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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito,who had served as captain of cavalry in the regi-ment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was go-vernor of the province of Moxos, being of the rankof colonel ; he was nominated as president by wayof reward for his services, in having been instru-mental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru,and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, whichwas besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786,when he was removed from the presidency.
Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aul-laga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac,fourth monarch of the Incas. At present theyare reduced to the Christian faith in the govern-ment of Chuquisaca or La Plata.
Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory titleof Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of thekingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are markedthe boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those ofNueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains a convent of the religi-ous order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spa-niards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of In-dians dispersed in the rancherias and the estatesof its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to then. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 tothe n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'.Long. 100° 40'.
Charcas, another settlement and real of themines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from thecapital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco,in which they work with quicksilver the metals ofthe mines. To its curacy, which is adminsteredby one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed twosmall settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whomare found some few of the Tepeguana nation.
(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called an-ciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream,the principal branch of which rises from a pondbordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Hollis-ton and Bellingham, and divides Medway fromMed field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thenceinto Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms apeninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream calledlother brook runs out of this river in this town,and falls into Neponsit river, forming a naturalcanal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a num-ber of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham thecourse of the river is n. dividing Newton fromNeedham, Weston, and Waltham, passing overromantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e.through Watertown and Cambridge, and passinginto Boston harbour, mingles with the waters ofMystic river, at the point of the peninsula ofCharlestown. It is navigable for boats to Water-town, seven miles. The most remarkable bridgeson this river are those which connect Boston withCharlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereareseven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.][Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland,lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Itschief town is port Tobacco, on the river of thatname. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is gene-rally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indiancorn, sweet potatoes, &c.)
CHARLES. See Carlos, San.
CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina,is one of the best of N. America, excelling inbeauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situateupon a long strip of land between two navigablerivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and thegreater part of it upon the latter. This forms inthe city two small bays, the one to the n. and theother to the s. The town is of a regular construc-tion, and well fortified both by nature and art,having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; onthe side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of
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Black, Granville, Craven, and a half-moon; onthe n. a line, and in front of the river Ashley thebastion of Colliton, and the covered half-moon ofJohnson, with a draw-bridge to pass the line, andanother to pass the half-moon. Besides these worksof regular fortification, it has a fort erected upona point of land at the entrance of the river Ashley,which commands the channel and the vessels : butthe bastions, the palisade, and the ditch on theland-side, having suffered much damage in anhurricane, and it being thought by the GovernorNicholson, that they were of too great an extent todefend themselves, they were by his command de-stroyed. This city is, as it were, a continual fair,being the market for the fruits of the whole pro-vince : the streets are well projected, and the edi-fices are grand and of fine architecture, especiallythe church, which is magnificent, spacious, andone of the best in all N . America : there are severalother churches belonging to different sects, and theFrench protestants have a very fine one in the prin-cipal street. The town consists of 800 housesbuilt of wood as to the greater part, although thereare some of stone ; all of them having glass win-dows, and manifesting a degree of elegance and or-nament in their structure : is the residence of thegovernor of the province, and in it is held the ge-neral assembly and the tribunal of judicature.Here are many rich nobles and opulent merchants,and almost all its inhabitants exhibit a costly ap-pearance, and live in a state of consummate luxury.It has a public library, which owes its establishmentto Doctor Thomas Bray. The liberty of con-science enjoyed in this city, and which was grantedto its inhabitants a short time after its foundation,caused it to become very populous. This effectwas further heightened by the extensive commerceit enjoyed ; and thus has it, with many other qua-lities of pre-eminence, become one of the finest set-tlements in America.
[Charleston, the metropolis of S. Carolina,is the most considerable town in the state; situatein the district of the same name, and on the tongueof land formed by the confluent streams of Ashleyand Cowper, which are short rivers, but large andnavigable. These waters unite immediately belowthe city, and form a spacious and convenient har-bour, which communicates with the ocean just be-low Sullivan’s island, which it leaves on. the n. sevenmiles s, e. of Charleston. In these rivers the tiderises in common about six feet and a half; but uni-formly rises 10 or 12 inches more during a nighttide. The fact is certain ; the cause unknown.The continual agitation which the tides occasionin the waters which almost surround Charleston,
the refreshing sea-breezes which are regularly felt,and the smoke arising from so many chimneys,render this city more healthy than any part of thelow country in the s. states. On this account it isthe resort of great numbers of gentlemen invalidsfrom the W. India islands, and of the rich plantersfrom the country, who come here to spend thesickly months, as they are called, in quest of healthand of the social enjoyments whicli the city affords ;and in no part of America are the social blessingsenjoyed more rationally and liberally than here.The following statement exhibits the greatest andleast height of Fahrenheit’s thermometer for severalyears past in Charleston.
State of the weather for 1807, ending Decem-ber 31.
Thermometer, highest~ ’ lowest
30° 1' to 30° 77'
1 to 13142 inches IfN.E. S.W,
Ditto meanBarometerHygrometerFall of rainPrevailing windsDays of rain
Do. of thunderDo. of snow
Unaffected hospitality — affability — ease of man-ners and address — and a disposition to make theirguests welcome, easy, and pleased with themselves,are characteristics of the respectable people ofCharleston. In speaking of the capital, it oughtto be observed, for the honour of the people ofCarolina in general, that when, in common with theother colonies, in the contest with Britain, they re-solved against the use of certain luxuries, and evennecessaries of life, those articles which improve themind, enlarge the understanding, and correct thetaste, were excepted ; the importation of bookswas permitted as formerly. The land on whichthe town is built is flat and low, and the waterbrackish and unwholesome. The streets are prettyregularly cut, and open beautiful prospects, andhave subterranean drains to carry off’ filth and keep]
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and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction oftil is town by the British in 1775, several brandiesof mannfadures were carried on to great advan-tage, some of which have been since revived : par-ticularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes,ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches,silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walkshave lately been erected in this town, and tlie in-crease of its houses, population, trade, and naviga-tion, have been very great within a few' years past.This town is a port of entry in conjunction withBoston. At the head of the neck there is a bridgeover Mystic river, which connects Charlestown withMalden.)
CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island ofNevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inchthere are beautiful houses and shops well providedwith every thing ; is defended by a fort calledCharles. It has a market every Saturday, begin-ning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whitherthe Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs,fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a pieceof sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of anopening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphurgut, which is so hot as to be telt through the solesof the shoes when being trodden upon. At thefoot of the declivity of this same part of the city,is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which beingsupposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itselfshortly in the sand. Towards the side lying nextthe sea are two fountains, one of hot water, theother of cold, and of these two are formed the lakeof Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderatewarmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, beingnearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the placewhere are caught eels and silver-fish, resemblingthe cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of whichlias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodi-gious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in anearthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity,which is still to be seen. The altitude of thismountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestownbay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ;and from the said bay to the top, four miles. Thedeclivity from this mountain to the town is verysteep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] InLat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.
Charlestown, another city of the island ofBarbadoes ; the situation of which is two leaguesfrom that of San Miguel. It has a good port de-fended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other,and both commanding the city and the road: inthe middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitantscarry on a great trade with the other islands.
county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river,about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the statecensus of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are elec-tors.)
(Charlestown, a township in Mason county,Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth ofLauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, andis six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lex-ington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticutriver, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Phila-delphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and con-tains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church,a court-house, and an academy. The road fromBoston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat.43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internaltrade is carried on here.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county,Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; sixmites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannahriver, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb.from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses,chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in theherring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)
(Charlestown, a district in the lower countryof S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. Thislarge district, of which the city of Charleston is thechief town, lies between Santee and Combaheerivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. Itsends to the state legislature 48 representatives and13 senators, and one member to congress. It con-tains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 arefree.)
(Charlestown, a township in Washingtoncounty, Rhode Island state, having the Atlanticocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some ofits ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers intothe sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, andcontains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. Afew years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in thestate ; the greater part of them resided in tin's town-ship. They are peaceable and well disposed togovernment, and s|5cak the English language.)
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America called New South Wales. Its territoryconsists of a white dry sand, and it is covered withsmall trees and shrubs. This island has a beauti-ful appearance in the spring to those Avho discoverit after a voyage of three or four months, and afterhaving seen nothing but a multitude of mountainscovered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in thestrait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrifiedwith eternal ice. This island appears at that sea-son as though it were one heap of verdure. Theair at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit.and nearer to the sun than London, is excessivelycold for nine months, and extremely hot the remain-ing three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. Thesoil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces allkinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, whichare cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert.Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.
CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayorof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva España, of a mild and dry temperature,being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ;the heights of which are intersected with manyveins of metals, which manifest themselves veryplainly, although they have never yet been dugout ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pitsrender the roads impassable. It is watered by theriver which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid,and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, andthe fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertileand productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongsto the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to theDukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced tosome ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour,and to the capital, which has the same name, andwhich contains a convent of the religious order ofSt. Augustin, this being one of the first templesbuilt by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the presentdilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony toits great antiquity. It contains 430 families ofPirindas Indians, employed in labour and in thecultivation of the land, and in making bread, whichis carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neigh-bouring ranchos and estates. It should also have45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulat-toes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and twoto the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat.19“34'.
CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.
coast of the island of Martinique, between the townand parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.
CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofParaguay, who inhabit the parts lying between therivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians arethe most idle of any in America, and it has beenattempted in vain to reduce them to any thing likea civilized state.
Charruas, a settlement of this province andgovernment.
Charruas, a river of the same province, whichruns s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.
(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg andMorganza.)
(CHARTRES, a fort which was built bythe French, on the e. side of the Mississippi,three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or theRock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve,on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in1772, being untenable by the constant washings ofthe Mississippi in high floods. The village s. ofthe fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mileabove this is a village settled by 170 warriors of thePiorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians,who are idle and debauched.)
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(CHATA-HATCHI, or Hatchi, is the largestriver which falls into St. Rose’s bay in W. Florida.It is also called Pea river, and runs from n. e. en-tering the bottom of the bay through severalmouths, but so shoal that only a small boat orcanoe can pass them. Mr. Hutchins ascended thisriver about 25 leagues, where there was a smallsettlement of Coussac Indians. The soil and tim-ber on the banks of the river resemble very muchthose of Escambia.)
(CHATAUCHE, or Chatahuthe, a river inGeorgia. The n. part of Apalachiola river bearsthis name. It is about SO rods wide, very rapid,and full of shoals. The lands on its banks are lightand sandy, and the clay of a bright red. Thelower creeks are settled in scattering clans and vil-lages from the head to the mouth of this river.Their huts and cabins, from the high colour of theclay, resemble clusters of new-burned brick kilns.The distance from this river to the Talapose river,is about 70 miles, by the war-path, which crossesat the falls, just above the town of the Tucka-batches.)
(CHATAUGHQUE Lake, in Ontario county.New York, is about 18 miles long, and three broad.Conewango river, which runs a s. s. e. course,connects it with Alleghany river. Tliis lake isconveniently situated fora communication betweenlake Erie and the Ohio ; there being water enoughfor boats from fort Franklin on the Alleghany tothe n. w. corner of this lake ; from thence there isa portage of nine miles to Cliatanghque harbour onlake Erie, over ground capable of being made agood waggon road. This communication was onceused by the French.)
niently for the fishery ; in which they have usuallyabout 40 vessels employed. It has 1140 inhabi-tants, and lies 95 miles s. e. of Boston. See CapeCod.)
(Chatham County, in Hillsborough district,N. Carolina, about the centre of the state. It con-tains 9221 inhabitants, of whom 1632 are slaves.Chief town, Pittsburg. The court-house is a fewmiles w. of Raleigh, on a branch of Cape Fearriver.)
(Chatham, a town of S. Carolina, in Cherawsdistrict ; situate in Chesterfield county, on the w.side of Great Pedee river. Its situation, in a highlycultivated and rich country, and at the head of anavigable river, bids fair to render it a place ofgreat importance. At present it has only about 30houses, lately built.)
(Chatham County, in the lower district ofGeorgia, lies in the n. e. corner of the state, havingthe Atlantic ocean e. and Savannah river n. e. Itcontains 10,769 inhabitants., including 8201 slaves.The chief toAvn is Savannah, tlie former capital ofthe state.)
(Chatham House, in the territory of the Hud-son bay company. Lat. 55° 28' n. Long. 97*32' w. from Greenwich.)
CHAUCHILLOS, a settlement of the province
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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore ofthe river Choromoros.
(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St.Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock coun-ties, in the district of Maine. The carrying placefrom boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in theKetmebeck, is only five miles.)
(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine milesabove Quebec, on the opposite shore, and aboutthree or four miles back from the river St. Law-rence, into which the river Chaudiere disemboguesitself. The river is seen at a distance, emergingfrom a thick wood, and gradually expandingfrom an almost imperceptible stream till it reachesdie cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, whichiippear to have been rent from their bed by someviolent convulsion of nature, break the course ofthe waters, and precipitate them from a height of120 feet into an immense chasm below. In someparts large sheets of water roll over the precipice,and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in otherplaces the water dashes from one fragment of therock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellow-ing and foaming with rage in every hollow andcavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence itrushes down with the rapidity of lightning intothe boiling surge beneath, where it rages with in-conceivable fury, till driven from the gulf byfresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself inthe waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenerywhich accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere isbeautiful and romantic beyond description. Inthe centre, a large fragment of rock, which firstdivides the water, at the summit of the precipice,forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree,which grows upon it, is thus placed in a mostsingular and picturesque situation. The forest oneither side the river consists of firs, pines, birch,oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs,intermingled in the most wild and romantic man-ner. Their dark green foliage, joined with thebrown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments overwhich the water precipitates itself, form a strik-ing and pleasing contrast to the snowy white-ness of the foaming surge, and the columns ofsparkling spray which rise in clouds and minglewith the air.)
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mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It con-tains 57 families of Indians.
CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Co-chabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, e.by the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by thatof Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leaguesin length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Itstemperature is various, since it contains the settle-ments of Puna and Valles ; in the former of theseare found in abundance the productions of thesierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and otherseeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic withthe surrounding provinces, especially in the ar-ticles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred
cattle of all sorts; aiul there arc some gold mines,though they produce at present very sp:n ingly;some of the silver mines, Avhlch were very fruitful,have lately filled with water, and attempts havebeen made in vain to empty them. Indeed theonly mines which have produced any great wealthare those found in the mountains of Aullagas, andfrom them, for some years past, metals of therarest qualities have been extracted. In the woodsof the valleys, which produce very fine and excel-lent timber, are found wolves, tigers, and otherwild beasts inhabiting the mountains ; also aspecies of bees, which form their combs in the hol-lows of trees, and the honey of which they callde charas. There is a river in this province com-posed of several streams, and which unites itselfwith the Cochabamba. The number of its inha-bitants amounts to 36,000, who are divided into27 settlements. Its reparlimienfo used to amountto 92,665 dollars, and its n/cflxvife to 7-11 dollarsper annum. It is one of the richest provinces ofPeru.
The capital is of the same name, and the othersettlements are,
San Francisco dc Micani,San Marcos de Mirailo-res,
Santiago de l\Ioscari,
San Pedro de Buenavista,Acasio,
(CHEAT River rises in Randolph county,Virginia, and after pursuing a n. n. w. course, joinsMonongahela river, three or four miles within thePennsylvania line. It is 200 yards wide at itsmoutli, and 100 yards at the Dunkards settlement,50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, exceptin dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 milesfrom this river to the Potowmack, at the mouth ofSavage river.)
nada, of a cold temperature. It lies between somemountains, and abounds in the produclioris of a,cold climate, such as wheat, maize, trullles, andbarley ; it consists of 100 house-keepers, and of40 Indians, all of Avliom are subject to the disorderof the cotos, or swelling of the throat; is 21leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
CHEBEN, a river of Nova Scotia. It risesfrom a small lake near the settlement and fort ofSackville, runs n. and enters the Basin des Mines,or of the Mines, of the bay of Fundy.
(CHEBUCTO, a bay and harbour on the s. s. e.coast of Nova Scotia, distinguished by the loss ofa French fleet in a former war between Franceand Great Britain. Near the head of this bay,on the w. side, stands the city of Halifax, the ca-pital of the province.)
CHECHIRGANTI, a river of the provinceand government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the n.side, runs n. and enters the sea in the small beechor playon, opposite the port of Calidonia.
CHECHAS. See Chancay.
(CHEDABUCTO, or Milford Haven, alarge and deep bay on the easternmost part ofNova Scotia, at the mouth of the gut of Canso.Opposite to its mouth stands isle Madame. Sal-mon river falls into this bay from the w. and isremarkable for one of the greatest fisheries in theworld.)
(CHEESADAWD Lake, about 210 miles n. e.by e. of the Canadian house, on the c. end ofSlave lake, in the Hudson bay company’s terri-tory, is about 35 miles in length, and the same inbreadth. Its w. shore is mountainous and rocky.)
miles and a half e. ofirondequat or Rundagut bay,and SO e. from Niagara falls. The setlleincnts onChenessee river from its month upwards, areHartford, Ontario, Wadsworth, and Williams-burgh. The last mentioned place, it is probable,wili soon be the seat of extensive comineice.There will not be a carrying place between NewYork city and Williamsburgh Avhen tiie w.canals and locks shall be completed. The carry-ing places at present areas follows, viz. Albanyto Schenectady, 16 miles ; from the head of tiieMohawk to Wood creek, one ; Oswego lalls, two ;Chenessee falls, two ; so that there are but 2 1 milesland carriage necessary, in order to convey com-modities from a tract of country capable of main-taining several millions of people. The famousChenessee flats lie on the borders of this river.They arc about 20 miles long, and about fourwide; the soil is remarkably rich, quite clear oftrees, producing grass near 10 feet high. Tlieseflats are estimated to be worth 200,000/. as theynow lie. They arc mostly the property of theIndians.)
CHENGUE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; situate on the sea-coast. It wassacked by William Gauson in 1655, who alsodestroyed and plundered circumjacent estates.
(CHEPAWAS, or Chipeways, an Indiannation inhabiting the coast of lake Superior andthe islands in the lake. They could, according toMr. Hutchins, furnish 1000 warriors 20 yearsago. Otlier tribes of this nation inhabit the coun-try round Saguinam or Sagana bay, and lakeHuron, bay Puan, and a part of lake Michigan.They were lately hostile to the United States, but,by the treaty of Greenville, August 3. 1795, theyyielded to them the island De Bois Blanc. SeeSix Nations.)
CHEPETLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldía mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Es-paña. It contains 203 families of Indians, wholive by tiie making and selling of chocolate cups.Two leagues to the n. n. 70. of Tenango.
sippi to the lands claimed by the Sioux, withwhom they still cop.tend for dominion. Theyclaim also, c. of the Mississippi, the country ex-tending as far as lake Superior, including thewaters of the St. lamis. Tliis country is thicklycovered with timber generally, lies level, andgenerally fertile, though a considerable propor-tion of it is intersected and broken up by smalllakes, morasses, and small swamps, particularlyabout the heads of the Mississipi and river St.Louis. They do not cultivate, but live princi-pally on the wild rice, which they procure in greatabundance on the borders of Leach lake and thebanks of the Mississipi. Their number has beenconsiderably reduced by W'ars and tlie small-pox.Their trade is at its greatest extent.)
(Chepewas, of Red Lake, Indians of N. Ame-rica, who claim the country about Red Lake andRed Lake river, as far as the Red river of lakeWinnipie, beyond which last river they contendwith the Sioux for territory. This is a low levelcountry, and generally thickly covered with timber,interrupted with many swamps and morasses. This,as well as the other bands of Chepewas, are es-teemed the best hunters in the ti. to. country ; butfrom the long residence of this band in the countrythey now inhabit, game is become scarce ; there-fore their trade is supposed to be at its greatest ex-tent. The Chepewas are a well-disposed people,but excessively fond of spirituous liquors.)
(Chepewas, of River Pembena, Indians of N.America, who formerly resided on the e. side ofthe Mississippi, at Sand lake, but were induced bythe N. W. company to remove, a few years since,to the river Pembena. They do not claim thelands on which they hunt. Tiie country is level,and the soil good. The w. side of the river ispi incipally prumVs, or open plains ; on the e. sidethere is a greater proportion of timber. Theirtrade at present is a very valuable one, and willprobably increase for some years. They do notcultivate, but live by hunting. They are well-disposed towards the whites.)
CHEPILLO, a small island of the S. sea, inthe gulf of Panamá, and at the mouth or entranceofthe river Bayano, is somewhat more than twoleagues distant Irom the continent; three miles incircumference, and enjoys a pleasant climate, al-though sometim.es subject to intense heat. It wasformerly inhabited by the Indians, of whom there
vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito. It runs from 7i. to s, and enters tlieChinchipe on the n. side, somewhat lower thanwhere this latter is entered by the Naraballe, andnear a small settlement of Indians.
Cherokee, a large river of the above colonyand province, called also Hogohegee and Calla-maco. It rises in the county of Augusta, and takesits name from a numerous nation of Indians ; runsV). for many leagues, forming a curve, and entersthe Ohio near the fourches of the Mississippi. Nearto this river are some very large and fertile plains ;and according to the account rendered by the In-dians, there are, at the distance of 40 leagues fromthe Chicazas nation, four islands, called Tahogale,Kakick, Cochali, and Tali, inhabited by as manyother different nations of Indians. (Cherokee wasthe ancient name of Tennessee river. The name ofTennessee was formerly confined to the fourteenthbranch, which empties 15 mites above the mouth ofClinch river, and 18 below Knoxville.)
Cherokee, the country of the Indians of thenation of this name in North Carolina. It standsw. as far as the Mississippi, and w. as far as theconfines of the Six Nations. It was ceded to theEnglish by the treaty of Westminster, in 1729.(This celebrated Indian nation is now on the de-cline. They reside in the n. parts of Georgia,and the s. parts of the state of Tennessee ; havingthe Apalachian or Cherokee mountains on the e.which separate them from North and South Caro-lina, and Tennessee river on the n. and w. and theCreek Indians on the s. The present line betweenthem and the state of Tennessee is not yet settled.A line of experiment was drawn, in 1792, fromClinch river across Holston to Chilhove mountain ;but the Cherokee commissioners not appearing, itis called a line of experiment. The complexion ofthe Cherokees is brighter than that of the neigh-bouring Indians. They are robust and well made,and taller than many of their neighbours ; beinggenerally six feet high, a few are more, and someless. Their women are tall, slender, and delicate.The talents and morals of the Cherokees are heldin great esteem. They were formerly a powerfulnation ; but by continual wars, in which it has beentheir destiny lo be engaged with the n. In-dian tribes, and with the whites, they are now re-duced to about 1500 warriors ; and they are be-coming weak and pusillanimous. Some writersestimate their numbers at 2500 warriors. Theyhave 43 towns now inhabited.)
Cherokee, a settlement of Indians of this na-tion, in the same country as that in which the Eng-lish had a fort and establishment, at the source ofthe river Caillon ; which spot is at present aban-doned.
CHERREPE, a port of the coast of Peru, and ofthe S. sea, in the province and corregimienlo ofSaña, is open, unprotected, and shallow ; andconsequently frequented only by vessels driven toit through stress, and for the sake of convenience.It is in lat. 7° 70' s.
(CHERRY Valley, a post-town in Otsegocounty, New York, at the head of the creek of thesame name, about 12 miles >/. e. of Coopersfown,and 18 s. of Canajohary, 61 w. of Albany,and 336 from Philadelphia. It contains about 30houses, and a Presbyterian church. There is anacademy here, which contained, in 1796, 50 or 60scholars. It is a spacious buildit)g, 60 feet by 40.The township is very large, and lies along the e.side of Otsego lake, and its outlet to Adiqnatangiecreek. By the state census of 1796, it appearsthat 629 of its inhabitants are electors. This set-tlement sutlered severely from the Indians in thelate war.)
(CHESAPEAK is one of the largest and safestbays in the United States. Its entrance is nearlye. n. e. and s. s. between cape Charles, lat. 37°13' and cape Henry, lat. 37°, in Virginia, 12 mileswide, and it extends 70 miles to the ??. dividingVirginia and Maryland. It is from 7 to IS milesbroad, and generally as much as 9 fathoms deep ;affording many commodious harbours, and a saleand easy navigation. It has many fertile islands,and these are generally along the c. side of the bay,except a few solitary ones near the xo. shore. Anumber of navigable rivers and other streamsempty into if, the chief of which are Susque-hannab, Fatapsco, Patuxent, Pofowmack, Rap-pahannock, and A^ork, which are all large and na-vigable. Chesapeak bay'- afibrds many excellentfisheries of herring and shad. There are also ex-cellent crabs and oysters. It is the resort ofswans, but is more particularly remarkable for aspecies of wild duck, called camashac/c, whoseflesh is entirely free from any fishy taste, and isadmired by epicures for its richness and delicacy.In a coinnierciul point of view, this bay is of im--
CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nationof Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabitthe woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, tothe e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. Theyarc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, andin eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de laMartiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos isderived from the French wovd chevezLV, the menand the women both allowing and encouraging thegrowth of their hair till it reaches down to thewaist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indiansmust either have known French when they werediscovered, or that their discoverers, at all events,must have been French.
CHEURA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of theancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards enterstheriver of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.
CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zi-paquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; cele-brated in the time of the Indians for having beenthe title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the in-vestiture of which dignity was always transferredwith the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a verycold temperature, although salutary ; and issituate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of theriver Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.
CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.
CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of thekingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by theprovince of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w.by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. bythat of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e.to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part.It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegosin 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldiasmayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales,Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm andmoist temperature, although it has some parts inwhich the cold predominates. Its woods aboundwith large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and wal-nut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which
are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquidamber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, inabundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochi-neal, which is only made use of for the purposeof dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepperand achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfiriouskinds of domestic and wild birds, especially par-rots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ;a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon,with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians,who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich theyprize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; itbeing a capital offence, according to their laws, todestroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, whichhave been brought from Europe, have multipledin this province in a most extraordinary manner ;so also have horses, which are of such an esteemedbreed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mex-ico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breedmany lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars,a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet inlength, and others of a beautiful crimson colour,streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is,for the most part, rugged and mountainous, andwatered by different rivers : none of these, how-ever, are of any particular consideration, althoughthat which bears the name of this province is themedium by which the aforesaid productions arecarried to the other provinces ; and although thisprovince may be accounted comparatively poor,from being without mines of gold or silver, it isnevertheless of the greatest importance, as beingthe outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the fa-cility with which this kingdom might be enteredby the river Tabasco. The capital is the royalcity of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. Itis the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; andhas for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras,with a river passing between them : above theone is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ;and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit,and another lion, the whole being upon a red field.These arms were granted by the Emperor CharlesV. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. Itcontains three convents of the order of St. Francis,La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery ofnuns, and five hermitages. Its population isscanty and poor, and the principal commerce con-sists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal,and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, arevery proud, as having descended from some an-cient families of the first nobility of Spain ; suchas those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. Thewomen suffer great debility at the stomach on ac-count of the excessive heat, ami they can never
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in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,
Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,
|Forty-five leagues s. e.||to the s. w. of Mexico.|
CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.
on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.
CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.
Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.
CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.
CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.
tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.
CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.
(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)
CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.
Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.
(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)
Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,
Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,
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C H I
Ingenio del Oro
And in the district of Tarija,
Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,
San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.
The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.
(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)
CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for
the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.
Rio Hondo or Thequila,
San Agustin de Losi-
CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.
CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.
(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)
(CHICKASAW Bluff is on the e. bank of theMississippi, witiiin the territories of the UnitedStates, in lat. 35 n. The Spaniards erected herea strong stockaded fort, with cannon, and furnishedit with troops, all in the space of 24 hours, in themonth of June 1795. It has since been given up,.according to the treaty of 1796.)
(Chickasaw, a creek which falls into theWabash from the c. a little below Post St. Vin-cent.)
(Chickasaw, a river which empties into theMississippi, on the e. side, 104 miles from themouth of Margot, and 67 s. w. of Mine au Fer.Tlie lands here are of an excellent quality, andcovered with a variety of useful timber, canes, &c.This river may be ascended during high floods up-wards of SO miles with boats of several tons burden.)
(Chickasaws, a famous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the country on the e. side of the Mississippi,on the head branches of the Tombigbee, Mobile,and Yazoo rivers, in the n. zo. corner of the state ofGeorgia, and n. of the country of the Chactaws.Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably wellwatered from springs, and of a pretty good soil.They have seven towns, the central one of whichis in lat. 34° 23' «• long. 89° 30' w. The num-ber of souls in this nation has been formerlyreckoned at 1725, of which 575 were fighting men.There are some Negroes among the Chickasaws,who either were taken captive in war, or ran awayfrom their masters, and sought safety among theIndians. In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with 900men, besides seamen, sailed from Cuba with a de-sign to conquer Florida. He travelled n. to theChickasaw country, about lat. 35° or 36° ; and threeyears after died, and was buried on the bank ofMississipi river.)
Chico, a river of the province and governmentof Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains to the s. of the istmo, oristhmus, near the settlement of Chepo ; and runss. ze. and enters the sea in the bay or gulf of Pa-nama.
CHICOLAPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldla mayor of Coatepec, in NuevaEspana ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. Itcontains 187 families of Indians, who celebrateevery Friday throughout the year a teanguis orfair, at which are sold cattle and other productionsof the country. At these times it is a place of ge-neral rendezvous for the inhabitants of all the con-tiguous provinces ; and this fair has, from the greatconcourse of people usually assembling here, ob-tained the title of the famous teanguis of S. Vi-cente de Chicolapa. It is extremely fertile and plea-sant, and surrounded by several very small settle-ments or wards.
CHICOMESUCHIL, a settlement and headsettlement of tlie alcaldia mayor of Yxtepexi ofthe province and bishopric of Oaxaca in NuevaEspana, is of a hot temperature, and contains300 families of Indians, who exercise themselves inthe making scarlet cloths and cotton garments.
CHICOMOCELO, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Chiapa. in the kingdom ofGuatemala ; [having a cave very narrow at theentry, but spacious within, with a stagnant lake,which is, however, clear, and is two fathoms deeptowards the banks.]
CHICONAUTA, St. Tomas de, a settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Ecatepec in NuevaEspana; annexed to the curacy of its capital;from whence it is distant one league to the n. n. e.It contains 160 families of Indians.
CHICONCUAC, S. Miguel de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez-cuco in Nueva Espana. It contains 123 familiesof Indians, and six of Spaniards. It produces agood proportion of grain, seeds, and cattte, fromthe fleeces of which they derive great emolument,as also from the coarse stuffs manufactured of thesame. It is one league to the n. of its capital.
CHICONCUASO, a settlement of the head
settlement of Naiilingo, and alcaldm mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espaila, the name of which sig-nifies the place of six fountains. It is situate inthe most lofty part of a rugged and mountainoussierra, on which account its temperature is everywhere cold, and subject more than any other partof its district to continual fogs and rains. Itscommerce consists in maize, which it produces inabundance, and in the breeding of swine, both ofwhich articles are carried for sale to Vera Cruz.Its inhabitants are also engaged in the mule-droveswhich pass through these parts in tlieir way tothe windward coasts, and which proceed over aroad so rough and stony that they are under thenecessity of descending and ascending precipicesby means of steps or artificial passages hewn outof the rocks ; and however difficult this might ap-pear to some, they do not experience any gleatdelay, although the animals are very heavilyloaded, and the road be rendered still more difli-cult, if, as it often happens, the journey be per-formed in the winter season. This very stonyroute is a narrow pass or defile which shortens theway leading to the province of La Guasca. Theinhabitants of this settlement are composed of 236families of Indians. It lies three short leagues tothe n. of its capital.
CHICONCUAUTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Guachinango inNueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, andcontains 270 families of Indians, including thethree other small settlements of its district. Sixleagues to the e. of its capital.
CHICUAS, a nation of Indians of Peru. It isat present reduced to merely a settlement of theprovince of Condesuyos, in which is found abun-dance of cochineal, made use of by the natives indyeing of wool ; this being the branch of com-merce by which they maintain themselves.
CHIETLAN, a head settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Yzucar in Nueva Espaila. It was for-merly the corregbniento, and is at present embo-died with this jurisdiction. It is of a warm andmoist temperature, but very pleasant, and coveredwith gardens full of flowers, fruits, and vegetables.The territory also abounds in wheat, maize, andother seeds, and particularly in dates, the wholeof the district being covered with palms. Its in-habitants consist of 267 families of Spaniards,Mustees, and Mulattocs, and of 356 families of In-dians, including those dwelling in the settlementswhich belong to this district. It abounds like-wise in garbanzos, or Spanish pease, anniseed, andmelons, all of which are of the best quality of anj^in the whole kingdom. It lies three leagues s. ofits capital.
The aforesaid settlements are,
San Nicolas de Tenaxcalco,
Santiago de Azalan.
CHIGUACHI, a settlement of the corregimi-ento of Ubaqué in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ;situate behind the mountains of Guadalupe andMonserrat, of the city of Santa Fe, from whence itis distant five leagues to the c. It is of a delight-ful temperature, and abounds in wheat, maize,barley, potatoes, sugar-cane, and plantains. Itsinhabitants consist of 200 families of Spaniards,and a very tew Indians.
CHIGUAGUA, San Felipe de, a town ofthe province of Taraumara, and kingdom ofNueva Viscaya ; situate near the river San Pedro.Its population consists of 2000 families of Spa-niards, and some of Mustees and Mulattoes. Thetown is large and well built, and the liouses arehandsome ; amongst otlier buildings, the most con-
spicaous arc the parish church, the college whichbelonged to the Jesuits, and the convent of St.Francisco. It enjoys a mild and pleasant tempe-rature, and its principal commerce consists in silver,which it derives in large quantities from its mines,and which is given in exchange for all kinds ofarticles of merchandize, brought hither by such asare induced to visit this place, and who are at-tracted in great numbers, so as to render the townextremely populous. [This town is surroundedwith considerable mines to the e. of the greatreal of Santa Rosa de Cosiguiriachi. It was found-ed in 1691, and has a population of about 7000souls, according to Pike, though Humboldt esti-mates the same at 11,600. It is 260 leagues77. n. w. of Mexico, in long. 104° 32', and lat. 28°47' n.]
CHIGUARA, a settlement of the governmentand jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the province ofVenezuela. It is of a cold temperature, aboundsin cacao, sugar-cane, and other vegetable produc-tions peculiar to the climate. It was formerly alarge and rich town, owing to the number of estateswhich lie within its district, and particularly toone within a league’s distance, called Los Estan-gues, in which there used to be upwards of 40,000head of large cattle ; to another also which belong-ed to the regulars of the society of Jesuits, calledLa Selva. It is, however, at the present day,destroyed and laid waste by the incursions of theMotilones Indians ; and its population scarcelyamounts to 40 Indians and 90 whites.
[CHIHOHOEKI, an Indian nation, who wereconfederates of the Lenopi or Delawares, and in-habited the w. bank of Delaware river, which wasanciently called by their name. Their s. boundarywas Duck creek, in Newcastle county.]
CHIHUATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is of a coldtemperature, and in its jurisdiction is a lake, fromwhence is taken salt sufficient to supply the wholeprovince, the surplus being used in the working ofthe metals.
CHIKAGO River empties into the s. w. endof lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood.
Here The Indians Have Ceded To The United Statesby the treaty of Greenville, a tract of land six milessquare.
CHILA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Acatlan inNueva España. It contains 200 families of In-dians, some of Spaniards diad. Mustees, and a con-vent of the religious order of St. Domingo.
CHILAC, San Gabriel de, a settlement andhead settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayorof Thehuacan in Nueva España. It contains 286families of Indians, and lies four leagues to the5. w. of its capital.
CHILAPA, a capital settlement of the alcaldiamayor of this name in Nueva España. Its tem-perature is rather cold. It contains 41 families ofSpaniards, 72 of Mustees, 26 of Mulattoes, and447 of Indians, and a convent of the religiousorder of St. Augustin ; belonging, in as much asregards its ecclesiastical functions, to the bishop-ric of La Puebla. The jurisdiction is composedof 11 head settlements of districts, and of 23 others,in which are enumerated 2503 families of Indians,65 of Spaniards, 116 of Mustees, and 47 of Mu-lattoes ; all of whom are occupied in the cultiva-tion and selling of its natural productions, whichare sugar, honey, and cascalote, and in the mak-ing of earthen-ware and scarlet cloth. This settle-ment abounds also in wild wax, cotton, in thefruits of the country, potatoes, and other vegetables.It is sixty leagues to the s. a quarter to the s. w.of Mexico, in long. 99°, and lat. 17° 11'. Theother settlements are,
San Juan de la Brea,Zitlala,
Chilapa, San Miguel de, another settle-
raent and head settlenient of the district of the al-caldia mayor of Tepozcolula in the same kingdom.It is of a mild temperature, and contains a conventof the religious order of St. Domingo, and 128 fa-milies of Indians, who occupy themselves in thetrade of cochineal, as likewise of certain seedswhich they sow in ihe ranchos. Four leagues tothe n. by s. of its capital.
Chilapa, San Pedro de, another, of the headsettlement of the district of Huitepec, and alcaldiamayor of Ixquintepec, in the same kingdom. Itcontains 30 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto the n. with a slight inclination to the e. of itscapital.
CHILAQUE, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Olintla, and alcaldia mayorof Zacatlan, in Nueva España. It is situate in adelightful glen surrounded by rocks, and is water-ed by various streams, being distant five leaguesfrom its head settlement.
CHILATECA, S. JUAN DE, a settlement ofthe head settlement of the district of Cuilapa, andalcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas, in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 52 families of Indians, whotrade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, and collectcoal and timber, all of which form branches oftheir commerce. Five leagues to the s.e. of itshead settlement.
CHILCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canete in Peru, with a small butsafe and convenient port. It abounds in saltpetre,which its natives carry to Lima for the purpose ofmaking gunpowder, on which account they arefor the most part muleteers or carriers. In itsvicinity are the remains of some magnificent build-ings which belonged to the Incas of Peru. Thename of Chilca is given by the Indians of the samekingdom, as also by those of the kingdom of Quito,to a small tree or shrub which is a native of hotclimates, and which, when burnt to ashes, isoften used as lye for the use of the sugar en-gines.
Chi DC A, a beautiful and extensive valley ofthis province, which, although it be not irrigatedby any river, stream, or fountain, by which itmight be fertilized, produces an abundant harvest ofmaize. The seed of this is accustomed to beburied in the ground with heads of pilchards, anabundance of which fish is found upon the coast;and thus, by the moisture arising from this prac-tice, and by the morning dews, the soil becomessuflaciently moistened to produce a very fair crop.The same method is observed, and the same effectproduced, with regard to other fruits and herbs ;but for drinking and culinary uses, the little
water that is procured is drawn from wells. Lat.12° 3P 5. Long. 76° 35' w.
CHILCHAIOTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofZochicoatlan in Nueva España; situate on theside of a hill. It is of a hot temperature, contains26 families of Indians, and is 11 leagues to the n.of its capital.
CHILCHOIAQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of TIacolula, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a very ex-tensive glen, surrounded by heights which beginin the neighbourhood of Xilotepec, and run some-what more than a league in length. The popula-tion is very scanty, and the temperature bad ;indeed, out of the many families which formerlyinhabited it, 19 only are remaining ; these employthemselves in the rancherias^ agriculture beingindispensably necessary to their maintenance,owing to the barrenness of the territory of the dis-trict. At the distance of a league to the n. of Xa-lapa, and on the side of the royal road leading to^^exico, is the great mill of Lucas Martin. Herethe lands are fertilized by the large river Cerdeilo ;by the waters of which also other settlements arcsupplied, as likewise some of ihe ranchos^ whereinemployment is found for upwards of SO familiesof Spaniards, some Mustees^ and many Indians.Four leagues to the s. w. of its head settlement.
GHILCHOTA, the alcaldia mayor and juris-diction of the province and bishopric of Mecho-aedn. It is very mean, and reduced to a few smallsettlements, which lie so nigh together, that theirsituations are pointed out to tlie traveller by crossesstuck up in the roads. Its population consists of470 families of Tarascos Indians, and about 300 ofSpaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees\ who are,for the most part, scattered in the agriculturalestates of its district, where, from the fertility of thesoil, wheat, maize, and other seeds, are cultivatedin abundance. The country is agreeable, and wellstocked with every kind of fruit trees. The capi-
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
smaller size, are more delicate, and of superiorflavour to those caught in Newfoundland. Am-bergris is also found upon the coast. The moun-tains abound in trees of the most beautiful kind,laurels, oaks of four sorts, the carob-tree, thewood of M'hich is extremely hard, reulis, cinna-mon-trees, Cyprus, sandal, paraguas, hazel-nut,ivall-nut, volos, and alerces, which are a kind ofcedar, of which they make planks in great num-bers to carry to Lima and other parts. Many ofthese trees are green the whole year round, fromthe moisture and shelter they derive from the cor-dillera, which contains in its bowels much fire, asappears from the volcanoes found upon it, andwhich are 12 in number, without counting manyothers, even as far as the straits of Magellan. Al-though these mountains and woods are so immense,beasts of a savage kind are rarely to be found, ex-cepting such, now and then, as a tiger or leopard ;but there are great numbers of deer, stags, vicunas,and Imanacos, which served as food for the In-dians; as likewise of birds, as ducks, vandurrias,swans, herons, kites, doves, piuguenes, tarlales,parrots, hawks, falcons, goshawks ; and many sing-ing birds, as goldfinches, larks, starlings, diucas,trillies, and many others. Its present vegetableproductions are wheat, barley, Indian wheat, grainsof different kinds, oil of the finest olives, excellentwines, much esteemed in Peru; all kinds of suc-culent fruits, oranges, lemons, innumerable sorts ofapples, and every kind of garden herb. Flax andliemp is cultivated here, from which they makerigging for vessels trading to the S. seas ; and thiscould be supplied in a proportion equal to any de-mand. This kingdom keeps up a considerabletrade with Peru ; for, one year with the other, itsends to Lima from 150 to 180,000 bushels ofwheat, 120,000 quintals of grease, much wine,and other productions, as almonds, nuts, lentils,a sort of wild marjoram and bastard saffron ; andtakes in exchange sugar and cloths of the country.It derives also great emolument from large herdsof the cow kind, from flocks of sheep and goats,of the skins of which they procure fine tanned lea-ther, leathern jackets, sharaois leather, and soles ofshoes : from these animals is also procured muchfat or tallow. Flere are numerous breeds of mostbeautiful horse.s, and some of these, from excellingall the others in the swiftness of their paces, arecalled aguiliUias. It also abounds in mules, andit would still more so, if, as formerly, they werein request at Peru, where their skins were usedinstead of fine cloths and carpets. Baizes arc stillmade ; as likewise some sorts of small cord, coarse€tutfs, and many kinds of sackcloth, which is the
common vesture, and consists of a square garment,with an opening to admit the head ; but manylooms have been lost through a want of Indians inthe manufactories. The greater part of thesepeople still prefer their original uncivilized state,depending upon the natural fruits of the earth forfor their food ; for, besides the productions aboveenumerated, they used to gather, without thetrouble of cultivation, all sorts of delicious fruits,such as pines, though different from those of Eu-rope; and to make excellent chiclia of the murtilla.Indeed the luxuriance and abundance of delicateflowers, and aromatic and medicinal herbs, is al-most incredible ; of the last the following are themost esteemed for their virtue, viz. the cancliala-gua, quinchemali, alhahaquilla, and culen. Itcontains many mines of the richest gold, silver,copper, lead, tin, quick-silver, brimstone, load-stone, and coal : yielding immense riches, whichthe Indians never appreciated, nor even gavethemselves the least trouble about, until the con-quest of the Incas, who began to work them ;sending portions of gold to Cuzco for the orna-ment of the temples and palaces, rather by way ofgift than of tribute. The incursions and rebel-lions of the Indians, principally of the Arauca-nians, who, in the year J599, took and destroyedsix cities, viz. Valdivia, Imperial, Angol, SantaCrux, Chilian, and Concepcion, is the cause whythe population is in many places not large, andthat it consists of poor people, living in smallcommunities ; the fact being, that they are alwaj^sliving in constant dread of a surprise from the In-dians; not but that on the confines there are gar-risons, well defended by Spanish troops, with ne-cessary provisions of artillery, victuals, and am-munition. The war which has from the begin-ning been sustained by the Spaniards against thesemost ferocious Indians, has tended greatly to re-duce the numbers of the former ; some havingbeen killed on the spot, and others doomed to beslaves to their indignant conquerors. Indeed,when it was found that arms were of no availagainst them, some missionaries of the society ofthe Jesuits were sent among them, in the year1612, in order to propagate the gospel ; when theFathers Horacio Vechi and Martin de Arandasuffered martyrdom at their hands: after which atreaty of peace was made by the Governor Mar-quis de Baides, A. D. 1640, and which has sincebeen renewed yearly ; their deputies coming re-gularly to the capital to receive the presents fromthe king of Spain. They have, notwithstanding,at different times broken the treaty, making in-cursions into the Spanish towns, and their manner4
[14. EMMera^ceremome^.-— Notwithstanding theyknow the difference between the body and the soul,tlieir ideas of the spirituality of the latter do notseem to be very distinct, as appears from the cere-monies practised at their funerals. As soon as oneof their nation dies, his friends and relations seatthemselves upon the ground around the body, andweep fora long time; they afterwards expose it,clothed in the best dress of the deceased, upon ahigh bier, called pzV/Mnj/, where it remains duringthe night, which they pass near it in weeping, oriu eating and drinking with those who come toconsole them ; this meeting is called curicahu/n,the black entertainment, as that colour is amongthem, as Avell as the Europeans, the symbol ofmourning. The following day, though sometimesnot until the second or third after the decease ofthe person, they carry the corpse in procession tothe eltun, or burying jdacc of the family, whichis usually situated in a wood or on a hill ; twoyoung men on horseback, riding full speed, pre-cede the procession. The bier is carried by theprincipal relations, and is surrounded by women,who bewail the deceased in the manner of thehired mourners among the Romans ; while anotherwoman, who walks behind, strews ashes in theroad, to prevent the soul from returning to its lateabode. On arriving at the place of burial, thecorpse is laid upon the surface of the ground, andsurrounded, if a man, with his arras, if a woman,with female implements, and with a great quan-tity of provisions, and with vessels filled withchica, and with wine, which according to theiropinions are necessary to subsist them during theirpassage to another world ; they sometimes evenkill a horse, and inter it in the same ground. Afterthese ceremonies, they take leave with many tearsof the deceased, wishing him a prosperous journey,and cover the corpse with earth and stones placedin a pyramidal form, upon which they pour agreatquantity of chica. The similarity between thesefuneral rites and those practised by the ancientsmust be obvious to those acquainted with the cus-toms of the latter. Immediately after the relationshave quitted the deceased, an old woman, called2'empulcague, comes, as the Araucanians believe,in the shape of a whale, to transport him to theElysiari fields ; but before Ids arrival there, he isobliged to pay a toll, for passing a very narrowstrait, to another malicious old woman who guardsit, and who, on failure, deprives the passenger ofan eye. This fable resembles much that of theferryman Charon, not that there is any probabilitythat the one was copied from the other ; as thehunaan mind, when placed in similar situations,
will give birth to the same ideas. The soul, whenseparated from the body, exercises in another lifethe same functions it performed in this, with noother difference except that they are unaccoiiv-panied with fatigue or satiety ; husbands havethere the same wives as they had on earth, butthe latter have no children, as that happy countrycannot be inhabited by any except the spirits ofthe dead ; and every thing there is spiritual. Ac-cording to their theory, the soul, notwithstandingits new condition of life, never loses its originalattachments ; and when the spirits of their country-men return, as they frequently do, they fightfuriously with those of their enemies wheneverthey meet with them in the air ; and these com-bats are the origin of tempests, thunder, andlightning. Not a storm happens upon the An-des or the ocean which th(‘y do not ascribe to abattle between the souls of their fellow-country-men and those of the Spaniards ; they say thatthe roaring of the wind is the trampling of theirhorses ; the noise of the thunder that of their drums,and the flashes of lightning the fire of their artillery.If the storm takes its course tow ards the Spanishterritory, they affirm that their spirits have putto flight those of the Spaniards, and exclaimtriumphantly, Imvime?i, imivimen, puen, laguvi-men! “ Pursue them, friends, pursue them, killthem !” If the contrary happens, they are greatlj’afflicted, and call out in consternation, Yavida-men^ puen, namunlumcnl “ Courage?, friends, befirm !” I'hus do they believe that the dead, al-though mere spirits, are possessed, like the sha.dows which thronged about iEiieas in his descentinto the infernal regions, of the same passions, anda love of the same pursuits, by w hich they wereactuated when living.
“ Quoe, gratia curruumArmorumque fuit vivis, quee curanitenlesPascere equos, eadem sequitur tellure repostos."
Their ideas respecting the origin of creation arcso crude and ridiculous, that to relate them wouldserve for little else than to shew the weakness ofhuman reason when left to itself. 'They haveamong them the tradition of a great deluge, inwhicli only a few persons were saved, who tookrefuge upon a high mountain, called Thegtheg,the thundering, or the sparkling, Avhich hadthreepoints, and possessed the property of moving upontlie water. From hence it is to be inferred, thatthis deluge was in consequence of some volcaniceruption, accompanied by terrible earthquakes, orshould appear to be a corrupted tradition ofNoah’s flood. Whenever a violent earthquakeoccurs, these people fly for safely to these moun-l
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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.
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CHIMALAPA, Santa Maria de a settlement of the head settlement of the district andalcaldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, and the whole of itsdistrict is covered with very large trees, especiallyfirs fit for ship-building. Twenty-five leaguesn.w. of its capital,
CHIAMLHUACAN, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Coatepec inNueva Espana. It contains a good convent of thereligious order of St. Domingo, 300 families ofSpaniards, il/wsfees, and Mulattoes, who employthemselves in labour, and in the commerce of seedsand large and small cattle, which are bred in theestates contiguous ; but the latter in no great de-gree, owing to the scarcity of water and pasturewhich prevails here.
Same name, another settlement and headsettlement of the district in the alcaldia mayor ofChaleo, of the same kingdom. It contains 166families of Indians, and a convent of the religiousorder of St. Domingo. Five leagues n. of itscapital.
CHIMAN, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near the coast of the S. sea, and onthe shore of the river of its name, having a smallport, which is garrisoned by a detachment fromPanama, for the purpose of restraining the inva-sions which are continually made by the Indians.
CHIMBA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the celebrated talc gold-mine whichwas discovered 36 years ago by a fisherman, whopulling up a plant of large and prickly leaves,called cordon, or fuller’s thistle, for the purpose offuel for his fire, observed that particles of golddropped from its roots; and having more narrowlyinspected it, found pieces amidst the mould ofconsiderable size and of very fine quality. Thus
a mine became established here, and when it wasfirst dug it yielded from 300 to 500 dollars eachcaxon.
CHIMBACALLEa settlement of the kingdom of Quito, inthe corregimienio of the district of Las CincoLeguasde la Capital, (ofthe Five Leagues from theCapital), of which this is looked upon as a suburbfrom its proximity.
CHIMBARONGO, a river of the kingdom ofChile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera^and unites itself with that of Tinguiragua to enterthe Napel. This river waters and fertilizes somevery pleasant and delightful valleys, abounding inpastures, whereon breed and fatten an infinite num-ber of cattle. On its shores are two convents, oneofthe religious order of Nuestra Senora de la Mer-ced, for the instruction of the Indians in the Chris-tian faith ; and another a house for novices, whichbelonged to the regulars of the society of Jesuits ;and also within a league’s distance from the latter,is a convent of the order of St. Domingo.
Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienio of Colchagua in the same king-dom ; situate in the Former valley, between therivers Tinguiririca and Teno. There is alsoanother small settlement annexed, with a chapelof ease. In its district is a convent of the religiousorder of La Merced.
[CHIMBO, a jurisdiction in the province ofZinto in South America, in the torrid zone. Thecapital is also called by the same name.]
CHIMBO Y ALAUSI, a province and corregimientoof the kingdom of Quito ; bounded n. oythe serrania of the asiento of Ambato ; s, by thegovernment and jurisdiction of Guayaquil ; e. bythe district of the point of Santa Elena of this govern-ment; and ro. by the province of Riobamba. Its dis-trict is barren and poor, and the country beingmountainous, the inhabitants have no resource forgetting their livelihood other than by acting ascarriers between the provinces of Riobamba andTacunga on the one hand, and the warehouses ofBabahoyo on the other, where also are the royalmagazines ; and thus they bring back goods fromthe provinces of Peru, having for this traffic anumber of requas, or droves of mules, amountingin the whole to 1500 head. This commerce canonly be carried on in the summer, the roads beingimpassable in the winter through the mountains,when they say that these are shut up : at the sameseason the rivers become swollen to such a degree
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as to render it impracticable to cross them. In theroad they usually take lies the steep declivity ofSan Antonio, extremely difficult to be passed.The mules however are so well versed in the man-ner of letting themselves slide down it, that therehas never been an instance of these animals falling.The 'vegetable productions of this province areconfined to bark, and from this no emolument isderived, although it was discovered, after muchsearch and solicitude, by the Lieutenant-colonelDon Miguel de Santistevan. It accordinglj'- pro-vides itself with all that it may require in this wayfrom the adjoining provinces of Riobamba andTacunga. It is of a very cold temperature, fromits being so near to the mountainous desert ofChimborazo. Its natives amount to 2000 souls,the greater part of them being Mustees, and the■whole are divided into seven settlements, of whichthe capital bears the same name ; and althoughthis was formerly the residence of the corregidor,yet has it of late been deserted for the settlementof Guaranda. The seven settlements are,
San Lorenzo, Guaranda,
CHIMBORAZO, a verylofty mountain or desert of the cordillera of theprovince and corregimiento of Riobamba, in thekingdom of Quito; which, in the language ofthe country, signifies mountain of the other side.It is covered with everlasting snow, and is theloftiest mountain in the known world, since itsheight, taken by the academicians of the sciencesof Paris, is 3220 toises from the level of the seato its top, which terminates in a cone or truncatedpyramid. Its sides are covered with a kind ofwhite sand or calcined earth with loose stones,and a certain herb called pajon, which affords pas-ture for the cattle of the neighbouring estates.The warm streams flowing from its n. side shouldseem toAvarrantthe idea that within it is a volcano.From its top flow down many rivers, which takedifferent winding courses; thus the Guarandaruns 5. the Guano s. e. and the Machala e. Onits skirt lies the road which" leads from Quito toGuayaquil ; and in order to pass it in safety, it isrequisite to be more cautious in choosing the properseason than were the Spanish conquerors of thisprovince, who were here frozen to death. Northof the town of Riobamba, in lat. 1° 21' 18" s. ac-cording to the observations of M. La Condamine.fThis mountain was visited, on the 23d of June1797, by Humboldt; who with his party reachedits €. slope on that day, and planted their instru-
ments on a narrow ledge of porphyritie rock Avhichprojected from the vast field of unfathomcd snow.A chasm, 500 feet wide, prevented their furtherascent. The air was reduced to half its usualdensity, and felt intensely cold and piercing.Respiration was laborious and blood oozed fromtheir eyes, their lips and their gums. They stoodon the highest spot ever trod by man. Its height,ascertained from barometrical observation, was3485 feet greater than the elevation attained in1745 by Condamine, and 19,300 feet above thelevel of the sea. From that extreme station, thetop of Chimborazo was found, by trigonometricalmeasurement, to be 2140 feet still higher.
CHIMBUZA, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Barbacoas, of the kingdom ofQuito, to the s. w. of the river Patia, formed by anarrow canal, through ■which the Avater of thisriver enters, and so forms the same lake into asheet of water of an oblong figure, two leagues inlength, and half a league in breadth. This lakehas another narrow canal, through which the wa-ter issues, and re-unites itself with the sameriver.
CHIMICA, a small province of the governmentof Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada. It is almost as it were desert and aban-doned, notwithstanding that it produces a goodquantity of maize. The climate is hot and un-healthy ; and although it was formerly peopled bythe Chimicas Indians, none of these are now foundto reside here.
CHIMILAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the province ofSanta Marta. They inhabit the Avoods to the e.of the large river Magdalena, go naked, and haveno fixed abodes. They are cruel and treacherous,and are bounded by the nation of the Guaxiros.
CHIMIRAL, a river of the province and corregimiento of Copiapo in the kingdom of Chile.It rises in the SnoAvy sierra, runs w. and enters thesea in the point of its name. It in many partsruns in so inconsiderable a stream as frequently tobe in all appearance lost before it enters the sea.
CHINACOTA, a small settlement of the jurisdiction and government of Pamplona in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot tempe-rature, produces sugar-cane, plantains, maize, andis extremely fertile in wheat ; but this not withoutcultivation. The natives amount to about 90 poorfamilies, and as many Indians. It is situate in anextensive valley, from whence it derives its title,and which is also called. Of Meer Ambrosio, fromthe Indians having killed here the GermanGeneral Ambrosio de Alfinger, by whom it w^as dis-covered in 1531. Four leagues n. e. of Pam-plona.
CHINANTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espaha. It contains 40 fami-lies of Chinantecas Indians, and is very fertile,and abounding in maize and cotton. Eightyleagues s. of Mexico.
CHINANTEPEC, Santa Catalina, asettlement and head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guayacocotla in NuevaEspana. Its territory is somewhat extensive, andthe settlements or wards belonging to it are far re-moved from each other, the greater part of thembeing situate within the deep glens, or on theheights, so that the roads to them are very diffi-cult. It contains, in all, 1340 families of In-dians.
CHINATAGUAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru ; situate to the n. of the city of Gua-nuco. They are descendants of the Panataguas,of whom few remain at the present day, and ofwhom but little is known.
CHINATOS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit theforests to the n. e. 1 to the e. of the city of Pam-plona. They are relics of the Chitareros, whohave been always found very troublesome, fromtheir proximity to the aforesaid city.
CHINAUTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teuzitlan in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy ofthis capital. It contains 108 families of Indians,and lies a league and an halPs distance from thesame capital.
Same name, formerly the name of the provinceor district now called Chunchasuyu in Peru, tothe is. of Cuzco. Its natives were valorous, andresisted for eight months the Emperor Pachacutec,who subjected it to his controul. The country ispleasant, fertile, and abounding in cattle. Hereare to be seen vestiges and ruins of some magnifi-cent fabrics, which belonged to the Incas, andwhich strike the imagination with wonder and sur-prise, at viewing the immense stones used in theirarchitecture, and when it is considered that theIndians knew not the use of engines, whereby theymight raise them.
CHINCHAYCOCHA, a large lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It ismore than nine leagues in length and three inwidth ; and from it rises the river Pari or Paria,also called Xauxa, towards the n. side. Thisriver runs s. dividing the province of Xauxa, andgiving it its name, both in Xauxa Alta, or High,and Baxa, or Low ; it then turns e. and after run-ning for more than 40 leagues, flows back to the n.until it enters the Maranon on the s. side. M. Dela Martiniere, with his accustomed error, says that
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the river Marailon has its rise in tins lake ; its realorigin being in the lake Lauricociia, as may beseen under that article.
CHINCHERO, a settlement of the provinceand correghniado of Calca y Lares in Perú. Thecemetery of its church is composed of some large,thick Avails of Avrouglit stone, well fitted together,and having in them certain niches similar to sentryboxes ; so that they appear as having formerly be-longed to some fortress.
Same name, a river of this province, whichrises from the mountain desert or paramo of La Sabanilla. It Avashes the city and territory of Val-ladolid, and on its c. side receives the rivers Nnm-balla, Vergel, Patacones, Sangalla, San Francisco,and Nambacasa ; and on its zs. side those of Pa-landa, Simanchi, Namballe, and Guancabamba ;when, being sAA'^elled to a considerable size by all ofthese, it enters the Maranon on the n. shore, to thew. w. of the settlement of Tompenda.
CHINCHULAGUA, a very lofty desert mountainor paramo, covered with eternal snow, in theprovince and corregimiento of Tacunga in thekingdom of Quito. It lies five leagues to the n. ofTacunga, Avith a slight inclination to the n. c.
CHINCONTLA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of Olintla, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a delightful defile ornarroAV tract, watered by various rivers. Eightleagues from its head settlement.
CHINGA, a fortress of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; one of the six Avhich were held by the%ipas or kings of Bogota, against the Punches na-tion, who border upon their country ; 10 leaguesto the s. w. of Bogota.
CHINU, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierraFirme ; founded in the sahanas, and formed by are-union of other settlements, in 1776, by the G'o-A^ernor Uon Juan Piraiento.
CHIPALZINGO, a settlement and head ettlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tixtlanin Nueva Espana. It contains 353 families ofIndians, and of Spaniards, Mustces, and Mn-lattoes, and lies three leagues from the sett lemcn!,of Zurnpango.
CHIPANGA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom oiQuito. It rises in the sierra, Avhich divides thedistrict of Macas from the province of Mainas, runsfrom n. to s. and enters the Morona.
CHIPAQUE, a settlement of the corregimientoof Ubaque in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itis of a mild temperature, and abounds in fruits andseeds peculiar to a warm climate. It consists of150 housekeepers, and of as many Indians. It isso infested with snakes, that it is impossible to findany part of it clear of them. Eight leagues .9. .of Santa Fe, in the road which leads to San Juande los Llanos.
CHIPASAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of an hot temperature, lying 24 leagues to thes. e. of Santa Fe, and close to the settlement ofChaqueta, in the road Avhich leads to San Juan dc
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los Llanos. Its inhabitants amount to about 200,besides 100 Indians.
CHIPATA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofthe jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of an hot temperature, and it ishealthy, though by no means abounding in theproductions peculiar to its climate. Its inhabi-tants are very few, and the number of Indians is 50.It was one of the first settlements entered by theSpaniards, and where the first mass ever celebratedin that part of the world was said by the Friar Do-mingo de las Casas, of the order of St. Domingo ;and is situate very close to the city of Velez.
[CHIPAWAS. See Chepawas.]
[CHIPPAWYAN Fort, in N. America, fromwhence M‘Kenzie embarked, on the lake of theHills, when he made his way as far as the N. sea,in 1789.1
[CUJPPEWAY River runs s. w. into Missis-sippi river, in that part where the confluent watersform lake Pepin.]
CHIPURANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Mainas. It rises in the mountainswhich are to the s. of Yurimaguas ; runs in a ser-pentine course from s. to n. and enters the Gual-laga on the e. side, in lat. 7° 8' s.
CHIQUILIXPAN, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Zayula inNueva Espana. It contains 50 families of In-dians, and in the mountains in its vicinity aresome mines of copper, which have been workedat different times ; but not having produced a be-nefit proportionate with the expences incurred, theyhave been abandoned. It is, 15 leagues n. w. ofits head settlement.
CHIQUINQUIRA, a settlement of the corregi-miento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold temperature, but is healthy ; itssituation is delightful, and it abounds in produc-tions. It is watered by a river which runs throughthe centre of it, the waters of which are unwhole-some : at a small distance another river passesthrough a plain ; this is called Balsa, or Raft, since,before the bridge was thrown across it, it was passedby rafts. It rises from the lake Fuguene, andabounds in most exquisite fish. The settlement,which was formerly but small, is now of great note,and its inhabitants are about 500, besides 70 In-dians. It has a good convent of the religious orderof S. Domingo, and is noted for the sanctuary ofthe virgin of its title. Under the large altar, atwhich is placed this image, there is a small foun-tain of water, renowned for the curing of infirmities,as is also the earth which is extracted from thence;it being by no means the least part of the prodigy,that although this earth has been constantly takenout for upwards of 200 years, the excavation formedthereby is comparatively exceedingly small. Thefaith in, and devotion towards this image, arethroughout the kingdom very great, and not lesaso with regard to strangers, who visit it in greatnumbers from far distant provinces. This settle-ment is nine leagues from Tunja, and 15 to then. zeJ. of Santa Fe.
CHIQUITI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It runs from s. w. to n. e. between the rivers Vichiand Cuche, and enters on the s. side into the riverof Las Esrneraldas.
CHIQUITOI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is at presentdestroyed, and the few surviving inhabitants after-wards collected together at the settlement of San-tiago de Cao, and it then became merely a smallestate or hamlet, preserving its original name, andbeing inhabited by a few Indians.
CHIQUITOS, a numerous and warlike nation of Indians of Perú, whose country or territory ex-tends from lat. 16° to 20° s. It is bounded w. bythe province and government of Santa Cruz de laSierra ; on the e". it extends itself for upwards of140 leagues as far as the lake of Los Xarayes ; onthe n, as far as the mountains of the Tapacures,the which divide this country from that of Moxos ;
dried flesh, hung up to preserve them from corrup-tion. Their garments are a shirt without sleeves,reaching down to the middle of their legs. Themarried people wear drawers of baize with colouredpuckers for festival days, and those who enjoyoffices of state wear a baize jacket : they neitheruse hatnorshoes, and no one of them ever goes outwithout slinging round his neck some medals and arosary. The hair is worn short until they marry,and when they become old they suffer it to growlong. The women wear close gowns which reachdown to the ground, and which they call tapoyes:they never swathe or bind themselves round thewaist, but carry on their necks, on gala-days, somethreads strung with glass intermixed with beadsmade of cacao nuts, and coloured beans ; thesethreads usually amount to 20 or SO rows ; on en-tering the church they always loosen their hair.The regulars of the company of the Jesuits taughtthem offices, in which they assisted most dexte-rously ; and it really excites admiration that In-dians, acquainted only with their own barbariandialect, should be able to manage the compass ofthe notes, understand their proportions and num-bers, and apply the rules of music to its execution.At certain times of the year they go a mdear, orto hunt for honey among the woods : from thencethey bring back wax of two sorts, one which iswhite and odoriferous, Jhe other of less substance,as the wax of Europe, manufactured by a speciesof bees without stings, called opernus; also an-other kind of wax, made by a still different sort ofbees, but which are all properly denominated wildwax. This wax is delivered to the curate, whopreserves it in his house to send to the provinces ofPeru ; and from the product of this article, andfrom that of the cotton, which is made into woofs,to the amount of two pounds weight yearly byeach Indian, he procures in 3xchange whatever isnecessary for the settlement, such as baizes, colouredwools, bags, iron and steel articles, choppingknives, wedges, hatchets, scissars, pocket-knives,needles, medals, bugles, and other articles of hard-ware and little necessaries, which, being stored upby him, is distributed amongst the natives accord-ing to their necessities, and in a manner that theymay want for nothing, but live happy and con-tented. The settlements are as follows :
San Xavier, San Joseph,
La Concepcion, Santiago,
San Miguel, San Juan,
San Ignacio, El Santo,
Santa Ana, Corazon.
CHIQUIZA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Sachica in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itis of a cold temperature, and produces wheat,maize, barley, papaSy and the other fruits peculiarto its climate. Its ijihabitants are so few as scarcelyto amount to 30 housekeepers, and about the samenumber of Indians. Four leagues to the n. w. ofTunja, and somewhat less from Velez.
[CHIRAGOW. See Plein River.]
CHIRAMBIRA, an island situate in the largebay of St. Juan, on the coast of the province andgovernment of Choco in the S. sea, which gives itsname to a small creek formed by this island and thecontinent.
CHIRE, Santa Rosa de a city of the govern-ment and province of Los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada ; founded by the GovernorFrancisco Anciso. It is of a very hot and un-healthy temperature, but affords the same vegetableproductions as the rest of the province. It is somean and reduced as to contain hardly 100 house-keepers, and scarcely deserves the name of a city.This settlement lies the furthest to the n. w. extre-mity of any in this kingdom, and is bounded inthat quarter by the province and bishopric of Ca-racas.
CHIRGUA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It rises in the mountain of Ta-cazuruma on the s. runs s. and enters the Gamalo-tal, after having collected the waters of many otherrivers.
CHIRICOAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, to the e. of themountains of Bogota, and at the entrance of thellanos or plains of Cazanare and Meta. Theylead a wandering life through the woods in com-pany with the Guaibas ; they are crafty and verydexterous thieves, but of a docile and pacific dis-position. In 16.64; some of them were reduced into
a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the placecalled the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all ofthem, to the mountains, although in the same yearthey returned back again to the settlement.
CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful.It has besides the parish church a convent or houseof entertainment of the religious order of St.Francis.
CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of theinfidel Indians of the province and government ofSanta Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence itlies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the e.by the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that ofChuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements,each governed by its captain or cazique, subject,in a certain degree, to the above government.These people, though they refuse to adopt the Ca-tholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spa-niards, trading with them in wax, cotton, andmaize. This nation, by the incursions which tlieymade, used at first to give frequent alarm to theprovince, and once had the address to capture thecity of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui en-deavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither henor the Spaniards could avail aught with them■until they were reduced by the missionaries, theregulars of the extinguished company of the Je-suits ; since that time they have been stedfast insupporting the Spaniards against the other infidels,serving them as a barrier, and having for their ownline of defence the river Guapay. They are veryvalorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they aredescended from the nations which are found to thee. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the num-ber of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastise-ment of the Portuguese, who were about to inflictcondign punishment on them for having treache-rously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in thetime of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal.They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fattentheir prisoners that these might become better fare ;but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniardshas caused them by degrees to forget this barbarouspractice, and even to give them a disgust at theirsavage neighbours, who still continue in the samepractices. They are at the present day so greatlyincreased in numbers, that they are one of themost numerous nations of America ; are besidesvery neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon forthem to rush out of their dwellings in the middleof the night to plunge and wash themselves in ariver in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.
immediately after parturition, invariably do thesame, and on their return lay themselves on a heapof sand, which they have for this purpose in thehouse; but the husband immediately takes to hisbed, and being covered all over with very largeleaves, refuses to take any other nourishment thana little broth made of maize ; it being an incorri-gible error of belief amongst them that these cere-monies will be the cause of making their childrenbold and warlike. They have shewn great powerand address in their combats with our troops whenthese first endeavoured to enter their territories,and they threw themselves in such an agile and un-daunted manner upon our fire-arms that it wasfound necessary, on our part, to insert in the rantsa lance-man between every two fusileers : the vare, moreover, so extremely nimble that it isimpossible to take them prisoners but by sur-prise.
CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and go-vernment of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdomof Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ;dividing the government from that of Guatemala,and touching upon the province of Costarica.It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous,and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded onall sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred num-bers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Pa-nama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S.sea are found crabs which distil a purple colourused for dyeing cotton, which, although it mayfade a little, can never be entirely eradicated.They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable pro-ductions ; with which they carry on a trade, nowfallen much to decay, with the city of Panama.The capital is Santiago de Alanje.
Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), whichrises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea,serving as limits to that province, and dividing itfrom that of Costarica in the kingdom of Gua-temala.
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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of whichgreat quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital,and near to the settlement of Turmeque.
==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature.Its productions correspond with those of a similarclimate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a veryfew whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.
CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s.coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo,in the territory possessed by the French ; lyingbetween the settlement and parish of the English,and the point of Burgados.
[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee,two miles and a half from English ferry, on Newriver, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Longisland, on Holston.]
CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty ofSanta Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It isbounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. bythe country bt the Laches Indians, or province ofCochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of theOrinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, aGerman, and he was the first who entered it withhis companions in 1535. This territory is fertile,abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which isextremely large, as also in other seeds, and hasgoats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hotand unhealthy temperature, and has palms similarto those of Palestine and Barbary, producing ex-cellent dates. The capital is of the same name.This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bo-gota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly en-titled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwardsof 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twenty-four leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
Same name, another settlement, which is the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofVillalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tempe-rature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is threeleagues and a half to the s. of its capital.
CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians;bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct fromit, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They in-habit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains ofBogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto,and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people,and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535,having joined company with the Jiraras, theytook and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.
CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregi-mienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the NuevoReyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliytemperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains,cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from whichare made fine and much esteemed conserves.
CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pam-plona ; they are mixed with some families of theLaches. This nation is extremely numerous, andpass a wandering life without any fixed abode ;they go entirely naked, and are much given to sen-sual gratifications ; some of them have embraced2
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the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements,though the number of these is very small.
CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature,and contains 39 families of Indians, who live bysowing maize, the only vegetable production oftheir territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capi-tal.
CHITO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla,and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to To-mependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines,but which are not worked ; its temperature is hotand moist, and consequently unhealthy.
[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lieson lake Champlain, between Franklin county onthe w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passesthrough its n. w. corner, and Onion river dividesit nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burling-ton. This county contained, by the census of1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Sincethat time the n. counties have been taken from it,so that neither its size or number of inhabitants cannow be ascertained.]
[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county,Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The roadover the mountain passes through this township.It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek,in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Ben-nington.]
[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a con-siderable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida,in the state of New York.]
CHIUAO, a small river of theprovince and colony of Surinam, or the part ofGuayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in themountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w.enters another river which is without a name, andwhere several others unite to enter the Cuyuni onthe s. side.
CHIUATA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cumana in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises from some plains in this territory,runs s. collecting the waters of several otherrivers, particularly that of the Suata, and thenenters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.
CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Canchas. In its district there is amineral hot-water spring, much renowned for thecuring of various kinds of maladies.
CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous na-tion of Indians of the province and government ofVenezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Mara-capana. They are very few, and live retired in themountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.
CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta inNueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, con-tains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leaguesto the n. of its capital.
CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayorof Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a coldand moist temperature, contains 103 families ofIndians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of thecapital.
CHOCO, a large province and government ofthe jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory ofwhich it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by thePacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations ofIndians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. bythat of Barbacoas. The whole of this provinceabounds in woods and mountains, and is crossedby a chain of the Andes, which run as far as theisthmus of Panama. It is watered by several riversand streams, all of which run w. and enter the S.sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form apart of this province ; very few of their ancientinhabitants remain at the present day ; the greaterpart of them having perished in the war of the