Search for Tarauraara* "Tarau<lb break='no'/>mara" Taraumara*
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
A G U
A G U
Aguarico, a river of the same province andf overnment, being one of those which enter theNapo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance,begins the large province of the Encabellados ;and here it was that the Portuguese attempted toestablish themselves in 1732, invading it with acertain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), whichcame from Para. They were, however, throughthe well-timed precautions of the president of Qui-to, forced to retire without attaining their object.This river contains much gold in its sands, andits body is much increased by other streams, suchas those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Du-ino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of theAndes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra,washes the territory of the Sucurabios Indians, andenters the Napo in lat. 1° 23' s.
Aguaro, Cano de, a river of the province andgovernment of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico,and is famous for abounding in fish, particularlya kind called pabon, which has a circular spot ofsky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling an eye,and which is much esteemed for its excellent fla-vour.
Aguas-blancas. See Yaguapiui.
Aguas-calientes, an alcaldia mayor of thethe kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric ofGuadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdictionincludes four head settlements of the district, andtwo large estates called the Pavellon, as also theestate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain andseed are cultivated. The principal settlement isthe town of the same name, of a moderate tempera-ture, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish fa-milies, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes;and although some Mexican Indians arc to befound here, they merely come to traffic with theproductions of the other jurisdictions. It con-tains three convents ; one of the bare- footed Fran-ciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one ofthe Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Dios,with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mentionseveral other chapels and altars in the vicinity.It is 140 leagues n. n. w. of Mexico, and 35 ofGuadaiaxara. Long. 101° 51' 30" w. Lat. 22° 2' n.
AGUASTELAS, San Miguel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of the district of SanAndres of Acatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa,in Nueva España. It is but lately established,and is one league s. of its head settlement.
AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Es-pana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction;but on account of its smallness, and the ill-fa-voured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorpo-rated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indianfamilies, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital.
Agueda, a point or cape near the above moun-tain.
AGUILA, Villa Gutierrez de la, a townof the alcaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva España.It was formerly very considerable, and had a nu-merous population of Spaniards, when it wasmade a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Tarau-maras Indians. It is an alcaldia mayor ^ but itsjurisdiction is consolidated with another, on ac-count of its being a place of little consideration,and its population being very scanty, and livingin some small wards and estates in its district. Itlies at the c. entrance of the province of Nayarith,and is the boundary of the kingdom of NuevaGalicia, being nine leagues e. of Xerez.
Aguila, a very lofty mountain of the province
A G U
A G U
anti government of Darien, near the n. coast, andthus "called from an eagle Avitli two heads, whichwas caught here in 1608, and which Avas sent tothe queen, Doha Maria-Ana of Austria, motherof Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampyground, which is round, and has a very narroAVinlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena.
Aguila (point), a point or cape of the larger island ofthe Malvinas or Falkland isles ; thus named fromhaving been discovered by the French frigate, theAguila, or Eagle. It is one of those whith formtlie great bay or port.
AGUILUSCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldiamayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishop-ric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of In-dians, who employ themselves in sowing seed,cutting Avood, manufacturing vessels of fineearth en-Avare, and saddle-trees for riding.
AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast of TierraFirme, and of the province and government ofSanta Marta, between this city and Cape Chichi-bacoa. It is the part of land which projects far-thest into the sea.
Aguja, Point of the. See article Eguille.
AGUSTIN, San, a capital city of the pro-vince and government of E. Florida, situate on thee. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land.It has a good port, which was discovered by Ad-miral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus-.tin’s day in the year 1565, which was his reasonfor giving the place this title, which has, however,been tAvice changed. He also built here a goodcastle for its defence. The city has a very goodparish church, and a convent of the Franciscanorder; and, as far as relates to its spiritual con-cerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who hasat various times proposed the erection of anabbey, but has not obtained his wish, although ithad been approved by the council of the Indies.
It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops,and another for the community ; it has also anhermitage, Avith the dedicatory title of Santa Bar-bara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586;by Captain Davis, Avith the Bucaniers, in 1665 ;but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In1702 it Avas besieged by the English, under thecommand of Colonel Moore, who, failing in hisattempts to take the castle, which Avas defended bythe governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibitedhis revenge by burning and destroying the town.In 1744 the English returned to the siege, underthe command of General Oglethorp, who wasequally unsuccessful, in as much as it w^as mostvaliantly defended by the governor, Don Manuelde Montiano, who defied the bombardment of theenemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ;the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizon-tal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, withgood bomb-proof casemates, and mounted Avith 50pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, anexcellent covered way. The city, although it isencompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its de-fence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ced-ed, Avith the whole of the province, to the English,by the King ofSpain, in the peace of Versailles, in1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783,when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. Thebreakers at the entrance of the harbour haveformed two channels, whose bars have eight feet ofwater each. Long. 81° 40'. Lat. 29° 58'.
Agustin, San, a settlement and real of mines,of the province of Tarauraara, in the kingdotli ofNueva Vizcaya, which was formerly a populationof some consequence, and wealthy withal, fromthe richness of its mines, Avhich -have lately falleainto decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon theinhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S,Felipe de Chiguagua.
Agustin, San, another settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldiamayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva España. It contains20 families of Indians, and is distant a little morethan a league from its head settlement.
Agustin, San, another, in the head settlementof the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor ofXicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, whotrade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four leaguen. of its head settlement.
A I A
AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the districtof the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and isannexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at twoleagues to the s. of its capital.
AIAPATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and veryopulent, on account of its silver mines. The sandson the banks of the rivers here have been known sorichly impregnated with this metal, that lumps ofit have been at different times picked up. It is themost considerable population in the province, andthe temperature is so salutary, that it is very com-mon to meet with persons of 90 years of age, andmany also of 100.
AIAPEL, a town of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Gra-nada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swampof the same name, and which is formed from thewaters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others.In its district are the lavaderos, or washing placesfor gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can,Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.
AIATASTO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Tucuman, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Salta, on the banks of whichare some pasture grounds of the same name, uponwhich are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000of horses for breeding.
AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity aresome forts, which were built by the Indians in thetime of their gentilism, and now in a state of greatdilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here,the bottom of which has never yet been found.The water always keeps at one height, so that it ispresumed that it finds its way out through somesubterraneous channel. There is also another warm
water spring at two leagues distance, which is verynoxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petri-fying, in like manner as the spring of water inGuancavelica.
AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila inNueva España, of a warm temperature, and inha-bited by 100 Indian families, who support them-selves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant.Nine leagues s. of its capital.
AICAROPA, a small river Of the province andgovernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runsfrom e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. andenters the Caura.
AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province ofAndahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. byParinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas,and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in lengthfrom «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). includ-ing in its figure on the w. side the last mentionedprovince. It js one of the most uneven soils in thekingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowymountains. It is on this account that its climate isvery cold, excepting, however, in some vallies,where it is more temperate, and where, on somesmall sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed andgrain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,
ALACLATZALA, a branch of the head set-tlement of the district of S. Luis, of the coast andalcaldia mayor of TIapa in Nueva España. Itcontains 125 Indian families, and is one leaguefrom the settlement of Quanzoquitengo.
ALACRANES, some islands, or rather somehidden rocks, of the N. sea, in the bay of Mexico,opposite the coast of Yucatan. Those who navi-gate these parts are accustomed to pass round be-yond them for fear of venturing amongst them, al-though there are some good cliannels among them,and withgood soundings. They are for the most partbarren, producing nothing beyond a herb calledmoron, -And deficient in fresh water ; neither do theyproduce any animal except the mole, which isfound here in prodigious numbers. There are,however, a quantity of birds, of three distinct sorts,each forming a community of itself, and entirelyseparated from the other two ; and it has beenobserved, that if one party may have fixed uponany place for building their nests, the others neverthink of disturbing them, or driving them from it ;but the noise these birds make is so great, that onecannot pass near them without suffering consider-ably from their united clamours.
[ALADAS, a parish situate about 14; leaguess. e, of Corrientes, in Lat. 28° 15' 20" s. Long. 58°SO' e».]
ALAMILLOS, a settlement of the province ofTaraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the missions which belonged to the religious ofSt Francis. It is close to the town and real ofthe mines of Santa Eulalia.
ALAMOS, Real de Los, Real de Los, a settlement andreal of the mines of the province of Sinaloa inNueva España. It is situate s. e. of the SierraMadre, and surrounded by rich silver mines,which would produce abundantly but for want oflabourers. There are in its district five estatesthat are fertile in maize, French beans, and sugar-cane. The spiritual concerns of all these parts
are under the direction of a curate, whose jurisdic-tion extends as far as the river Mayo, which flowsdown from the sierra. It is 20 leagues distantfrom the town of Tuerte, and between these liesthe valley of Maquipo. [Population 7900 souls]
Alamos, with the dedicatory title of S. Jorge,a town of the province and captainship of Para inBrazil, founded by Jorge del Alamo, who gaveit his name, in a place called La Vigia. It has amagnificent parish church, with the title of NuestraSenora de Nazareth, with a large and good fort,and well furnished with artillery. Also, at the dis-tance of a league and an half from the settlement,is a house of charity belonging to the religiousorder of the Capuchins of La Piedad.
Alamos, another of the missions belonging tothe abolished society of Jesuits, in the provinceof Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.It is 27 leagues s. w. and a quarter of a league s.of the real of the mines and town of S. Felipe deChiguaga.
Alangasi, a river of the above corregimiento,and rising in the desert mountain of Sincholagua ;over it there is a large bridge, composed of a singlearch, but so strong, that when, in 1660, a partof the mountain fell upon it, and precipitated onehalf of it into the stream, the other half still re-mained firm and immoveable. This bridge isbuilt of mud and stone.
ALANGI, Santiago de, a city and headsettlement of the district of the province of Chi-riqui and government of Santiago de Veragua,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It is small, butabounding in fruits and cattle ; in which a regulartrade is carried on for supplying the city of Pa-nama. This trade consists principally in pigs.
hind the cape of La Vela, which is at presentdestroyed.
CARTAGENA, a province and governmentof the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the jurisdictionof the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, bounded n. bythe sea, s. by the province of Antioquia, e. bythe province and government of Santa Marta, fromwhich it is divided by the Rio Grande de la Mag-dalena, and w. by the province of Darien, beingseparated by the river San J uan ; it is 100 leagueslong, running nearly from n. e. to s. w. and 80wide, e. w. It was discovered by Rodrigo Bas-tidas in 1520, and subdued by the addantado orgovernor Pedro de Heredia, at the expence ofmany battles, owing to the valour and warlike dis-position of the natives. This country is of a veryhot and moist temperature, full of mountains andwoods, and towards the n. part swampy, sandy,and full of pools of sea-water, from the lowness ofthe territory ; but it is at the same time fertile, andabounds in maize, pulse, and fruits, as also incattle, of the hides and fat of which this provincemakes a great traffic. Its mountains produce ex-cellent woods, and the famous dyeing wood, equalto that of Campeche, with an abundance of excel-lent gums, medicinal balsams, and herbs. Hereare many kinds of rare birds, animals, and snakesof different species ; amongst the former the mostremarkable are the penco, of the figure of a cat,and so heavy that it takes a full hour to moveitself 20 paces ; the mapurito^ of the size of a smalllap-dog, whose arms and means of defending him-self from other animals and his pursuers consistsimply in discharging some wind with such forceand noise as to stupify his enemies, whilst hequietly makes his retreat to some neighbouringthicket. This province produces also indigo,tortoise-shell, and cotton, and some cacao of anexcellent quality in the Rio de la Magdalena. Itwas well peopled with Indians in the time of itsgentilism, but its inhabitants are now reduced toa very trifling number. It is watered by variousrivers, but those of the most consideration are ElGrande de la Magdalena, and thatof San Juan, orAtracto, both of which are navigable and wellstocked with alligators, tortoises, and a multitudeof fishes. Its district contains 83 setttleraents, of
which there are two cities, seven towns, and 96settlements or villages, inhabited by 59,233 whites,13,993 Indians, and 7770 Negro and Mulattoslaves, according to the numeration of the fiscal ofthe royal audience of Santa Fe, Don FranciscoMoreno y Escandon, in the year 1770. The ca-pital has the same name, and the other settlementsare.
Nuestra Senora del
S. Benito Abad,
San Augustin de
San Francisco de
Palmar de la Can-
San Juan de Saha-
Sto. Tomas Cantu-
Cerro de S. Anto-
Real de la Cruz,
S. Antonio Abad,
San Juan Nepomu-
C H A
either in the service of the United States duringthe war, or fled to them for protection. The in-digence or ill habits of these people occasioned thebreaking up of the settlement, and a better sort ofinhabitants have now taken their place. The landsare fertile, and two rivers run through it, wellstored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and threeslaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the in-habitants are electors.)
CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, ofmore than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It wasdiscovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tliename of Champlain, who gave it his name, whichit still retains. It communicates with a smallerlake called Sacrament, and the canal passing fromone side to the other of these is extremely rapidanddangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. Atthe distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some verylofty mountains, which are covered with snow, andin which are found castors and a variety 'of ani-mals of the chase; and between these mountainsand the aforesaid lake are some beautiful levelmeadows or llanuras^ which, when first discover-ed, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; butthese have greatly diminished in numbers, throughthe continual wars Avith the French and English.[This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and liese. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing linebetween the states of New York and Vermont. Ittook its name from a French governor, who wasdrowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake.Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s,a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadthis from one to 18 miles, being very different in diffe-rent places ; the mean width is about five miles, andit occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is suf-ficient for the largest vessels. There are in it abovesixty islands of different sizes : the most consider-able are North and South Hero and Motte island.North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, andfrom two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderogathe waters of lake George from the s. s. w. whichis said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of thislake. Half the rivers and streams which rise inVermont fall into it. There are several which cometo it from New York state, and some from Cana-da ; to which last it sends its own waters a n.course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into theSt. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish,particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, andpickerel, and the land on its borders, and on thebanks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in severalplaces appear to be marked and stained with theformer surface of the lake, many feet higher than
C H A
it has been since its discovery in 160S. The wa-ters generally rise from about the 20th of April tothe 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the great-est variation is not more than eight feet. It is sel-dom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle ofJanuary, Between the 6th and 15th of April theice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon formany square miles of it to disappear in one day.]
CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of theprovince of Taraumara, and kingdom of NuevaVizcaya, in which there is a mountain aboundinggreatly in silver mines. Here is also a missionAvhicli Avas established by the regulars of the com-pany for the reduction of the natives : is 12leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.
CHAMUINA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Costarica in the kingdom of Guate-mala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the li-mits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui inthe kingdom of Tierra Firme.
CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of San-ta ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by thatof Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado.It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and thesame in width e. w. and has on its coast some portsand creeks not remarkable for their security. Itcomprehends in its district two territories, one ofa cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, calledDe los Checras; and another of a warm tempera-ture, lying in the valleys towards the sea, calledDe Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, oneon the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the otherHuama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge,which was built in the time of the viceroy, theMarquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of whichare two rocks, through which the river passes.On the e. and in the cold part of this province,are found the productions peculiar to the cli-mate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat andmaize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which
settlement of Naiilingo, and alcaldm mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espaila, the name of which sig-nifies the place of six fountains. It is situate inthe most lofty part of a rugged and mountainoussierra, on which account its temperature is everywhere cold, and subject more than any other partof its district to continual fogs and rains. Itscommerce consists in maize, which it produces inabundance, and in the breeding of swine, both ofwhich articles are carried for sale to Vera Cruz.Its inhabitants are also engaged in the mule-droveswhich pass through these parts in tlieir way tothe windward coasts, and which proceed over aroad so rough and stony that they are under thenecessity of descending and ascending precipicesby means of steps or artificial passages hewn outof the rocks ; and however difficult this might ap-pear to some, they do not experience any gleatdelay, although the animals are very heavilyloaded, and the road be rendered still more difli-cult, if, as it often happens, the journey be per-formed in the winter season. This very stonyroute is a narrow pass or defile which shortens theway leading to the province of La Guasca. Theinhabitants of this settlement are composed of 236families of Indians. It lies three short leagues tothe n. of its capital.
CHICONCUAUTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Guachinango inNueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, andcontains 270 families of Indians, including thethree other small settlements of its district. Sixleagues to the e. of its capital.
CHICUAS, a nation of Indians of Peru. It isat present reduced to merely a settlement of theprovince of Condesuyos, in which is found abun-dance of cochineal, made use of by the natives indyeing of wool ; this being the branch of com-merce by which they maintain themselves.
CHIETLAN, a head settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Yzucar in Nueva Espaila. It was for-merly the corregbniento, and is at present embo-died with this jurisdiction. It is of a warm andmoist temperature, but very pleasant, and coveredwith gardens full of flowers, fruits, and vegetables.The territory also abounds in wheat, maize, andother seeds, and particularly in dates, the wholeof the district being covered with palms. Its in-habitants consist of 267 families of Spaniards,Mustees, and Mulattocs, and of 356 families of In-dians, including those dwelling in the settlementswhich belong to this district. It abounds like-wise in garbanzos, or Spanish pease, anniseed, andmelons, all of which are of the best quality of anj^in the whole kingdom. It lies three leagues s. ofits capital.
The aforesaid settlements are,
San Nicolas de Tenaxcalco,
Santiago de Azalan.
CHIGUACHI, a settlement of the corregimi-ento of Ubaqué in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ;situate behind the mountains of Guadalupe andMonserrat, of the city of Santa Fe, from whence itis distant five leagues to the c. It is of a delight-ful temperature, and abounds in wheat, maize,barley, potatoes, sugar-cane, and plantains. Itsinhabitants consist of 200 families of Spaniards,and a very tew Indians.
CHIGUAGUA, San Felipe de, a town ofthe province of Taraumara, and kingdom ofNueva Viscaya ; situate near the river San Pedro.Its population consists of 2000 families of Spa-niards, and some of Mustees and Mulattoes. Thetown is large and well built, and the liouses arehandsome ; amongst otlier buildings, the most con-
C H U
C H U
Tvliich rises in the mountains of the cordillera.On its shores is caught a much esteemed sort ofshell-fish, called iascas. It runs into the sea inlat. 31° 40'.
CHUBISCA, a settlement of the missionswhich belong to the religious order of St. Francis,in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya, lying four leagues to the s. e.one-fourth to the s. of the settlement and real of themines of San Felipe de Chiguaga. Fivfe leaguesto the s. €. of this settlement are two large estates,called Fresnos and Charcas.
CHUCHA, a bay in the port of Portobelo, andlying quite in the interior of the same. It is anharbour, or second port, of a circular figure,closed in on all sides, its access being through anarrow channel. Several rivers flow into it.
CHUCUNAQUI, a large river of the provinceof Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountainous parts, and runs 13leagues as far as the fort Royal of Santa Maria,collecting in its course the waters of 20 rivers lessthan itself ; it then enters the grand river Tuira.
CHUCHUNGA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Jaen do Bracamoros in thekingdom of Quito; situate on the shore of theriver of its name, having a port, which is a lad-ing-place for the river Maranon. The above riverrises in the sierra of the province of Luya andChilians, enters the Ymasa, being united to theCumbassa ; these together run into the Maranon,and at their conflux is the aforesaid port. Itsmouth is in lat. 5° 12' SO* s.
CllUCMI. See Julumito.
CHUCUITO, a province and government ofPeru ; bounded e. by the great lake of its name,and part of the province of Omasuyos ; n. by thatof Paucarcolla orPuno ; s. e. by that of Pacages ;and s. w. and w. by the cordillera of the coastwhich looks towards Moquehua. It is 23 leagueslong from «. to s. and 36 wide. It was extremelypopulous at the time of the conquest, and was onthat account considered wealthy. Its governorshad the controul of political afiairs, and enjoyedthe title of vice-patron and captain-general of theimmediate provinces, including some which layupon the coast. It is of a cold but healthy tempe-rature, particularly in the rainy months, whichare December, February, and March. It producessweet and bitter papas, of which are made chum,bark, canagua, hagua, and barley. In some ofthe glens, where the soil is moister, they growpulse, flowers, and fruit-trees. This provinceabounds in cattle, such as cows, sheep and pigs,and native sheep, which the natives use for trad-ing instead of asses ; the regular load for eachbeing four or five arrohas. Here are also bredalpacas, huanacos, vicunas, deer, cuyes, and vizca-chas, which are similar in shape and figure to ahare ; also pigeons, partridges, ducks, and os-triches. From (he fleeces of the cattle many kindsof woven articles are made for useful and orna-mental apparel, beautifully dyed ; and from thewool of the alpaca handsome carpets, quilts, andmantles of various designs and colours. This pro-vince has many silver mines, which are workedwith emolument ; also streams of hot medicinalwaters. It is situate on the shores of the greatlake of Chucuito, from which large quantities offish are taken, and sold for a good price to theneighbouring provinces. It is watered by severalrivers, all of which enter the lake : the largest ormost considerable of them is the Hilava. Its na-tives amount to 30,000, separated in 10 differentsettlements. Its repartimiento used to amount to101,730 dollars, and its alcavala to 813 dollars an-nually. The capital is of the same name. This
C L 1
C O A
abundance of the various kinds of grain cultivatedin other parts of the state ; the people manufactureearthenware, pot and pearl ashes, in large quanti-ties, which they export to New York or Quebec.Their wool is excellent ; their beef and pork se-cond to none ; and the price of stall-fed beef inMontreal, 60 miles from Plattsburg, is such as toencourage the farmers to drive their cattle to thatmarket. Their forests supply them with sugarand molasses, and the soil is well adapted to theculture of hemp. The land-carriage from anypart of the country, in transporting their produceto New York, does not exceed 18 miles ; the car-rying place at Ticonderoga is one mile and a half,and from fort George, at the s. end of the lakeof that name, to fort Edward, is but 14 miles.The small obstructions after that are to be removedby the proprietors of the n. canal. From thiscountry to Quebec, are annually sent large rafts ;the rapids at St. John’s and Chamblee being theonly interruptions in the navigation, and those notso great, but that at some seasons batteaux with60 bushels of salt can ascend them ; salt is soldhere at half a dollar a bushel. Seranac, Sable, andBoquet rivers water Clinton county ; the first isremarkable for the quantity of salmon it pro-duces.]
[Clinton, a township in Dutchess county.New York, above Poughkeepsie. It is large andthriving, and contains 4607 inhabitants, including176 slaves. Six hundred and sixty-six of its in-habitants are electors.]
[Clinton, a settlement in Tioga county. NewYork, bounded by Fayette on the n. Warren onthe s. Green on the w. and Franklin in Otsegocounty on the e. Unadilla river joins the Susque-hannah at the n. e, corner, and the confluent streamruns s. zis. to Warren.]
[Clinton, a plantation in Lincoln county,district of Maine, lies 27 miles from Hallowell.]
[Clinton Parish, in the township of Paris,seven miles from Whitestown, is a wealthy, plea-sant, flourishing settlement, containing severalTiandsome houses, a newly erected Prebyterianmeeting-house, a convenient school-house, and anedifice for an academy, delightfully situated, butnot yet finished. Between this settlement and theIndian settlements at Oneida, a distance of 12 miles,(in June 1796), was wilderness without any inha-bitants, excepting a few Indians at the Old Oneidavillage.]
[Clinton’s Harbour, on the ??. w. coast of N.America, has its entrance in lat. 52° 12' n. Cap-tain Gray named it after Governor Clinton of NewYork.]
[CLIOQUOT. See Clyoquot.]
CLIPSA, a fertile and pleasant plain, or llanura,of the kingdom of Peru, in the jurisdiction ofChuquisaca, and bounded by that of Cochabamba.It is 30 miles in circumference, is well peopled,and very fertile and pleasant, and its climate ishealthy.
[CLISTINOS, a fierce nation of Indians, whoinhabit round Hudson bay. See New Britain.]
[CLOSTER, a village in Bergen county, NewJersey, nearly seven miles s. e. ofPeramus, and16 n. of New York city.]
[CLIOQUOT, a sound or bay on the n. w.coast of America, to. from Berkley’s sound. SeeHancock’s Harbour.]
COACHIC, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province of Taraumura, and kingdomof Nueva Vizca 3 >^a. It is S4 leagues to the s. w.of the town and real of Mines of Chiguagua ; andabout the distance of a league and a half in thesame direction, lies an estate of the same name.
COACLAN, San Gaspar de, a settlement ofthe alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva Espana.It contains 218 families of Indians, in which areincluded those of its six neighbouring wards. Itis oiie league s. of its capital.
COAGUILA, aprovince of Nueva España, bounded by theNuevo Reyno de Leon. It extends as far as theriver Medina ; runs 200 leagues in length towardsthe n. and is 160 wide from s. w. to n. e. All thisextensive country is as it were unpeopled, beinginhabited no otherwise than by some few settle-ments established by the missions, who consist ofthe monks of St. Francis of the city of Queretano,who have succeeded in converting some of the na-tives. There are, however, three garrisons upoathe frontiers of the sierras^ and country of the in-fidel Indians, for the purpose of checking anyirruption. This province is watered by manylarge rivers, the principal of which arc those ofNadadores and St. Domingo. There arc heresome estates, in Avhich large and small cattle breedplentifully, on account of the fineness of the pas-tures. The capital is the town and garrison of
c o c
COCO, a river of the province and governmentof Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains of the n. and enters the seaopposite the island of Las Palmas, and gives itsname to the territory of a Cacique, thus called.
COCOMERACHI, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, andkingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 40 leagues tothe w. s.zo. of the town 'And real of the mines ofChiguaga.
COCONUCO, See Cucunuco.
COCOS, some small islands of the Pacific orS. sea, lying close together, and divided by somenarrow channels. They abound in cocoa-trees,and from thence take their name. They are alsocalled Santa Cruz, from having been discoveredon the day of the invention of the cross. Theclimate here is pleasant, but the isles are unculti-vated and desert. Lat. 5° n.
COCUI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tunja in the NueVo Reyno de Gra-nada ; situate at the foot of the sierra Nevada. Itis of a cold temperature, but abounds in all kindsof productions, and particularly in wheat, maize,barley, &c. It contains 700 white inhabitants,and 150 Indians. Thirty-two leagues from Tunja,and eight from the settlement of Chita.
COCUPAC, a city and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofValladolid in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopricof Mechoaean. Its situation is in a nook to the n.of the great lake. On the e. and ze. are two loftymountains, which form so many other entrances,the one to the 5. and the other to the n. Its tem-perature is rather cold than w'arm ; and althoughit does not want for fruits, it is but ill supplied withwater, the only stream it has not running morethan the distance of a stone’s throw before it entersa lake. The inhabitants are thus under the ne-cessity of supplying themselves by wells. Thepopulation of this city consists in 45 families ofSpaniards, 52 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 150of Indians. They occupy themselves in the mak-ing of tiles or flags ; and the inferior order aremuleteers. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Francis.
COD, a cape of the coast of New England andprovince of Massachusetts. It runs for many leaguestowards the sea, forming a large semicircle, andafterwards returning, forms the bay of Barnstable.[See Cape Cod, Barnstable, &c.]
C O I
C O I
rapid current, between high banks on eacli side,and pours the whole body of its water over a per-pendicular rock of about 40 (some say more) feetin height, which extends quite across the riverlike a mill-dam. The banks of the river, imme-diately below the falls, are about 100 feet high.
A bridge 1100 feet long, and 24 feet wide, restingon 13 piers, was erected, at the expence of 12,000dollars, in 1794, a mile below the falls, from whicha spectator may have a grand view of them; butthey appear most romantically from Lansinburghhill, five miles e. of them. 1
(COHONGORONTO is the name of Potow-raack river before it breaks through the Blueridge, in lat, 39° 45' n. Its whole length to theBlue ridge may be about 160 miles ; from thenceit assumes the name of Potowmack, which see.)
COIABAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chilques and Masques inPeru; annexed to the curacy of Calpi. Anearthquake was experienced in this province in1707, Avhich desolated many settlements ; whenalso happened that extraordinary phenomenonwhich is accredited and related by Don CosineBueno, geographer of Lima, as having takenplace ; which was, that a small estate was by thisearthquake removed from one side of the river tothe other, together with the house, garden, andinhabitants, without their perceiving any thinghad happened ; and as the event took place atmidnight, Avhen they were all asleep, that theywere not a little surprised to find themselves esta-blished in the curacy of Colcha. This extraordi-nary occurrence, however, has its precedent ina similar circumstance which happened in thekingdom of Quito.
COIACHI, a settlement of the missions whichwere held at the expence of the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara,and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 18 leagues andan half between the s. w. and s. e. of the town andreal of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
COIAIMA, a settlement and head settlementof the corregimiento of this name in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,produces cacao, sugar-cane, maize, ^uca<!, plan-tains, and an infinite quantity of cattle and swine ;but it is much infested with reptiles and insects,vipers, snakes, spiders, and mosquitoes. It alsoabounds in gold, and the Indians to the number of450, who go to Santa Fe to pay their tribute, pro-ceed in companies, and are accustomed to collect
in four or five daj's, on Die shores of the river Sal-dana, as much gold as is necessary for the tributethey are obliged to pay in the city.
COIOACAN, a district and alcaldia mayor ofNueva España. It is one of the most pleasant,and fertile in wheat, maize, barley, and other seeds.Nearly the whole of its population live in coun-try houses, in gardens and orchards which pro-duce quantities of fruit, such as pears of severalkinds, peaches, apples, prunes, plums, damsons,pomegranates, quinces, oranges, and lemons, withwhich a great commerce is carried on rviththe cityof Mexico. In some parts of this province clothsand baizes are fabricated. It belongs to thejurisdiction of the marquisate Del Valle de Oax-aca ; to which the tributes are paid, the king re-taining the sum of four tomines, (a Spanishcoin weighing the third part of a drachm.) Thesettlements of this district are,
San Angel, Chapultepec,
San Augustin de las Nuestra Senora de los
The capital, which bears the same name, is alarge, pleasant, fertile, and well peopled town. Ithas shady arbours, country houses, and orchardsand gardens, which serve as a recreation to thepeople of Mexico, from whence it is distant twoleagues to the s. s. e. Its population amounts to1885 Indian families. It has a good convent ofthe religious order of St. Dominic, and manywork-shops, in which are fabricated cloths, baizes,and serges. Long. 99° 4'. Lat. 19° 20'.
COIOMEAPA, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Theacan in Nueva Espana. It contains 300families of Indians, and 20 of Mustees and Mu-lattoes. Twelve leagues s. e. of its capital.
21. Don Fray Pedro de Espineira ; elected in1762 ; he governed until his death, in 1778.
22. Don Francisco Joseph de Maran ; electedin 1779.
Concepcion de la Vega, another city, inthe island of St. Domingo, founded by the AdmiralChristopher Columbus, on a beautiful and spaciousplain, or Uanura^ celebrated for a conquest gainedon it by a numerous army of Indians. It has a goodparish church, erected into a bishopric, and wliichwas afterwards done away with in 1605, it beingthen embodied with the archbishopric of S. Do-mingo. it has also a convent of the religiousorder of St. Francis, in which is deposited andvenerated the first cross that the discoverer and con-queror of this country planted here ; which, al-though the Indians have endeavoured with all theirmight to break and destroy, has resisted all theireftbrts. Twenty-five leagues from the capital ofS. Domingo.
(Concepcion del Pao, a city of the provinceand government of Caracas ; composed of the in-habitants of Trinity, of Margareta, and of Caracas,who owned the folds in the plains near the Ori-noco, to the s. of Barcelona ; they here succes-sively fixed their dwellings, for the purpose ofbeing in the centre of their property, and of super-intending it themselves. In 1744 the number ofthese houses were found considerable enough to ac-quire the name of village. There are only 2300people of all classes here, subsisting will] facilityby Ihe fertility of the soil. The air and water aregood, and the only inconveniences the inhabitantsexperience are an excessive lieat, and inundationsarising from the long and heavy rains. The produceof the land is merely the provisions common to theCQuntry. The wealth of the inhabitants consistsentirely in cattle, which they export to Trinity,liia Guarapiche or Orinoco, This village, nowa city, is distinguished from St.John the Baptistdel Pao, situate in the province of Venezuela, bythe title of Concepcion del Pao. Lat. 8° 42' n.Long. 65° 10' ra.)
Concepcion, another, of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Leon in Nueva Espana, andof the bishopric of Mechoacan ; annexed to thecuracy of Rincon. It contains 208 families of In-dians, 100 of Spaniards, and ^0 oi Mustees. Itproduces wheat, maize, and other seeds, and is aquarter of a league from its curacy, and fourleagues from the capital.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichare held by the religious order of St. Francis, inthe province of Texas and kingdom of Nueva Es-pana. It is 112 leagues to the e. n. e. of the pre-sidency of San Antonio de Bejar.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of Mainas,of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore ofthe great river Maranon, on a point of land formedby the same, and where this river is entered by theApena and the Guallaga,
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province of Tepeguana, and kingdomof Nueva Vizcaya; situate on the bank of theriver Florido, near the settlement and real of themines of Parral.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichbelong to the religion of St. Francis, in the pro-vince of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya, lying 17 leagues distant between the s. ands. w. of the real of the mines of San Felipe de Chi-guagua.
Concepcion, another, with the surname ofAchaguas, being composed of Indians of this na-tion, in the kingdom of Granada ; of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in Orinoco; situate on the shore of theriver Meta.
Concepcion, another settlement, the capital ofthe province and captainship of Itamaraca in Bra-zil ; situate on the top of a mountain by the sea-side. It has a magnificeut parish church, and isgarrisoned by two companies of troops, it con-tains 300 housekeepers, and has three large sugar.
and lies seven leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.
COSANGA, a large river of the province ofQuixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs s. e.then turns its course e. and as it were imperceptiblyto the n. and afterwards, in order to receive on thew. the river Bermejo, enters the s. side of the riverCoca.
COSCOMATEPEC, San Juan de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Yxhuatlan, andalcaldia mayor of Cordoba, in NuevaEspana. Itcontains 10 families of Spaniards, 35 of Mustees,75 of Mulattoes, and 196 of Indians. Seven leaguesto the n. n. w. of its head settlement ; but the roadshere are so rugged and full of steeps and precipicesthat the sight grows dizzy at looking down them.
COSIGUIRACHI, a town of the province ofTaraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the most wealthy towns in the kingdom, and ofa mild and healthy temperature. Its populationis composed of many families of Spaniards andMustees^ no small number of Mulattoes, and verymany Indians. It is 24 leagues to the s. k?. \ to
the s. of the real of the mines and town of SanFelipe de Chiguagua.
Cosiguirachi, a settlement and real of thesilver mines of the intendancy of Durango inNueva Espana; of a cdld temperature ; situate ina rough and uneven territory, but being fertile, andabounding in fruits and seeds. (By a very recentmemoir of the intendantof Durango, the populationof this real was made to amount to 10,700.)
COSME, San, a settlement of the head settle-ment and alcaldia mayor of Fresnillo in NuevaEspana. It contains a very large number ofSpaniards, Indians, Mustees, and Mulattoes, beingvery close to the city of Zacatecas, lying fromthence only seven leagues to the n. and being 10 tothe e. of its capital.
COSME, San, another settlement, of the provinceand government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ;situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, onthe shore of a river between the settlements of SantaCatalina and San Francisco Xavier.
COSME, San, another, with the surname of Viejo,(Old), a reduccion of the missions which were heldby the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in theprovince and government of Paraguay ; situate onthe shore of the river Parana, between the settle-ments of Santa Ana and La Candelaria.
COSME, San, another, with the addition ofNuevo, (New), to distinguish it from the former inthe same province : also a reduccion of the regularsof the company of Jesuits, on the shore of theParana, and to the w. of the settlement ofJesus.
COSME, San, a small island of the gulf of Cali-fornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes ; situate very nearthe coast, in the middle of the canal which isformed by this coast and the island of Carmen,and close to another island called San Damian.
COSTA-BAXA, a part of the coast of Brazil, in
C R U
(Crow’s Meadows, a river in the n.w. ter-ritory, which runs n. w. into Illinois river, oppo-site to which are fine meadows. Its mouth is 20yards wide, and 240 miles from the Mississippi.It is navigable between 15 and 18 miles.)
(CROWN Point is the most s. township inClinton county, New York, so called from thecelebrated fortress which is in it, and which wasgarrisoned by the British troops, from the time of itsreduction by General Amherst, in 1759, till the laterevolution. Itwastakenby the Americans the I4thof May 1775, and retaken by the British the yearafter. The point upon which it was erected bythe French in 1731, extends n. into lake Champ-lain. It was called Kruyn Punt, or Scalp Point,by the Dutch, and by the French, Pointe-a-la-Chevelure ; the fortress they named Fort St. Fre-derick. After it was repaired by the British, itwas the most regular and expensive of any con-structed by them in America ; the walls are ofwood and earth, about 16 feet high and about 20feet thick, nearly 150 yards square, and surround-ed by a deep and broad ditch dug out of the solidrock ; the only gate opened on the n. tow'ards thelake, where was a draw-bridge and a covert way,to secure a communication with the waters of thelake, in case of a siege. On the right and left, asyou enter the fort, is a row of stone barracks, notelegantly built, which are capable of containing2000 troops. There were formerly several out-works, which are now in ruins, as is indeed the casewith the principal fort, except the walls of thebarracks. The famous fortification called Ticon-deroga is 15 miles s. of this, but that fortress isalso so much demolished, that a stranger wouldscarcely form an idea of its original construction.The town of Crown Point has no rivers ; a fewstreams, however, issue from the mountains, whichanswer for mills and common uses. In the moun-tains, which extend the whole length of lakeGeorge, and part of the length of lake Champlain,are plenty of moose, deer, and almost all the otherinhabitants of the forest. In 1790 the town con-tained 203 inhabitants. By the state census of1796, it appears there are 126 electors. Thefortress lies in lat. 43° 56' n. ; long. 73° 2Pw.)
C R U
on the coast, between cape San Roman and thePunta Colorada.
CRUCES, a settlement of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore ofthe river Chagre, and in a small valley surroundedby mountains. It is of a good temperature andhealthy climate, and is the plain from whencethe greatest commerce was carried on, particularlyat the time that the galleons used to go to TierraFirme, the goods being brought up the river asfar as this settlement, where the royal store-housesare established, and so forwarded to Panama,Avhich is seven leagues distant over a level road.The alcaldia mayor and the lordship of this set-tlement is entailed upon the eldest son of the illus-trious house of the Urriolas; which family is es-tablished in the capital, and has at sundry timesrendered signal services to the king. The Englishpirate, John Morgan, sacked and burnt it inJ670.
Cruces, another, of the missions belonging tothe religious order of St. Francis, in the provinceof Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.Twenty-nine leagues to the n. w. of the town andreal of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
CRUILLAS, a town of the province and go-vernment of La Sierra Gorda in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva Espana, founded in 1764,by order of the Marquis of this title and viceroy'of these provinces.
C R U
C R U
inin, and containing 72 families of Indians, dedi-cated to the commerce of saltpetre and cochineal.Three leagues to the s. of its head settlement.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the alcaldia mayorof the same kingdom. It contains 36 families ofIndians, and is in the boundaries of the jurisdictionof Xalapa.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementof Chapala, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula, in thesame kingdom ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of Chapala. It contains 28 families ofIndians, who cultivate many seeds and fruits fromthe fertility and pleasantness of the country; oc-cupying tliemselves also in traffic and in fishingupon the lakes. It is tsvo leagues to the e. of itshead settlement.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of Mainas ofthe kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of theriver Napo.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementof Cacula, cmA alcaldia mayoral Zayula, in thesame kingdom. It contains 50 families of Indians,who employ themselves in agriculture, and in cut-ting wood upon the mountains of its district. Fourleagues between the w. and s. of its head settlement.
Cruz, Santa, another, of tlic missions whichW,ere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits in the province of Tepeguana, and kingdomof Nueva Vizcaya ; situate on the shore of theriver of Las Nasas.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the nrissions of the
religious order of St. Francis, in the province ofTaraumara, of the same kingdom as the former.Eighteen leagues to the s, e. of the real of the minesand town of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Antioquía in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; founded on the shore of the river Sinu,with a good port, which serves as an entrepot forgoods to be carried to Choco, from whence it liesa three-days journey.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana ; situate atthe mouth of the river Mayo, where this entersthe California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. Distinctfrom another, which is upon a shore of the sameriver.
(Cruz, a parish of tlie province and govern-ment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small riverrunning into the Plata, about five leagues n. of thetown of imxan, in lat. 31° 16' 22". Long. 59*23' SO" a'.)
(Cruz, La, a settlement of Indians of the pro-3 z
C R U
C R U
vince and government of Buenos Ayres, foundedin ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.]t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of theAntilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its terri-tory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain sea-sons, from the low situation. It has many rivers,streams, and fountains, with three very good andconvenient ports. It was for a long while desert,until some English settled themselves in it, andbegan to cultivate it; afterwards the French pos-sessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it thefollowing year to the knights of Malta, from whomit was bought, in 1664, by the West India com-pany. In 1674, it was incorporated with the pos-sessions of the crown by the king of France. Itsinhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St.Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to acompany of Danes, of Copenhagen, who nowpossess it. It was the first of the Antilles whichwas occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues
from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight fromPuertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and fivefrom that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugarscane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which renderit very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W.India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is ina high state of cultivation, and has about 3000white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A greatproportion of the Negroes of this island have em-braced Christianity, under the Moravian mission-aries, whose influence has been greatly promotiveof its prosperity.
The official value of the Imports and Exportsof Santa Cruz were, in
1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.
1810, 422,033, 89,949.
And the quantities of the principal articles im--
ported into Great Britain were, in
Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w.See West Indies.]
Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Ad-miral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for thecrown of Spain, that making the tenth time of itsbeing captured.
Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n.coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sand-bank of Cumplido.
Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the provinceand government of Honduras, called Triunfo dela Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between theport of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues fromthe gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.
Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or LargeBay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines.Lat. 50° 10' s.
==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magel-lan. It runs into the sea.
Cruz, Santa, a small river of the provinceand captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be-tween the Grande and the Dulce, opposite theshoals ofS. Antonio.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcaptainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It risesnear the coast, runs n. and enters the sea betweenthe point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,
Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx
residences here, it has fallen into decay ; and al-though it is now reduced to a small town, the-4itleof Capital has not been taken from it. Its onlyinhabitants are those who own some estates in itsdistrict, and this forms a government subordinateto that of the Havana. [The damage done by theearthquake of October 1810, to the shipping at tlieHavana, was computed at 600,000 dollars.; theinjury at St. Jago could not be correctly estimated,but the loss of the lives at both places was believedto be not fewer than 350. In long. 76° 3', andlat. 20° r.l
CUBAGUA, an island of the N. sea, near thecoast of Tierra Firme, discovered by tiie AdmiralChristopher Columbus. It is three leagues incircumference, and is barren, but has been, -informer times, celebrated for the almost incredibleabundance of beautiful pearls found upon thecoast, the riches of which caused its commerce tobe very great, and promoted the building in itthe city of New Cadiz; but at present, since thefishery is abandoned, this town has fallen entirelyinto decay, and the island has become desert. Itis a little more than a league’s distance from theisland of Margareta, in lat. 10° 42' n.
CUBZIO, a settlement of the corregimientoof Bogota in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada;situate ort the shore of the river Bogota, near thefamous waterfal of Tequendama. Its climate isagreeable and fertile, and it abounds in gardensand orchards, in which are particularly cultivatedwhite lilies, these meeting with a ready sale forornamenting the churches of Santa Fe and theother neighbouring settlements.
CUCAITA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate in a valley which is pleasant,and of a cold and healthy temperature. It pro-duces in abundance very good wheat, maize,truffles, and other fruits of a cold climate ; hereare some fiocks of sheep, and of their wool aremade various woven articles. It is small, but never-theless contains 23 families and 50 Indians. Itis a league and an half to the s. w. of Tunja, inthe road which leads from Leiba to Chiquinquiraand Velez, between the settlements of Samaca andSora.
CUCHIGAROS, a barbarous nation of In-dians, little known, who inhabit the shores of theriver Cuchigara, which enters the Maranon, andis one of the largest of those which are tributaryto the same. The natives call it Purus ; it is na-vigable, although in some parts abounding withlarge rocky shoals, and is filled with fish of dif-ferent kinds, as also with tortoises ; on its shoresgrow maize and other fruits : besides the nationaforesaid, it has on its borders those of the Gti-maiaris, Guaquiaris, Cuyaeiyayanes, Curucurus,Quatausis, Mutuanis, and Curigueres ; these lastare of a gigantic stature, being 16 palms high.They are very valorous, go naked, have largepieces of gold in their nostrils and ears ; their set-tlements lie two long months’ voyage from themouth of the river.
CUCHIN, a small river of the territory ofCuyaba in Brazil. It runs n. and enters theCamapoa; on its shore is a part called La Es-tancia, through which the Portuguese are accus-tomed to carry their canoes on their shoulders, inorder to pass from the navigation of this latter riverto that of the Matogroso.
CUCHIPIN, a small river of the same kingdom (Brazil)and territory as the two former. It rises in themountains of the Caypos Indians, runs n. n» w. andenters the Taquari.
CUCHUMATLAN, a settlement of the king-
C V I
souls. Sixty leagues from Quito, in lat. 2° 55'5. and long. 78° 50'.
CUENCAME, San Antonio de, a town ofthe province of Tepeguana, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya. It is the rea/of the silver mines,where reside numbers of people of all ranks. Ithas a convent of the religious order of St. Francis,and in its district are various manufactories forgrinding the metals that are extracted from themines. It is 37 leagues to the n. of the capitalGuadiana, and 24 from Durango.
CUENCO, a settlement of the head settlement ofTirindaro, and alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, in theprovince and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate ina glen surrounded by many mountains. Throughits gutters runs a crystalline stream of sweet water,which serves to fertilize its orchards and cultivatedgrounds. It contains 66 families of Indians, andis two short leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.
CUERNAVACCA, a town of the intendancyof Mexico, the ancient Quauhnahuac, on the s.declivity of the cordillera of Guchilaque, in a tem-perate and delicious climate, finely adapted forthe cultivation of the fruit-trees of Europe.Height 1655 metres, or 5429 feet.]
CUES, San Juan de los, a settlement of thebead settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlanin Nueva Espana. It contains 72 families of In-dians, whose commerce is in maize, French beans,and fruits. In its vicinity is a sugar-mill, at which60 families of Negro slaves assist.
CUEUAS, San Agustin de las, a settlement
and head settlement of the district of the alcaldiamayor of Coyoacan in Nueva Espana. It is of avery good temperature and of a healthy situation,abounding in waters and fruit-trees, and coveredwith country houses, orchards, and gardens,which serve as a recreation to the people of Mex-ico. It has a convent of the religious order of St.Domingo, and 751 families; lying three leaguesto the s. of Mexico, and two from its capital.
Cueuas, another settlement, of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in the province of Tepeguana, andkingdom of Nueva Espana; situate on the shoreof the river Florido, and at the distance of sixleagues from the garrison of the valley of San Bar-tolome.
Cueuas, another, of the missions which wereheld by the same regulars of the company, in theprovince of Taraumara, of the same kingdom asthe former, 20 leagues to the s. of the real of themines of Chiguagua.
CUIABA, Jesus de, a town of the province ofMatagroso in Brazil ; situate on the shore of theriver Paraguay, at its source, near the large lakeof LosXareyes. In its vicinity are some abundantgold mines, which have been worked by the Por-tuguese since the year 1740. Lat. 14° 33'.
CUIAC, Santiago de, a settlement of thehead settlement of Amatlan, and alcaldia mayor ofZacatlan, in Nueva Espana. It lies four leaguesfrom its bead settlement, but the journey to it fromthence is almost impracticable, owing to its beingsituate in the middle of the sierra.
CUIACLAZALA, a settlement of the headsettlement of San Luis de la Costa, and of the al^caldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. Itproduces a great quantity of cochineal, this beingthe only production in which its inhabitants mer-chandize. These are composed of 60 families ofIndians. It is seven leagues to the j. of itscapital.
CUIANA, a small river of the province and