Molina,the corregidor of Santiago, and compelled to quitthe coast with the loss of several of his soldiers andseamen.
Sect. III. Comprising a period of 201 years^from 1586 to 1787.
The history of the Araucanians, with regard totheir Avars with the Spaniards in the above period,Avould form little more than a recapitulation ofbattles similar to those already described, but bear-ing, nevertheless, a corroborative testimony to theexertions which a brave and generous people Avillever exhibit for the just maintenance of their na-tural rights. The interest of these wars must,therefore, have been in a great measure anticipated,
and they will consequently be treated of in a man-ner much more general than those which have beenalready mentioned; and this, since they will allowspace for the more free detail of other politicalevents.
41. Nature of the war in anno 1589. — In thetoquiate of Guanoalca, in 1589, the Spanish go-vernor, Don Alonzo Satomayor, apprehensive thathe should not be able to defend them, or not con-sidering them of sufficient importance, evacuatedthe forts of Puren, Trinidad, and Spirito Santo,transferring the garrison to another fortress whichhe had directed to be built upon the river Puchan-qui, in order to protect the city of Angol : so thatthe war now became in a great measure reducedto the construction and demolition of fortifications.To the Toqui Guanoalca sncceeded Quintuguenuand Paillaeco, and it has been observed that therepeated victories gained over them by the Spa-niards, and which they held as the cause of suchexultation, were but the preludes of the severestdisasters that they had ever experienced inChile.
42. Independence restored. — After the death of thelast mentioned toqui, the Araucanians appointed tothe chief command the hereditary toqui of the se-cond uthal-mapu, called Paillamachu, a man ofa very advanced age, but of wonderful activity.Fortune, commonly supposed not to be propitiousto the old, so far favoured his enterprises, that hesurpassed all his predecessors in military glory,and had the singular felicity of restoring his coun-try to its ancient state of independence. Owing tothe continued successes of this general, on the 22dof November 1598, and under the government ofLoyola, not only the Araucanian provinces, but thoseof the Cunchese and Huilliches were in arms, andeven the whole of the country to the Archipelagoof Chiloe. It is asserted, that every Spaniard whohad the misfortune of being found without the gar-risons was put to death ; and it is certain that thecities of Osorno, Valdivia, Villarica, Imperial,Canete, Angol, Coya, and the fortress of Arauco,were nil at once invested with a close siege. Butnot content with this, Paillamachu, without loss oftime, crossed the Biobio, burned the cities of Con-cepcion and Chilian, laid waste the provinces intheir dependence, and returned loaded rvitli spoilto his country. In some successive battles he like-wise caused the Spaniards to cvacute the fort ofArauco, and the city of Canete, and obliged the in-habitants to retire to Concepcion. On the 14th ofNovember 1599, he caused his army to pass thebroad river Calacalla or Valdivia, by swimming,stormed the city at day-break, burned the houses, J
[killed a great number of the inhabitants, and at-tacked the vessels at anchor in the harbour, onboard of which many had taken refuge, who onlyeffected their escape by immediately settingsail.After this he returned in triumph to join Millacal-quin, one of liis officers, to whom he had entrustedtJie guard of the Biobio, with a booty of 2,000,000of dollars, all the cannon, and upwards of 400 pri-soners.
43. Expedition of the Dutch. — Ten days afterthe destruction of Valdivia, Colonel FranciscoCampo arrived there from Peru with a reinforce-ment of 300 men ; but finding it in ashes, he en-deavoured, though ineffectually, to introduce thosesuccours into the cities of Osorno, Villarica, andImperial. Amidst so many misfortunes, an expe-dition of five ships of war from Holland arrived in1600 upon the coast of Chile, which plundered theisland of Chiloe, and put the Spanish garrison tothe sword. Nevertheless, the crew of the commo-dore having landed in the litjLle island of 'i'aicaor Santa Maria, was repulsed with the loss of 23of their men, by the Araucanians wlio dwelt there,and who probably supposed them to lie Spaniards.After a siege of two years and 11 months, Villa-rica, a very populous and opulent city, fell atlength, in 1602, into the hands of the Araucanians.A similar late, after a short interval, was experi-enced by Imperial, the metropolis of the s. colo-nies ; indeed, this city would have fallen somemonths before, liad not its fate been protracted bythe courage of a Spanish heroine, called Ines ^igui-Icra. This lady perceiving the garrison to be dis-couraged, and on the point of capitulating, dis-suaded them from surrendering, and directed allthe operations in person, until a favourable oppor-tunity })resenting itself, she escaped by sea Aviththe bishop and a great part of the inhabitants.She had lost eluringthe siege her husband and bro-ther, and her valour was rewarded by the kingwith an annual pension of 2000 dollars.
44. All the Spanish settlements destroyed. —Osorno, a city not less rich and populous than thepreceding, Avas not able much longer to resist thefate that aAvaited it. It tell under the violent ef-forts of the besiegers, Avho, freed from their atten-tion to the others, Avere able to bring their Avholeforce against it. Thus, in a period of tittle morethan three years, Averc destroyed all the settlementswhich V^aldivia and his successors had establishedand preserved at the expence of so much blood, inthe extensive country betAveen the Biobio and theArchipelago of Chiloe, none of Avhich have beensince rebuilt, as Avhat is at present called Valdiviais no more than a fort or garrison. The sufferings
of the besieged were great, and can scarcely be ex-ceeded by those endured in the most celebratedsieges recorded in history. They Avere compelledto subsist on the most loathsome food, and a pieceof boiled leather was considered a sumptuous re-past by the voluptuous inhabitants of Villarica andOsorno. The cities that Avere taken Avere de-stroyed in such a manner, that at present few ves-tiges of them remain, and those ruins are regardedby the natives as objects of detestation. Althoughgreat numbers of the citizens perished in the de-fence of their walls, the prisoners of all ranks andsexes Avere so numerous, that there was scarcely anAraucanian family who had not one to its share.The women were taken into the seraglios of theirconquerors. Husbands were, however, permittedfor the most part to retain their Avives, and the un-married to espouse the women of the country ; andit is not a little remarkable that ihe Mustees, oroffspring of these singular marriages, became in thesubsequent wars the most terrible enemies of theSpanish name. The ransom and exchange of pri-soners was also permitted. By this means manyescaped from captivity. Some, however, inducedby the love of their children, preferred to remainwith their captors during their lives ; others, whoacquired the affection of the people, by their plea-sing manners or their skill in the arts, establishedthemselves advantageously in the country. Amongthe latter were Don Basilio Roxas and Don An-tonio Bascugnan, both of noble birth, who acquiredhigh reputation among the natives, and have leftinteresting memoirs of the transactions of their owntimes. But those who fell into brutal hands hadmuch to suffer. Paillamachu did not long enjoythe applause of his countrymen : lie died at theend of the year 1603, and Avas succeeded by Hu-necura. In consequence of the disasters the Spa-niards encountered during the reign of the lastmentioned toqui, and under the second govern-ment of Garcia Ramon, in 1608, the court of Spainissued orders, that hereafter there should con-stantly be maintained on the Araucanian frontier abody of 2000 regular troops, for Avhosc support anappropriation of 292,279 dollars annually Avas madein the treasury' of Peru.
45. Court of audience re-estahlished. — On the8th of September in the folloAving year, the royalcourt of audience, Avhich had been suppressed for34 years, Avas again established, though not in itsancient situation, but in the city of St. Jago, tothe great satisfaction of the inhabitants ; sincewhich period it has continued to exist Avith a highreputation for justice and integrity. According tothe royal decree establishing the court of audience,"!
[had been deserted for more than 40 years, wherethey intended to form an establishment in order toconquer the rest of the kingdom. With this viewthey immediately began building three strong fortsat the entrance of the river, in order to secure itspossession. The Araucanians were invited, withthe most flattering promises, to join them ; this theynot only declined, but strictly adhering to the sti-pulations of the treaty, refused to furnish them withprovisions, of which tliey were greatly in want.The Cunchese, to whom the territory which theyhad occupied belonged, following the counsel oftheir allies, refused also to treat with them or sup-ply them. In consequence of this refusal, theDutch, pressed with hunger, and hearing tliat acombined army of Spaniards and Araucanians wereon their march against them, were compelled toabandon the ])lace in three months aftertheir land-ing. The Marquis de Mancura, son to the vice-roy of Pern, having soon after arrived there insearch of them, with 10 ships of war, fortified theharbour, and particulary the island, which hassince borne the titular name of his family. Onthe termination of the sixth year of his govern-ment, Baydes was recalled by the court, and DonMartin IVluxica appointed in his place.
51. Dreadful earthquake.— lAa succeeded inpreserviiijr the kingdom in that state of tranquil-lity in which he found it, no other commotion oc-curring during his government, but that producedby a violent earthquake, which, on the 8th of May1617, destroyed part of the city of St. Jago.The fortune of his successor, Don vVntonio Acugna,was very dift'erent. During his government thewar was excited anew between the Spaniards andAraucanians ; but contemporary writers have leftus no accounts of the causes that produced it,Clentaru, the hereditaiy toqui of Lauquemapu,being, in 1655, unanimously elected general, sig-nalized his first campaign bj’ the total defeat ofthe Spanish army. He, moreover, continued topersecute the Spaniards with great violence for aperiod of 10 years, under the governments of DonPedro Portel Casanate, and Don Francisco Me-neses. The last, who was a Portuguese l)y birth,had the glory of terminating it, in 1665, by a peacemore permanent than that made by Baydes. Allthe succeeding governors appear to have kept upa good understanding witli the Araucanians untilthe year 1686, when Garro was nearly breaking it,on occasion of removing tlie inhabitants of theisland of Mocho to the ?z. shore of the Biobib,iti order to cut off all communication with foreignenemies.
^ 52. Commerce zeilh the French.~T\\Q com-
mencement of the present aera was marked in Chileby the deposition of the Governor Doi^ FranciscoIbanez, the rebellion of the inhabitants of Chiloe,and the trade with the French. The islandersof Chiloe were soon restored to obedience, throughthe prudent conduct of the quarter-master-generalof the kingdom, Don Pedro Molina, who succeededin reducing them rather by mild measures than byuseless victories. The French, in consequence ofthe war of the succession, possessed themselvesfor a time of all tlie external commerce of Chile.From 1707 to 1717, its ports were filled with theirships, and they carried from thence incrediblesums in gold and silver. It w as at this period thatthe learned F'ather Feuille, whoremained there threeyears, made his botanical researches and meteorolo-gical observations upon the coast. His amiable quali-ties obtained him the esteem of the inhai)itants, whostill cherish his memory with much affection. Itw'as in 1722 that the Araucanians, impatient atthe insolence of those who were designated by thetitle of captains of the friends ; and who having"'been introduced under pretence of guarding themissionaries, arrogated to themselves a species ofauthority over the natives, resolved to create atoqui, and have recourse to arms. A war in con-sequence ensued, but it soon became reduced tolittle skirmishes, which were finally terminated bytlie celebrated peace of Negrete, a place situatedat the confluence of the rivers Biobio and Lara,where the treaty of Quillan was reconfirmed, andthe odious title of captain of friends wholly abo-lished.
53. How the Pehuenches became inimical tothe Spaniards. Governor Gonzaga was thenext Avho excited the flames of war by endeavour-ing to effect more than his predecessors. He un-dertookto compel the Araucanians to live in cities.This chimerical scheme was ridiculed by thosewho knew the prejudices of tiiis people, and it wasfinally abandoned, not, however, till it had pro-cured another powerful, and for ever after impla-cable enemy to the Spaniards. Tiiis was no otherthan the Peliuenches, avIio being in the above warin alliance with (he Spaniards, and who sufiered aconsiderable defeat whilst fighting against theAraucanians, resolved all at once to'change sides,and have ever since been the firm allies of the lat-ter. They have a practice of attacking the Spa-nish caravans from Buenos Ayres to Chile, andevery year furnishes some melancholy inforinationof that kind. We shall not proceed particularlyto notice several actions, and among others abloody battle wdiich was fougiit in tlie beginning ofthe year 1773 ; mention of which was made in t1iel
[European gazettes of that period, at which timethe war had cost the royal treasury and individuals1,700,000 dollars.
54. Peace restored . — The same year an accom-modation' was agre(?d on; and by this it was al-lowed that the Araucaiiians should afterwards havea minister resident in the city of St. Jago. Withrespect to the other articles of the peace, it is suf-ficient fo state, that the treaties of Quillan andNegrete were by mutual consent revived. On thedeath of Gonzaga, the court of Spain sent DonAugustin Jaiiregui to govern Chile, who has sincefilled with universal approbation the important of-fice of viceroy of Peru. His successor, DonAmbrosio Benavides, has rendered the countryhappy by his wise and beneficent administration.
Present slate of Chile.
From the brief relation that we have given ofthe occurrences in Chile since its discovery, it willbe seen that its possession has cost Spain moreblood and treasure than all the rest of her settle-ments in America. The Araucanians, occupyingbut a small extent of territory, have with far in-ferior arms not only been able to counterbalanceher power, till then reputed irresistible, but toendanger the loss of her best established possessions.Though the greater part of her officers had beenbred in that school of war, the Low Countries, andher soldiers, armed with those destructive wea-pons before which the most extensives empires ofthat continent had fallen, were considered the bestin the world, yet have these people succeeded inresisting them. The Spaniards, since losingtheir settlements in Araucania, have prudentlyconfined their views to establishing themselvesfirmly in that part of Chile Avhich lies betweenthe s. confines of Peru and the river Biobio,and extends from lat. 24° to 36|° 5. : this they havedivided into 13 provinces. They also possess thefortress of Valdivia, in the country of tiie Cuu-chese, the Archipelago of Chiloe, and the islandof Juan Fernandez.
1. Civil government . — These provinces are go-verned by an officer, who has usually the rank oflieutenant-general, and combines the title of pre-sident, governor, and captain-general of the king-dom of Chile, lie resides in the city of St. Jago,and is solely dependent upon the king, e.xcept incase of war, when, in certain points, he receiveshis directions from the viceroy of Peru. In qua-lity of captain-general he commands the army, andhas under him not only the three principal officersof the kingdom, the quarter-master, the serjeant-
major, and the commissary, but also the four go- .vernors of Chiloe, Valdivia, Valparaiso, and JuanFernandez. As president and governor, he has thesupreme administration of justice, and presidesover the superior tribunals of that capital, whosejurisdiction extends all over the Spanish provincesin those parts. The principal of these is the tri-bunal of audience, or royal senate, whose decisionis final in all causes of importance, both civil andcriminal ; and is divided into two courts, the onefor the trial of civil, and the other for the trial ofcriminal causes. Both are composed of severalrespectable judges, called auditors, of a regent, afiscal or royal procurator, and a protector of theIndians. All these officers receive large salariesfrom the court. Their judgment is final, exceptin causes Avhere the sum in litigation exceeds10,000 dollars, when an appeal may be had tothe supreme council of the Indies. The other su-preme courts are those of finance, of the cruzada,of vacant lands, and the consulate or tribunal ofcommerce, which is wholly independent of anyother of that kind. The provinces are governedby prefects, formerly called corregidors, but atpresent known by the name of sub-delegates ; these,according to the forms of their institution, shouldbe of royal nomination, but owing to the distanceof the court they are usually appointed by thecaptain-general, of whom they style themselvesthe lieutenants, d hey have jurisdiction both ofcivil and military affairs, and their emoluruents ofoffice depend entirely upon their fees, whichare by no means regular. In each capital of aprovince there is, or at least should be, a munici-pal magistracy, called the cabildo, which is com-posed, as in other parts of the Spanish dominions,of several members, called regidores, who are ap-pointed for life, of a standard-bearer, a procura-tor, a forensic judge, denominated the provincialalcalde, an alguazil or high sllerift, and of twoconsuls or burgo-masters, called alcaldes. Thelatter are chosen annually from among the princi-pal nobility by the cabildo itself, and have juris-diction both in civil and criminal causes in thefirst instance.
2. Military force.— The inhabitants are dividedinto regiments, which are obliged to march to thefrontiers or the sea-coast in case of war. In 1792there were 15,856 militia troops enrolled in the twobishoprics of Santiago and Concepcion; 10,218 inthe first, and 5638 in the latter. Besides this re-gular militia, there are a great many city militias,that are commanded by commissaries, who act ascolonels. A sufficient force also of regular troopsfor the defence of the country is maintained by]
]^pean merchandise gold, silver, copper, vicugnawool, and hides. A trade with the East Indieswould be more profitable to the Chilians'than anyother, as tlieir most valuable articles have eitherbecome scarce, or are not produced in that wealthypart of Asia ; and the passage, in consequence ofthe prevalence of the s. winds in the Pacific, wouldbe easy and expeditious. No money is coined orhas currency in Chile except gold and silver, acircumstance very embarrassing to the internaltraffic. Their smallest silver coin is one sixteenthof a dollar, and their weights and measures are thesame that are used in Madrid.
13. Natural divisions. — Chile, properly called,or that part which is situated between the Andes andthe sea, and within lat. 24° and 45° s. is at least 120miles in breadth. It is commonly divided intotwo equal parts, that is, the maritime country, andthe midland country ; the maritime country is in-tersected by three chains of mountains, runningparallel to the Andes, between which are numerousvalleys watered by delightful rivers. The midlandcountry is almost flat ; a few insulated hills only areto be seen, which diversify and render the appear-ance of it more pleasing. The Andes, which areconsidered as the loftiest mountains in the world,cross the whole continent of America, in a directionfrom s. to n. for we cannot consider the mountainsin North America in any other light than as a con-tinuation of the cordilleras. The part appertainingto Chile may be 120 miles in breadth ; it consistsof a great number of mountains, all of tliernofaprodigious height, which appear to be chained toeach other, and where nature displays all thebeauties and all the horrors of the most picturesquesituations. Although it abounds witli frightfulprecipices, many agreeable valleys and fertile pas-tures are to be found there; and the rivers, whichderive their sources from the mountains, often ex-hibit the most pleasing as well as the most terrify-ing features. That portion of the cordilleras whichis situated between lat. 24° and 33° is wholly de-sert ; but the remainder, as far as the 45°, is in-habited by some colonies of Chilians, who areCcallcd Chiquillanes, Pehuenches, Puelches, andHuilliches, but are more generally known by thename of Patagonians. The surface of Chile isestimated at 378,000 square miles. There areabout eight or nine roads which cross its cordillera ;of which that leading from the province of Acon-cagua to Cuyo, although dangerous, as being nar-row, and having on either side lofty and perpendi-cular mountains, is the most travelled. Mules areoften precijiitated from these roads into the riversbeneath.
14. Political divisions . — The political divisionsof Chile consist of the part occupied by the Spa-niards, and that which is inhabited by the Indians.The Spanish part is situated between lat. 24° and37° s. and is divided into 13 provinces, viz.Copiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Meli-pilla, and St. Jago, (which contains the capital cityof the country of the same name), Rancagua, Cal-diagua, Maule, Ytata, Chilian, Puchacay, andIluilquelemu. The Indian country is situated be-tween the river Biobio and the Archipelago ofChiloe, or lat. 36° and 41°. It is inhabited by threedifferent nations, the Araucanians, the Cunches,and the Huilliches. The Araucanians do not, asMr. De Paun pretends, inhabit the barren rocks ofChile, but, on the contrary, the finest plains in thewhole country, situate between the rivers Biobioand Valdivia.
15. Climate . — Chile is ono of the best countries
in America. The beauties of its sky, the constantmildness of its climate, and its abundant fertility,render it, as a place of residence, extremely agree-able ; and with respect to its natural productions,it may be said, without exaggeration, not to be in-ferior to any portion of the globe. The seasons suc-ceed each other regularly, and are sufficientlymarked, aithougli the transition from cold to heatis very moderate. The spring in Chile commences,as in all the countries of the s. hemisphere, the 22dSeptember, the summer in December, the autumnin March, and the winter in June. The followingaccount is from Robertson s History of America^vol. IV. c. 7. “ That part of Chile which may
properly be deemed a Spanish province, is a narrowdistrict, extending along the coast from the desertof Atacamas to the island of Chiloe, above 900miles. Its climate is the most delicious of thenew world, and is hardly equalled by that of anyregion on the face of the earth. Though border-ing on the torrid zone, it never feels the extremityof heat, being screened on the e. by the Andes, andrefreshed from the w. by cooling sea-breezes. Thetemperature of the air is so mild and equable, thatthe Spaniards give it the preference of that of the
provinces in their native country. The fertiliU’of the soil corresponds with the benignity of theclimate, and is wonderfully accommodated toEuropean productions. The most valuable ofthese, corn, wine, and oil, abound in Chile, as ifthey had been native in the country. Ail the fruitsimported from Europe attain to full maturity there.The animals of our hemisphere not only multiply,but improve in this delightful region. The hornedcattle are of larger size than those of Spain. Itsbreed of horses surpasses, both in beauty and in]
[w hich come from the n. occasion very heavy rains,accompanied with thunder, in all the provincesbey ond the Andes, ^particularly in those of Tucu-man and Cujo, while at the same time the atmos-phere of Chile is constantly clear, and its inhabi-tants enjoy their finest season. The contrarytakes place in winter, wl)ich is the fine season inthese provinces, and the rainy in Chile. Thes.wind never continues blowing during the wholeday with the same force ; as the sun .approaclicsthe meridian, it falls very considerably, and risesagain in the afternoon. At noon, when this windis scarcely perceptible, a fresh breeze is felt fromthe sea, which continues about two or three hours ;the husbandmen give it the name of the twelveo’clock breeze, or the countryman’s watch, as it.serves to regulate them in determining tliat hour.Th is sea-breeze returns regularly at midnight, andis supposed to be produced by the tide; it isstronger in autumn, and sometimes accompaniedwith hail. The e. winds rarely prevail in Chile,their course being obstructed by the Andes. Hur-ricanes, so common in the Antilles, are unknowuhere; there exists indeed a solitary example of ahurricane, which, in 1633, did much injury to thefortress of Caremalpo, in the part of Chile.The mild temperature which Chile almost alwaysenjoys must depend entirely upon the succession ofthese winds, as a situation so near thetroj)ic wouldnaturally expose it to a more violent degree ofheat. In addition to those, the tide, the abundantdews, and certain winds from the Andes, whichare distinct from the e. wind, coot the air so muchin summer, that in the shade no one is ever in-commoded with perspiration. The dress of theinhabitants of the sea-coast is the .same in the win-ter as in the summer ; and in the interior, Avherethe heat is more perceptible than elsewhere, Reau-mur’s thermometer scarcely ever exceeds 25°.The nights, throughout the country, are generallyof a very agreeable tem.pcraturc. Notwithstand-ing the moderate heat of Chile, all the fruits ofAvarin countries, and even those of the tropics,arrive to great perfection there, Avhich renders itprobable that the Avarmth ofthe soil far exceedsthat ofthe atmosphere. The countries borderingon the e. of Chile do not enjoy these refreshingwinds ; the air there is suffocating, and as oppres-sive as in Africa under the same latitude.
18. ]\Teleors . — Meteors are A'ery frequent inChile, especially those called shooting stars, whicharc to be seen there almost the Avliole year ; alsoballs of fire, that usually rise from the Andes, andfall into the sea. The aurora australis, on thethe contrary, is very uncommon ; that which was
observed in 1640 was one of the largest; it wasvisible, from the accounts that have been left usfrom the month of February until April. Duringthis century they have appeared at four differenttimes. This phenomenon is more frequently vi-sible in the Archipelago of Chiloe, from the greaterelevation ofthe pole in that part of the country.
19. Volcanoes . — That a country producing suchan abundance of sulphureous, nitrous, and bitu-minous substances, should be subject to volcaniceruptions, is not to be Avondered at. The nume-rous volcanoes in the cordilleras wmdd, of them-selves, furnish a sufficient proof of the quantity ofthese combustible materials ; there are said tobe 14 Avhich are in a constant state of eruption,and a still greater number that discharge smokeonly at intervals. 'J’hese are all situated in thatpart of the Andes appertaining to Chile, and nearlyin the middle of that range of mountains ; so thatthe lava and ashes thrown out by them never ex-tend beyond their limits. These mountains andtheir vicinities are found, on examination, to con-tain great quantities of sulphur and sal-ammoniac,marcasite in an entire and decomposed state, cal-cined and crystaliized stones, and various metallicsubstances. The greatest eruption ever known inChile was that of Peteroa, Avhich happened on theSd of December 1760, when that volcano formeditself a new crater, and a neighbouring mountainAvas rent asunder for many miles in extent; theeruption was accompanied by a dreadful explo-sion, Avhich Avas heard throughout the wholecountry ; fortunately it Avas not succeeded by anyvery violent shocks of an earthquake : the quan-tify of lava and ashes was so great that it filledthe neighbouring valleys, and occasioned a rise oftlie Avaters of the Tingeraca, which continued formany days. At the same time the course of theLontue, a very considerable river, was impededfor 10 days, by a part of the mountain which felland filled its bed ; the Avater at length forced itselfa passage, overfloAved all the neighbouring plains,and formed a lake which still remains. In theAvhole ofthe country not included in the Andes,there are but two volcanoes ; the first, situate atthe mouth of the river Rapel, is small, and dis-charges only a little smoke from time to time ; thesecond is the great volcano of Villarica, in thecountry of Arauco. This volcano may be seen atthe distance of 130 miles ; and although* it appearsto be insulated, it is said to be connected by itsbase Avith the Andes. 'J'he summit of the moun-tain is covered with snoAv, and is in a constantstate of eruption ; it is 14 miles in circumferenceat its base, which is principally covered with]
at the most, of 360 houses : for having been des-troyed by tlie Araucanians, in 1599, it as neversine e been able to reach its former degree of splen-dour. Jt lies between the river Nuble to the n.and the Itala to the s. in lat. 35° 56' s.
another, a mountain or volcano of the sameprovince and corregimiento (Chillan), at a little distancefrom the former city. On its skirts are the Indiannations of the Puclches, Pehuenches, and Chiquillanes, who have an outlet by the navigation ot theriver Demante.
CHILLOA, a llanura of the kingdom of Quito, near this capital, between twochains of mountains, one very lofty towards thee. and the other lower towards the s. It is wateredby two principal rivers, the Pita and the Amaguana,which at the end of the llanura unitethemselves at the foot of the mountain calledGuangapolo, in the territory of the settlement ofAlangasi, and at the spot called Las Juntas. In thisplain lie the settlements of Amaguana, Sangolqui,Alangasi, and Conocoto, all of which are curacies ofthe jurisdiction of Quito. It is of a mild and pleasanttemperature, although sometimes rather cold, fromits proximity to the mountains or paramos of Pintac, Antisana, Rurainavi, and Sincholagua. Herewas formerly celebrated the cavalgata, by the col-legians of the head- college and seminary of SanLuis dc Quito, during the vacations. The soilproduces abundance of wheat and maize. It ismuch resorted to by the gentlemen of Quito as aplace of recreation, it is eight or nine leagues inlength, and six in width.
[CHILMARK, a township on Martha’s Vineyard island, Duke’s county, Massachusetts, con-taining 771 inhabitants. It lies 99 miles s. by e.of Boston. See Maktha’s Vineyard.]
CHILOE, a large island of the Archipelago orAncud of the kingdom of Chile, being one of the18 provinces or corregimientos which compose it.It is 58 leagues in length, and nine in width at thebroadest part ; and varies until it reaches onlytwo leagues across, which is its narrowest part. Itis of a cold temperature, being very subject toheavy rains and fresh winds ; notwithstanding '
which its climate is healthy. Around it are fourother islands ; and the number of settlements inthese are 25, which are,
All of these are mountainous, little cultivatad,and produce only a small proportion of wheat,barley, flax, and papas ^ esteemed the best of anyin America ; besides some swine, of which hamsare made, which they cure by frost, and are of sodelicate a flavour as not only to be highly esteemedhere, but in all other parts, both in and out of thekingdom, and are in fact a very large branch ofcommerce. The principal trade, however, con-sists in planks of several exquisite woods, the treesof which are so thick, that from each of them arscut in general 600 planks, of 20 feet in length,and of 1| foot in width. Some of these treeshave measured 24 yards in circumference. Thenatives make various kinds of woollen garments,such as ponchos f quilts, coverlids, baizes, and bor~dillos. The whole of this province is for the mostpart poor ; its natives live very frugally, and withlittle communication with any other part of theworld, save with those who are accustomed to comehither in the fleet once a-year. Altliough it hassome small settlements on the continent, in Val-divia, yet these are more than 20 or 30 leagues dis-tant from this place, and are inhabited by infidelIndians. These islands abound in delicate shell-fish of various kinds, and in a variety of otherfish ; in the taking of which the inhabitants aremuch occupied, and on which they chiefly sub-sist. This jurisdiction is bounded on the n. bythe territory of the ancient city of Osorno, whichwas destroyed by the Araucanian Indians, bythe extensive Archipelagoes of Huayaneco andHuaytecas, and others which reach as far as thestraits of Magellan and the Terra del Fuego, e.by the cordilleras and the Patagonian country, andw. by the Pacific or S. sea. On its mountains arefound amber, and something resembling gold dust,which is washed up by the rains, although no
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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.
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