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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ALACLATZALA, a branch of the head set-tlement of the district of S. Luis, of the coast andalcaldia mayor of TIapa in Nueva España. Itcontains 125 Indian families, and is one leaguefrom the settlement of Quanzoquitengo.
ALACRANES, some islands, or rather somehidden rocks, of the N. sea, in the bay of Mexico,opposite the coast of Yucatan. Those who navi-gate these parts are accustomed to pass round be-yond them for fear of venturing amongst them, al-though there are some good cliannels among them,and withgood soundings. They are for the most partbarren, producing nothing beyond a herb calledmoron, -And deficient in fresh water ; neither do theyproduce any animal except the mole, which isfound here in prodigious numbers. There are,however, a quantity of birds, of three distinct sorts,each forming a community of itself, and entirelyseparated from the other two ; and it has beenobserved, that if one party may have fixed uponany place for building their nests, the others neverthink of disturbing them, or driving them from it ;but the noise these birds make is so great, that onecannot pass near them without suffering consider-ably from their united clamours.
[ALADAS, a parish situate about 14; leaguess. e, of Corrientes, in Lat. 28° 15' 20" s. Long. 58°SO' e».]
ALAMILLOS, a settlement of the province ofTaraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the missions which belonged to the religious ofSt Francis. It is close to the town and real ofthe mines of Santa Eulalia.
ALAMOS, Real de Los, Real de Los, a settlement andreal of the mines of the province of Sinaloa inNueva España. It is situate s. e. of the SierraMadre, and surrounded by rich silver mines,which would produce abundantly but for want oflabourers. There are in its district five estatesthat are fertile in maize, French beans, and sugar-cane. The spiritual concerns of all these parts
are under the direction of a curate, whose jurisdic-tion extends as far as the river Mayo, which flowsdown from the sierra. It is 20 leagues distantfrom the town of Tuerte, and between these liesthe valley of Maquipo. [Population 7900 souls]
Alamos, with the dedicatory title of S. Jorge,a town of the province and captainship of Para inBrazil, founded by Jorge del Alamo, who gaveit his name, in a place called La Vigia. It has amagnificent parish church, with the title of NuestraSenora de Nazareth, with a large and good fort,and well furnished with artillery. Also, at the dis-tance of a league and an half from the settlement,is a house of charity belonging to the religiousorder of the Capuchins of La Piedad.
Alamos, another of the missions belonging tothe abolished society of Jesuits, in the provinceof Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.It is 27 leagues s. w. and a quarter of a league s.of the real of the mines and town of S. Felipe deChiguaga.
Alangasi, a river of the above corregimiento,and rising in the desert mountain of Sincholagua ;over it there is a large bridge, composed of a singlearch, but so strong, that when, in 1660, a partof the mountain fell upon it, and precipitated onehalf of it into the stream, the other half still re-mained firm and immoveable. This bridge isbuilt of mud and stone.
ALANGI, Santiago de, a city and headsettlement of the district of the province of Chi-riqui and government of Santiago de Veragua,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It is small, butabounding in fruits and cattle ; in which a regulartrade is carried on for supplying the city of Pa-nama. This trade consists principally in pigs.
San Nicolas de laPaz,
San J uan de lasPalmas,
San Nicolas deBari,
San Bernardo A-bad,
Tiquicio de Aden-tro,
Tiquicio de Afu-era,
Zienega del Oro,San Carlos de Co-losina.
San Geronimo deBuenavista.
The capital is a large city adorned with beauti-ful buildings, founded by Pedro de Heredia in1533, on the shore of a great and very convenientbay more than two leagues in length. It was call-ed Calamari in the time of the Indians, which sig-nifies, in their language, the land of craw-fish, fromthe abundance of these found in it. It is situateon a sandy island, which forming a narrow strait,gives a communication to the part called TierraBomba ; on the left it is entered by a woodenbridge, having a suburb called Xiximani, whichis another island uniting with the continent bymeans of a bridge in the same manner as itself.It is well fortified, and is the residence of a go-vernor, with the title of captain-general, dependenton the viceroy of Santa Fe, having beeu indepen-dent till the year 1739. Besides the precinct andbastions, it has a half-moon, which defends theentrance or gate ; and at a small distance is thecastle of San Felipe de Baraxas, situate on aneminence, and on the side of the bay the castles ofSan Luis, Santa Cruz, San Joseph, San P'elipe,and Pastelillo, which were rebuilt in a modernmanner, in 1654;, by the Lieutenant-general DonIgnacio de Sala, with the names of San Fernando,San Joseph, El Angel, and El Pastelillo. Thecathedral church is magnificent, and included in itis the parish of Sagrario, besides two other pa-rishes called La Trinidad and Santo Toribo. Ithas the convents of monks of St. Francisco, St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Diego, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, which is an hospital, andsituate at the top of a high mountain without thewalls of the city, at a quarter of a league’s dis-tance from the convent of the barefooted Augustins,called Nuestra Senora de la Popa ; to this con-vent vessels are accustomed to offer up a salutationas soon as they discover it at sea. It has also acollege which belonged to the society of Jesuits,a convent of Santa Clara, one of the Observersof San Francisco, and another of barefooted Car-
melites. At a small distance without the city isthe hospital of San Lazaro for lepers, which ma-lady is epidemical in the country. It has also atribunal of the inquisition, established in 1610, ofwhich there is only three in all America, and put-tingthis city, in this pointof view, onafooting withthe metropolitan cities Lima and Mexico. It is thehead of a bishopric erected in 1534 by his holinessClement VII. The bay abounds in fish of variouskinds, but it is infested by marine wolves. Theclimate of this city is very hot ; from May to No-vember, which are the winter months, thunder,rain, and tempests are very frequent, but fromthis inconvenience they derive an advantage offilling with water their cisterns, called aijibes, andwhich afford them the only supply of this inostnecessary article ; accordingly every house is fur-nished with one of these cisterns : from Decemberto April, which is the summer, the heat is exces-sive, occasioning continual perspiration, whichdebilitates the frame, and causes the inhabitants tohave a pale and unhealthy appearance, althoughthey nevertheless enjoy good health, it being notunusual to find amongst them persons exceeding80 years of age. The irregularity of this climateproduces several very afflicting disorders, as theblack vomit, which is most common amongststrangers and sea-faring people, few of whom havethe luck to escape it, but no person ever has ittwice. The inhabitants are likewise much trou-bled with the leprosy, or disease of St. Lazarus ; theculebrilla, which is an insect which breeds under theskin, and causes a swelling which is accustomed toterminate in gangrene and spasms or convulsions :besides these inconveniences, there are multitudesof troublesome insects which infest the houses,such as beetles, niguas, scorpions, centipeds, andmorcielagos. The largest trees are the caob, thecedar, the maria, and balsam ; of the first aremade canoes, out of the solid trunk, for fishing andcommerce ; the red cedar is better than the white,and the two last, not to mention their utility fromthe compactness of their timber, for their delicioussmell and beautiful colour, are the trees fromwhence are procured those admirable distillationscalled the oil of Maria and balsam of Tolu. Hereare also tamarind trees, medlars, sapotas, papai/as,cassias, and Indian apple trees, producing deli-cate and pleasant fruits ; the fruit, however, of thelast mentioned is poisonous, and many who, de-ceived by the beauty of these apples, have therashness to taste them, soon repent of their folly,for they immediately swell to a distressing degree :so if perchance any one should sleep under itsbranches, he will be afflicted in the same way.
16. Don FV. Diego de Tores Atamairano, amonk of the order of St. Francis, native of Trux-illo in Estremadura, commissary-general of theprovinces of Peru ; he received his consecration atEiraa, entered Cartagena in 1620, and died in thefollowing year, 1621.
17. Don Fr. Francisco de Sotomayor, of theorder of St. Francis, native of San Tome, in thebishopric of Tuy, guardian of the convents inMontforte and Salamanca, difimdor general in thechapter which was celebrated at Rome ; elected tothe bishopric of Cartagena in 1622, and promotedto that of Quito before he left Madrid, in 1623.
18. Don Fr. Luis Ronquillo de Cordova, of theorder of the Santissirna Trinidad, native of Gra-nada, where he read arts and theology, was mi-nister in the convent of Malaga, and twice in that ofSeville, provincial and vicar-general of Andalucia ;he was elected bishop in 1630 : he governed eightyears, and returned to Spain without a licence ;he received notice of his promotion to the bishop-ric of Truxillo in Peru, which honour he declined,and retired to his convent in Granada, where hedied in 1642.
19. Don Fr. Christoval Perez de Lazarraga, ofthe order of San Bernardo, native of Madrid,qualificator of the inquisition ; he took to an eccle-siastical life when quite a child, was collegian ofthe college of Meira, afterwards of those of Sala-manca and Alcala, professor of philosophy, moraland theological, abbot of the college of Nuestra Se-hora ' de Salamanca, a most learned theologist ;elected and consecrated bishop of Chiapa, and be-fore he left the court promoted to the bishopric ofCartagena, of which he took possession in 1640 :he thrice visited his bishopric, and after a grievousillness of 90 days duration, died in 1648.
20. Don Francisco Rodriguez de Zepeda Val-carcel, native of Zamora ; he studied grammar inthe town of Garcia, jurisprudence in Salamanca,was professor of laws in Valladolid, abbot of Ci-fuentes, and canonical doctor of the church ofSiguenza ; elected bishop of Cartagena, of whichhe took possession in 1650 ; and having governedonly 11 months, he died in the following.
21. Don Diego del Castillo y Arteaga, native ofTudela ; he studied in the university of Alcala,was collegian of Malaga, professor of arts, hav-ing substituted this title for that of theology, cano-nical master of the church of Avila; presentedto the bishopric of Cartagena in 1632, which hedeclined.
22. Don Garcia Martinez Cabezas, native of thetown of Don Benito in Estremadura ; he was pub-
lic professor of the institutes, primate of canonsin the university of Maese Rodrigo de Sevilla,w hen he was adopted as provisor by the archbishopof Lima, Don Gonzalo de Ocampo, as he passedthrough that city ; he was doctoral canon of thechurch of Charcas, afterwards school-master, trea-surer, and archdeacon, from whence he went toLima as inquisitor, and was elected bishop of Car-tagena, but died before he took possession of hisoffice, in 1653.
23. Don Antonio Sanz Lozano, native of Cava-nillas, chief collegian iti Alcala, public professorof theology, a man of learning and of acute ge-nius ; being rector of his college, he was presentedby the king to the bishopric ot Cartagena, of whichhe took possession in 1661, governed with greatskill for 20 years, and was promoted to the arch-bishopric of Santa Fe in 1681.
24. Don Antonio dc Benavides and Piedrola,native of the city of Andujar, canon of Badajoz ;elected bishop of Cartagena in 1681 : his govern-ment being very troublesome, and disturbed by acessation of religious rites, occasioned by the cir-cumstance of the nuns of Santa Clara, who wereunder the care of the religious order of St. Fran-cis, having been put under the ordinary jurisdic-tion, he was called to the court, and arrived therein 1691 ; and not being willing to accept of anyother bishopric in Spain, he died in Cadiz.
25. Don Fr. Antonio Maria Casiani, monk ofBasilio, of the university of Alcala; elected in1713.
26. Don Francisco Gomez Calleja, doctoral Ca-non of the church of Zamora; elected in 1718.
27. Don Manuel Antoniode Silva, dean of Lima,named through promotion of the former, who nothaving accepted of the same, there became a dis-pute as to which was rightly entitled to the bishop-ric of Cartagena, when it was declared by thecourt in favour of the former, who governed from1725 till 1736.
28. Don Gregorio de Molleda y Clerque, nativeof Lima, consecrated at Rome with the title ofbishop of Isauria, domestic prelate to his holiness,and made bishop of Cartagena in 1736, afterwardspromoted to the see of Truxillo in 1740.
29. Don Diego Martinez Garrido, of the orderof Santiago, opponent to the professors in the uni-versity of Salamanca; elected in 1740: he diedin 1746.
30. Don Bernardo de Arbiza y Ugarte, nativeof Cuzco, in the university of which he studiedand graduated as doctor of both laws ; he waschief auditor of the royal audience of Panama,
when he was promoted to the bishopric of Carta-gena in 1746, of which he took possession in thefollowing year, and governed until 1752, whenhe was promoted to the church of Truxillo.
51. Doii Bartolome Narvaez y Berrio, canon ofthis holy church of Cartagena, and native of thiscountry ; presented to this bishopric in^ 1752, andgoverned here until he died in 1754.
52. The Doctor Jacinto Aguado y Chacon, ca-non penitenciario of the holy church of Cadiz ;elected in 1754, and promoted to the bishopric ofArequipa before he embarked for this of Car-tagena.
33. Don Diego Antonio Valenzuela Faxardo,native of the city of Santa Fe of Bogota; electedin 1754 : he died in 1755.
34. The Doctor Don Manuel de Sosa Betancur,archdeacon of the holy church of Caracas ; electedin 1755 : he died in 1765.
35. Don Diego Peredo, native of the town ofLeon of Mechoacan ; elected in 1765, promotedto the bishopric of Yucatan in 1722.
36. Don Augustin de Alvarado y Castillo ; pro-moted to the bishopric of Santa Fe in 1774.
37. The Doctor t)on Bias Sobrino y Minayo ;elected in 1774, and promoted to the archbishopricof Quito in 1776.
38. Don Fr. Joseph Diaz de la Madrid, a monkof the Order of St. Francis, native of the city ofQuito ; elected in 1 777.
Governors of Cartagena.
1. Don Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city ;and its adelantado or governor, a native of Madrid,and a valorous conqueror, in 1532.
2. The Licentiate Badillo, nominated J uez deResidencia,; he exercised the government duringthe commission in 1536.
3. The, Licentiate Santa Cruz, judge of anothersecond residence, who became adelantado in 1537.
4. The Licentiate Miguel Diez de Armendariz;he entered in 1545, had for judge of his resi-dence the Licentiate Juan de Montano, oidor ofSanta F<5, whom he sent to Spain.
5. Don Pedro de Heredia, who for the secondtime was provisional governor until the year 1556,when he died, being drowned in the fleet whichwas wrecked in the Gordas sands.
6. The Doctor J uan de Maldonado, Jiscal of theaudience of Santa Fe in 1556.
7. Jorge de Quintanilla, provisionally nomi-nated by the audience of Santa Fe.
8. The Brigadier Don Go'izalo Ximinez deQuesada ; nominated by the audience as residen-tiary to the three former, in the same year, 1556.
9. Antonio de Castro ; provisionally nominated.
10. Juan de Bustos Villegas, nominated by theking ; he entered in 1 557, and was promoted tothe presidency of Panama in 1563.
11. Anton Davalos de Luna, a field-officer ; heentered in 1563, and governed till 1567, whenhe died.
12. Don Lope de Orozco, as provisional gover-nor in the same year.
13. Francisco Bahamonde y Lugo ; he enteredin 1572, and died in 1573.
14. Hernan Suarez de Villalobos, nominatedprovisonally by the audience of Santa Fe in 1574.
15. Pedro Fernandez del Busto, who entered inthe above year, and was promoted to the govern-ment of Popayan in 1577.
16. Don Pedro de Lodena, in 1593.
17. Don Pedro de Acuna, knight of the orderof San Juan, field-officer, in 1601 ; he had the titleof president of the Philippines, and died the sameyear.
18. Don Geronimo Suazo Casasola, of the habitof Santiago ; he died in 1605.
19. Don Francisco Sarmientode Sotomayor, no-minated in the interim, in 1606.
20. Don Diego Fernandez de Valazco, in 1608.
21. Don Diego de Acuna, in 1614.
22. Don Garcia Giron de Loaysa, who governeduntil 1620.
23. Don Diego de Escobar, knight of the orderof Santiago, who died whilst exercising the govern-ment.
24. Don Francisco de Berrio, nominated in thein the interim, in 1628.
25. Don Francisco de Murga, knight of the or-der of Santiago, a field-officer, and celebratedengineer ; appointed to fortify the Plaza, beingat the time governor of Marmora in Africa : h«died in 1634.
26. Don Nicolas de Larraspuru, nominated inthe interim, in 1636.
27. Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Vil-lalta, nominated in the interim, in 1637, on accountof the former not having accepted the office.
28. Don Vincente de los Reyes Villalobos, pro-visional governor in the same year, 1637, being thegovernor of Moxos.
29. Don Melchor de Aguilera, a field-officer;he entered in 1638, was suspended and called toaccount by Don Bernardino de Prado, oidor ofSanta Fe.
30. Don Ortuno de Aldape ; being governor ofMuzo, he was nominated in the interim, in 1641.
31. Don Luis Fernandez de Cordova, of the or-
der of Santiago, a commander of tlie galleons; hewas deposed and sent to Spain for having marriedwithout a licence; and in his place the audience ofSanta Fe nominated as provisional governor,
32. Don Francisco Rexe Corbalan, until arrivedthe right owner in,
33. Don Clemente Soriano, colonel of militia,in 1616 ; he died in the following year.
34. Don Pedro Zapata, colonel of militia, of theorder of Santiago ; nominated as governor jyrotempore in 1648.
35. Don Fernando de la Riva Agiicro, of theorder of Santiago, a field-officer, being governorof Puertorico ; he entered Cartagena in 1649, andwas promoted to the presidency of Panama in1634.
36. Don Pedro Zapata, twice nominated as pro-prietor in the aforesaid year ; but dying, his placewas filled pro tempore by,
37. Don Francisco Rexe Corbalan.
38. Don Juan Perez de Guzman, of the habitof Santiago, a field-officer, and governor of An-tioquia ; nominated provisionally, and afterwardsappointed to the government of Puertorico.
39. Don Diego de Portugal, colonel of militia,knight of the order of Alcantara; nominated in1659, through the circumstance of Don FernandoAgiiero being appointed governor of Cartagena inCadiz.
40. The Licentiate Don Manuel Martin de Pa-lomeque, nominated by the king ; he afterwardsbecame oidor of St. Domingo.
41 . Don Juan Perez de Guzman, the second timenominated as proprietor; he entered in 1661, andwas removed to the presidency of Panama in 1664.
42. Don Benito de Figueroa Barrantes, of thehabit of Alcantara, a field-officer ; he went as go-vernor of Larache in Africa in 1665, and fromthence to be president of Panama.
43. Don Joseph Sanchez Xiraenez, who wasgovernor of the island of Santa Catalina, nomi-nated to this government, which he did not exer-cise, having been found poniarded and killed inhis bed.
44. Don Antonio de Vergara Azearate, knightof the order of Santiago, nominated previouslyin 1668.
45. Don Pedro de Ulloa Ribadeneyra, of theonler of Santiago ; nominated in 1669.
46. Don Joseph Daza, general of the artillery.
47. Don Rafael Caspir y Sanz, colonel of mi-litia, native of Tortosa, nominated in 1678 ; inwhose time happened those weighty disputes withthe bishop Don Antonio de Benavides; he wassucceeded by,
48. Don Juan de Pando y Estrada, a field-of-ficer ; w ho took possession in 1684.
49. Don Martin de Ceballos y la Cerda, in 1686.
50. Don Diego de los Rios, a field-officer ; inhis time happened the sacking and taking of Car-tagena by the French, in 1695.
51. Don Juan Diaz Pimienta, knight of theorder of Caltrava, a field-officer, gentleman of thecluamberto the Emperor Leopold, of the house ofthe Marquises of Villareal, noted for his valourand military conduct in the siege of Buda, wherehe was wounded ; nominated as governor to con-sole the afflicted natives of Cartagena, taking withhim a certain number of Spansih troops from thekingdom of Galicia ; he entered in 1696, diedin 1706.
52. Don Joseph de Zuniga y la Cerda, of noless credit than the former ; he was governor ofFlorida at the time that he w'as elected to this, in1712, and which he exercised until 1718, whenhe returned to Spain in the unlucky fleet of Anto-nio Ubilla, which was lost in the channel of Baha-ma, the frigate in which he sailed being the onlyvessel saved.
53. Don Alberto de Bertodano, a renowned bri-gadier in Flanders, where he had lost an arm inaction ; he was nominated in 1720, and exercisedthe government until his death, in 1722.
54. Don Luis de Aponte, colonel of the regi-ment of the crown, afterwards brigadier, an officerof the greatest skill and renown of any in thearray ; he was nominated in 1723, and exercisedthe government until his death.
55. Don Juan Joseph de Andia, Marquis ofVillaherraosa, brigadier-general; nominated throughthe death of the general ; he entered Cartagena in1712, and governed till 1730, when he was pro-moted to the presidency of Panama.
56. Don Antonio de Salas, who had becui colo-nel of the regiment of infantry of Saboya ; he e.u-tered in 173i, and died in 1735.
57. Don Pedro Fidalgo, brigadier and captainof the royal Spanish guards ; promoted to this go-vernment in 1736 : he died in 1739.
58. Don Melchor de Navarrete, who was king^slieutenant ; he entered as provisional governorthrough the death of the proprietor : in his timethe town was besieged by the English until the ar-rival of the right owner,
59. Don Basilio de Gante ; who had risen <o therank of brigadier, at that time king’s lieutenantof the fortified town of Ceuta, when he was pro-moted to the government of this, in 1742 : he ex-ercised it till 1739, when he returned to Spain.
60. Don Ignacio de Sala, lieutenant-general, ua-
in beautiful singing birds ; and in its rivers aremany sorts of fish of a fine flavour, particularly thepatah. It is not without mines of gold, and laba~deros or washing places, but these are not worked,save by a few day-labourers. In the church of themonks of San Francisco is venerated an image of themost Holy Mary, with the title of La Probezuypainted on a piece of cotton-stuff, adorned with twofine pieces of silver, the natives payitig great de-votion to this superb work, from the wonderfulthings that have been said to have been effectedthrough the prayers offered up to her of whom thisis the semblance. This city has been the nativeplace of,
Don Melchor de Salazar, governor of Choco,and founder of the city Toro.
Of the Doctor Don Francisco Martinez Bueno,presbyter and visitor of the bishopric of Popayan ;a man of great literature.
Of the Doctor Don Manuel de Castro y Rada ; amost exemplary curate.
Of the Father Joseph Vicuna, who, after havingbeen a celebrated Jesuit, became a monk in thecollege of missions for propagating the faith in Po-payan, and died whilst preaching to the AndaquiesIndians.
Of the Father Estevan de Rivas, who, after hav-ing filled the title of jurist with great credit, be-came a Franciscan monk, and died an exemplarypenitent in his convent at Cartagena.
Of the Doctor Don Francisco Felipe del Campo,professor de prima of canons in the university ofSanta Fe ; a celebrated orator.
Of the Doctor Don Geronirao de Rivas, trea-surer and dignitary of the holy church of Popayan,provisor and ecclesiastical governor of that bishop-ric.
Of the Doctor Don Joseph de Renteria, assessorof the viceroyalties of Santa Fe and Lima, honoraryoidor of the audience of Charcas : all of whomhave borne testimony to the clearness and acutenessof their understandings and excellence of their dis-positions. But for all the information on thesesubjects, we have to thank Don Manuel del Cara-po, the son of the last mentioned, who resides inthis court, and to whom the merits thus severallyapplied, unitedly belong.
The arms of this city are three imperial crownswith a sun, and its inhabitants amount to about 5000or 6000 : 25 leagues n. e. of Popayan, in 4° 46'n. lat.
Cartago, another capital city, of the provinceof Costa Rica, in the kingdom of Guatemala,situate 10 leagues from the coast of the N. sea, and17 from that of the S. in each of which it has agood port ; it was formerly rich and flourishing, onaccount of its commerce w ith Panama, Cartagena,Portobclo, and the Havanah ; but it is at the presentday reduced to a miserable village of very few in-habitants, and without any commerce. It has, be-sides the parish church, a convent of monks of St.Francis, and is in 9° 42' s. lat.
Cartago, a river of the same province and go-vernment as is the former city : it runs w. and en-ters the S.sea, in the port of La Herradura.
Carteret, a cape or extremity of the coast ofthe same province, and one of those which formLong bay. See Roman.
CARUALLEDA, Nuestra Senora de, acity of the province and government of Venezuela,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; founded byFrancis Faxardo in 1568, and not in 1560, as ac-cording to Coleti : it has a small but insecure port.The town is also a miserable place, having sufferedmuch injury, a short time after its foundation, bythe violent disturbances caused in its neighbour-hood by the Governor Don Luis de Roxas : 80leagues e. of Coro.
vince and government, on the shore of the riverMasparro, between the cities of New and Old Ba-rinas.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and government of La Sonora in NuevaEspana ; situate in the country of the SobaipurisIndians, on the shore of a river which enters theGila, between the settlements of San Cosme andSan Angelo.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in thekingdom of Guatemala.
Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea,near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escu-do de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fer-tile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had init a settlement defended by two castles, called San-tiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with thetown, were destroyed by an English pirate, JohnMorgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and al-though it was recovered in the same year by thepresident of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perezde Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.
Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there isalso a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno deLeon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, fromwhence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains20 families in its neighbourhood, and producesonly some sorts of pulse and some goats.
CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of theprovince and government of Loxa in the kingdomof Quito, also called Chira, at the part where itenters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desertmountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the watersof several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n.until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, whichenters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it thenturns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of therivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all ofwhich enter it on the s. side. Being swelled withthese, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settle-ment of this name, situate on its shore. Near itsmouth this river is called Colan, and it empties it-self into the sea in the corregimiento and provinceofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertileand beautiful, and its banks are covered with or-chards and plantations of sugar-canes of the terri-tory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, andin the valleys formed by this river the inhabitantsare much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its wa-ters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.
C H A
C H A
(country of the Iroquees Indians. It is handsomeand well built, on the margin of the river of thesame name, about 12 or 15 miles s. w. from Mont-real, and n. of St. John’s fort. It was taken bythe Americans, Oct. 20, 1775, and retaken by theBritish, Jan. 18, 1776. Lat. 45° 26' w.)
Chambo, a very large river, which rises nearthe former settlement, and runs with such rapiditythat it cannot be forded ; is consequently passedover by means of various bridges made of osiers.
CHAME, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Natá in the province and kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near a river, and two leagues fromthe coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, plan-tains, and other fruits ; swine, fowl, turkeys, andother birds, with which it supplies, by means ofcanoes, the markets of the city of Panama, fromwhence it is nine leagues distant.
CHAMETLAN, a province and alcaldia mayorof Nueva España, also called Del Rosario ; bound-ed n. by the province of Culiacan, s. by that of Xa-lisco or Sentipac, e. and n. e. by that of Zacate-cas and Nueva Galicia, and w. by the S. sea ; is30 leagues long from e. to w. and 25 wide n. s. ;is of, a very hot temperature, and the greater partof it is a mountainous and rugged country, abound-ing in. noxious animals and insects, and on thisaccount uninhabitable in the summer and in therainy season. It was conquered by Don Juan deIbarra in 1554, has many mines of silver and gold,which were formerly worked, but which at presentare all abandoned, as well from their having filledwith water, as from the scantiness of the means ofthe inhabitants to work them. The royal mines,however, are productive of some emolument, andare in fafct the support of the place. It producessome maize, and much tobacco , and cotton, towhich article the soil is exactly suited, though notso to wheat, which yields here but sparingly. Onthe banks of the lakes formed by the sea, is left athick incrustation of salt in the month of April ;and although the inhabitants spare no pains to col-lect this valuable commodity, yet abundance of itis lost from the Avant of hands to collect it ere theheats come on, when it very quickly disappears.
Some large cattle are bred here. It is very badlypeopled, or, to speak more truly, it is as it weredesert, having only three settlements and someestates. It is irrigated by a river which flowsdown from the sierra Madre, and passes throughthe capital, the waters of which are made usefulfor the working of the mines. The same river entersthe sea two leagues from the settlement of Chamet-lan, and has abundance of fish, which are caughtwith ease, as well upon its shores as in marsheswhich it forms. Tlie capital, which is the resi-dence of the alcalde mayor, is the real del Ro-sario.
Chametlan, a settlement of the former alcaldíamayor ; from thence taking its name. It containsonly five or six Indians, and some Spaniards, Mus-tees, and Mulattoes, who, the greater part of theyear, live in the estates which they have for thebreeding of large cattle, and on the farms for thecultivation of maize and cotton.
CHAMESA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; annexed to the curacy of Nopsa. Itis of a cold temperature, and produces the fruitscorresponding to such a climate, particularlywheat, which is of the best quality. It contains100 Avhite inhabitants, and as many Indians, andis a little more than eight leagues from its ca-pital.
CHAMI, San Juan de, a settlement of theprovince and government of Chocó ; situate in thedistrict of Thatama, near the ruins of the city ofSan Juan de Rodas, to the w. of the city of San-tiago de Arma.
CHAMICUROS, S. Francisco Xavier de,a settlement of the missions which were held by theregulars of the company of Jesuits, in the provinceand government of Mainas, of the kingdom ofQuito ; founded in 1670 by the Father LorenzoLucero. '
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the natives make friezes. The low part, lookingupon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal inmildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, andin the many estates which are in it maize grows ingreat quantities, and it, besides serving as food forthe labourers, and independent of that which is de-voured by the wild pigeons with which those fieldsare filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which arecarried to supply the markets of Lima ; those ani-mals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000head, and producing an emolument of 300,000dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here arealso some estates of sugar-cane, and others ofFrench beans and wheat, of which the crops wereformerly very great, and used, together with thevines, to be reckoned amongst the chief produc-tions of this country, though they have now maderoom for a more general cultivation of maize.What conduces much to render the soil fertile, iswhat the Indians call huano^ and which, in theirlanguage, signifies dung, this being brought fromsome small islands at a little distance from thecoast towards the n. It is thought to be the excre-ment of some birds called huanaes^ who have beenaccustomed to deposit it in the above places fromtime immemorial. Some of it has also been foundin various other islands of the coast of Canete,Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that ahandful being put at the root of a plant of maize,it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwardsof 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly.In the centre of the province, and upon the coast,are some fine salines^ which supply some of theneighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, thoseof Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Hua-nuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted.The salt is not only used in the workingof the me-tals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomousinsect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrailsuntil it destroys them. The population consists of37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town ofArnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amountedto 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dol-lars per annum.
Arnedo or Chancay,
S. Juan de Huaral,
Cauchaz or Maráz,
Chancay, the capital of the above province,founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, ata league and a half’s distance from the river Pasa-mayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being anuniversity, at which however it never attained. Ithas a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels,a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, anda good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inha-bitants consist of several noble and rich families.One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat.11° 30' 5.
CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort uponthe river Tapo, in the part washed by this river,called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. TheChunchos Indians of this province took possessionof it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.
CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of SantaElena in the province and government of Guaya-quil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port whichis frequented by vessels only in stress ; it havingsome extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance.Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armadadel Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as itwas dropping down to Panama, for the purpose ofdispatching the galleons under the charge of theMarquis de Villarubia ; although, through the op-portune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Countde Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, DonPedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of theproperty on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721.another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries tothe Plaza of Panama, without a single thing onboard being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious windfrom the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the
C II A R C A S.
at that critical moment received fresh succours,that were sent from Cuzco by his brother the Mar-quis Don Francisco Pizarro, he would have fallena sacrifice, with the whole of the Spanish army, tothat undertaking : but being invigorated by thisassistance, he succeeded in routing the Indians,and in obliging them to surrender to the Spanishgovernment. In 1539 the Marquis Don Fran-cisco Pizarro, seeing the importance of making anestablishment here, resolved upon building of atown, giving a commission to Captain Pedro Au-zures to execute the same. This person actuallyput into effect the plan suggested, founding thetown in exactly the same spot in which formerlystood the settlement of Chuquisaca. Here manyof its conquerors settled and became citizens, andthey gave it the name of La Plata, or Silver, fromsome mines of this metal which are found in themountain of Porco, which lies at a small distancefrom this city, and from which the Inca Emperorswere accustomed to extract immense emolument.Notwithstanding this name it has never lost itsoriginal title, Chuquisaca, although indeed it isbadly pronounced by the Spaniards ; since the In-dians, and with great propriety, will have it Cho-quezaca, Choquechaca, or Choquisacha; all ofwhich, however pronounced, signify, the first,moun-tains of gold ; the second, cunchos of gold, orfields of brambles with yellow twigs ; and the third,bridges of gold. Although this province is exten-sive, it is composed of various others, which weshall notice under their proper heads. This keepsits present name, from being the one of all theothers the most abounding in minerals, seeds, andcattle ; as well as being the one best peopled withIndians. It is watered by many large rivers ; andthe whole of it composes an archbishopric, towhich arc suffragan the bishoprics of La Paz,Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tucuman, Paraguay,and Buenos Ayres. It belongs to the viceroyaltyof this latter place since the time that this waserected, and that the government was entrusted tothe royal audience established in 1559. The afore-said district comprehends in its jurisdiction allthe following provinces and corregimientos :Tomino, Cochabamba,
Oruro, Atacama ;
In which are contained 188 settlements and cura-cies, in which there were in 1651 about 100,000Indians. The capital of the whole jurisdiction is
the aforesaid city of Chuquisaca or La Plata. —[Charcas joined the new government of BuenosAyres in 1810. See La Plata,]
Those who have been Presidents in the RoyalAudience of Charcas.
1. The Licentiate Pedro Ramirez de Quinones,first president, in 1559.
2. The Licentiate Juan de Matienzo, a cele-brated jurisconsult, in 1580.
3. The Licentiate Zepeda, in 1588.
4. The Licentiate Alonso Maldonado de Torres,in 1606.
5. Don Juan de Lizarazu, knight of the orderof Santiago ; he passed over to the presidency ofQuito in 1612.
6. Don Diego de Portugal, in 1614.
7. Don Alonzo Perez de Salazar, who was pre-sident of Quito, and was promoted to this, wherehe governed until the year 1620.
8. Don Juan de Caravajal y Sande, promotedin 1633.
9. Don Dionisio Perez Manrique, knight ofthe order of Santiago, collegiate in the collegeof Los Manriques de Alcala, rector of the uni-versity there, oidor of Lima, and president ofQuito, from whence he was removed to be pre-sident of this audience of Charcas in 1646 ; whence,having exercised it till 1654, he was removed tothat of Santa Fe.
10. Don Pedro Vazquez de Velasco, who pre-sided until the year 1661.
11. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, pro-moted in 1678 ; he was made archbishop of theholy church of Charcas, remaining in the presi-dency until 1688.
12. Don Diego Mesia, native of Lima, oidor ofits royal audience, and formerly of that of Quito ;he was promoted to the presidency of Charcas in1688.
13. Don Jorge Manrique de Lara, who wasoidor of Panama, afterwards of Charcas, as alsopresident.
14. Don Gabriel Antonio Matienzo, president in1723.
15. Don Francisco de Herboso, who was ap-pointed in 1725, and presided until 1732.
16. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, and native of Lima.
17. Don Juan Francisco Pestana, adjutant-major of the regiment of Spanish guards ; he wasnominated in 1752, and presided until 1769.
18. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, who enteredin the above year, and presided until 1777.
19. Don Agustin de Pinedo, who succeededthe former, and governed until 1782.
miles and a half e. ofirondequat or Rundagut bay,and SO e. from Niagara falls. The setlleincnts onChenessee river from its month upwards, areHartford, Ontario, Wadsworth, and Williams-burgh. The last mentioned place, it is probable,wili soon be the seat of extensive comineice.There will not be a carrying place between NewYork city and Williamsburgh Avhen tiie w.canals and locks shall be completed. The carry-ing places at present areas follows, viz. Albanyto Schenectady, 16 miles ; from the head of tiieMohawk to Wood creek, one ; Oswego lalls, two ;Chenessee falls, two ; so that there are but 2 1 milesland carriage necessary, in order to convey com-modities from a tract of country capable of main-taining several millions of people. The famousChenessee flats lie on the borders of this river.They arc about 20 miles long, and about fourwide; the soil is remarkably rich, quite clear oftrees, producing grass near 10 feet high. Tlieseflats are estimated to be worth 200,000/. as theynow lie. They arc mostly the property of theIndians.)
CHENGUE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; situate on the sea-coast. It wassacked by William Gauson in 1655, who alsodestroyed and plundered circumjacent estates.
(CHEPAWAS, or Chipeways, an Indiannation inhabiting the coast of lake Superior andthe islands in the lake. They could, according toMr. Hutchins, furnish 1000 warriors 20 yearsago. Otlier tribes of this nation inhabit the coun-try round Saguinam or Sagana bay, and lakeHuron, bay Puan, and a part of lake Michigan.They were lately hostile to the United States, but,by the treaty of Greenville, August 3. 1795, theyyielded to them the island De Bois Blanc. SeeSix Nations.)
CHEPETLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldía mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Es-paña. It contains 203 families of Indians, wholive by tiie making and selling of chocolate cups.Two leagues to the n. n. 70. of Tenango.
sippi to the lands claimed by the Sioux, withwhom they still cop.tend for dominion. Theyclaim also, c. of the Mississippi, the country ex-tending as far as lake Superior, including thewaters of the St. lamis. Tliis country is thicklycovered with timber generally, lies level, andgenerally fertile, though a considerable propor-tion of it is intersected and broken up by smalllakes, morasses, and small swamps, particularlyabout the heads of the Mississipi and river St.Louis. They do not cultivate, but live princi-pally on the wild rice, which they procure in greatabundance on the borders of Leach lake and thebanks of the Mississipi. Their number has beenconsiderably reduced by W'ars and tlie small-pox.Their trade is at its greatest extent.)
(Chepewas, of Red Lake, Indians of N. Ame-rica, who claim the country about Red Lake andRed Lake river, as far as the Red river of lakeWinnipie, beyond which last river they contendwith the Sioux for territory. This is a low levelcountry, and generally thickly covered with timber,interrupted with many swamps and morasses. This,as well as the other bands of Chepewas, are es-teemed the best hunters in the ti. to. country ; butfrom the long residence of this band in the countrythey now inhabit, game is become scarce ; there-fore their trade is supposed to be at its greatest ex-tent. The Chepewas are a well-disposed people,but excessively fond of spirituous liquors.)
(Chepewas, of River Pembena, Indians of N.America, who formerly resided on the e. side ofthe Mississippi, at Sand lake, but were induced bythe N. W. company to remove, a few years since,to the river Pembena. They do not claim thelands on which they hunt. Tiie country is level,and the soil good. The w. side of the river ispi incipally prumVs, or open plains ; on the e. sidethere is a greater proportion of timber. Theirtrade at present is a very valuable one, and willprobably increase for some years. They do notcultivate, but live by hunting. They are well-disposed towards the whites.)
CHEPILLO, a small island of the S. sea, inthe gulf of Panamá, and at the mouth or entranceofthe river Bayano, is somewhat more than twoleagues distant Irom the continent; three miles incircumference, and enjoys a pleasant climate, al-though sometim.es subject to intense heat. It wasformerly inhabited by the Indians, of whom there
appears to have been a settlement towards the n,of the island, from some vestiges still remaining.It is at present frequented only by some of the in-liabitants of Chepo, who cultivate and gather hereoral^ges, lemons, and plantains of an excellent fla-vour, which are found here in abundance. Inlat. 8^ 57' n.
CHEPO, San Christoval de, a settlementof the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme, andgovernment of Panama ; situate on the shore ofthe river Mamoni ; is of a kind temperature, fer-tile and agreeable, though little cultivated. Theair is however so pure that it is resorted to byinvalids, and seldom fails of affording a speedyrelief. It has a fort, which is an esfacada, or sur-rounded with palisades, having a ditch furnishedwith six small cannon, and being manned by adetachment from the garrison of Panama, for thepurpose of suppressing the encroachments of theinfidel Indians of Darien. This territory was dis-covered by Tello Guzman in 1515, who gave itthe name of Chepo, through its Cazique Chepauri,in 1679. It was invaded by the pirates Bartholo-mew Charps, John Guarlem, and Edward Bol-men, when the settlement Avas robbed and destroy-ed, and unheard-of prosecutions and tormentswere suffered by the inhabitants. Fourteen leaguesnearly due e. of Panama, [and six leaguesfrom the sea ; in lat. 9° 8' «.]
(CHEQUETAN, or Seguataneio, on thecoast of Mexico or New Spain, lies seven leaguesw. of of the rocks of Seguataneio. Between thisand Acapulco, to the e. is a beach of sand, of 18leagues extent, against which the sea breaks soviolently, that it is impossible for boats to land onany part of it ; but there is a good anchorage forshipping at a mile or two from the shore duringthe fair season. The harbour of Chequetan is veryhard to be traced, and of great importance tosuch vessels as cruise in these seas, being the mostsecure harbour to be met with in a vast extent ofcoast, yielding plenty of wood and water; andthe ground near it is able to be defended by a fewmen. When Lord Anson touched here, theplace was uninhabited.)
CHEQUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Maúle in the kingdom of Chile,and in the valley or plain of Tango, near the riverColorado. In its vicinity, toAvards the s. is anestate called El Portrero del Key, at the source ofthe river Maipo.
CHERAKEE. See Cherokee.
CHERAKILICHI, or Apalachicola, a fortof the English , in the province and colony of Georgia,on the shore of the river Apalachicola, and at the con-flux, or where this river is entered by the Caillore.
CHERAN EL Grande, S. Francisco de, asettlement of the head settlement of Siguinan, andalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in Nueva Espana,contains 100 families of Curtidores Indians, and isa little more than half a league from its head set-tlement.
CHERAPA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiernto of Piura in Peru, on the confines ofthe province of Jaen de Bracamoros, upon the riverTambarapa, is of a hot and moist temperature,and consequently unhealthy ; and is situate in theroyal road which leads from Lpxa through Aya-baca and Guancabamba to Tomependa, a port ofthe river Maranon.
(CHERAWS, a district in the upper country ofSouth Carolina, having North Carolina on then. and n. e. Georgetown district on the s. e. andLynche’s creek on the s. w. which separates itfrom Camden district. Its length is about 83miles, and its breadth 63 ; and is subdivided intothe counties of Darlington, Chesterfield, and Marl-borough. By the census of 1791, there were10,706 inhabitants, of Avhich 7618 were white in-habitants, the rest slaves. It sends to the statelegislature six representatives and two senators ;and in conjunction Avith Georgetown district, onemember to congress. This district is watered byGreat Peter river and a number of smaller streams,on the banks of vdiich the land is thickly settledand Aveli cultivated. The chief towns are Green-ville and Chatham. The court-house in this dis-trict is 52 miles from Camden, as far from Lum-berton, and 90 from Georgetown. The mail stopsat this place.]
CHERIGUANES. See Chiriguanos.
CHERINOS, a river of the province and go-
CHIMALAPA, Santa Maria de a settlement of the head settlement of the district andalcaldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, and the whole of itsdistrict is covered with very large trees, especiallyfirs fit for ship-building. Twenty-five leaguesn.w. of its capital,
CHIAMLHUACAN, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Coatepec inNueva Espana. It contains a good convent of thereligious order of St. Domingo, 300 families ofSpaniards, il/wsfees, and Mulattoes, who employthemselves in labour, and in the commerce of seedsand large and small cattle, which are bred in theestates contiguous ; but the latter in no great de-gree, owing to the scarcity of water and pasturewhich prevails here.
Same name, another settlement and headsettlement of the district in the alcaldia mayor ofChaleo, of the same kingdom. It contains 166families of Indians, and a convent of the religiousorder of St. Domingo. Five leagues n. of itscapital.
CHIMAN, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near the coast of the S. sea, and onthe shore of the river of its name, having a smallport, which is garrisoned by a detachment fromPanama, for the purpose of restraining the inva-sions which are continually made by the Indians.
CHIMBA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the celebrated talc gold-mine whichwas discovered 36 years ago by a fisherman, whopulling up a plant of large and prickly leaves,called cordon, or fuller’s thistle, for the purpose offuel for his fire, observed that particles of golddropped from its roots; and having more narrowlyinspected it, found pieces amidst the mould ofconsiderable size and of very fine quality. Thus
a mine became established here, and when it wasfirst dug it yielded from 300 to 500 dollars eachcaxon.
CHIMBACALLEa settlement of the kingdom of Quito, inthe corregimienio of the district of Las CincoLeguasde la Capital, (ofthe Five Leagues from theCapital), of which this is looked upon as a suburbfrom its proximity.
CHIMBARONGO, a river of the kingdom ofChile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera^and unites itself with that of Tinguiragua to enterthe Napel. This river waters and fertilizes somevery pleasant and delightful valleys, abounding inpastures, whereon breed and fatten an infinite num-ber of cattle. On its shores are two convents, oneofthe religious order of Nuestra Senora de la Mer-ced, for the instruction of the Indians in the Chris-tian faith ; and another a house for novices, whichbelonged to the regulars of the society of Jesuits ;and also within a league’s distance from the latter,is a convent of the order of St. Domingo.
Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienio of Colchagua in the same king-dom ; situate in the Former valley, between therivers Tinguiririca and Teno. There is alsoanother small settlement annexed, with a chapelof ease. In its district is a convent of the religiousorder of La Merced.
[CHIMBO, a jurisdiction in the province ofZinto in South America, in the torrid zone. Thecapital is also called by the same name.]
CHIMBO Y ALAUSI, a province and corregimientoof the kingdom of Quito ; bounded n. oythe serrania of the asiento of Ambato ; s, by thegovernment and jurisdiction of Guayaquil ; e. bythe district of the point of Santa Elena of this govern-ment; and ro. by the province of Riobamba. Its dis-trict is barren and poor, and the country beingmountainous, the inhabitants have no resource forgetting their livelihood other than by acting ascarriers between the provinces of Riobamba andTacunga on the one hand, and the warehouses ofBabahoyo on the other, where also are the royalmagazines ; and thus they bring back goods fromthe provinces of Peru, having for this traffic anumber of requas, or droves of mules, amountingin the whole to 1500 head. This commerce canonly be carried on in the summer, the roads beingimpassable in the winter through the mountains,when they say that these are shut up : at the sameseason the rivers become swollen to such a degree
a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the placecalled the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all ofthem, to the mountains, although in the same yearthey returned back again to the settlement.
CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful.It has besides the parish church a convent or houseof entertainment of the religious order of St.Francis.
CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of theinfidel Indians of the province and government ofSanta Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence itlies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the e.by the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that ofChuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements,each governed by its captain or cazique, subject,in a certain degree, to the above government.These people, though they refuse to adopt the Ca-tholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spa-niards, trading with them in wax, cotton, andmaize. This nation, by the incursions which tlieymade, used at first to give frequent alarm to theprovince, and once had the address to capture thecity of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui en-deavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither henor the Spaniards could avail aught with them■until they were reduced by the missionaries, theregulars of the extinguished company of the Je-suits ; since that time they have been stedfast insupporting the Spaniards against the other infidels,serving them as a barrier, and having for their ownline of defence the river Guapay. They are veryvalorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they aredescended from the nations which are found to thee. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the num-ber of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastise-ment of the Portuguese, who were about to inflictcondign punishment on them for having treache-rously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in thetime of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal.They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fattentheir prisoners that these might become better fare ;but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniardshas caused them by degrees to forget this barbarouspractice, and even to give them a disgust at theirsavage neighbours, who still continue in the samepractices. They are at the present day so greatlyincreased in numbers, that they are one of themost numerous nations of America ; are besidesvery neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon forthem to rush out of their dwellings in the middleof the night to plunge and wash themselves in ariver in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.
immediately after parturition, invariably do thesame, and on their return lay themselves on a heapof sand, which they have for this purpose in thehouse; but the husband immediately takes to hisbed, and being covered all over with very largeleaves, refuses to take any other nourishment thana little broth made of maize ; it being an incorri-gible error of belief amongst them that these cere-monies will be the cause of making their childrenbold and warlike. They have shewn great powerand address in their combats with our troops whenthese first endeavoured to enter their territories,and they threw themselves in such an agile and un-daunted manner upon our fire-arms that it wasfound necessary, on our part, to insert in the rantsa lance-man between every two fusileers : the vare, moreover, so extremely nimble that it isimpossible to take them prisoners but by sur-prise.
CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and go-vernment of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdomof Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ;dividing the government from that of Guatemala,and touching upon the province of Costarica.It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous,and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded onall sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred num-bers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Pa-nama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S.sea are found crabs which distil a purple colourused for dyeing cotton, which, although it mayfade a little, can never be entirely eradicated.They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable pro-ductions ; with which they carry on a trade, nowfallen much to decay, with the city of Panama.The capital is Santiago de Alanje.
Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), whichrises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea,serving as limits to that province, and dividing itfrom that of Costarica in the kingdom of Gua-temala.
C H I
the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements,though the number of these is very small.
CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature,and contains 39 families of Indians, who live bysowing maize, the only vegetable production oftheir territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capi-tal.
CHITO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla,and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to To-mependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines,but which are not worked ; its temperature is hotand moist, and consequently unhealthy.
[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lieson lake Champlain, between Franklin county onthe w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passesthrough its n. w. corner, and Onion river dividesit nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burling-ton. This county contained, by the census of1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Sincethat time the n. counties have been taken from it,so that neither its size or number of inhabitants cannow be ascertained.]
[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county,Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The roadover the mountain passes through this township.It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek,in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Ben-nington.]
[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a con-siderable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida,in the state of New York.]
CHIUAO, a small river of theprovince and colony of Surinam, or the part ofGuayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in themountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w.enters another river which is without a name, andwhere several others unite to enter the Cuyuni onthe s. side.
CHIUATA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cumana in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises from some plains in this territory,runs s. collecting the waters of several otherrivers, particularly that of the Suata, and thenenters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.
CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Canchas. In its district there is amineral hot-water spring, much renowned for thecuring of various kinds of maladies.
CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous na-tion of Indians of the province and government ofVenezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Mara-capana. They are very few, and live retired in themountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.
CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta inNueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, con-tains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leaguesto the n. of its capital.
CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayorof Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a coldand moist temperature, contains 103 families ofIndians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of thecapital.
CHOCO, a large province and government ofthe jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory ofwhich it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by thePacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations ofIndians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. bythat of Barbacoas. The whole of this provinceabounds in woods and mountains, and is crossedby a chain of the Andes, which run as far as theisthmus of Panama. It is watered by several riversand streams, all of which run w. and enter the S.sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form apart of this province ; very few of their ancientinhabitants remain at the present day ; the greaterpart of them having perished in the war of the
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COCO, a river of the province and governmentof Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains of the n. and enters the seaopposite the island of Las Palmas, and gives itsname to the territory of a Cacique, thus called.
COCOMERACHI, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, andkingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 40 leagues tothe w. s.zo. of the town 'And real of the mines ofChiguaga.
COCONUCO, See Cucunuco.
COCOS, some small islands of the Pacific orS. sea, lying close together, and divided by somenarrow channels. They abound in cocoa-trees,and from thence take their name. They are alsocalled Santa Cruz, from having been discoveredon the day of the invention of the cross. Theclimate here is pleasant, but the isles are unculti-vated and desert. Lat. 5° n.
COCUI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tunja in the NueVo Reyno de Gra-nada ; situate at the foot of the sierra Nevada. Itis of a cold temperature, but abounds in all kindsof productions, and particularly in wheat, maize,barley, &c. It contains 700 white inhabitants,and 150 Indians. Thirty-two leagues from Tunja,and eight from the settlement of Chita.
COCUPAC, a city and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofValladolid in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopricof Mechoaean. Its situation is in a nook to the n.of the great lake. On the e. and ze. are two loftymountains, which form so many other entrances,the one to the 5. and the other to the n. Its tem-perature is rather cold than w'arm ; and althoughit does not want for fruits, it is but ill supplied withwater, the only stream it has not running morethan the distance of a stone’s throw before it entersa lake. The inhabitants are thus under the ne-cessity of supplying themselves by wells. Thepopulation of this city consists in 45 families ofSpaniards, 52 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 150of Indians. They occupy themselves in the mak-ing of tiles or flags ; and the inferior order aremuleteers. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Francis.
COD, a cape of the coast of New England andprovince of Massachusetts. It runs for many leaguestowards the sea, forming a large semicircle, andafterwards returning, forms the bay of Barnstable.[See Cape Cod, Barnstable, &c.]
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COIUCA, San Miguel de, a settlement andhead settlement of tlie district of the government ofAcapulco in Nueva Espana. It contains 137 fa-milies of Indians, and is nine leagues to the n. e.of its capital. Close by this, and annexed toit, is another settlement, called Chinas, with 120families.
Coiuca, with the dedicatory title of San Agus-tin, another settlement of the head settlement andalcaldin mayor of Zacatula in the same kingdom ;containing 32 families of Indians and some Mus-tees, and being annexed to the curacy of itscapital.
COIUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva Es-pana ; situate on a plain surrounded bj^ heights.It is annexed to the curacy of its capital, andcontains 37 families of Indians, being; 15 leagrucsdistant from its capital.
(COKESBURY College, in the town ofAbington, in Harford county, Maryland, is an in-stitution which bids fair to promote the improve-ment of science, and the cultivation of virtue. Itwas founded by the methodists in 1785, and has itsname in honour of Thomas Coke and FrancisAsbury, the American bishops of the methodistepiscopal church. The edifice is of brick, hand-somely built on a healthy spot, enjoying a fine airand a very extensive prospect. The college waserected, and is wholly supported by subscriptionand voluntary donations. The students, who areto consist of the sons of travelling preachers, annualsubscribers, members of the society, and orphans,are instructed in English, Latin, Greek, logic,rhetoric, history, geography, natural philosophy,
and astronomy ; and when the finances of the col-lege will admit, they are to be taught the Hebrew,French, and German languages. The rules forthe private conduct of the students extend to theiramusements ; and all tend to promote regularity,encourage industry, and to nip the buds of idlenessand vice. Their recreations without doors arewalking, gardening, riding, andbathiiig; withindoors they have tools and accommodations for thecarpenter’s, joiner’s, cabinet-maker’s, or turner’sbusiness. These they are taught to consider aspleasing and healthful recreations, both for thebody and mind.]
COLAN, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Piura in Peru, on the coast of thePacific ; annexed to the curacy of Paita. its terri-tory produces in abundance fruits and vegetables,which are carried for the supply of its capital.All its inhabitants are either agriculturists or fisher-men. It is watered by the river Achira, alsocalled Colan, as well as the settlement ; and thoughdistinct from Cachimayu, it is not so from Cata-mayu, as is erroneously stated by Mr. La Marti-niere. [Here they make large rafts of logs, whichwill carry 60 or 70 tons of goods ; with these theymake long voyages, even to Panama, 5 or 600leagues distant, 'fhey have a mast with a sailfastened to it. They always go before the wind,being unable to ply against it ; and therefore onlyfit for these seas, where the wind is always in amanner the same, not varying above a point or twoall the way from Lima, till they come into the bayof Panama ; and there they must sometimes w'aitfor a change. Their cargo is usually wine, oil,sugar, Quito cloth, soap, and dressed goat-skins.The float is usually navigated by three or four men,who sell their float where they dispose of theircargo ; and return as passengers to the port theycame from. The Indians go out at night by thehelp of the land-wind with fishing floats, moremanageable than the others, though these havemasts and sails too, and return again in the davtime with the sea-wind.] Lat. 4° 56' s.
Colan, the aforesaid river. See Cat am a yu.
much incommoded by mosquitos ; so that its po-pulation is much reduced, and those that remainapply themselves to the cultivation of sugar-canes,maize, yucas^ and plantains.
COLONCHE, a small settlement of Indians,of the district and jurisdiction of Santa Elena,in the government of Guayaquil, and kingdomof Quito ; situate on the s. shore of a river,from whence it takes its name, in lat. 1° 56' s.The said river rises in the mountains of thedistrict, and enters the S. sea, opposite the islandof La Plata.
COLONIES OF THE English. See thearticles Virginia, Carolina, New England,New York, Jersey, Massachusetts, RhodeIsland, Pennsylvania, Nova Scotia ; of theJ3utch, see Surinam, Berbice, Corentin,CuRAZAo ; of the Portuguese, San Gabriel;of the French, Cayenne, St. Domingo, Mar-tinique; of the Danes, St. Thomas. (See gene-ral Tables of Dominions, &c. in the introductorymatter.)
COLOPO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs from s. e. to n. w. at an almostequal distance between the rivers Esmeraldas andVerde, and runs into the S. sea, in the bay of SanMateo, in lat. 58' n.
COLORADA, a river of tlie jurisdiction andalcaldta mayor of Penonomé, in the governmentof Panama, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It risesin the mountains to the s. and enters the Pacificnear the settlement of Anton.
Colorado, a river of the province and corre-^imiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile. Itrises in its cordillera, to the n. runs e. and spendsitself in various lakes, on account of the level oftlie country. The geographer Cruz errs in makingit enter the river Maipo.
COLORADOS, a barbarous nation of Indians,of the province and corregimiento of Tacunga inthe kingdom of Quito, who inhabit some moun-,tains of the same name, very craggy and rugged,abounding in animals and wild beasts, such asbears, lions, tigers, deer, squirrels, monkeys, andmarmosets. These Indians, although the greaterpart of them are reduced to the Catholic faith bythe extinguished company of the Jesuits, aregiven to superstition ; they are divided into twoparts, the one called the Colorados of Angamarca,since tlieir principal settlement bears this title, andthe other the Colorados of St. Domingo ; they now,belong to the province and government of Esme-raklas, and live retired in the woods, and upon thebanks of the rivers Toachi and Quininay, wherethe missionaries of the religion of St. Domingo ofQuito exercise their apostolical zeal. The princi-pal settlement of this place, being situate on the w.shore, is called St. Domingo. The commerce ofthese Indians, and by which they subsist, is incarrying to Guayaquil, the province by whichthey are bounded , w dod for making canoes and rafts,sugar-canes, achiote, and agi pepper, and bring-ing back in exchange cattle, fish, soap, and othernecessary eft'ects.
COLOTLIPAN, a settlement of the head set-
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Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.
COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.
COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.
CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered
with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.
(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)
(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)
CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}
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(Crow’s Meadows, a river in the n.w. ter-ritory, which runs n. w. into Illinois river, oppo-site to which are fine meadows. Its mouth is 20yards wide, and 240 miles from the Mississippi.It is navigable between 15 and 18 miles.)
(CROWN Point is the most s. township inClinton county, New York, so called from thecelebrated fortress which is in it, and which wasgarrisoned by the British troops, from the time of itsreduction by General Amherst, in 1759, till the laterevolution. Itwastakenby the Americans the I4thof May 1775, and retaken by the British the yearafter. The point upon which it was erected bythe French in 1731, extends n. into lake Champ-lain. It was called Kruyn Punt, or Scalp Point,by the Dutch, and by the French, Pointe-a-la-Chevelure ; the fortress they named Fort St. Fre-derick. After it was repaired by the British, itwas the most regular and expensive of any con-structed by them in America ; the walls are ofwood and earth, about 16 feet high and about 20feet thick, nearly 150 yards square, and surround-ed by a deep and broad ditch dug out of the solidrock ; the only gate opened on the n. tow'ards thelake, where was a draw-bridge and a covert way,to secure a communication with the waters of thelake, in case of a siege. On the right and left, asyou enter the fort, is a row of stone barracks, notelegantly built, which are capable of containing2000 troops. There were formerly several out-works, which are now in ruins, as is indeed the casewith the principal fort, except the walls of thebarracks. The famous fortification called Ticon-deroga is 15 miles s. of this, but that fortress isalso so much demolished, that a stranger wouldscarcely form an idea of its original construction.The town of Crown Point has no rivers ; a fewstreams, however, issue from the mountains, whichanswer for mills and common uses. In the moun-tains, which extend the whole length of lakeGeorge, and part of the length of lake Champlain,are plenty of moose, deer, and almost all the otherinhabitants of the forest. In 1790 the town con-tained 203 inhabitants. By the state census of1796, it appears there are 126 electors. Thefortress lies in lat. 43° 56' n. ; long. 73° 2Pw.)
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on the coast, between cape San Roman and thePunta Colorada.
CRUCES, a settlement of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore ofthe river Chagre, and in a small valley surroundedby mountains. It is of a good temperature andhealthy climate, and is the plain from whencethe greatest commerce was carried on, particularlyat the time that the galleons used to go to TierraFirme, the goods being brought up the river asfar as this settlement, where the royal store-housesare established, and so forwarded to Panama,Avhich is seven leagues distant over a level road.The alcaldia mayor and the lordship of this set-tlement is entailed upon the eldest son of the illus-trious house of the Urriolas; which family is es-tablished in the capital, and has at sundry timesrendered signal services to the king. The Englishpirate, John Morgan, sacked and burnt it inJ670.
Cruces, another, of the missions belonging tothe religious order of St. Francis, in the provinceof Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.Twenty-nine leagues to the n. w. of the town andreal of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
CRUILLAS, a town of the province and go-vernment of La Sierra Gorda in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva Espana, founded in 1764,by order of the Marquis of this title and viceroy'of these provinces.
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Bishops who have presided in Santa Cruz de laSierra.
1. Don Antonio Calderon, native of Vilches,dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bisliop ofPuertorico and Panama; first bishop in 1605;died at the advanced age of upwards of 100years.
2. Don Fray Fernando de Ocampo, of the re-ligious order of St. Francis, a native of Madrid.
3. Don Juan Zapata y Figueroa, native ofVelez-Malaga ; he was canon and inquisitor ofSeville ; presented to the brishopric of Santa Cruzin 1634.
Fray Juan de Arguinao, a religiousDominican, native of Lima, was prior and provin-cial in his religion, first professor of theology andwriting in that university, qualificator of the in-quisition ; presented to the bishopric of Santa Cruzin 1646, and promoted to the archbishopric ofSanta Fe in 1661.
5. Don Fray Bernardino de Cardenas, native ofLima, of the order of St. Francis ; promoted fromParaguay to this bishopric in 1666.
6. Don Fray Juan de Rivera, of the order ofSt. Augustin, native of Pisco in Peru ; first pro-fessor of theology.
7. Don Fray Juan de Esturrizaga, of the orderof preachers, native of Lima.
8. Don Pedro de Cardenas y Arbieto, native ofLima, collegian of the royal college of San Mar-tin, canon of its holy church.
9. Hon Fray Juan de los Rios, of the order ofSt. Dominic, a native of Lima, provincial of hisreligion in the province of San Juan Bautista delPeru.
10. Don Fray Miguel Alvarez de Toledo, ofthe order of Nuestra Sexiora de la Merced, electedin 1701.
11. Don Miguel Bernardo de la Fuente, deanof the holy church of Truxillo, elected in 1727.
12. Don Andres de Vergara and Uribe, electedin 1744 ; he died in 1745.
13. Don Juan Pablo de Olmedo, native of Tu-cuman, elected in 1745, died in 1757.
14. Don Fernando Perez de Obiitas, native ofArequipa, elected in the aforesaid year, died in1760.
15. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, nativeof Lima, elected in 1760, promoted to the arch-bishopric of Charcas in 1766.
16. Don Juan Domingo Gonzalez de la Ri-gucra, elected the aforesaid year, and promotedto the archbishopric of the holy metropolitanchurch of Lima in 1780.
17. Don Alexandro de Ochoa, elected in 1782.
Cruz, Santa, a city of the above province,which was once the capital ; founded by Nuno deChaves in 1557, after that he had passed along theshores of the river Paraguay to discover a commu-nication with the other provinces. Its inhabitants,however, not being able to stay in it through theincessant sallies of the Indians who surroundedthem, were under the necessity of changing theirsettlement ; but disagreeing in the choice of place,some of them united together, and founded the cityof Santiago del Puerto, and others that of SanLorenzo de la Frontcra, which is to-day the capi-tal, the former city being entirely abandoned.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementand alca’d'ia mayor of Jochimilco in Nueva Es-pana ; situate in a mountainous and cold country,containing 46 families of Indians, who live by cut-ting timber and making fuel. It is two leagues tothe cU. of its capital.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement ofSt. Francisco del Valle, and akaldia mayor ofZultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 28 fa-milies of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation ofthe land, and cutting bark from trees. Ten leaguesfrom its head settlement.
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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, foundedin ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.]t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of theAntilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its terri-tory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain sea-sons, from the low situation. It has many rivers,streams, and fountains, with three very good andconvenient ports. It was for a long while desert,until some English settled themselves in it, andbegan to cultivate it; afterwards the French pos-sessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it thefollowing year to the knights of Malta, from whomit was bought, in 1664, by the West India com-pany. In 1674, it was incorporated with the pos-sessions of the crown by the king of France. Itsinhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St.Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to acompany of Danes, of Copenhagen, who nowpossess it. It was the first of the Antilles whichwas occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues
from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight fromPuertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and fivefrom that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugarscane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which renderit very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W.India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is ina high state of cultivation, and has about 3000white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A greatproportion of the Negroes of this island have em-braced Christianity, under the Moravian mission-aries, whose influence has been greatly promotiveof its prosperity.
The official value of the Imports and Exportsof Santa Cruz were, in
1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.
1810, 422,033, 89,949.
And the quantities of the principal articles im--
ported into Great Britain were, in
Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w.See West Indies.]
Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Ad-miral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for thecrown of Spain, that making the tenth time of itsbeing captured.
Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n.coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sand-bank of Cumplido.
Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the provinceand government of Honduras, called Triunfo dela Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between theport of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues fromthe gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.
Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or LargeBay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines.Lat. 50° 10' s.
==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magel-lan. It runs into the sea.
Cruz, Santa, a small river of the provinceand captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be-tween the Grande and the Dulce, opposite theshoals ofS. Antonio.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcaptainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It risesnear the coast, runs n. and enters the sea betweenthe point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,
Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx
16. Don Pedro Valdes, who was the first whowas invested with the captainship-general of theisland, which he executed until 1601.
17. Don Gaspar Ruiz de Pereda, until 1608.
18. Sancho de Alquiza, until 1616.
19. Don Francisco Venegas, until 1620.
20. The Doctor Damian Velazquez, until 1625.
21. Don Juan Bitriande Biamonte, until 1630,when he was removed to the presidency of Panama.
22. Don Francisco de Kiano y Gamboa, until1634.
23. Don Alvaro de Luna y Sarmiento, until1639.
24. The Colonel Don Diego Villalva, until1647.
25. The Colonel Don Francisco Gelder, until1650.
26. The Colonel Don Juan Montana, until1656.
27. The Colonel Don Juan de Salamanca, until1658.
28. The Colonel Don Rodrigo de Flores, until1663.
29. The Colonel Don Francisco Orejo Gaston,until 1664.
30. The Colonel Don Francisco Ledesma, until1670.
31. The Colonel Don Joseph de Cordoba, until1680.
32. Don Diego Antonio de Viana, until 1687.
S3. The Colonel Don Severino Manzaneda,
34. Don Diego de Cordoba, until 1695.
35. The Colonel Don Pedro Benitez> until 1704.
36. The Brigadier Don Pedro Alvarez, until1706.
37. Don Laureano de Torres, until 1708.
38. Don Luis Chacon, until 1712.
39. I’he Brigadier Don Vicente Raja, until1716.
40. The Brigadier Don Gregorio Guazo, until1718.
41. The Brigadier Don Dionisio Martinez de laVega, formerly colonel of the regiment of Galicia,until 1724.
42. Don Diego Penalosa, until 1725.
43. The Brigadier Don Juan Francisco Guemesy Horcasitas, formerly colonel of the regiment ofGranada, in 1734, until 1746, when he was pro-moted to the vice-royalty of Mexico.
44. The Brigadier Don Francisco AntonioTineo, captain of the regiment of Spanish guards,an ofBcer of singular accomplishments ; he enteredin the aforesaid year, and died a few days after hisarrival.
45. The Brigadier Don J uan Francisco Cagigal,of t-he order of Santiago ; he was governor of thegarrison of Cuba at the time that he was nominated,through the death of the predecessor, in 1747 ; hewas intermediate viceroy of Mexico, in 1756.
46. The Brigadier Don Juan de Prado, in-spector of the infantry, nominated in 1760 ; in histime the English besieged and took the Havana ;he was deposed from his situation, and made amember of the council of war, in 1763.
47. Don Ambrosio Funes de Villalpando, Countof Rida, a grandee of Spain, of the order of San-tiago, lieutenant-general of the royal armies ; no-minated to take possession of the place which hadbeen surrendered by the English in the treaty ofpeace, and to fortify the post of the Cabana, whichhe effected, and returned to Spain in 1765.
48. The Brigadier Don Diego Manrique ; hedied the same year, a short time after his arrival.
49. Don Pasqual de Cisneros, lieutenant-gene-ral of the royal armies, twice intermediate go-vernor.
50. Don Antonio Maria Bucareli Bailio, of theorder of San Juan, lieutenant-general of the royalarmies, in 1766 ; promoted to the vice-royalty ofMexico in 1771.
51. The Marquis de la Torre, knight of theorder of Santiago, lieutenant-general ; he cameover here in the same year, being at the time go-vernor of Caracas, and ruled until 1777, when hereturned to Spain.
52. The Lieutenant-general Don Diego JosephNavarro, who had been captain of grenadiers ofthe regiment of Spanish guards, and found* him-self exercising the government of the garrison ofTarragena in Cataluua, when he was nominatedto this, and in the same year that he left the formerplace ; this he kept until 1783, when he returnedto Spain.
53. Don Joseph de Espeleta, brigadier and in-spector of the troops of America ; nominated asintermediate successor in the aforesaid year.
Cuba, with the dedicatory title <rf Santiago,a capital city of the' former island (Cuba), founded byDiego Velazquez in 1511, with a good port de-fended by a castle, called the Morro, as is that ofthe Havana. It is the head of a bishopric suffra-gan to the archbishopric of St. Domingo, erected^in 1518. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Domingo, and another of St. Francis ;it was at first populous and rich, and even at onetime contained 2000 house-keepers, but since thata commerce was established in the Havana,through the excellence of its port, and that thecaptain-general and the bishop have fixed their.
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s;iges the walls were cut Tery crooked, admittingfor a certain space only one person to pass at atime, and this sidewise, and with great difficulty,when shortly afterwards two raio^ht pass abreast.The exit was by a rock, worked in the same nar-row manner on the other side ; and this was alto-gether a plan adopted through prudence, and forthe better security against any sudden assault,since here a single man might defend himselfagainst a great number. In a magnificent chapelof the cathedra! is venerated a miraculous crucifix,which was presented by the Emperor Charles V.and which is called De los Temblores, from thecity having invoked it as a patron in the tremen-dous earthquake which happened here in 1590;also an image of Nuestra Senora de Helen, whichthey call La Linda, (the Beautiful), the gift of thesame royal hand. It is the second city of Peru,and inferior only to the capital of the kingdom.It was governed, after the time of the conquestsmade by the Spaniards, by a secular cabildo, com-posed of two ordinary alcaldes, a royal ensign,an alguaxil mayor, a provincial alcalde, a depo-sitor-general, 12 perpetual regidors, two alcaldesof the inquisition, and a regidor, nominated an-nually, with the title of judge of the natives, whois entrusted with the causes of the Indians; thesehaving also a protector, nominated every twoyears by the viceroy of Lima. This cabildo main-tains, through the grant of the Emperor CharlesV. the same privileges as the cabildo of Burgos.The city has also many other prerogatives, withthe title of Gran Ciudad, and Cabeza, or head ofthe kingdoms and provinces of Peru, in rewardfor its having supported the crown against thetraitor Diego de Almagro, in the conflicts that hemaintained with Francis Pizarro, and from itsliaving taken him prisoner in 1553, in the cele-brated battle of Las Salinas, a league from Cuzco ;also from its having refused to acknowledge thetitle of governor of Peru, assumed by Diego deAlmagro the younger, supporting, in preference,the legitimate government. Again, when the Li-centiate Christoval Vaca de Castro arrived, think-ing to be governor, the people of Cuzco took himprisoner, under the orders of the lieutenant-gover-nor, Diego Salazar de Toledo, and the ordinaryalcalde, Antonio Ruiz de Guevera, and kept himin confinement until he was beheaded in that placeby the same person that executed his father. Forthese services, and for the valuable presents,which on several occasions it has made to thecrown, this city was allowed to be by the laws ofthe Indies, and, as appears by its records, one ofthe first cities in all Castilla, having a priority of
vote ; and in 1783, it was ordered by the king ofSpain, that in consideration of the resistance itoffered in the late rebellion of the Indians of theprovince of Tinta and the other immediate pro-vinces, it should be endowed with the title ofMost Noble, Most Loyal, and Most Faithful, andthat it should enjoy the same privileges as Lima.In 178i, the office of corregidor was extinguished,and his Majesty established an intendant and go-vernor vice-patron; and in 1787, the tribunal ofroyal audience, composed of a president, fouroidors, and aJiscaL It has for arms a golden castleupon a blue field, with various trophies andcolours on the sides, and an eagle at the top. Ithas been the native place of many illustrious men,and of these are,
Don Bernardo de Aviza y Ugarte, oidor ofPanama, bishop of Cartagena and Truxillo, andelected archbishop of Charcas.
Don Cayetano Marcellano y Agramont, bishopof Buenos Ayres, and archbishop of Charcas.
Don Gabriel de Ugarte, royal ensign of the saidcity.
Don Diego Esquivel and Navia, dean of itschurch.
Don Ignacio de Castro, curate of San Geronimoand rector of the university.
Don Francisco Espinosa and Medrano, alias ElLunarejo, magistral canon of its church,
Don Francis Xavier de Lagos, penitentiarycanon.
The Father Maestro Fray Pedro de la Sota, ofthe order of La Merced ; a subject who was oftenconsulted by the viceroys in matters of the utmostimportance.
The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, a celebratedhistorian of Peru.
Its jurisdiction, although it may retain the titleof province, is so reduced as to extend merely asfar as the district of the city, notwithstanding itformerly comprehended all the neighbouring pro-vinces, until the president, Lope Garcia de ()astro,established in each of these separate corregidors.Its principal commerce consists in the very largequantity of sugar which is made in the neighbour-ing jurisdictions, and where the inhabitants havemany sugar plantations ; that of San Ignacio dePachachaca, in the boundaries of the jurisdictionof Abancay, and formerly belonging to the re-gulars of the extinguished company of Jesuits,being the most celebrated. Tliere is made here avast quantity of baize and ordinary cloth, calledpanete, woven stuffs, saddles, floor-carpets, andtucuyo, which is an ordinary kind of linen usedas clothing by the poor; galloons of gohl, silver,