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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.

Aconcagua, a settlement of the same province, which was formerly its capital, until the foundation of the city of S. Felipe. It is very thinly peopled, and is situate in the valley of this name.

Aconcagua, a volcano of the same province.

ACONCHI, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva España.

ACONICHI, a settlement of Indians of N. Carolina, situate on the shore of the river Eno.

ACONICHI, an Island in the middle of the river Dan, in the same province.

ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.

ACOPIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Sangarara.

ACORA, a settlement of the province and government of Chucuito in Peru, situate on the shore of the Gran Laguna (great lake). Lat. 16° 40' 30" S. Long. 70° 15' W.

ACORI, a small river of the province and capitainship of Pará in Brazil. It runs N between the Pacajes and Yavarais, and enters the river of the Amazonas, in the arm formed by the island of Marajo.

ACORIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru.

ACORO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Tambillo.

ACOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jauja in Peru.

another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi, annexed to the curacy of Acomayo.

ACOSTA, a settlement of the province and capitainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situate onthe N shore of the large river of San Francisco, near where it enters the sea.

ACOSTAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro-virreyna in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Pilpichacha.

ACOSTAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Huaribaraba.

ACOTAMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Iguari.

ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.

[ACOUEZ, an Indian nation in Canada.]

ACOXCHIAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Xonacatepec, and alcaldía mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva España.

==ACQUACKNACK, a town on the W side of Passaic river, in Essex county, New Jersey, ten miles N of Newark, and 17 N W from New York. Lat. 40° 47' N. Long. 74° 10' W.

ACTIPA, San Mateo de, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tezeoro in Nueva Espana, annexed to the curacy of Capulalpa.

ACTIPAQUE, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Toluca in Nueva España, four leagues to the S of its capital, and situate on the shore of the lake Tezcoco.

[ACTON, a township in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, containing 853 inhabitants ; 24miles N W of Boston.]

ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.

ACTUPAN, San Pedro de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Xochimilco, in the same kingdom. It contains 210 Indian families, including those of its wards.

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AHUACAZALCA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of San Luis de la Costa,and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espaiia.It contains 56 families of Indians, -whose com-merce consists in rice and cotton. Three leaguesn. e. of its liead settlement.

AHUACAZINGO, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Atengo, and alcaldiamayor of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains46 families of Indians, and is ten leagues e. of itshead settlement.

AHUALICAN, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Espana ; of a benignand salutary temperature, as it is fanned by then,breezes. It lies three leagues n. of its head settle-ment, which is Oapan ; and contains 36 familiesof Indians.

AHUATELCO, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofIzucai in Nueva Espana, situate on the skirt of thevolcano of the same name. In its district areeight settlements, inhabited by 289 families of In-dians, and 11 of Musiees and Mulattoes, wholive in some temporary habitations for labourers.It is situate on a cold, rough, and barren soil, butis nevertheless fertile in wheat, and abounds inwater and cattle. Eight leagues n. w. of its capital.

AHUATEMPA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of Santa Isabel, and alcaldiamayor of Cholula, in Nueva Espana. It contains 39families of Indians, and is two leagues s.of its capital.

AHUATEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espana. It contains 32 families of In-dians, and is two leagues n. of its capitaL

AHUATLAN, San Pedko de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of San Juandel Rio, and alcaldia mayor of Queretaro, in NuevaEspana ; annexed to the curacy of the formerplace, and lying ten leagues n. w, of the latter.

AHUEHUEZINGO, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Chietlan, and alcaldiamayor of Izucar, in Nueva Espana.

AHUEZITLA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espana. It contains 36 families of In-dians, and abounds in chia, (a white medicinalearth), grain, and earthen-ware. It is nine leaguesw, n. w. of its capital.

AHWAHHAWAY, a race of Indians, whodiffer but very little in any particular from theMandans, their neighbours, except in the unjustwar which they, as well as the Minetares, prosecuteagainst the defenceless Snake Indians. They claimto have once been a part of the Crow Indians, whom

they still acknowledge as relations. They haveresided on the Missouri as long as their traditionwill enable them to inform.

AIABACA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Piura in Peru.

AIACASI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of Belille.

AIACOA, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises to the w. of the Sierra Maiguatida, runs e. andenters the Orinoco near the rapid stream of theMarumarota.

AIACOCHA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huanta in Peru, situate in theisland Tayacaja.

AIAHUALTEMPA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldia mayorof Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 fa-milies of Indians, and is three leagues to the s. ofits head settlement.

AIAHUALULCO, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of Ixlahuacan, and alcaldiamayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana, which, in theMexican language, signifies a small river. Itabounds in the best fruits of its jurisdiction, suchas pears and other sorts of fruit highly esteemed atVera Cruz. It contains only three families of Spa-niards, 22 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 70 of In-dians. In its district are several temporary habi.tations for labourers, and pastures for breeding cat-tle, which reach as far as the district of Tepcaca,in the lofty eminence of Xamiltepec, 16 leaguesdistant from Xalapa. It includes also within itsadministration the cultivated estates extending asfar as the place called Puertezuelo, where this juris-diction approximates to that of San Juan de losLlanos on the w. s.w. side ; and in the culture ofthe above estates many Spaniards, 3Iustees, andMulattoes, are employed. One league s. w. of itshead settlement.

Aiahualulco, another settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldiamayor of Chilapa, in the kingdom of Xalapa, andannexed to the curacy of this place, from which itis three leagues distant, being nine to the s. of itshead settlement. It contains 42 families of Indians,including another small settlement incorporatedwith it.

AlAHUASA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of Pachaconas.

AIAMARCA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro Virreyna in Peru, an-nexed to the curacy of Cordova.

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AIANABE, a settlement of Indians of S. Caro-lina, situate on the shore of the river Buffle-noir.

AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the districtof the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and isannexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at twoleagues to the s. of its capital.

AIAPATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and veryopulent, on account of its silver mines. The sandson the banks of the rivers here have been known sorichly impregnated with this metal, that lumps ofit have been at different times picked up. It is themost considerable population in the province, andthe temperature is so salutary, that it is very com-mon to meet with persons of 90 years of age, andmany also of 100.

AIAPEL, a town of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Gra-nada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swampof the same name, and which is formed from thewaters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others.In its district are the lavaderos, or washing placesfor gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can,Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.

AIARANGA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Paccho.

AIARI, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the cu-racy of Mayoc.

AIATA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

AIATASTO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Tucuman, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Salta, on the banks of whichare some pasture grounds of the same name, uponwhich are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000of horses for breeding.

AIATEPEC, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of Atitlan, and alcaldia mayor ofVillalta, in Nueva España. It contains 45 fami-lies of Indians, and is 17 leagues from its capital.

AIAUl, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Castro Virreyna in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of Huaitara.

AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity aresome forts, which were built by the Indians in thetime of their gentilism, and now in a state of greatdilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here,the bottom of which has never yet been found.The water always keeps at one height, so that it ispresumed that it finds its way out through somesubterraneous channel. There is also another warm


water spring at two leagues distance, which is verynoxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petri-fying, in like manner as the spring of water inGuancavelica.

Aiauiri, another settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Yauyos in Peru.

AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila inNueva España, of a warm temperature, and inha-bited by 100 Indian families, who support them-selves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant.Nine leagues s. of its capital.

AICAROPA, a small river Of the province andgovernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runsfrom e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. andenters the Caura.

AICHES, a settlement of Indians of the provinceand government of Las Texas, in Nueva España,sitzate in the way which leads to Mexico.

AICIACHIA, a settlement of the missions whichbelonged to the Jesuits, in the province of Tarau-mara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 40 leaguesw. s. w. of the town and real of the mines of Chi-guagua.

AIECTIPAC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Yxteapan, and alcaldiamayor of Tlapa, in Nueva España. It contains21 Indian families, and is three leagues e. of itshead settlement.

AIENCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cuenca, in the kingdom of Quito,annexed to the curacy of Paccha.

AIGA, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Huailas in Peru.

AIGAME, a settlement and real of mines ofthe province and government of Sonora in NuevaEspana.

==AILES, a river of the province and governmentof Louisiana. It runs s, e. between the rivers Canotand Noyre, and empties itself into the Mississippi.

AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province ofAndahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. byParinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas,and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in lengthfrom «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). includ-ing in its figure on the w. side the last mentionedprovince. It js one of the most uneven soils in thekingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowymountains. It is on this account that its climate isvery cold, excepting, however, in some vallies,where it is more temperate, and where, on somesmall sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed andgrain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,

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Asiento de Con-doroma,

Santuario de la Vir-gen de Huancani,

San Pedro de Cacha,


Pueblo Nuevo,

Santuario de Tan-gascucal,




Its repartimiento amounted to 112,500 dollars,and it paid 900 dollars yearly for alcavala. Thecapital is Tinta.

CANETE, a province and corregimiento ofPeru. Its jurisdiction begins six leagues s. ofLima, and extends as far as 35, following thecoast of the Pacific ocean. It is bounded on then. e. by the province of Huarochiri, on the e. byYauros, on the s. by Yca, on the s. e. by CastroVireyna, and on the w. by the sea. It is 31 leaguesin length from n. to s. and from eight to nine inwidth, from e. to w. It is watered by some streams,of which the most considerable are the Mala onthe n. which rises from the lake Huasca-cocha,in the province of Yauyos, and the Cañete. Onits coast are many small ports and bays, thoughvery insecure and of unequal bottom. It aboundsin wheat, maize, sugar-cane, and all sorts offruit. The lands of this province belong for themost part to noble families at Lima, with whichcapital it carries on a considerable trade in fish,(brought from the coast), in fruit and vegetables,salt procured from the salt grounds of Chielca,and in nitre brought from the town of Mala.Its corregidor used to have a repartimiento of124,000 dollars, and it paid 992 yearly for alca-vala. The settlements of this province are,

Cañete, San Pedro de Mala,

Chilca, Pacarán,

Calango, Almagro,

Chincha, Lunaguana,

Tanqui, Zuñiga.


Canete, a river of the same province, whichrises from the lake Tiell-cocha in Yauyos. Itruns to the w. and enters the sea near the Herbae.At its entrance are to be seen the remains of a fortwhich belonged to the Incas of Peru.

Canete, some islands near the coast of thesame province.

Canete, a port in the same province, fre-quented by small vessels. It is very confined andinsecure.

CANGREJILLOS, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, and juris-

diction of Jujuy, situate on the shore of the riverLaquiaca.

CANGREJO, a large settlement of the sameprovince and government as the former, and ofthe same jurisdiction, situate likewise on the shoreof that river.

CANGREJOS, Island of the, lies at the en-trance of the river Orinoco, in its principal mouth,called Navios, on the n. side. Mr. Bellin callsit Cangray. It is small, and inhabited by CaribeeIndians.

CANI, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Huanuco in Peru, annexed to the cu-racy of Santa Maria del Valle.

(CANIADERAGO, a lake in Otsego county,New York, nearly as large as Otsego lake, andsix miles w. of it. A stream called Oaks creekissues from it, and falls into Susquehannah river,about five miles below Otsego. The best cheesein the state is said to be made on this creek.)

CANIBALES, or Caribes, a barbarous na-tion of Indians, who are, according to their name,cannibals, inhabiting the islands of the Antillesbefore they were taken and conquered by the Spa-nish, English, and French. There are few ofthese Indians at the present day inhabiting thoseislands ; the greater part are to be found in Domi-nica, which is entirely possessed by them ; theyadore a man who they affirm was uncreated, andthe first of all men, who descended from heaven,and was called Longuo, from whose navel wereborn other men , and some also from his legs, whichhe himself cleft open with a hatchet. With theManicheans, they believe in the two original causesof good and evil, and in the immortality of thesoul ; and whenever any one dies they bury withhim his slaves and servants, thinking they maybe of use to him in the other world. They arepolygamists, very cruel, but dexterous in the useof the bow and arrow ; they are to be found alsoin other parts of the continent. [See Caribes.]

(CANICODEO Creek, a s. w. head water ofTioga river in New York, which interlocks withthe head waters of Genessee river, and joins Co-nesteo creek 26 miles w. n. w. from the Paintedpost.)

CANICUARIS, a barbarous nation of Indians,who live scattered in the woods of Rio Negro tothe n. of Marañon. It is but little known.

CANIN, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Canchas.

CANIS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Tillos.

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sels can go 25 miles above Wilmington, and largeboats 90 miles, to Fayetteville. The n. e. branchjoins the n. w. branch a little above Wilmington,and is navigable by sea vessels 20 miles above thattown, and by large boats to S. Washington, 40miles further, and by rafts to Sarecto, which isnearly 70 miles. The whole length of Cape Fearriver is about 200 miles.)

Cape Gross or Great, the point or extremityof the e. coast of lake Superior in Canada, wherethis begins to run out, in order to empty itself intolake Huron.

Cape Gross or Great, another point of theisland of St. Christopher, one of the Antilles, in thes. e. extremity, facing the s. w. and is one of thetwo which form the Grand Ance, or Great bay.

(Cape May is the s. westernmost point of thestate of New Jersey, and of the county to which itgives name. Lat. 38° 59' n. Long. 74° 55' w.It lies 20 miles n. e. from cape Henlopen, whichforms the s. w. point of the mouth of Delaware bay,as cape May does the n. e.)

(Cape May County spreads n. around the capeof its name, is a healthy sandy tract of country, ofsufficient fertility to give support to 2571 industri-ous and peaceable inhabitants. The county isdivided into Upper, Middle, and Lower pre-cincts.)

(CAPERIVACA, a large river in Guayana, S.America.)

CAPERU, a river of the province and govern-ment of Guayana, which enters the Apure, accord-ing to Mr. Bellin.

CAPETI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the mountains in the interior of this pro-vince, runs from e. to w. and enters the large riverof Tuira.

CAPI, a settlement of the province and corre-gimienio of Chilques and Masques in Peru.

Capi, a small river of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. It runsfrom e. to w. and enters the Marañon opposite thecity of Pará. Don Juan de la Cruz, in his map ofS. America, calls it Cupiu.

CAPIATA, a small settlement of the provinceand government of Paraguay ; situate on the shoreof the river of its name, three leagues e. of the cityof Asuncion. [Lat. 25° 21' 45". Long. 57° 31'48" w.]

CAPIGUI, a river of the province and caplain-ship of St. Vincent in Brazil. It runs to the s. s. w.and enters the Mboapiari.

CAPILLA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of

Santiago del Estero, on the bank of the river Cho-romoros.

Capilla Nueva, a parish of the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres, mentioned onlyby D. Cosme Bueno. [It is situate on theriver Negro. Lat. 33° 12' 30" s. Long. 67° 57'40" w.]

CAPILLAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru, an-nexed to the curacy of Huasitara.

CAPILLUCAS, a settlement of the regularorder of the Jesuits, now abolished, in the provinceand government of Mainas of the kingdom ofQuito ; situate on the shores of the river of theAmazonas.

Capillucas, a lake of the same province andgovernment; formed from an overflow or channelof the river Napo, and at no great distance fromthe banks of this river.

Capillucas, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Yauyos in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Tauripampa.

CAPINANS, a settlement of Louisiana ; situateon the banks of the river Panzacola.

CAPINATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Sicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Cabari.

CAPINOTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cochambaba in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas ; in which there is, inde-pendent of the parish-church, a convent of theorder of San Agustin.

CAPIRA, a settlement of the jurisdiction andalcaldía mayor of Nata, in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate on the skirts of a mountain, at alittle distance from the coast of the S. sea.

CAPIRATO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cinaloa in Nueva España; situateon the sea-coast.

==CAPITAINE, Oric du, or Barranco delCapitan==, a small river of Virginia. It runsto the s. e. and enters the Ohio.

CAPITANA, Point of the, on the coast of theisland Guaricura ; one of those islands which lie inthe river of the Amazonas : it looks to the n.

CAPITANEJO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tunja in the new kingdom ofGranada; situate on the bank of the river Soga-moso, in the territory called Cabuya de Chica-mocha, which is the direct road from Tunja toSanta Fe. It is of a very hot temperature, abound-ing in sugar-cane, and other productions of a warmclimate. The natives are very subject to an epi-demic disorder of lumps or swellings under thechin. Its population consists of 100 housekeepers.

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Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and theAgujero del Ferro.

Carbet Point, on the s. coast of lake Superior,in New France, opposite the island of Philipeaux.

Carbet, a river of the island of Guadalupe,which tuns nearly e. and enters the sea betweenthe Grande and the Orange.

CARBON, Island of, situate in the middle ofa lake on the coast of the province and govern-ment of Buenos Ayres.

Carbon, Monte de, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Puchacay in the king-dom of Chile; situate upon the coast and on theshore of the bay of Culumo, near the mouth ofthe river Biobio.

CARBONIERE, a settlement of the island ofNewfoundland, situate on the e. coast, on theshore of the bay of Concepcion.

CARCAI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water ofvery medicinal properties, and its heat is so greatthat an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.

CARCARANAL, a river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the pro-vince of Tucuman, in the mountains of the cityof Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with thename of Tercero, and changing it into Carcara-iial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joinsthe Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hec-manas.

CARCAZI, a settlement of the government andJurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, situate betAveen two mountains, whichcause its temperature to be very moderate. It pro-duces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts suchfruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in themilder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhoodabounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number ofinhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniardsand 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhichdivide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.

CARCHIPOR, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cayenne in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises in the mountains of the same pro-vince, and runs into the sea on the side of capeOra nge.

(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouthcollege, New Hampshire. The township ofOrange once bore this name, which see.)

CARDIN, a settlement of the province of Ve-nezuela and government of Maracaibo, situate onthe shore of the coast, in the interior of the gulfformed by the peninsula of cape San Roman.

CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See articlePitangoas.

CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and realof gold mines in the province and captainship ofTodos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore ofthe large river of San Francisco, to the n. of thevillage of Tapuyas.

CAREHANEU, a small river of Pennsylvania,which runs w. and enters the Ohio.

CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the king-dom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty,and extent, being five leagues in length; also fora fountain of very delicate and salutary water,which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, ren-ders them so exceedingly porous, that a person tread-ing somewhat heavily seems to shake the groundunder him. There is an herb found here that keepsgreen all the year round: it is small, resemblingtrefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a veryagreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.

CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the king-dom of Tierra Firme in the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It is extremely convenientfor careening and repairing ships, and from thiscircumstance it takes its name. It lies behind capeCodera towards the e.

CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St.Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast,and in the part possessed by the French beforethey ceded the island to the Englissh. It is be-tween the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuenteand Morro.

=CARETI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the n. mountains, and enters the sea iathe bay of Mandinga.

CAREU, a settlement of the island of Barba-does, in the district of the parish of Christchurch.

CARGONACHO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Philpichaca.

CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and vol-cano of the province and corregimiento of Rio-bamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the dis-trict of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snowthe whole year round. Its skirts are covered withfine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this pro-vince was visited by a terrible earthquake, whichopened the mountain and let in a river of mud,formed by the snows which were melted by thefire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up.So dreadful were the effects of this revolution thatthe whole of the crops were completely spoiled ;and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-

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when he was promoted to the bishopric of Carta-gena in 1746, of which he took possession in thefollowing year, and governed until 1752, whenhe was promoted to the church of Truxillo.

51. Doii Bartolome Narvaez y Berrio, canon ofthis holy church of Cartagena, and native of thiscountry ; presented to this bishopric in^ 1752, andgoverned here until he died in 1754.

52. The Doctor Jacinto Aguado y Chacon, ca-non penitenciario of the holy church of Cadiz ;elected in 1754, and promoted to the bishopric ofArequipa before he embarked for this of Car-tagena.

33. Don Diego Antonio Valenzuela Faxardo,native of the city of Santa Fe of Bogota; electedin 1754 : he died in 1755.

34. The Doctor Don Manuel de Sosa Betancur,archdeacon of the holy church of Caracas ; electedin 1755 : he died in 1765.

35. Don Diego Peredo, native of the town ofLeon of Mechoacan ; elected in 1765, promotedto the bishopric of Yucatan in 1722.

36. Don Augustin de Alvarado y Castillo ; pro-moted to the bishopric of Santa Fe in 1774.

37. The Doctor t)on Bias Sobrino y Minayo ;elected in 1774, and promoted to the archbishopricof Quito in 1776.

38. Don Fr. Joseph Diaz de la Madrid, a monkof the Order of St. Francis, native of the city ofQuito ; elected in 1 777.

Governors of Cartagena.

1. Don Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city ;and its adelantado or governor, a native of Madrid,and a valorous conqueror, in 1532.

2. The Licentiate Badillo, nominated J uez deResidencia,; he exercised the government duringthe commission in 1536.

3. The, Licentiate Santa Cruz, judge of anothersecond residence, who became adelantado in 1537.

4. The Licentiate Miguel Diez de Armendariz;he entered in 1545, had for judge of his resi-dence the Licentiate Juan de Montano, oidor ofSanta F<5, whom he sent to Spain.

5. Don Pedro de Heredia, who for the secondtime was provisional governor until the year 1556,when he died, being drowned in the fleet whichwas wrecked in the Gordas sands.

6. The Doctor J uan de Maldonado, Jiscal of theaudience of Santa Fe in 1556.

7. Jorge de Quintanilla, provisionally nomi-nated by the audience of Santa Fe.

8. The Brigadier Don Go'izalo Ximinez deQuesada ; nominated by the audience as residen-tiary to the three former, in the same year, 1556.

9. Antonio de Castro ; provisionally nominated.

10. Juan de Bustos Villegas, nominated by theking ; he entered in 1 557, and was promoted tothe presidency of Panama in 1563.

11. Anton Davalos de Luna, a field-officer ; heentered in 1563, and governed till 1567, whenhe died.

12. Don Lope de Orozco, as provisional gover-nor in the same year.

13. Francisco Bahamonde y Lugo ; he enteredin 1572, and died in 1573.

14. Hernan Suarez de Villalobos, nominatedprovisonally by the audience of Santa Fe in 1574.

15. Pedro Fernandez del Busto, who entered inthe above year, and was promoted to the govern-ment of Popayan in 1577.

16. Don Pedro de Lodena, in 1593.

17. Don Pedro de Acuna, knight of the orderof San Juan, field-officer, in 1601 ; he had the titleof president of the Philippines, and died the sameyear.

18. Don Geronimo Suazo Casasola, of the habitof Santiago ; he died in 1605.

19. Don Francisco Sarmientode Sotomayor, no-minated in the interim, in 1606.

20. Don Diego Fernandez de Valazco, in 1608.

21. Don Diego de Acuna, in 1614.

22. Don Garcia Giron de Loaysa, who governeduntil 1620.

23. Don Diego de Escobar, knight of the orderof Santiago, who died whilst exercising the govern-ment.

24. Don Francisco de Berrio, nominated in thein the interim, in 1628.

25. Don Francisco de Murga, knight of the or-der of Santiago, a field-officer, and celebratedengineer ; appointed to fortify the Plaza, beingat the time governor of Marmora in Africa : h«died in 1634.

26. Don Nicolas de Larraspuru, nominated inthe interim, in 1636.

27. Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Vil-lalta, nominated in the interim, in 1637, on accountof the former not having accepted the office.

28. Don Vincente de los Reyes Villalobos, pro-visional governor in the same year, 1637, being thegovernor of Moxos.

29. Don Melchor de Aguilera, a field-officer;he entered in 1638, was suspended and called toaccount by Don Bernardino de Prado, oidor ofSanta Fe.

30. Don Ortuno de Aldape ; being governor ofMuzo, he was nominated in the interim, in 1641.

31. Don Luis Fernandez de Cordova, of the or-

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in beautiful singing birds ; and in its rivers aremany sorts of fish of a fine flavour, particularly thepatah. It is not without mines of gold, and laba~deros or washing places, but these are not worked,save by a few day-labourers. In the church of themonks of San Francisco is venerated an image of themost Holy Mary, with the title of La Probezuypainted on a piece of cotton-stuff, adorned with twofine pieces of silver, the natives payitig great de-votion to this superb work, from the wonderfulthings that have been said to have been effectedthrough the prayers offered up to her of whom thisis the semblance. This city has been the nativeplace of,

Don Melchor de Salazar, governor of Choco,and founder of the city Toro.

Of the Doctor Don Francisco Martinez Bueno,presbyter and visitor of the bishopric of Popayan ;a man of great literature.

Of the Doctor Don Manuel de Castro y Rada ; amost exemplary curate.

Of the Father Joseph Vicuna, who, after havingbeen a celebrated Jesuit, became a monk in thecollege of missions for propagating the faith in Po-payan, and died whilst preaching to the AndaquiesIndians.

Of the Father Estevan de Rivas, who, after hav-ing filled the title of jurist with great credit, be-came a Franciscan monk, and died an exemplarypenitent in his convent at Cartagena.

Of the Doctor Don Francisco Felipe del Campo,professor de prima of canons in the university ofSanta Fe ; a celebrated orator.

Of the Doctor Don Geronirao de Rivas, trea-surer and dignitary of the holy church of Popayan,provisor and ecclesiastical governor of that bishop-ric.

Of the Doctor Don Joseph de Renteria, assessorof the viceroyalties of Santa Fe and Lima, honoraryoidor of the audience of Charcas : all of whomhave borne testimony to the clearness and acutenessof their understandings and excellence of their dis-positions. But for all the information on thesesubjects, we have to thank Don Manuel del Cara-po, the son of the last mentioned, who resides inthis court, and to whom the merits thus severallyapplied, unitedly belong.

The arms of this city are three imperial crownswith a sun, and its inhabitants amount to about 5000or 6000 : 25 leagues n. e. of Popayan, in 4° 46'n. lat.

Cartago, another capital city, of the provinceof Costa Rica, in the kingdom of Guatemala,situate 10 leagues from the coast of the N. sea, and17 from that of the S. in each of which it has agood port ; it was formerly rich and flourishing, onaccount of its commerce w ith Panama, Cartagena,Portobclo, and the Havanah ; but it is at the presentday reduced to a miserable village of very few in-habitants, and without any commerce. It has, be-sides the parish church, a convent of monks of St.Francis, and is in 9° 42' s. lat.

Cartago, a river of the same province and go-vernment as is the former city : it runs w. and en-ters the S.sea, in the port of La Herradura.

Cartago, a bay in the province and govern-ment of Honduras, inhabited by the infidel Mos-quitos Indians.

CARTAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia: it rises in the mountains ofChoco, traverses the valley to which it gives itsname, and running e. enters the Cauca.

CARTEL, a port of the coast of the provinceand government of Florida, opposite the castle ofSt. Augustin.

(CARTER, a new county in the state of Tennes-see, formed of a part of the county of Washing-ton.)

(CARTERET, a maritime county of New Beradistrict, N. Carolina, on Core and Pamlico sounds.It contains 3732 inhabitants, including 713 slaves.Beaufort is the chief town.)

Carteret, a district and jurisdiction of S. Caro-lina, on the sea-coast.

Carteret, a cape or extremity of the coast ofthe same province, and one of those which formLong bay. See Roman.

(CARTERSVILLE, a town in Powhatancounty, Virginia, on the s. side of James rivtr, 4fmiles above Richmond.)

CARUALLEDA, Nuestra Senora de, acity of the province and government of Venezuela,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; founded byFrancis Faxardo in 1568, and not in 1560, as ac-cording to Coleti : it has a small but insecure port.The town is also a miserable place, having sufferedmuch injury, a short time after its foundation, bythe violent disturbances caused in its neighbour-hood by the Governor Don Luis de Roxas : 80leagues e. of Coro.

CARUALLO, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Paraiba in Brazil, situate near thesea-coast, and on the shore of the river Camara-tuba.

CARUGAMPU, a small river of the provinceand government of Paraguay ; it runs and en-ters the Parana between the rivers Capuy andParanay.

CARUJAL, PUNTA DE, a point on the coast ofthe province and government of Cartagena, called

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Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and LittleMance.]

Castors, a port on the s. coast of Nova Scotia,between the White isles and the port of Tangier.

CASTRO, a capital city of the province andgovernment of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile;peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Cas-tro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has agood port; is inhabited by some good and opu-lent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthytemperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of aregular and beautiful form ; has, besides the pa-rish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis,and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was.sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. ofthe city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.

Castro, another capital city of the province andgovernment of Esmeraldas or Atacames in the king-dom of Quito ; founded. in the valley of Fili byFrancisco Quintero, in 1586.

Castro, another settlement of the province andcvrregimknto of Chillan in the kingdom of Chile ;situate in the island of Maule, on the shore of theriver Longomilla.

Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete,«. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes,and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga andHuanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. bythat of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of\^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabi-tants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900,although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as,and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been dis-covered here, nor are there any other roads to itthan merely such as are opened through passes inthe snow, or where no obstruction is ofered bythe copious streams which every where precipi-tate themselves down from the mountains, andwhich are particularly large in the rainy season,which is from October to Slarch. Its productionsare wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in someglens, where the cold is not so great, fruits andcattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of whichthey turn to some profit. This province is wa-tered by rivers, some of which descend from theprovinces of the coast of the S. sea, and othersfrom the further side of the cordillera, runningtowards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it isalso watered by the Canete, which rises from theChicha, and collects other streams in this province ;by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called.firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-

cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters theprovince of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters ofthis province, notwithstanding they are very abun-dant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and withoutdoubt this arises from the cold which prevailshere. This province is but thinly peopled, and itsinhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard,amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of sixcuracies, to which there are 29 other settlementsannexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; thisis a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot,where the cold is most intense : close to it runs ariver, which is made use of for working the millsof the silver mines ; which, although they pro-duce this metal of a good quality, they are by nomeans well stocked with it. The town has a con-vent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estatescalled Huallanto and Huallanga, in which theraare churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leaguesfrom Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from

la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The

ements of the province












Santa Ana,





















Y anac.



CASUHATI, a mountam of the province andgovernmemt of Buenos Ayres, on the shore of theriver Hueque Lenori.

CASURO, a river of the province and coun-try of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos-sessions: it runs s. s. e. and enters the Trom-betas.

(CASWELL County, in Hillsborough district,N. Carolina, borders on Virginia, n : it contains10,096 inhabitants, of whom 2736 are slaves.Leesburg is the chief town.)

(CAT Island, or Guanahani, one of the Ba-hama islands. See St. Salvador.)

CATA, a settlement of the province and govern-

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ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settle-ment and parisli of Cul de Sac.

CERICUNCUA, a bay of the coast of Brazil,in the province and captainship of Seara, betweenthe port of Tortuga and the settlement of NuestraSeilora del Rosario.

CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofTunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of acold temperature, and abounds in cattle and theproductions peculiar to the climate. It contains300 families, and lies in a valley, from which ittakes its name.

CERMEN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the side ofthe town of San Felipe, towards the e. betweenthis town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, onthe shore of the river Iraqui.

CERRALUO, a town and presidency of theNuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadronof 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor ofthis district, for the'purpose of restraining the bor-dering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. isthe large river of this name ; and from this begins atract of extensive country, inhabited by barba-rous nations, who impede the communication andcommerce Avith regard to this part and the pro-vinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35leagues to the e. of its capital.

Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of Ca-lifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an islandwhich is also thus called ; the one and theother hav-ing been named out of compliment to the Marquis ofCerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie afore-said island is large, and lies between the formerbay and the coast of Nueva Espana.

CERRITO, a settlement of the island and go-vernment of Trinidad, near the n. coast, and to thee. of the capital of San Joseph de Oruna.

Cerrito Verde, an open and insecure port inthe bay of La Concepcion, of the kingdom ofChile, and Pacific sea.

Cerrito, another, with the surname of SantaAna. See Ctuayaquie.

CERRITOS, a small settlement of the jurisdic-tion of Orizava, and alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquil-pan, in Nueva España.

Cerritos, another settlement in the provinceand goverment of Popayán.

CERRO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Angaraes in Peru.

Cerro, another, in the province and corregi-miento of Porco in the same kingdom.

Cerro, another, with the surname of Negro,in the province and corregimiento of Rede, and king-dom of Chile ; situate at the source of the river Itan.

==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de CerroGordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Te-peguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Itssituation is similar to the road which leads to it,namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed,it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is apool of water, and by Avhich passengers usuallypass. This garrison is the residence of a captain,a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed tosuppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In itsvicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautifulorchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas,which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour.The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capitalGuadiana.

Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayorof Valladolid, in the province and bishopric ofMcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians,and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settle-ment, and 10 from the capital.

Cerros, another, in the province and corregr-miento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru.

CESARA, a large and copious river of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called bythe Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom,“ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of severalsmall rivers, which flow down from the snowysierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the ex-tensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lakeZapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into fourarms, which afterwards unite, and so, following acourse of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magda-lena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settle-ment called Banco.

CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of themare told many fabulous accounts, although theyare, in fact, but little known. Some believe themto be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being thoseAvho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and be-longed to the armada which, at the beginning ofthe conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop ofPlacencia to discover the Malucas. Others pre-tend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyedthe city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with themthe Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the pro-duction of these Avomen and the Indiatis that thisnation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that theyare of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect,and of good dispositions. They have some lightof Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; andsome have affirmed that they have heard the soundof bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo

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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore ofthe river Choromoros.

(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St.Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock coun-ties, in the district of Maine. The carrying placefrom boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in theKetmebeck, is only five miles.)

(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine milesabove Quebec, on the opposite shore, and aboutthree or four miles back from the river St. Law-rence, into which the river Chaudiere disemboguesitself. The river is seen at a distance, emergingfrom a thick wood, and gradually expandingfrom an almost imperceptible stream till it reachesdie cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, whichiippear to have been rent from their bed by someviolent convulsion of nature, break the course ofthe waters, and precipitate them from a height of120 feet into an immense chasm below. In someparts large sheets of water roll over the precipice,and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in otherplaces the water dashes from one fragment of therock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellow-ing and foaming with rage in every hollow andcavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence itrushes down with the rapidity of lightning intothe boiling surge beneath, where it rages with in-conceivable fury, till driven from the gulf byfresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself inthe waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenerywhich accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere isbeautiful and romantic beyond description. Inthe centre, a large fragment of rock, which firstdivides the water, at the summit of the precipice,forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree,which grows upon it, is thus placed in a mostsingular and picturesque situation. The forest oneither side the river consists of firs, pines, birch,oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs,intermingled in the most wild and romantic man-ner. Their dark green foliage, joined with thebrown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments overwhich the water precipitates itself, form a strik-ing and pleasing contrast to the snowy white-ness of the foaming surge, and the columns ofsparkling spray which rise in clouds and minglewith the air.)

CHAUGE, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina ; situate on the shore of the riverTugelo.

CHAUICO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Tlacotepec, and alcaldía


mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It con-tains 57 families of Indians.

CHAUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Chupamarca in the province ofYauyos.

Chauin, another settlement in the provinceand corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CHAUINA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Paraisancos.

CHAUINILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huamalies in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pachas.

CHAUITAS, La Presentacion de, a settle-ment of the province and government of Mainas inthe kingdom of Quito.

CHAULAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacar.

CHAUNAMILLA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Maule in the kingdomof Chile ; situate upon the shore and at the sourceof the river Jecudahue.

CHAUPICOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Atabillos Baxos.

CHAUPIMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Tapú.

CHAUTLAN, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldía mayor of Zoques in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHAUX, PUNTA DE, an extremity of the e.coast of the island of Martinique, one of the An-tilles. It runs into the sea nearly equal with thatof Carabelle.

CHAXAL, a river of the province and alcaldíamayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala.It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of Hi-gueras.

CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Co-chabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by thatof Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leaguesin length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Itstemperature is various, since it contains the settle-ments of Puna and Valles ; in the former of theseare found in abundance the productions of thesierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and otherseeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic withthe surrounding provinces, especially in the ar-ticles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred

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of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,



l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,






And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.

Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.

Nations. Mountains.






Coquimbo or La Se-







San Juan de la Fron-tera,

San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,





Los Angeles,



Y tata,












Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,















Estancia del Rey or









La Concepcion,





Cerrito Verde,




Fernandez. The capi-















P niches,Yanacunas.


Aguas Calientes,Guanacache,Mallabauquen,Padaguel,



Chilian, vole.

Chuapa, vole.

Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.

Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.

Payen, lead,

Peteroa, vole.

Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.

Yapel, gold.

















De Lora,

De la Sal,














Santa Maria.

Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.

1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-


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left the government, in the year 1655, to the suc-cessor,

25. Don Martin de Muxica, knight of the orderof Santiago, a renowned officer, and one who hadgained much renown in the armies of Ital}^ andFlanders.

26. Don Pedro Porter de Casanate, A. D.1659.

27. Don Francisco Meneses Bravo de Sarabia,who led from Spain a body of troops, in order tosubdue the Indians; this he accomplished; andin the year 1664 rebuilt the cities which had beendestroyed in 1599 : his government lasted untilthe year 1668, when he was deposed by the vice-roy of Peru.

28. Don Angel Peredo, knight of the order ofSantiago ; he was appointed as an intermediategovernor upon the deposition of his antecessor,and governed during the following year, 1669.

» 29. Don Juan Enriquez, native of Lima, knightof the order of Santiago, governed until the year1677.

30. Don

31. Don

32. Don

33. Don Juan Andres de Ustariz, native of Se-villa, until the year 1715, when was elected,

34. Don Gabriel Cano dc Aponte, brigadier-general of the royal armies, in whose time theAraucanos again declared war, when he obligedthem to renew the peace ; died A.D. 1728.

35. Don Juan de Salamanca, colonel of the mi-litia of that kingdom ; he was an intermediate go-vernor, and at his death,

36. Don Joseph de Santiago Concha, Marquisde Casa Concha, kinght of the order of Calatrava,chief auditor of the royal audience of Lima, nomi-nated by the viceroy.

37. Don Alonso de Obando, Marquis de Obatido,vice-admiral of the royal armada ; appointed bythe viceroy, the Marquis de Villa Garcia, as inter-mediate successor, until the year 1736.

38. Don Joseph Manso de Velasco, Count otSnperunda, knight of the order of Santiago ; hewas at that time captain of the grenadiers of theregiment of Spanish guards, and ranked as briga-dier; well recommended by his valour and ex-ploits, when he was appointed to this presidencyin the aforesaid year ; he governed until the year1746, when he was promoted to the viceroyalty ofPeru.

39. Don Domingo Ortiz de Rozas, knight ofthe order of Santiago, was at that time governor ofBuenos Ayres, and Avas elected to this presidencyin the aforesaid year ; he founded several toAvns,

on which account the king gave him the title ofConde de Poblaciones ; governed until the year1754, when returning to Spain, he died.

40 Don Manuel Arnat y J unient, knight of theorder of San Juan, colonel of the regiment of dra-goons of Sagunto, of the rank of brigadier, ap-pointed to this presidency ; which he filled untilthe year 1761, when he was promoted to the vice-royahy of Peru.

41. Don Mateo de Toro de Zambrano y Urueta,appointed as intermediate successor by the former,upon his departure from Lima, until the arrival ofthe right successor,

42. Don Antonio Guill, formerly colonel of theregiment of infantry of Guadalaxara, and thenranked as brigadier, being governor and captain-general of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; promotedto this presidency in the aforesaid year, 1761, andexercised it until his death, in 1768.

43. Don Mateo de Toro Zambrano y Urueta, thesecond time of his being nominated as intermediatesuccessor by the audience in the vacancy, untilwas nominated by the viceroy of Peru,

44. Don Francisco Xavier de Morales, knightof the order of Santiago, brigadier of the royalarmies, who being captain of the grenadiers of theregiment of the royal Spanish guards, was madegeneral of the militia in Peru, and Avas nominatedas intermediate successor by the viceroy to thispresidency, Avhich he enjoyed till his death in theyear 1772.

45. The aforesaid Don Mateo de Toro Zam-brano y Urueta, then Count of La Conquista, knightof the order of Santiago, and lieutenant-colonel ofthe royal armies, nominated for the third time bythe royal audience during the vacancy, until ar-rived the right successor,

46. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, brigadier of the royal armies,Avho had been colonel of the regiment of dragoonsof Sagunto ; Avas appointed to this presidencyA.D. 1773, and enjoyed it until 1782, Avhen heAvas promoted to the viceroyalty of Peru.

47. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, brigadier ofthe royal armies, was nominated in the same year,1782.


Chap. 1. Origin and language of the Chilians.— Conquest o f the Peruvians^ and state of Chilebefore the arrival of the Spaniards.— What werethen its political establishments^ government, andarts.

1. Language.— 2. Original state.— 3. Divided intofree and subjugated.— Agricidture.—b. Civi-

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[archers of Copiapo, commanded by Cotco, anofficer of the ulinen of that province. Of the wholeband none escaped with life but the two officers,Monroy and Miranda, who Avere brought coveredwith wounds before the ulmen.

12. The compassionate ulmena.—^^ hilst thatprince, Avho had resoU’cd to put them to death, asenemies of the country, Avas deliberating on themode, the v.hnena, or princess, hisAvife, moved withcompassion for their situation, interceded Avith herhusband for tin ir lives; atid having obtained herrequest, uisbound them Avitli lier own hands, ten-derly dressed! +h -ir Avounds, and treated them likebrothers. When they Avere fully recovered, shedesired ihenr to teach her son the art of riding, asseveral of the horses had been taken alive in tliedefeat. 'I'he tAVo Spaniards readily cojisented toher request, hoping to avail themselves of this op-portunity to recover their liberty. lJut the meansthey took to effect this, Avere marked Avith an actof ingratitude to tlu'ir benefactress, of so much thedeeper dye, as, from their not being strictly guard-ed, such an e.vpedicnt Avas unnecessary. As theyountr prince Avas one day riding between tliem,escorted by his arcl!crs, and preceded by an officerarmed Avith a lance, Monroy suddenly attackedhim with a poniard Avhich he carried about him,and bro!ight him to the ground Avith tAvo or threemortal Avounds ; Miranda at the same time wrest-ing tlie lance from the officer, they forced theirAvay through their guards, Avho Avere throAvn intoconfusion by such an unexpected event. As theywere Avell-mounted, they easily escaped pursuit,and taking their Avay through the deserts of Peru,arrived at Cuzco, the residence at that time ofVascade Castro, Avho had succeededed to the go-vernment upon the death of Pizarro, cruelly as-sassinated by the partizans of Airaagro.

IS. Ilecruits from Perti under Monro7/.-—Oi\being informed of the critical situation of Chile,Castro immediately dispatclied a considerablenumber of recruits by land, under the commandof Monroy, who had the good fortune to con-ceal his march from the Cppiapins, and at thesame time gave directions to Juan Bautista Pas-tene, a noble Genoese, to proceed thither by seaAvith a still greater number. Valdivia, on receiv-ing these two reinforcements, Avhich arrived nearlyatthe same time, began to carry his great designs intoexecution. As he had been solicitous from the firstto have a complete knowledge of the sea-coast, heordered Pastene to explore it, and note the situa-tion of the most important parts and places, as faras the straits of Magellan. On his return fromthis expedition, he .sent him back to Peru for new


recruits, as since the alfair of Copiapo, the nativesbecame daily more bold and enterprising.

14. Stratagem of the Quillotanes. -~-Amon^others the Qiullotanes had, a little time before,massacred all the soldiers employed in the mines.To this end they made use of the folloAving strata-gem : One of the neighbouring Indians broughtto the commander, Gonzalo Rios, a pot biil ofgold, telling him that he had found a groat quaii-titv of it in a certain district of the country ; uponth is information, all were impatient to proceedthither to particip'ate in ti)c imagined treasure.As they arrived tumultuously at the place de-scribed, they easily became victims to an ambus-cade Avhich had been formed for them, not one ofthem escaping except the imprudent commanderand a Negro, Avho saved themselves by the supe-rior excellence of their horses. The frigate, Avhichwasthen finished, Avas also destroyed, being burnedtogether with the arsenal.

15. Serena founded.- — VixWivhx, on receivingadvice of this disaster, hastened thither with histroops, and having revenged as far as in his poAverthe death of his soldiers, built a fort to protect theminers. Being afteiAvards reinforced Avith SOOmen from Peru, under the command of FrancisViliagrau and Christopher Escobar, he becamesensible of the necessity of establishing a settle-ment ill the n. part of the kingdom, that mightserve as a place of arms, and a protection for theconvoys that should come that Avay. For this pur-pose he made choice of a beautiful plain at themouth of the river Coquimbo, Avhich forms a goedharbour, Avherc, in 1564, he founded a city calledby him Serena, in honour of the place of his birth ;it is not, however, knoAAn at present by this ap-pellation, except in geographical treatises, thecountry name having prevailed, as is the case Avithall the other European settlements in Chile.

16. Promoucian u///es.-— luthe ensuing year hebegan to think of extending his conquests, andfor that purpose proceeded into the country of thePromaucians. Contemponiry Avriters have notmade mention of any battle that Avas fought uponthis occasion; but it is not to be supposed thatthis valiant people, Avho had with so muchglory repulsed the armies of the Inca and ofAlmagro, would have alloAved him, Avithout oppo-sition, to violate their territory. It is, hoAvever,highly probable that Valdivia, in the frequent in^cursions Avhich he made upon their frontiers, haddiscovered the art to persuade them to unite withhim against the other Chilians by seducing pro-mises. In fact, the Spanish armies have eversince that period been strengthened by Promaucian’]

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[order to practise his troops, and subsist them attlie expence of the enemy ; and after defeatingone of V^illagran’s sons, who, with n large force,

I came to give him battle, he marched against Ca-

nete ; but V^illagran, convinced of the imposibilityV of defending it, anticipated him by withdrawing

all the inhabitants, part of whom retired to Impe-rial, and part to Concepcion. The Araucanians, ontheir arrival, did not fail to destroy this city ; tlieyset it on lire, and in a short time it was entirelyconsumed.

i 33. Pedro Villagr an. -—In the mean time Vil-

lagran, more the victim of grief and mental anxietythan of his disoider, died, universally regretted bythe colonists, who lost in him a wise, humane,and valiant commander, to whose prudent con-duct they had been indebted for the preservationof their conquests. Before his death he ap-pointed as his successor, by a special commis-sion from the court, his eldest son Pedro, whose‘ mental endowments were no way inferior to hisfather’s. The death of the governor appeared toAntiguenu to present a fav;ourable opportunity toundertake some important enterprise. Havingformed his army, which consisted of 4000 men,into two divisions, he ordered one, under the com-mand of his vice-toqui, to lay siege to Concep-I cion, in order to attract thither the attention of the

1 Spaniards, while with the other he marched against

the fort of Arauco. The siege was protracted toa considerable length ; the commanders thereforedetermined to settle the affair by single combat;but after having fought, with the greatest obstinacyfor the space of two hours, they were separated bytheir men. But what force had not been able toeffect, was performed by famine. Several boats; loaded with provisions had repeatedly attempted

in vain to relieve the besieged : the vigilance ofthe besiegers opposed so insuperable an obstacle,|j| that Bernal, the commander, saw himself at length

'■ compelled to abandon the place. The Araucanians

J permitted the garrison to retire without molestation,

and contented themselves with burning the housesand demolishing the walls. The capture of An-gol, after that of Cahete and Arauco, appearedI easy to Antiguenu, but the attempt cost him his

I • life ; for after the most brilliant feats of valour andintrepidity, he was forced along with a crowd ofsoldiers who fled, and, falling from a high bank intoa river, Avas drowned.

34. The U'oqui Paillataru — Antiguenu had for' , successor in the toquiate Paillataru, the brother or

I cousin of the celebrated Lautaro. During the same

:i time a change was made of the Spanish governor.

Rodrigo de Quiroga, Avho bad been appointed to

’ ‘ VOI.. I.

that office by the royal audience of Lima, beganhis administration by arresting his predecessor,and sending him prisoner to Peru. Having re-ceived a reinforcement of 300 soldiers in 1665,he entered the Araucanian territory, rebuilt thefort of Arauco, and the city of Canete, con-structed a new fortress at the celebrated post ofQiiipeo, and ravaged the neighbouring provinces.Towards the end of the following year he sent theMarshal Ruiz Gamboa with 60 men to subject theinhabitants of the Archipelago of Chiloe ; thatofficer encountered no resistance, and founded inthe principal island the city of Castro and the portof Chacao.

35. Ar hipelago of Chiloe subjected ; descriptionof the same, iis inh(d)itanis, &c. — The islands ofthe Archipelago amount to 80, and have to all ap-pearance been produced by earthquakes, owingto the great number of volcanoes, with whichthat country formerly abounded. Every part ofthem exhibits the most unquestionable marks offire. Several mountains in the great island ofChiloe, which has given its name to the ArchipC'lago, are conqmsed of basaltic columns, whichsome authors s rongly urge could have been pro-duced only by the operation of fire. The nativeinhabitants, though descerided from the continentalChilians, as them appearance, their manners, andtheir language all evince, are nevertheless of a verydifferent character, being of a pacific, or rather atimid disposition. They made no opposition, aswe have already observed, to the handful of Spa-niards who came there to subjugate them, although^their population is said to have exceeded 70,000 ;nor have they ever attempted to shake off the yokeuntil the beginning of the last century, Avhen an in-surrection of no great importance was excited, andsoon quelled. The number of inhabitants at presentamounts to upwards of 11,000; they are dividedinto 76 districts or ulrnenates, the greater part ofwhich are subject to the Spanish commanders, andare obliged to render personal service for fifty daysin the year, according to the feudal laws, whichare rigidly observed in this province, notwithstand-ing they have been for a long time abolishedthroughout the rest of the kingdom. 'I'iieseislanders generally possess a quickness of'ctipacity,and very readily learn whatever is taught them.They haAm a genius for mechanical arts, an<l excelin carpentry, cabinet-making, and turnery, from thefrequent occasions Avhich they have to exercisethem, all their churches and houses being built ofwood. They are very good manufaefurersof linenand woollen, Avith which they mix the feathers ofsea-birds, and form beautitul coverings for their]


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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]

CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.

CHILOSTUTA, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Zedales in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHILPANSINGO, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, surroundedwith fertile fields of wheat. Elevation 1080 me-tres, or 3542 feet.

CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.

to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,


San Lorenzo,Parapacucho,
























Same name, another settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

CHILTAL, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Atacames or Esmeraldas in thekingdom of Quito ; situate in the valley of Chota,on the shore of the river Mira.

CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.

Same name, a river of the province and alcal-diamayor of Tabasco, which runs into the sea.

CHILUA, San Marcos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ;annexed to the Curacy of Huamanguilla.

CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.

3 L 2

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a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the placecalled the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all ofthem, to the mountains, although in the same yearthey returned back again to the settlement.

CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful.It has besides the parish church a convent or houseof entertainment of the religious order of St.Francis.

CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of theinfidel Indians of the province and government ofSanta Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence itlies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that ofChuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements,each governed by its captain or cazique, subject,in a certain degree, to the above government.These people, though they refuse to adopt the Ca-tholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spa-niards, trading with them in wax, cotton, andmaize. This nation, by the incursions which tlieymade, used at first to give frequent alarm to theprovince, and once had the address to capture thecity of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui en-deavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither henor the Spaniards could avail aught with them■until they were reduced by the missionaries, theregulars of the extinguished company of the Je-suits ; since that time they have been stedfast insupporting the Spaniards against the other infidels,serving them as a barrier, and having for their ownline of defence the river Guapay. They are veryvalorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they aredescended from the nations which are found to thee. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the num-ber of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastise-ment of the Portuguese, who were about to inflictcondign punishment on them for having treache-rously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in thetime of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal.They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fattentheir prisoners that these might become better fare ;but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniardshas caused them by degrees to forget this barbarouspractice, and even to give them a disgust at theirsavage neighbours, who still continue in the samepractices. They are at the present day so greatlyincreased in numbers, that they are one of themost numerous nations of America ; are besidesvery neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon forthem to rush out of their dwellings in the middleof the night to plunge and wash themselves in ariver in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.

immediately after parturition, invariably do thesame, and on their return lay themselves on a heapof sand, which they have for this purpose in thehouse; but the husband immediately takes to hisbed, and being covered all over with very largeleaves, refuses to take any other nourishment thana little broth made of maize ; it being an incorri-gible error of belief amongst them that these cere-monies will be the cause of making their childrenbold and warlike. They have shewn great powerand address in their combats with our troops whenthese first endeavoured to enter their territories,and they threw themselves in such an agile and un-daunted manner upon our fire-arms that it wasfound necessary, on our part, to insert in the rantsa lance-man between every two fusileers : the vare, moreover, so extremely nimble that it isimpossible to take them prisoners but by sur-prise.

CHIRIMICHATE, a river of the provinceand government of Venezuela. It rises in thesierra opposite the point of Hicacos, and entersthe sea in this point.

CHIRINOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and go-vernment of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdomof Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ;dividing the government from that of Guatemala,and touching upon the province of Costarica.It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous,and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded onall sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred num-bers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Pa-nama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S.sea are found crabs which distil a purple colourused for dyeing cotton, which, although it mayfade a little, can never be entirely eradicated.They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable pro-ductions ; with which they carry on a trade, nowfallen much to decay, with the city of Panama.The capital is Santiago de Alanje.

Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), whichrises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea,serving as limits to that province, and dividing itfrom that of Costarica in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHIRIS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru; annexedto the curacy of Huachos.

CHIRISU, a settlement of the province andcorregimieto of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a rather cold temperature, andabounds in wheat, maize, barley, a/berjas, andS M 2

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€ H I


papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of whichgreat quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital,and near to the settlement of Turmeque.

CHIROBIO, a river of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela. It runs e. and enters thesea opposite the island Tarata.

CHIRTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Yambrasbamba.

CHIRU, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorand jurisdiction of Penonome in the kingdom andgovernment of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shoreof the S. sea, upon an extensive plain.

Same name, a river of this jurisdiction, which risesin the mountains of Penonome, and enters the S.sea near the settlement of Anton.

Same name, a very small island of the same juris-diction, close upon the coast, and called El Fa-rallon.

CHISAHALO, a settlement of theprovince and corregimienlo of Tacunga in thekingdom of Quito.

==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature.Its productions correspond with those of a similarclimate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a veryfew whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.

CHISGAS, Paramo de, a very lofty mountain covered with eternal snow, in the provinceand government of San Juan de los Llanos of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, between the riversApure and Sinaruco.

CHISLOCA, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; be-longing to the district of the former. It is annexedto the curacy of Tupisa.

CHISME, a settlement of the head settlementof Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor of Villalta.It contains 71 families of Indians, and lies 18leagues from its capital.

CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s.coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo,in the territory possessed by the French ; lyingbetween the settlement and parish of the English,and the point of Burgados.

CHISQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Canta in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Atabillos Altos.

CHISQUILLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee,two miles and a half from English ferry, on Newriver, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Longisland, on Holston.]

CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty ofSanta Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It isbounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. bythe country bt the Laches Indians, or province ofCochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of theOrinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, aGerman, and he was the first who entered it withhis companions in 1535. This territory is fertile,abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which isextremely large, as also in other seeds, and hasgoats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hotand unhealthy temperature, and has palms similarto those of Palestine and Barbary, producing ex-cellent dates. The capital is of the same name.This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bo-gota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly en-titled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwardsof 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twenty-four leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.

Same name, another settlement, which is the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofVillalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tempe-rature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is threeleagues and a half to the s. of its capital.

CHITAGA, Punta de, a bridge in the province and government of Merida, to the s. ofthe city of Pamplona, and upon the river of thisname.

CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians;bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct fromit, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They in-habit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains ofBogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto,and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people,and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535,having joined company with the Jiraras, theytook and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.

CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregi-mienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the NuevoReyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliytemperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains,cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from whichare made fine and much esteemed conserves.

CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pam-plona ; they are mixed with some families of theLaches. This nation is extremely numerous, andpass a wandering life without any fixed abode ;they go entirely naked, and are much given to sen-sual gratifications ; some of them have embraced2

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the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements,though the number of these is very small.

CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature,and contains 39 families of Indians, who live bysowing maize, the only vegetable production oftheir territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capi-tal.

CHITO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla,and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to To-mependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines,but which are not worked ; its temperature is hotand moist, and consequently unhealthy.

[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lieson lake Champlain, between Franklin county onthe w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passesthrough its n. w. corner, and Onion river dividesit nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burling-ton. This county contained, by the census of1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Sincethat time the n. counties have been taken from it,so that neither its size or number of inhabitants cannow be ascertained.]

[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county,Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The roadover the mountain passes through this township.It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek,in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Ben-nington.]

[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a con-siderable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida,in the state of New York.]

CHIUAO, a small river of theprovince and colony of Surinam, or the part ofGuayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in themountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w.enters another river which is without a name, andwhere several others unite to enter the Cuyuni onthe s. side.

CHIUATA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cumana in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises from some plains in this territory,runs s. collecting the waters of several otherrivers, particularly that of the Suata, and thenenters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.

Same name, another river of the same provinceand government (Cumana), which rises at the foot of theserramas of Paraguay, to the w. of the town ofSan Fernando, runs s. and enters the Orinoco.

CHIUCHA, S. Juan de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Lipes, and arch-bishopric of Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of San Christoval.

CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Canchas. In its district there is amineral hot-water spring, much renowned for thecuring of various kinds of maladies.

CHIUCHIU, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Atacama, and archbishopric ofCharcas, in Peru.

CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous na-tion of Indians of the province and government ofVenezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Mara-capana. They are very few, and live retired in themountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.

CHIUICOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Buenos Aires ; situate to the s. ofits capital.

CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta inNueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, con-tains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leaguesto the n. of its capital.

CHOCAIA, Nueva, a settlement of the pro-vince of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; of the dis-trict of the former, and annexed to the curacy ofTatasi.

CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayorof Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a coldand moist temperature, contains 103 families ofIndians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of thecapital.

CHOCAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Piura in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Aabaca.

CHOCAYAS, a mountain of the province andcorregimiento of Chichas and Tarija in Peru, andjurisdiction of Chuquisaca. It is celebrated forits rich gold mines.

CHOCO, a large province and government ofthe jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory ofwhich it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by thePacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations ofIndians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. bythat of Barbacoas. The whole of this provinceabounds in woods and mountains, and is crossedby a chain of the Andes, which run as far as theisthmus of Panama. It is watered by several riversand streams, all of which run w. and enter the S.sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form apart of this province ; very few of their ancientinhabitants remain at the present day ; the greaterpart of them having perished in the war of the

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Spaniards, and the rest having fled, and thuspenetrating n. have confounded themselves withother nations. It abounds in maize, plantains,and cacao of an excellent quality ; its gold minesrender it rich and well peopled ; it also carries on,through this branch of revenue, a great commercewith the province of Popayan, the nativ'es of thatplace coming here to purchase gold, and leavingin exchange whatever is necessary for the comfortand convenience of life. There is no inconsider-able number of Negro slaves employed in work-ing the mines, and in 1750 they amounted to20,000, without mentioning the men of colour,such as the Mustees and Mulattoes, and even Whiteswho are engaged in this lucrative concern. Theclimate is warm, but moist from the continualrains, and consequently unhealthy. This countryabounds in tigers, wild boars, alligators, parrots,monkeys of various sorts, and a multitude of rep-tiles and insects, especially in vipers and ve-nomous snakes ; such as corales, exis, and rattle-snakes. Here are also an infinite variety of beau-tiful sorts of wood, curious balsams, herbs, fruits,and flowers. It was subject to the government ofPopayan, until it became divided in the time ofDon Fernando Guerrero. All the gold which istaken out of the mines here, and which is the cur-rent money, was formerly carried to be coined atthe mint of Santa Fe, until that the house ofValencia established another, at its own cost, in thecity of Popayan ; this privilege having been firstgranted that house by the mayoralty, though itwas afterwards taken away and added by the kingto the crown, upon the payment of a compensationof 100,000 reals per annum to the original pro-prietors. This province extends 48 leagues froms. to n. and is 39 in width from e. to w. Thecapital is the city of Nevita.

[Choco, Canal of. In the interior of the pro-vince of Choco, the small ravine (quebrada) Dela Raspadura unites the neighbouring sources ofthe Rio de Noanama, called also Rio San Juan,and the small river Quito : the latter, the RioAndageda, and the Rio Zitasa, form the Riod’Atrata, which discharges itself into the Atlanticocean, while the Rio San Juan flows into the S.sea. A monk of great activity, cure of the villageof Novita, employed his parishioners to dig asmall canal in the ravine De la Raspadura, bymeans of which, when the rains are abundant,canoes loaded with cacao pass from sea to sea.Th is interior communication has existed since1788, unknown in Europe. The small canal ofRaspadura unites, on the coasts of the two oceans,


two points 75 leagues distant from one ano-ther.]

CHOCO, San Juan Chrisostomo de , anothersettlement of the province and corregimiento ofCondesuyos de Arequipa in Peru.

[CHOCOLATE Creek, a head-water of Tiogariver in New York, whose mouth lies 10 miless. w. of the Painted post.]

[CHOCOLOCO-CA, which the Spaniards callCastro Vireyna, a town of Peru, 60 leagues s. e.of Lima, is very famous for its silver mines,which are at the top of a great mountain alwayscovered with snow, and but two leagues from thetown. The stones of the mine are, of a dark bluecolour ; these being calcined and powdered, thensteeped in water and quicksilver, the filth is sepa-rated, and the silver melted and formed into bars.These veins are not very rich, but the metal is veryfine. They make plenty of wine here, where itattains a greater degree of perfection, owing to thepureness of the air, than it is observed to have else-where.]

CHOCONA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paria in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Toledo.

CHOCONTA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold but healthy temperature, beingsituate upon a llanura. It produces abundanceof wheat, maize, papas, barley, and garlic, of thewhole of which an abundant crop is gathered ;these indeed form the principal branches of itscommerce, as they supply all the neighbouringprovinces. It was , in the time of the Indians alarge, rich, and populous city, and the barrierof the province of Tunja; also the place wherethe zipas held a garrison of their best troops.This city was entered by Gonzalo Ximinez deQuesada in 1537, when he gave it the name ofEspiritu Santo, from this festival having beencelebrated here. After the conquest of the Spa-niards it became a became a curacy of the relio-ionof St. Domingo, and was one of those which wasconsidered the first step to the advantages to bederived from these missions. It was close to thissettlement that the sanguinary conflict took placewhich was fought between Michua, king of Tunja,and Saguanmachica, zipa or king of Bogota, inwhich both princes fell dead upon the field ; atpresent it is a small village of Indians, who amountto the number of 200, besides 400 other inhabi-tants, who consist of whites. Ten leagues n. ofSanta Fe, and as many from Tunja, just midwaybetweeen these two jurisdictions.

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CHOCOPE, San Pedro y San Pablo de,a small settlement of the province and corregi-miento of Truxillo in Peru ; situate in the valleyof Chicama, watered and fertilized by the river ofthis name. It produces in abundance grapes,sugar-canes, olives, and every kind of Europeanfruit of the most excellent flavour. It was formerlya large population, since that the few inhabitantswho had been lel't at Concepcion, and those ofLicapa in the same valley, have incorporatedthemselves here. It has a very large and handsomechurch, although this underwent some damagefrom an earthquake experienced in this provincein 1759; the settlement suffered much also in 17S6,as did all the other towns of the coast, as, verycontrary to the custom of the climate here, it rainedwithout cessation for a period of 40 days, fromfive o’clock in the evening to the same hour in thefollowing morning, so that the houses were almostall entirely destroyed. Itis 10 leagues from the capi-tal, in the royal road which leads to Lima, andwhich is called De Valles. Lat. 7° 52' s.

[CHOCORUA, a mountain in Grafton county,New Hampshire, on the n. line of Strafford county,n. of Tamworth.]

[CHOCUITO. See Chucuito.]

CHOGUY. See Laches.

[CHOISEUL Bay, on the n. w. coast of theislands of the Arsacides, w. of port Praslin. Theinhabitants of this bay, like those at port Praslin,have a custom of powdering their hair with lime,which burns it and gives it a red appearance.]

CHOIX, a port of the w. coast of the island ofNewfoundland.

CHOLCHOL, a settlement of the district ofRepocura in the kingdom of Chile ; situate at themouth of the river Rumulhue before it enters theCauten.

CHOLCO-COCHA, a great lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru,upon the heights of the mountains of the Andes.It is navigated by rafts made by the Indians;fish it has none, from the excesisve cold of itswaters ; from it springs the river Caica-mayu.Mr. De la Martiniere confounds this lake, whichis called Chocolo-cocha, with the city of CastroVireyna, maintaining that the Indians call it bythe latter name, but which is erroneous.

CHOLI, a settlement and establishment of theEnglish in S. Carolina, and country of the Che-rokees Indians; situate at the source of the riverApalachicola.

CHOLIQUE, San Pablo de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxaraarca la Grande in Peru.

CHOLOAPA, San Bartolome de, a settlement of the head settlement of Huitepec, andalcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana.It contains 84 families of Indians.

CHOLOSCOPO, San Mateo de, a settlementof the district, and alcaldia mayor of Mexilcaltzingo,in Nueva Espana, somewhat more thanhalf a league’s distance to the m. of ^his place.It contains 102 families of Indians, and has ahandsome convent of the strict observers of St.Francis, which is also a college for studies.

CHOLULA, a district and jurisdiction of analcaldia mayor in Nueva España. Its extent isvery limited, being only three leagues in length atthe widest part ; but it is nevertheless well filled withinhabitants ; its territory is level, and very fertilein wheat, maize, and pepper, which is here calledchile^ as also in other seeds, of which abundant cropsare gathered ; it formerly acquired agreat emolumentfrom the sale of cochineal, but this is laid asideand entirely abandoned. The Spaniards, Mustees^and Mulattoes, busy themselves in making clothsand woven stuffs of cotton, and they have manyworkshops, by which they supply with these articlesthe other provinces. Its population consists of 43settlements of Indians, which are,

San Juan Quantlazingo, Sta. Maria Quescomate,Santiago de Momospan, San Bernardino,

Santa Barbara, Sta. Clara Ocovica,

Todos Santos, Sta. Maria Malacatepe»

San Luis, que,

San Gregorio de Saca- Sta. Maria Coronango,pecpan, S. Miguel Coztla,

S. Francisco de Quapan, San Francisco Ocotlan

S. Diego Cuaucotla, San Antonio, ^

S. Sebastian, San Francisco,

S. Juan Cuautla, San Mateo,

Tonanchin, San Gabriel,

Santa MariaZacatepeque, San Lucas,

San Geronimo, San Martin,

San Pablo Zochimehua, San Lorenzo,

San Andres de Oiolula, TIantenango,

San Francisco Acate- Santa Isabel,peque, Los Santos Reyes,

San Bernardo Tlaxcal- S. Pablo Ahuatempa,zingo, S. Mateo, distinct from

S.AntonioCacalotepeque, the other,

Santa Ana, S. Miguel Papalotla,

San Martin TIanapa, S. Andres de Cholula.

[The district of Cholula contained in 1793 apopulation of 22,423 souls. The villages amount-ed to 42, and the farms to 45. Cholula, Tlax-clala, and Huetxocingo, are the three republicswhich resisted the Mexican yoke for so many cen-turies, although the pernicious aristocracy of theiff

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corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Anco.

CHUNIANIS, a barbarous nation of Indiansof the lands of Magellan, in the vicinity of thestraits of Magellan. It is a tribe descended fromthe Huyellanes. They are numerous and fero-cious ; the men and women go entirely naked ;their arms are bows and arrows, the latter beingpointed with well-filed flints ; they are robust, ofgreat strength, and fine appearance. Some tra-vellers pretend that these are the fabulous giantsof whom so many have written.

CHUPA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Asangaro in Peru.

Same name, a very lofty mountain of the provinceand government of Veragua in the kingdom ofTierra Firme, to the s. of the capital, midway be-tw'cen the coasts of the two seas.

CHUPACHOS, a river of Peru, which flowsdown from the mountains of the Andes. It risesfrom the lake Patancocho, in lat. 10° 4P s . ;washes the country of the Chupachos Indians, fromwhence it takes its name, and finishes its courseby emptying itself into the Mollobamba, on the®,side, in lat. 7° 21' s.

CHUPAN, a settlement of the province andcorregbniento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Banos.

CHUPANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. Itrises iu the cordillera of the Andes, to the n. of thecity of Guanuco in Peru, and after collecting thewaters of several other rivers in its protractedcourse, enters the river Maranon in a very broadstream.

CHUPAS, an extensive valley or plain of theprovince and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru,near to the city. It is celebrated for the battlewhich was fought here by the Licentiate Baca deCastro, of the royal council of Castille, governor ofPeru, on the 16th September 1542, against thearmy of the rebels commanded by Diego de Al-magro the younger, and son of the conqueror of thesame name, when the latter was routed and takenprisoner with the loss of more than 700 men.

Same name, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canta in the same kingdom ; annex-ed to the curacy of Pari.

CHUPE, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Y anacache.

CHUQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Calca and Lares in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of of Lares.


Same name, settlement, in the province and corre-gimiento of Yamparaes, not far from the town ofPotosi.


CHUQUIBAMBA, a settlement and capital ofthe province and corregimiento of Condesuyos deArequipa in Peru. It is of a cold and unpleasanttemperature, and lies four leagues from Camana.

Same name, another settlement, in the province andcorregimiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

Same name, another settlement, in the province andcorregimiento of Chachapoyas, of the same king-dom.

CHUQUICARA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Guamachuco. It rises in thesame province, and enters the river Santa, chang-ing its own name to this, immediately that it touche*the boundary of this jurisdiction, which it divide*from those of Truxillo and Guamachuco.

CHUQUICHAMBI, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Charangas, arch-bishopric of Charcas in Peru.

CHUQUICOTA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Carangas, and the arch-bishopric of Charcas, in Peru.

CHUQUILLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lipas, and archbishopric ofCharcas, in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of SanChristoval.

CHUQUl-MAGU, a river of Peru. It risesin the mountains of Jaen de Bracamoros, of thekingdom of Quito, and after laving the territoryof the corregimiento ofPiura, enters the S. sea.

CHUQUINGA, a settlement close to that ofNasca, and nearly upon the shore of the riverAmancay, where there is a narrow pass, throughwhich two men cannot without great difficulty goabreast ; for on one side rises the mountain nearlyperpendicular, and on the other is a precipicewhich runs into the river ; this is the spot where asignal victory was obtained by the rebel FranciscoHernandez Giron, in 1554, against the BrigadierAlonzo de Alvarado, both of them leaders of fac-tions, maintaining the separate interests enkindledin the civil wars of Peru.

Same name, another settlement, in the pro-vince and corregimiento of Aymaraez, also inPeru.

CHUQUIRIBAMBA, a large settlement of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Loxa inthe kingdom of Quito ; on the shore of a smallriver which enters the Catamayu, on which ac-count some maintain that it is the origin of thelatter. It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile

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CINCOS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Xauxa in Peru.

CINCO-SEÑORES, a settlement of the pro-vince of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya ; one of the missions of the BabosariganesIndians, held there by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits. Within eight leagues to the s.of its district is a great unpeopled tract, called Delas Manos, (Of the Hands), from the infidel Indianshaving nailed up against some temples in thoseparts many hands of some unfortunate Spaniards•whom they had killed, when the latter had en-tered the country under the idea of making pro-selytes.

CINGACUCHUSCAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians, who inhabit the woods to the s. of theriver Marañon. In 1652 they were united to thePandabeques, and established themselves in thesettlement of Xibaros of the missions of Maynas,with the exception of some few, who still remainin their idolatry, and lead a wandering life throughthe woods.

CINIO, a settlement of the province and co-lony of Maryland, in the county of Kent ; situateon the shore, and at the extremity of the bay ofChesapeak.

CIÑOQUIPA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of La Sonora in Nueva Espana.

CINTENELA, Isla de, one of the islandswhich lie between the s. point of the Caico Grandeand the Paiiuelo Quadrado.

CINTO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of its capital.

CINTORI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CINTU, a spacious llanura or plain, of theancient province of Chimu, now Truxillo, on thecoast of the S. sea. It was taken possession of byHuaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor of the Incas.It is very fertile, and of a good and healthy cli-mate ; but it is but little inhabited.

CINTY, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya or Paspaya in Peru.

Same name, a river of the province and governmentof Tucuman. It runs s. and enters the river SanJuan.

CIPOYAY, a country and territory of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay, called also theprovince of Vera, towards the e. and where thenation of the Guaranis Indians dwell. It is of ahot climate, but very fertile, abounding in woods,and well watered by many rivers ; some of whichrun from e. to w. and enter the Uruguay, andothers from s. to n. and enter the Plata.

CIPRE, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It takes its course from e. to w. and opposite tlieriver Sola, empties itself into that of Esmeraldas,on the w. side, in lat. 28' n.

CIRANDIRO, a settlement and the capital ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guimeo in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a hot tempera-ture, and inliabited by 90 families of Tarascos In-dians. In its vicinity is the estate of Quichandio,in which eight families of Spaniards, and 15 ofMustees and Mulattoes, are employed in makingsugar. Also in the estate of Santa Maria are fivefamilies of the former. It is 75 leagues to the w.and one-fourth to the s. w. of Mexico.

[CIRENCESTER. See Marcus Hook.]

CIRICHE, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate on the shore of a small riverwhich enters that of Cauca.

CIRIGH. Sergipe.

CIRII, a small river of the province and cap-tainship of Sergipe in Brazil. It rises near thecoast, runs s. s. e. and enters the river Sirugipa,a little before this river enters the sea.

CIRIONES, a barbarous nation of Indians,of the province and government of Moxos in Peru.It is a wandering nation, savage, and but littleknown.

CISNE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom otQuito.

CITRONIERS, mountains in the island of Guadalupe.They are in the large tract of land, and on the s.coast, lying between the settlements of Santa Anaand San Francisco.

CITY Point, in Virginia. See BermudaHundred.

CIUAPA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile,towards the «. It is notorious from a species offish caught in it, called tache, of an extrem.ely deli-cate flavour. It runs into the S. or Pacific sea,terming a small port of little depth.

CIUDAD REAL, a city of the province andgovernment of Paraguay ; founded in 1557. byRui Diaz Melgarejo, on the shore of the river Pi-quiri, three leagues from Parana. It Was des-troyed by the Mamalukos Indians of San Pablo ofBrazil, in 1630, and in its place was substituted therich town of Espiritu Santo, the territory of whichabounds in fruits, vines, and mines of copper.In the vicinity of the present town is a great wa-terfall, formed by the above river, upwards »f3p 2

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which is above 100 leagues distant, and thatthrough a desert country.]

COBITU, a river of the province and mis-sions of the Gran Paititi. It rises in themountains of the infidel Indians, which serveas a boundary to the province of Larecaja ;runs nearly due n. collecting the waters of manyothers, and enters theMarmore w ith the name of Mato.

COBLER’S Rock, a rock or isle of the North sea,very close upon the e. coast of the island of Bar-badoes.

[COBLESKILL, a new town in the county ofSchoharie, New York, incorporated March 1797.]

COBO, a river of the province and governmentof Neiva in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itrises in a llanura^ or plain, runs w, and enters theriver Magdalena, opposite the city of La Plata.

COBORCA, a large and capacious bay of theprovince of Pimeria in Nueva Espana.

COBOS, a fortress of the province and govern-ment of Tucuman in Peru ; of the district and ju-risdiction of the city of Salta, from whence it isnine leagues distant ; having been founded in 1693at the foot of a declivity, to serve as an outworkor defence against the Indians of Chaco, it is atpresent destroyed and abandoned, and serves as acountry-house on the estate of an individual.

COBRE, Santa Clara de, a settlement ofthe alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, in the provincennd bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 100 fa-milies of Spaniards, bO oi Mustees, 38 of Mulat-toes, and 135 of Indians ; some of whom speculatein working the mines of copper which are closeby, others in the cultivation of maize, and othersgain their livelihood as muleteers. Three leaguess. of the city of Pasquaro.

COBRE, another settlement in the island of Cuba,on the s. coast.

Same name, a river of the province and governmentof Veragua in the kingdom of Tierra Firrae. Ithas its origin in the sierras of Guanico to the s.and enters the Pacific sea.

Same name, a mountain on the coast of the provinceand corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It derives its name from some very abun-dant copper mines. Great quantities of this metalare carried from hence to Spain for founding artil-lery, and for different purposes.

COBULCO, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Los Zacatepeques in the king-dom of Guatemala.

COCA, a large river of the kingdom of Quito.It rises from different streams which flow downfrom the cordillera oi t\\e paramo, or mountain de-sert, of Cotopaxi. It continually follows the course


of the large river Napo, and at last becomes in-corporated with the same.

COCAGNE, a small river of NovaScotia. It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf ofSt. Lawrence, and in the strait formed by the islandof St. John, opposite the island of its own name.

[COCALICO, a township in Lancaster county,Pennsylvania.]

COCAMA, a great lake in the midst of thethick woods which lie in the country of Las Amazonas, to the s. and w. of tlie river Ucayale. It is10 leagues long from n. to s. and six wide from w. On the e. it flows out, through a littlecanal, into the river Ucayale, and on the w. itforms the river Cassavatay, which running n. andthen e. enters also the Ucayale. Its shores areconstantly covered with alligators and tortoises.

COCAMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe country of Las Amazonas, who inhabit thew'oods to the s. of the river Maraiion, and in thevicinities of Ucayale. It takes its name from theformer lake, called La Gran Cocama. Theyare a barbarous and cruel race, wandering over theforests in quest of birds and wild beasts for meresustenance. Their arms are the macana, and theIndian cimeter, or club of chonia, a very strongebony.

COCANIGUAS, a settlement of the provinceand government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom ofQuito.

COCAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Uuachos.

Same name, another settlement, in the province andcorregimienito of Vilcas Huaiman, of the samekingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Tofos.

COCATLAN, San Luis de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Coatlan, and alcadia mayorof Nexapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 160 fa-milies of Indians, employed in the trade in cochi-neal and cotton stuffs. It is four leagues to the n.of its head settlement.

COCAYA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito. Itunites itself with the Ibinelo, and then takes thename of Unquizia, and enters the Putumayo.

COCHA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito.

Same name, another settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Llaaquas.

COCHA, another (settlement), of the province and corregimi-ento of Vilcas Huaiman in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Vilcas.

3 Q 2

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management of the horse, and in this they are notunrivalled by the women. The common sort arealso extremely skilful in the management of the^azo, which they throw over the animal in itsflight, never missing their aim. This citjr hassuffered extreme misfortunes ever since the time ofits foundatiqn ; for shortly after this took place,its inhabitants found themselves under the neces-sity of retiring frona it to Santiago, through theinvasion of the Araucanos and Tucapeles Indians,who made themselves masters of it, and sackedand burnt it in 1554, under the command of theCazique Lautaro : again, though the Spaniardsendeavoured to repeople it, they were a secondtime driven back, as also a third time, in 1603,when the Governor Don Garcia Hurtardo de Men-doza, Marquis of Canete, had come to suppressthe general insurrection of the Indians. It wasafter this rebuilt, and in 1730 again destroyed by adreadful earthquake, being entirely inundated bythe sea. It suffered also much from a similarshock in 1751. In the chief square, or market-place, is a beautiful fountain, made by the com-mand of Don Diego Gonzalo Montero. The tri-bunal of royal audience was fixed in this city fromthe time that it was founded, in 1567, and re-mained here until the year 1574, when it wastranslated to the capital of the kingdom, Santiago.It has been the head of a bishopric ever since 1620,when this honour was transferred to the city ofImperial. It is the residence of a governor, de-pendent on the captain-general and president itbeing his duty to reside six months of the year inSantiago, and the other six in this city. [Besidesthe commerce of hides, tallow, and dried beef, theinhabitants of Concepcion carry on a trade inwheat, which Frazier asserts yields 100 for one.Also near this city, as well as in various otherparts of Chile, pit-coal is found in great abund-ance; and, according to the above author, minesof it have been discovered at the depth of one ortwo feet from the surface. See Chile.] Sixtyleagues to the s. of Santiago, in lat. 36° 48' 15"$. and long. 73° 8'.

Bishops who have presided in Concepcion ofChile.

1. Don Frat/ Antonio de San Miguel, a monkof the order of St. Francis, native of Salamanca;elected to be first bishop in 1564, and promotedto Quito in 1587.

2. Don Agustin de Cisneros, dean of the churchof Santiago of Chile ; elected bishop of this, and©f Concepcion, in 1587 ; he died in 1534.

3. Don Fray Pedro de Azuaga, and not Diego de

Zuaga, as Gil Gonzalez Davila will have it, amonk of the order of St. Francis; elected in1595 ; he died before he was consecrated.

4. Don Fra^ Reginaldo de Lizarraga, native ofLima; elected in 1796 ; he died in 1613.

5. Don Carlos Marcelo Corni, native of Trux-illo in Peru, magistral canon of Lima ; promotedto the bishopric of his country in 1620.

6. Don Fra^ Luis Geronimo de Ore, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Guamanga, a ce-lebrated writer in the different Indian languages,for which he had a peculiar talent ; elected in1622 ; he died in 1628.

7. Don Fray Alonso de Castro, of 4he order ofSt. Augustin ; he did not accept the bishopric. .

8. Don Diego de Zambranaand Villalbos ; pro-moted to Santiago of Chile.

9. Don Fray Dionisio Cimbron, of the orderof St. Bernard, native of Cintruenigo in Navarra ;he was prior in the monasteries of Espina, Jun-quera, and Ossera, secretary of the difinidor gene-ral, and presented to the bishopric of Concepcionin 1651.

10. Don Fray Diego Medellin, of the order ofSt. Francis, native of Lima.

11. Don Fray Antonio de Morales, native ofLima, of the order of preachers, provincial inhis religion.

12. Don Fray Francisco de Vergara Loyola deIza, of the order of St. Augustin, provincial ofhis religion, and native of Lima.

13. Don Fray Andres de Betancur, of the orderof St. Francis, provincial in the province of SantaFe ; elected in 1664.

14. Don Fray Luis de Lemos y Usategui, ofthe order of St. Augustin, preacher to KingCharles II. native of Lima.

15. Don Diego Montero del Aguila; promotedto the bishopric of Truxillo in 1716.

16. Don Francisco Antonio de Escandon; pro-moted to the bishopric of Quito in 1730.

17. Don Salvador Bermudez, school-master inthe church of Quito; he did not accept the ap-pointment, and in his place was nominated by theking,

18. Don Andres de Paredes Polanco y Ar-mendariz, who was afterwards promoted to Quitoin 1734.

19. Don Pedro Azua Iturgoyen, native of Lima ;promoted, in 1744, to be archbishop ofSanta Fe.

20. Don Joseph de Toro Zambrano, native ofpSantiago of Chile, doctoral canon of its church;elected, in 1744, bishop of Concepcion ; he go-verned until his death in 1760.

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seasons, and is flooded by waters rushing downthrough a neighbouring channel, and in factAvould be hereby rendered iinitdiabitable, but forthe mounds Avhich have been raised for its defence.One half of the city experiences in one day a va-riation of all the winds from n. to s. These winds,thus changing, are accompanied with great tem-pests of thunder and lightning. At one momentthe heat which accompanies the n. wind is ex-cessive, and at another the cold which accompaniesthe s. is intolerable. It is, indeed, to this causethat the number of sudden deaths which occurhere are attributed. The city is small, and nearlyof a square figure, but the buildings are superiorto any in the province. It has three convents ;those of the religious order of St. Francis, St. Do-mingo, and La Merced, an hospital of Bethleraites,with the dedicatory title of San Roque ; two mo-nasteries of nuns, tlie one of Santa Teresa, the otherof Santa Clara, and two colleges with the titles ofuniversities, it is the head of a bishopric, erectedin 1570, and is very rich, owing to the great com-merce which it carries on in mules bought in theprovince of Buenos Ayres, and fattened in thepastures here, for the purpose of being sold for thesupply of the other provinces, and in fact of thewhole of Peru. It abounds in all kinds of pro-ductions, and is 70 leagues from Santiago del Es-tero, to the s. in 62° 39'; long. 31° 20' s. lat. (Foran account of the late revolutions of this place,see La Plata.)

Cordova, another city, in the province andgovernment of Cumaná, founded by Gonzalo deOcampo in 1525, near the sea-coast. It is so re-duced and poor, that it does not deserve the nameof a city. It is bounded by the Caribes Indians.

Cordova, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru.

Cordova, another, of the province and go-vernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Ti-erra Firme, situate upon the coast. It was sackedby the English pirate Gauson in 1625.

CORDOVES, Rio Del, a river of the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres. It runs zo. andenters the Yazigua close to the pass of Chileno.

CORE, Bank of, an isle of the N. Sea, nearthe coast of S. Carolina, between those of Oca-cook and Drum.

(Core Sound, on the coast of N. Carolina,lies s. of, and communicates with Pamlico.)

COREBO, a river of the province and govern-ment of Chocó. It rises in the valley of 'I'atave,at the foot of the mountains of Choco, and entersthe Paganagandi.

CORENA, a port on the coast of the province

COR 51^

and captainship of the Rio Janeiro in Brazil, closeto the island of Santa Maria.

CORENTE, a river of the kingdom of Brazil.It rises in the head of that of the Paraguas and theVerde, runs s, s.e. and enters the above river atmid-course.

CORENTIN, a river of the province and co-lony of Surinam, or part of Guayana in the Dutchpossessions, according to the last advices ot theFather Bernardo Rosclla of the extinguished so-ciety, Avhich advices were received from theDutch, and served, in 1745, to the making the mapof this province and the Orinoco. It rises in then. part of the famed lake Parime, which some havethought to exist merely in fable. It runs s. wa-teringtlie Dutch colonies; and five leaguesto the w.of Berbice, and to the s. e. of the Orinoco, emptiesitself into the sea, in 5° 22' n. lat. : at its entranceit is one league wide. The English call it Devil’screek, which signifies Barranco del Diablo. Inthe interior of its course it has some sand-banks,which extend for three leagues, and render its na-vigation difficult, notwithstanding that at the lowtide there arc still some channels of water. In thisriver are likewise three small well cultivated islands,lying in a direction from n. tov. They are veryfertile, and covered with trees, and the soundingsof the river about them varies from five to sixfathoms.

CORETIQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CORIANA. See Coro.

CORIDON, Salinas de, salt grounds in thepoint and zo. head of the island of St. Domingo,on the shore of the port Pimiento.

CORIMPO, a settlement of the province ofCinaloa in Nueva Espaiia ; situate on the shore ofthe river Mayo, between the settlements of Heco-joa and Nabajoa.

(CORINTH, a township in Orange county,Vermont, z€. of Bradford, containing 578 inha-bitants.)

CORIO, a settlement of the province and cap-tainship of San Vincente in Brazil, on the shoreand at tlie source of the river Uruguay.

CORIPATA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of Atabillos Altos.

CORIPI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Guayana, iii the French possessions. Itenters the sea between the Oiapoco and capeOrange.

CORIS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento oi Huailas in Peru, annexed to the cu-racy of Aija.

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COTACACHE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Otavalo in the kingdom ofQuito.

COTACACHE, a mountain of this province andkingdom, the top of which is eternally coveredAvith snow. From its summit runs the river Ca-yapas.

COTAGAITA, Santiago de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Chichas andTarija. Twenty-nine leagues from Potosi.

COTAGAITILLA, a settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento as the former ; annexedto the curacy of the capital.

COTAHUASSI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

COTAHUAU, an ancient province of Peru, atthe foot of the cordillera of the Andes, and to thew. of Cuzco. It is one of those which were con-quered by Mayta Capac, fourth Emperor.

COTAHUIZITLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan inNueva Espana. It is of a hot temperature, con-tains 28 families of Indians, who are busied inmaking mats, which they cs\\ petates. It belongsto the curacy of Atlatlauca, the capital of thealcaldia mayor of this name; being distant 10leagues from its capital.

COTAPARAZO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Guailas in Peru.

COTA-PINI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdomof Quito.

COTAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Yauyos in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Arma in the province of CastroVireyna.

(COTEAUX, Les, a town on the road fromTiburon to port Salut, on the 5. side of the s. pen-insula of the island of St. Domingo, 13f leagues of the former, and four n.w, of the latter.)

COTICA, a river of Guayana, in the part pos-sessed by the Dutch, or colony of Surinam. Itruns n. until it comes very near the coast, makingmany turns, and then changing its course e. entersthe Comowini. At its mouth is a fort to defendits entrance, called Someldick.

COTIJA, Valley of, of the alcaldia mayor of

Tinguindin in Nueva Espana. It is more thantwo leagues in circumference, and in it live 205families of Spaniards. It is of a mild temperature,and abounds in seeds. Seven leagues to the w. ofits capital.

COTLALTA, a settlement and head settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Tuxtla in Nueva Espana.It contains 140 families of Indians, and three orfour of Spaniards. It abounds greatly in tamarinds,of which are made excellent conserves.

COTOCHE, a cape of the coast of Yucatán,opposite that of San Antonio, in the island ofCuba ; between these lies the navigation leadingto this island from Nueva Espana.

COTOCOLLAO, a settlement of the kingdomof Quito, in the corregimiento of the district ofthe Cinco Leguas de la Capital; being situate justwhere the beautiful llanura or plain of lilaquitoor Rumi-Pampa terminates. Its territory extendsto n. w. upon the skirt of the mountain Pichincha,and is bounded on the n. by the settlement of Po-masque. It is of a somewhat cold and moist tem-perature ; and in it is the county of Selva Florida,of the house of Guerrero Ponce de Leon, one ofthe most ancient and illustrious of the kingdom.

COTOE, a settlement of the province and ga-vernment of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacyof Lampun.

COTOPACSI, a mountain and desert, or pa-ramo, of the province and corregimiento of Ta-cunja in the kingdom of Quito, to the s. and one-fourth to s. e. It is of the figure of an invertedtruncated cone, and is in height 2952 Parisian feetabove the level of the sea : on its summit, whichis perpetually covered with snow, is a volcano,which burst forth in 1698, in such a dreadful man-ner as not only to destroy the city of Tacunja,with three fourths of its inhabitants, but othersettlements also. It likewise vomited up a river ofmud, which so altered the face of the province,that the missionaries of the Jesuits of Maynos,seeing so many carcases, pieces of furniture, andhouses floating down the Maranon, were persuadedamongst themselves that the Almighty had visitedthis kingdom with some signal destruction ; they,moreover, wrote circular letters, and transmittedthem open about the country, to ascertain Avhatnumber of persons were remaining alive. Thesemisfortunes, though in a moderate degree, recurredin the years 1742, 1743, 1760, 1768. From thee. part of this mountain the Napo takes its rise;and from the s. the Cotuche and the Alagues,which, united, form the river San Miguel, andafterwards, with others, the Patate ; to this theChambo joins itself, which afterwards degenerates.

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16. Don Pedro Valdes, who was the first whowas invested with the captainship-general of theisland, which he executed until 1601.

17. Don Gaspar Ruiz de Pereda, until 1608.

18. Sancho de Alquiza, until 1616.

19. Don Francisco Venegas, until 1620.

20. The Doctor Damian Velazquez, until 1625.

21. Don Juan Bitriande Biamonte, until 1630,when he was removed to the presidency of Panama.

22. Don Francisco de Kiano y Gamboa, until1634.

23. Don Alvaro de Luna y Sarmiento, until1639.

24. The Colonel Don Diego Villalva, until1647.

25. The Colonel Don Francisco Gelder, until1650.

26. The Colonel Don Juan Montana, until1656.

27. The Colonel Don Juan de Salamanca, until1658.

28. The Colonel Don Rodrigo de Flores, until1663.

29. The Colonel Don Francisco Orejo Gaston,until 1664.

30. The Colonel Don Francisco Ledesma, until1670.

31. The Colonel Don Joseph de Cordoba, until1680.

32. Don Diego Antonio de Viana, until 1687.

S3. The Colonel Don Severino Manzaneda,

until 1689.

34. Don Diego de Cordoba, until 1695.

35. The Colonel Don Pedro Benitez> until 1704.

36. The Brigadier Don Pedro Alvarez, until1706.

37. Don Laureano de Torres, until 1708.

38. Don Luis Chacon, until 1712.

39. I’he Brigadier Don Vicente Raja, until1716.

40. The Brigadier Don Gregorio Guazo, until1718.

41. The Brigadier Don Dionisio Martinez de laVega, formerly colonel of the regiment of Galicia,until 1724.

42. Don Diego Penalosa, until 1725.

43. The Brigadier Don Juan Francisco Guemesy Horcasitas, formerly colonel of the regiment ofGranada, in 1734, until 1746, when he was pro-moted to the vice-royalty of Mexico.

44. The Brigadier Don Francisco AntonioTineo, captain of the regiment of Spanish guards,an ofBcer of singular accomplishments ; he enteredin the aforesaid year, and died a few days after hisarrival.

45. The Brigadier Don J uan Francisco Cagigal,of t-he order of Santiago ; he was governor of thegarrison of Cuba at the time that he was nominated,through the death of the predecessor, in 1747 ; hewas intermediate viceroy of Mexico, in 1756.

46. The Brigadier Don Juan de Prado, in-spector of the infantry, nominated in 1760 ; in histime the English besieged and took the Havana ;he was deposed from his situation, and made amember of the council of war, in 1763.

47. Don Ambrosio Funes de Villalpando, Countof Rida, a grandee of Spain, of the order of San-tiago, lieutenant-general of the royal armies ; no-minated to take possession of the place which hadbeen surrendered by the English in the treaty ofpeace, and to fortify the post of the Cabana, whichhe effected, and returned to Spain in 1765.

48. The Brigadier Don Diego Manrique ; hedied the same year, a short time after his arrival.

49. Don Pasqual de Cisneros, lieutenant-gene-ral of the royal armies, twice intermediate go-vernor.

50. Don Antonio Maria Bucareli Bailio, of theorder of San Juan, lieutenant-general of the royalarmies, in 1766 ; promoted to the vice-royalty ofMexico in 1771.

51. The Marquis de la Torre, knight of theorder of Santiago, lieutenant-general ; he cameover here in the same year, being at the time go-vernor of Caracas, and ruled until 1777, when hereturned to Spain.

52. The Lieutenant-general Don Diego JosephNavarro, who had been captain of grenadiers ofthe regiment of Spanish guards, and found* him-self exercising the government of the garrison ofTarragena in Cataluua, when he was nominatedto this, and in the same year that he left the formerplace ; this he kept until 1783, when he returnedto Spain.

53. Don Joseph de Espeleta, brigadier and in-spector of the troops of America ; nominated asintermediate successor in the aforesaid year.

Cuba, with the dedicatory title <rf Santiago,a capital city of the' former island (Cuba), founded byDiego Velazquez in 1511, with a good port de-fended by a castle, called the Morro, as is that ofthe Havana. It is the head of a bishopric suffra-gan to the archbishopric of St. Domingo, erected^in 1518. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Domingo, and another of St. Francis ;it was at first populous and rich, and even at onetime contained 2000 house-keepers, but since thata commerce was established in the Havana,through the excellence of its port, and that thecaptain-general and the bishop have fixed their.

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s;iges the walls were cut Tery crooked, admittingfor a certain space only one person to pass at atime, and this sidewise, and with great difficulty,when shortly afterwards two raio^ht pass abreast.The exit was by a rock, worked in the same nar-row manner on the other side ; and this was alto-gether a plan adopted through prudence, and forthe better security against any sudden assault,since here a single man might defend himselfagainst a great number. In a magnificent chapelof the cathedra! is venerated a miraculous crucifix,which was presented by the Emperor Charles V.and which is called De los Temblores, from thecity having invoked it as a patron in the tremen-dous earthquake which happened here in 1590;also an image of Nuestra Senora de Helen, whichthey call La Linda, (the Beautiful), the gift of thesame royal hand. It is the second city of Peru,and inferior only to the capital of the kingdom.It was governed, after the time of the conquestsmade by the Spaniards, by a secular cabildo, com-posed of two ordinary alcaldes, a royal ensign,an alguaxil mayor, a provincial alcalde, a depo-sitor-general, 12 perpetual regidors, two alcaldesof the inquisition, and a regidor, nominated an-nually, with the title of judge of the natives, whois entrusted with the causes of the Indians; thesehaving also a protector, nominated every twoyears by the viceroy of Lima. This cabildo main-tains, through the grant of the Emperor CharlesV. the same privileges as the cabildo of Burgos.The city has also many other prerogatives, withthe title of Gran Ciudad, and Cabeza, or head ofthe kingdoms and provinces of Peru, in rewardfor its having supported the crown against thetraitor Diego de Almagro, in the conflicts that hemaintained with Francis Pizarro, and from itsliaving taken him prisoner in 1553, in the cele-brated battle of Las Salinas, a league from Cuzco ;also from its having refused to acknowledge thetitle of governor of Peru, assumed by Diego deAlmagro the younger, supporting, in preference,the legitimate government. Again, when the Li-centiate Christoval Vaca de Castro arrived, think-ing to be governor, the people of Cuzco took himprisoner, under the orders of the lieutenant-gover-nor, Diego Salazar de Toledo, and the ordinaryalcalde, Antonio Ruiz de Guevera, and kept himin confinement until he was beheaded in that placeby the same person that executed his father. Forthese services, and for the valuable presents,which on several occasions it has made to thecrown, this city was allowed to be by the laws ofthe Indies, and, as appears by its records, one ofthe first cities in all Castilla, having a priority of

vote ; and in 1783, it was ordered by the king ofSpain, that in consideration of the resistance itoffered in the late rebellion of the Indians of theprovince of Tinta and the other immediate pro-vinces, it should be endowed with the title ofMost Noble, Most Loyal, and Most Faithful, andthat it should enjoy the same privileges as Lima.In 178i, the office of corregidor was extinguished,and his Majesty established an intendant and go-vernor vice-patron; and in 1787, the tribunal ofroyal audience, composed of a president, fouroidors, and aJiscaL It has for arms a golden castleupon a blue field, with various trophies andcolours on the sides, and an eagle at the top. Ithas been the native place of many illustrious men,and of these are,

Don Bernardo de Aviza y Ugarte, oidor ofPanama, bishop of Cartagena and Truxillo, andelected archbishop of Charcas.

Don Cayetano Marcellano y Agramont, bishopof Buenos Ayres, and archbishop of Charcas.

Don Gabriel de Ugarte, royal ensign of the saidcity.

Don Diego Esquivel and Navia, dean of itschurch.

Don Ignacio de Castro, curate of San Geronimoand rector of the university.

Don Francisco Espinosa and Medrano, alias ElLunarejo, magistral canon of its church,

Don Francis Xavier de Lagos, penitentiarycanon.

The Father Maestro Fray Pedro de la Sota, ofthe order of La Merced ; a subject who was oftenconsulted by the viceroys in matters of the utmostimportance.

The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, a celebratedhistorian of Peru.

Its jurisdiction, although it may retain the titleof province, is so reduced as to extend merely asfar as the district of the city, notwithstanding itformerly comprehended all the neighbouring pro-vinces, until the president, Lope Garcia de ()astro,established in each of these separate corregidors.Its principal commerce consists in the very largequantity of sugar which is made in the neighbour-ing jurisdictions, and where the inhabitants havemany sugar plantations ; that of San Ignacio dePachachaca, in the boundaries of the jurisdictionof Abancay, and formerly belonging to the re-gulars of the extinguished company of Jesuits,being the most celebrated. Tliere is made here avast quantity of baize and ordinary cloth, calledpanete, woven stuffs, saddles, floor-carpets, andtucuyo, which is an ordinary kind of linen usedas clothing by the poor; galloons of gohl, silver,

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