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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]





and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore ofthe river Choromoros.

(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St.Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock coun-ties, in the district of Maine. The carrying placefrom boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in theKetmebeck, is only five miles.)

(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine milesabove Quebec, on the opposite shore, and aboutthree or four miles back from the river St. Law-rence, into which the river Chaudiere disemboguesitself. The river is seen at a distance, emergingfrom a thick wood, and gradually expandingfrom an almost imperceptible stream till it reachesdie cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, whichiippear to have been rent from their bed by someviolent convulsion of nature, break the course ofthe waters, and precipitate them from a height of120 feet into an immense chasm below. In someparts large sheets of water roll over the precipice,and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in otherplaces the water dashes from one fragment of therock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellow-ing and foaming with rage in every hollow andcavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence itrushes down with the rapidity of lightning intothe boiling surge beneath, where it rages with in-conceivable fury, till driven from the gulf byfresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself inthe waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenerywhich accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere isbeautiful and romantic beyond description. Inthe centre, a large fragment of rock, which firstdivides the water, at the summit of the precipice,forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree,which grows upon it, is thus placed in a mostsingular and picturesque situation. The forest oneither side the river consists of firs, pines, birch,oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs,intermingled in the most wild and romantic man-ner. Their dark green foliage, joined with thebrown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments overwhich the water precipitates itself, form a strik-ing and pleasing contrast to the snowy white-ness of the foaming surge, and the columns ofsparkling spray which rise in clouds and minglewith the air.)

CHAUGE, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina ; situate on the shore of the riverTugelo.

CHAUICO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Tlacotepec, and alcaldía


mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It con-tains 57 families of Indians.

CHAUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Chupamarca in the province ofYauyos.

Chauin, another settlement in the provinceand corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CHAUINA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Paraisancos.

CHAUINILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huamalies in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pachas.

CHAUITAS, La Presentacion de, a settle-ment of the province and government of Mainas inthe kingdom of Quito.

CHAULAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacar.

CHAUNAMILLA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Maule in the kingdomof Chile ; situate upon the shore and at the sourceof the river Jecudahue.

CHAUPICOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Atabillos Baxos.

CHAUPIMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Tapú.

CHAUTLAN, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldía mayor of Zoques in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHAUX, PUNTA DE, an extremity of the e.coast of the island of Martinique, one of the An-tilles. It runs into the sea nearly equal with thatof Carabelle.

CHAXAL, a river of the province and alcaldíamayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala.It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of Hi-gueras.

CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Co-chabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by thatof Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leaguesin length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Itstemperature is various, since it contains the settle-ments of Puna and Valles ; in the former of theseare found in abundance the productions of thesierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and otherseeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic withthe surrounding provinces, especially in the ar-ticles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred

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abundance of the various kinds of grain cultivatedin other parts of the state ; the people manufactureearthenware, pot and pearl ashes, in large quanti-ties, which they export to New York or Quebec.Their wool is excellent ; their beef and pork se-cond to none ; and the price of stall-fed beef inMontreal, 60 miles from Plattsburg, is such as toencourage the farmers to drive their cattle to thatmarket. Their forests supply them with sugarand molasses, and the soil is well adapted to theculture of hemp. The land-carriage from anypart of the country, in transporting their produceto New York, does not exceed 18 miles ; the car-rying place at Ticonderoga is one mile and a half,and from fort George, at the s. end of the lakeof that name, to fort Edward, is but 14 miles.The small obstructions after that are to be removedby the proprietors of the n. canal. From thiscountry to Quebec, are annually sent large rafts ;the rapids at St. John’s and Chamblee being theonly interruptions in the navigation, and those notso great, but that at some seasons batteaux with60 bushels of salt can ascend them ; salt is soldhere at half a dollar a bushel. Seranac, Sable, andBoquet rivers water Clinton county ; the first isremarkable for the quantity of salmon it pro-duces.]

[Clinton, a township in Dutchess county.New York, above Poughkeepsie. It is large andthriving, and contains 4607 inhabitants, including176 slaves. Six hundred and sixty-six of its in-habitants are electors.]

[Clinton, a settlement in Tioga county. NewYork, bounded by Fayette on the n. Warren onthe s. Green on the w. and Franklin in Otsegocounty on the e. Unadilla river joins the Susque-hannah at the n. e, corner, and the confluent streamruns s. zis. to Warren.]

[Clinton, a plantation in Lincoln county,district of Maine, lies 27 miles from Hallowell.]

[Clinton Parish, in the township of Paris,seven miles from Whitestown, is a wealthy, plea-sant, flourishing settlement, containing severalTiandsome houses, a newly erected Prebyterianmeeting-house, a convenient school-house, and anedifice for an academy, delightfully situated, butnot yet finished. Between this settlement and theIndian settlements at Oneida, a distance of 12 miles,(in June 1796), was wilderness without any inha-bitants, excepting a few Indians at the Old Oneidavillage.]

[Clinton’s Harbour, on the ??. w. coast of N.America, has its entrance in lat. 52° 12' n. Cap-tain Gray named it after Governor Clinton of NewYork.]

[CLIOQUOT. See Clyoquot.]

CLIPSA, a fertile and pleasant plain, or llanura,of the kingdom of Peru, in the jurisdiction ofChuquisaca, and bounded by that of Cochabamba.It is 30 miles in circumference, is well peopled,and very fertile and pleasant, and its climate ishealthy.

[CLISTINOS, a fierce nation of Indians, whoinhabit round Hudson bay. See New Britain.]

CLOS, a settlement of North Carolina, in the countyof Anson.

[CLOSTER, a village in Bergen county, NewJersey, nearly seven miles s. e. ofPeramus, and16 n. of New York city.]

[CLIOQUOT, a sound or bay on the n. w.coast of America, to. from Berkley’s sound. SeeHancock’s Harbour.]

COACALCO, San Francisco de, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Ecatepec in NuevaEspafia. It contains 129 families of Indians.

COACHIC, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province of Taraumura, and kingdomof Nueva Vizca 3 >^a. It is S4 leagues to the s. w.of the town and real of Mines of Chiguagua ; andabout the distance of a league and a half in thesame direction, lies an estate of the same name.

COACLAN, San Gaspar de, a settlement ofthe alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva Espana.It contains 218 families of Indians, in which areincluded those of its six neighbouring wards. Itis oiie league s. of its capital.

COACULA, Asuncion de, a settlement ofthe head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Igualain Nueva Espana. It contains 37 families of In-dians.

COAGUILA, aprovince of Nueva España, bounded by theNuevo Reyno de Leon. It extends as far as theriver Medina ; runs 200 leagues in length towardsthe n. and is 160 wide from s. w. to n. e. All thisextensive country is as it were unpeopled, beinginhabited no otherwise than by some few settle-ments established by the missions, who consist ofthe monks of St. Francis of the city of Queretano,who have succeeded in converting some of the na-tives. There are, however, three garrisons upoathe frontiers of the sierras^ and country of the in-fidel Indians, for the purpose of checking anyirruption. This province is watered by manylarge rivers, the principal of which arc those ofNadadores and St. Domingo. There arc heresome estates, in Avhich large and small cattle breedplentifully, on account of the fineness of the pas-tures. The capital is the town and garrison of

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>v1io inhabit the woods lying near the river Cuclii-gara, bomided by the nation of the Cunmnaes, Itis but little known.

CUMBA, a settlement of tlie province andcorregimicnto of Luya and Chillaos in Peru.

CUMBAL, a settlement of the province and jcorregimknlo of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito.

CUMBAL, a very lofty mountain of this pro-vince (Pastos), always covered with snow ; from it rises theriver Carlosama, which runs e. and the Mallama,which runs n. In Lat. .54° n.

CUMBAYA, a settlement of the kingdom ofQuito, in the corregimiento of the district of LasCinco Leguas de su Capital.

CUMBE. See Chumbe.

CUMBERLAND, Bay of, on the most «.coast of America. Its entrance is beneath thepolar circle, and it is thought to have a commu-nication with Batlin’s bay to the n. In it are se-veral islands of the same name. The bay wasthus called by the English, according to Marti-niere, who, however, makes no mention of theislands.

Cumberland, a port of the island of Cuba,anciently called Guantanamo; but the AdmiralVernon and General Werabort, who arrived herein 1741 with a strong squadron, and formed anencampment upon the strand, building at the sametime a fort, gave it this name in honour to theDuke of Cumberland. It is one of the best portsin America, and from its size capable of shelter-ing any number of vessels. The climate is salu-tary, and the country around abounds in cattleand provisions. Here is also a river of very goodfresh water, navigable for some leagues, andnamed Augusta by the said admiral. It is 20leagues to the e. of Santiago of Cuba, in lat. 20°71. and long. 75° 12' w.

Cumberland, another bay, of the island ofJuan Fernandez, in the S. sea. It lies betweentwo small ports, and was thus named by AdmiralAnson. It is the best in the island, although ex-posed to the n, wind, and insecure.

Cumberland Cumberland, an island of the province andcolony of Georgia, in N. America, near 20 milesdistant from the city of Frederick. It has twoforts, called William and St. Andrew. The first,which is at the s. extremity, and commands theentrance, called Amelia, is well fortified, and gar-risoned with eight cannons. There are also bar-racks for 220 men, besides store-houses for arms,provisions, and timber.

[Cumberland, a harbour on the e. side ofWashington’s isles, on the n, is, coast ofN. Ame-

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rica. It lies s. of Skitikise, and n. of Cumma-shawaa.J

[Cumberland House, one of the Hudson’s baycompany’s factories, is situated in New SouthWales, in N. America, 158 miles e. n. e. of Hud-son’s 'house, on the s. side of Pine island lake.Lat. 53° 58' 7i. Long. 102° w. See NelsonRiver.]

[Cumberland, a fort in New Brunswick ;situated at the head of the bay of Fundy, on thee. side of its n. branch. It is capable of accom-modating 300 men.]

[Cumberland, a county of New Brunswick,which comprehends the lands at the head of thebay of Fundy, on the bason called Chebecton,and the rivers which empty into it. It has seve-ral townships ; those which are settled are Cum-berland, Sackville, Amherst, Hillsborough, andHopewell. It is watered by the rivers Au Lac,Missiquash, Napan Macon, Memrarncook, Pet-coudia, Chepodi^, and Herbert. The three firstrivers are navigable three or four miles for ves-sels of five tons. The Napan and Macon areshoal rivers ; the Herbert is navigable to its head,12 miles, in boats ; the others are navigable fouror five miles.]

[Cumberland, a town of New Brunswick, inthe county of its own name. Here are coal mines.]

[Cumberland, County, in the district of Maine,lies between Y ork and Lincoln counties ; has theAtlantic ocean on the s. and Canada on the w.Its sea-coast, formed into numerous bays, and linedwith a multitude of fruitful islands, is nearly 40miles in extent in a straight line. Saco river, whichruns s. e. into the ocean, is the dividing line be-tween this county and York on the s.w. CapeElizabeth and Casco bay are in this county. Cum-berland is divided into 24 townships, of whichPortlatid is the chief. It contains 25,450 inha-bitants.]

[Cumberland County`, in New Jersey, isbounded s. by Delaware bay, 7i. by Gloucestercounty, s. e. by cape May, and w. by Salemcounty. It is divided into seven townships, ofwhich Fairfield and Greenwich are the chief;and contains 8248 inhabitants, of whom 120 areslaves.]

[Cumberland, the «. easternmost township ofthe state of Rhode Island, Providence county.Pawtucket bridge and falls, in this town, are fourmiles 71. e. of Providence. • It contains 1964 inha-bitants, and is the only town in the state whichhas no slaves.]

[Cumberland County, in Pennsylvania,, is

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bounded ??. and 71 . w. by Mifiiin ; e. and n.e. bySusqiiehaiinah river, which divides it from Dau-phin ; i-. by York, and s.w. by Franklin county.It is 47 miles in length, and 42 in breadth, and has10 townships, of which Carlisle is the chief. Thecounty is generally mountainous; lies between^North and Soutli mountain ; on each side of Cone-dogwinet creek, there is an extensive, rich, andwell cultivated valley. It contains 18,243 inhabi-tants, of whom 223 are slaves.]

[Cumberland, a township in York county,Pennsylvania. Also the name of a township inWashington county, in the same state.]

[Cumberland County, in Fayette district, N.Carolina, contains 8671 inhabitants, of whom 2181are slaves. Chief town Fayetteville.]

rCUMBERLAND, a township of the above county (Cumberland),in N. Carolina,]

[Cumberland, a post-town and the chieftownship of Alleghany county, Maryland, lies onthe «. bank of a great bend of Potowmack river,and on both sides of the mouth of Will’s creek.It is 148 miles w. by n. of Baltimore, 109 mea-sured miles above Georgetown, and about 105». w. of Washington City. Fort Cumberlandstood formerly at the w. side of the mouth of Will’screek.]

[Cumberland County, in Virginia, on the«, side of Appamatox river, which divides it fromPrince Edward. It contains 8153 inhabitants, ofwhom 4434 are slaves. The court-house is 28miles from Pawhatan court-house, and 52 fromRichmond.]

[Cumberland Mountain occupies a part ofthe uninhabited country of the state of Tennessee,between the districts of Washington and Hamiltonand Mero district, and between the two firstnamed districts and the state of Kentucky. Theridge is about SO miles broad, and extends fromCrow creek, on Tennessee river, from s. w. ion. e.The place where the Tennessee breaks through theGreat ridge, called the Whirl or Suck, is 250miles above the Muscle shoals. Limestone isfound on both sides the mountain. The moun-tain consists of the most stupendous piles of craggyrocks of any mountain in the w. country ; inseveral parts of it, it is inaccessible for miles, evento the Indians on foot. In one place particularly,near the summit of the mountain, there is a mostremarkable ledge of rocks, of about SO miles inlength, and 200 feet thick, shewing a perpen-dicular face to the s. e. more noble and grand thanany artificial fortification in the known world, andapparently equal in point of regularity.]

[Cumberland River, called by the Indians“ Shawanee,” and by the French “ Shavanon,”falls into the Ohio 10 miles above the mouth ofTennessee river, and about 24 miles due e. fromfort Massac, and 1113 below Pittsburg. It isnavigable for large vessels to Nashville in Ten-nessee, and from thence to the mouth of Obed’s orObas river. The Caney-fork, Harpeth, Stones,Red, and Obed’s, are its chief branches ; some ofthem are navigable to a great distance. TheCumberland mountains in Virginia separate thehead waters of this river from those of Clinchriver ; it runs s. w. till it comes near the s. line ofKentucky, when its course is w. in general,through Lincoln county, receiving many streamsfrom each side ; thence it flows s. w. into the stateof Tennessee, where it takes a winding course, in-closing Sumner, Davidson, and Tennessee coun-ties ; afterwards it takes a n. w. direction, and re-enters the state of Kentucky ; and from thence itpreserves nearly an uniform distance from Tennes-see river to its mouth, where it is 300 yards wide.It is 200 yards broad at Nashville, and its wholelength is computed to be above 450 miles.]

[Cumberland-River, a place so called, wherea post-office is kept, in Tennessee, 13 miles fromCumberland mountain, and 80 from the Crab-Orchard in Kentucky.]

CUMBICOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Piura in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Trias.

CUMBINAMA. See Loyola.

CUMINACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Combaya.

[CUMMASHAWAS, or Cummasuawaa, asound and village on the e. side of Washingtonisland, on the n. w. coast of N. America. Theport is capacious and safe. In this port CaptainIngraham remained some time, and he observes,in his journal, that here, in direct opposition tomost other parts of the world, the women main-tained a precedency to the men in every point ;insomuch that a man dares not trade without theconcurrence of his wife, and that he has often beenwitness to men’s being abused for parting withskins before their approbation was obtained ; andthis precedency often occasioned much disturbance.

[CUMMINGTON, a township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusetts, having 873 inhabitants;lying about 20 miles n. w. of Northampton, and120 n. w. by zjj. of Boston. It was incorporatedin 1779.1

CUMPAYO, a settlement of the province of

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