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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
16. Don FV. Diego de Tores Atamairano, amonk of the order of St. Francis, native of Trux-illo in Estremadura, commissary-general of theprovinces of Peru ; he received his consecration atEiraa, entered Cartagena in 1620, and died in thefollowing year, 1621.
17. Don Fr. Francisco de Sotomayor, of theorder of St. Francis, native of San Tome, in thebishopric of Tuy, guardian of the convents inMontforte and Salamanca, difimdor general in thechapter which was celebrated at Rome ; elected tothe bishopric of Cartagena in 1622, and promotedto that of Quito before he left Madrid, in 1623.
18. Don Fr. Luis Ronquillo de Cordova, of theorder of the Santissirna Trinidad, native of Gra-nada, where he read arts and theology, was mi-nister in the convent of Malaga, and twice in that ofSeville, provincial and vicar-general of Andalucia ;he was elected bishop in 1630 : he governed eightyears, and returned to Spain without a licence ;he received notice of his promotion to the bishop-ric of Truxillo in Peru, which honour he declined,and retired to his convent in Granada, where hedied in 1642.
19. Don Fr. Christoval Perez de Lazarraga, ofthe order of San Bernardo, native of Madrid,qualificator of the inquisition ; he took to an eccle-siastical life when quite a child, was collegian ofthe college of Meira, afterwards of those of Sala-manca and Alcala, professor of philosophy, moraland theological, abbot of the college of Nuestra Se-hora ' de Salamanca, a most learned theologist ;elected and consecrated bishop of Chiapa, and be-fore he left the court promoted to the bishopric ofCartagena, of which he took possession in 1640 :he thrice visited his bishopric, and after a grievousillness of 90 days duration, died in 1648.
20. Don Francisco Rodriguez de Zepeda Val-carcel, native of Zamora ; he studied grammar inthe town of Garcia, jurisprudence in Salamanca,was professor of laws in Valladolid, abbot of Ci-fuentes, and canonical doctor of the church ofSiguenza ; elected bishop of Cartagena, of whichhe took possession in 1650 ; and having governedonly 11 months, he died in the following.
21. Don Diego del Castillo y Arteaga, native ofTudela ; he studied in the university of Alcala,was collegian of Malaga, professor of arts, hav-ing substituted this title for that of theology, cano-nical master of the church of Avila; presentedto the bishopric of Cartagena in 1632, which hedeclined.
22. Don Garcia Martinez Cabezas, native of thetown of Don Benito in Estremadura ; he was pub-
lic professor of the institutes, primate of canonsin the university of Maese Rodrigo de Sevilla,w hen he was adopted as provisor by the archbishopof Lima, Don Gonzalo de Ocampo, as he passedthrough that city ; he was doctoral canon of thechurch of Charcas, afterwards school-master, trea-surer, and archdeacon, from whence he went toLima as inquisitor, and was elected bishop of Car-tagena, but died before he took possession of hisoffice, in 1653.
23. Don Antonio Sanz Lozano, native of Cava-nillas, chief collegian iti Alcala, public professorof theology, a man of learning and of acute ge-nius ; being rector of his college, he was presentedby the king to the bishopric ot Cartagena, of whichhe took possession in 1661, governed with greatskill for 20 years, and was promoted to the arch-bishopric of Santa Fe in 1681.
24. Don Antonio dc Benavides and Piedrola,native of the city of Andujar, canon of Badajoz ;elected bishop of Cartagena in 1681 : his govern-ment being very troublesome, and disturbed by acessation of religious rites, occasioned by the cir-cumstance of the nuns of Santa Clara, who wereunder the care of the religious order of St. Fran-cis, having been put under the ordinary jurisdic-tion, he was called to the court, and arrived therein 1691 ; and not being willing to accept of anyother bishopric in Spain, he died in Cadiz.
25. Don Fr. Antonio Maria Casiani, monk ofBasilio, of the university of Alcala; elected in1713.
26. Don Francisco Gomez Calleja, doctoral Ca-non of the church of Zamora; elected in 1718.
27. Don Manuel Antoniode Silva, dean of Lima,named through promotion of the former, who nothaving accepted of the same, there became a dis-pute as to which was rightly entitled to the bishop-ric of Cartagena, when it was declared by thecourt in favour of the former, who governed from1725 till 1736.
28. Don Gregorio de Molleda y Clerque, nativeof Lima, consecrated at Rome with the title ofbishop of Isauria, domestic prelate to his holiness,and made bishop of Cartagena in 1736, afterwardspromoted to the see of Truxillo in 1740.
29. Don Diego Martinez Garrido, of the orderof Santiago, opponent to the professors in the uni-versity of Salamanca; elected in 1740: he diedin 1746.
30. Don Bernardo de Arbiza y Ugarte, nativeof Cuzco, in the university of which he studiedand graduated as doctor of both laws ; he waschief auditor of the royal audience of Panama,
when he was promoted to the bishopric of Carta-gena in 1746, of which he took possession in thefollowing year, and governed until 1752, whenhe was promoted to the church of Truxillo.
51. Doii Bartolome Narvaez y Berrio, canon ofthis holy church of Cartagena, and native of thiscountry ; presented to this bishopric in^ 1752, andgoverned here until he died in 1754.
52. The Doctor Jacinto Aguado y Chacon, ca-non penitenciario of the holy church of Cadiz ;elected in 1754, and promoted to the bishopric ofArequipa before he embarked for this of Car-tagena.
33. Don Diego Antonio Valenzuela Faxardo,native of the city of Santa Fe of Bogota; electedin 1754 : he died in 1755.
34. The Doctor Don Manuel de Sosa Betancur,archdeacon of the holy church of Caracas ; electedin 1755 : he died in 1765.
35. Don Diego Peredo, native of the town ofLeon of Mechoacan ; elected in 1765, promotedto the bishopric of Yucatan in 1722.
36. Don Augustin de Alvarado y Castillo ; pro-moted to the bishopric of Santa Fe in 1774.
37. The Doctor t)on Bias Sobrino y Minayo ;elected in 1774, and promoted to the archbishopricof Quito in 1776.
38. Don Fr. Joseph Diaz de la Madrid, a monkof the Order of St. Francis, native of the city ofQuito ; elected in 1 777.
Governors of Cartagena.
1. Don Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city ;and its adelantado or governor, a native of Madrid,and a valorous conqueror, in 1532.
2. The Licentiate Badillo, nominated J uez deResidencia,; he exercised the government duringthe commission in 1536.
3. The, Licentiate Santa Cruz, judge of anothersecond residence, who became adelantado in 1537.
4. The Licentiate Miguel Diez de Armendariz;he entered in 1545, had for judge of his resi-dence the Licentiate Juan de Montano, oidor ofSanta F<5, whom he sent to Spain.
5. Don Pedro de Heredia, who for the secondtime was provisional governor until the year 1556,when he died, being drowned in the fleet whichwas wrecked in the Gordas sands.
6. The Doctor J uan de Maldonado, Jiscal of theaudience of Santa Fe in 1556.
7. Jorge de Quintanilla, provisionally nomi-nated by the audience of Santa Fe.
8. The Brigadier Don Go'izalo Ximinez deQuesada ; nominated by the audience as residen-tiary to the three former, in the same year, 1556.
9. Antonio de Castro ; provisionally nominated.
10. Juan de Bustos Villegas, nominated by theking ; he entered in 1 557, and was promoted tothe presidency of Panama in 1563.
11. Anton Davalos de Luna, a field-officer ; heentered in 1563, and governed till 1567, whenhe died.
12. Don Lope de Orozco, as provisional gover-nor in the same year.
13. Francisco Bahamonde y Lugo ; he enteredin 1572, and died in 1573.
14. Hernan Suarez de Villalobos, nominatedprovisonally by the audience of Santa Fe in 1574.
15. Pedro Fernandez del Busto, who entered inthe above year, and was promoted to the govern-ment of Popayan in 1577.
16. Don Pedro de Lodena, in 1593.
17. Don Pedro de Acuna, knight of the orderof San Juan, field-officer, in 1601 ; he had the titleof president of the Philippines, and died the sameyear.
18. Don Geronimo Suazo Casasola, of the habitof Santiago ; he died in 1605.
19. Don Francisco Sarmientode Sotomayor, no-minated in the interim, in 1606.
20. Don Diego Fernandez de Valazco, in 1608.
21. Don Diego de Acuna, in 1614.
22. Don Garcia Giron de Loaysa, who governeduntil 1620.
23. Don Diego de Escobar, knight of the orderof Santiago, who died whilst exercising the govern-ment.
24. Don Francisco de Berrio, nominated in thein the interim, in 1628.
25. Don Francisco de Murga, knight of the or-der of Santiago, a field-officer, and celebratedengineer ; appointed to fortify the Plaza, beingat the time governor of Marmora in Africa : h«died in 1634.
26. Don Nicolas de Larraspuru, nominated inthe interim, in 1636.
27. Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Vil-lalta, nominated in the interim, in 1637, on accountof the former not having accepted the office.
28. Don Vincente de los Reyes Villalobos, pro-visional governor in the same year, 1637, being thegovernor of Moxos.
29. Don Melchor de Aguilera, a field-officer;he entered in 1638, was suspended and called toaccount by Don Bernardino de Prado, oidor ofSanta Fe.
30. Don Ortuno de Aldape ; being governor ofMuzo, he was nominated in the interim, in 1641.
31. Don Luis Fernandez de Cordova, of the or-
tive of Barcelana, a celebrated engineeer; also re-nowned in the constructing of the land-gate or en-trance to Cadiz : he was promoted to this govern-ment for the purpose of inspecting and repairingthe towers which had been destroyed by AdmiralVernon, which commission, after he had executed,he returned to Spain in 1755, and died director-general of the body of engineers.
61. Don Fernando Morillo Velarde, knight ofthe order of Alcantara, colonel of infantry, at thattime king’s lieutenant, when he received the go-vernment on account of the proprietor having goneto fortify the town of Portobelo.
62. Don Diego Tabares, knight of the order ofSantiago, brigadier-general ; promoted to this go-vernment from that of Camana in 1755, and go-verned till 1761, when arrived his successor,
63. Don Joseph de Sobremonte, Marquis of thisname, a brigadier, who was captain of the regimentof Spanish guards when he was nominated : he go-verned till 1770, when he died.
64. Don Gregorio de Sierra, also captain of gre-nadiers of the express regiment of Spanish guards ;he entered Cartagena in 1771, and died in 1774.
65. Don Juan Pimienta, colonel of the regi-ment of the infantry of Zamora, in rank a briga-dier, and knight of the distinguished order ofCharles III. ; he entered into the possession of thegovernment in 1774, and died in 1781.
66. Don Roque de Quiroga, king’s lieutenant ofthe fortified town, or Plaza ; promoted as provincialgovernor through the death of his antecessor, un-til arrived, under the king’s appointment, the pro-prietor,
67. Don Joseph de Carrion y Andrade, a bri-gadier, who before had been governor of thePlaza of Manilla, and had rendered himself re-nowned when it was besieged by the Emperor ofMarruecos, being nominated to this government in1774 : he died in 1785.
CARTAGO, a city of the province and go-vernment of Popayan, founded by the BrigadierGeorge Robledo in 1540, who gave it this name,with the dedicatory title of San Juan, his patron;the greater part of the military in it having comefrom the city of Cartagena in Europe. It did liebetween the rivers Otun and Quindio; but the
continual invasions it has experienced from thePijaos and Pimaes Indians, who are a bold andwarlike people, determined its inhabitants to re-move it at the end of the I7th century to the spotwhere it now stands ; having bought for that pur-pose some land of Tomasa Izquierdo, on the bankof an arm of the river of La Vieja, which is alarge stream, and navigable for canoes and rafts,and which is at the distance of rather better thana quarter of a mile from the large river Cauca,into which the above river enters, forming beforethe city an island, which abounds in animals of thechase, and in cattle, and having on its banks ex-cellent fishing. This city is of a dry and healthyclimate ; and although hot, the atmosphere is al-ways clear and serene. It is situate upon a leveland somewhat elevated plain , of beautiful appear-ance ; the streets are spacious, wide and straight.It has a very large grand square. Its buildingsare solid and of good structure, and universallyroofed over with straw, having, however, the wallsof solid stone from the top to the bottom ; othersare built of brick, and others with rafters of wood,the walls being of clay, (which they call imbulidoSyor inlaid), so solid as to resist the force of the mostviolent earthquakes, as was experienced in onethat happened in 1785. At a small distance fromthe city are various lakes or pools of water, whichthey call denegas, formed by nature, assisted byart. It is the residence of the lieutenant-gover-nor of the government of Popayan, of two ordi-nary alcaldes, two of La Hermandad, two member*of an inferior court, a recorder, a procurator-gene-ral, a major domo de propiosy and six regidors^the cabildo enjoying the privilege of electing andconfirming these officers yearly. It has also a bat-talion of city militia, and two disciplined compa-nies ; also some royal cofiers, which were broughtfrom the city of Anserma. Besides the church ofMatriz, in which is venerated, as the patroness, theHoly Virgin, under the image of Nuestra Senorade la Paz, (this being the pious gift of PhilipIII.) it has five parishes, viz. Santa Ana, SantaBarbara, Llano de Buga, Naranjo, Micos, andPueblo de los Cerritos. The territory is extremelyfertile and pleasant, abounding as well in fruitsand pulse as in birds of various sorts ; and in nopart whatever are plantains so various, or of sofine a quality. Tlie coffee is good, and the cacao,which is of two sorts, is excellent, and is calledyellow and purple hayna. Of no less estimationis the tobacco, with which a great traffic wasformerly carried on at Choco. The district of thiscity abounds in trees, medicinal herbs and fruits,and in an exquisite variety of cacao plants; also
in beautiful singing birds ; and in its rivers aremany sorts of fish of a fine flavour, particularly thepatah. It is not without mines of gold, and laba~deros or washing places, but these are not worked,save by a few day-labourers. In the church of themonks of San Francisco is venerated an image of themost Holy Mary, with the title of La Probezuypainted on a piece of cotton-stuff, adorned with twofine pieces of silver, the natives payitig great de-votion to this superb work, from the wonderfulthings that have been said to have been effectedthrough the prayers offered up to her of whom thisis the semblance. This city has been the nativeplace of,
Don Melchor de Salazar, governor of Choco,and founder of the city Toro.
Of the Doctor Don Francisco Martinez Bueno,presbyter and visitor of the bishopric of Popayan ;a man of great literature.
Of the Doctor Don Manuel de Castro y Rada ; amost exemplary curate.
Of the Father Joseph Vicuna, who, after havingbeen a celebrated Jesuit, became a monk in thecollege of missions for propagating the faith in Po-payan, and died whilst preaching to the AndaquiesIndians.
Of the Father Estevan de Rivas, who, after hav-ing filled the title of jurist with great credit, be-came a Franciscan monk, and died an exemplarypenitent in his convent at Cartagena.
Of the Doctor Don Francisco Felipe del Campo,professor de prima of canons in the university ofSanta Fe ; a celebrated orator.
Of the Doctor Don Geronirao de Rivas, trea-surer and dignitary of the holy church of Popayan,provisor and ecclesiastical governor of that bishop-ric.
Of the Doctor Don Joseph de Renteria, assessorof the viceroyalties of Santa Fe and Lima, honoraryoidor of the audience of Charcas : all of whomhave borne testimony to the clearness and acutenessof their understandings and excellence of their dis-positions. But for all the information on thesesubjects, we have to thank Don Manuel del Cara-po, the son of the last mentioned, who resides inthis court, and to whom the merits thus severallyapplied, unitedly belong.
The arms of this city are three imperial crownswith a sun, and its inhabitants amount to about 5000or 6000 : 25 leagues n. e. of Popayan, in 4° 46'n. lat.
Cartago, another capital city, of the provinceof Costa Rica, in the kingdom of Guatemala,situate 10 leagues from the coast of the N. sea, and17 from that of the S. in each of which it has agood port ; it was formerly rich and flourishing, onaccount of its commerce w ith Panama, Cartagena,Portobclo, and the Havanah ; but it is at the presentday reduced to a miserable village of very few in-habitants, and without any commerce. It has, be-sides the parish church, a convent of monks of St.Francis, and is in 9° 42' s. lat.
Cartago, a river of the same province and go-vernment as is the former city : it runs w. and en-ters the S.sea, in the port of La Herradura.
Carteret, a cape or extremity of the coast ofthe same province, and one of those which formLong bay. See Roman.
CARUALLEDA, Nuestra Senora de, acity of the province and government of Venezuela,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; founded byFrancis Faxardo in 1568, and not in 1560, as ac-cording to Coleti : it has a small but insecure port.The town is also a miserable place, having sufferedmuch injury, a short time after its foundation, bythe violent disturbances caused in its neighbour-hood by the Governor Don Luis de Roxas : 80leagues e. of Coro.
also De Piedras ; at its top is, according to the ac-count of Don J nan de la Cruz, the Bugio delGato, which serves as a watch-tower, which othersmaintain is situate upon the point Canoa, just byits side.
CARUPANO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, on the sea-shore, at the cape of Tres Pun-tas i there are in its district 25 small estates ofcacao, 35 of sugar-cane, a few of yucas and otherfruits ; some of them belonging to its inhabitants,and others to tlie inhabitants of Margareta andCumana.
CARUPARABAS, a nation of Indians but littleknown, who inhabit the woods and shores of therivers which run into the Negro.
(CARVEL OF St. Thomas, a rock between theVirgin isles e. and Porto Rico on the w. at a smalldistance it appears like a sail, as it is white andlias two points. Between it and St. Thomas, passesSir Francis Drake’s channel.)
(CARVEL, a township in Plymouth county,Massachussetts. Here is a pond with such plentyof iron ore, that 500 tons have been dragged out ofthe clear water in a year. They have a furnaceupon a stream which runs from the pond ; and theiron made of this ore is better than that made outof bog ore, and some is almost as good as refinediron.)
CASABLANCA, San Gabriel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Teutitlan, andalcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan, in Nueva Espana:it contains 34 families of Indians, who live by thecommerce of salt from some saMnes which they havein their district, at about a league’s distance fromthis settlement ; here are also some crops of maize :it is of a hot temperature, and lies two leagues fromits head settlement.
Casablanca, also with the dedicatory title ofSanta Barbara, a town of the province and cor-regimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile,situate on the coast : it formerly belonged to thejurisdiction of Valparaiso, from which it was se-parated.
CASANARE, a large river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada ; on the shores of which arevarious settlements of the missions, which underthis name were held at the expence of the regularsof the society of Jesuits, and which are at presentunder the care of the monks of St. Domingo : itrises in the paramos or mountain-deserts of Chita,of the district of the city of Pamplona, and afterrunning many leagues, divides itself into twobranches : the one, named the Uruhi, enters theMeta ; and the other, named the Sirapuco, entersthe Orinoco, first receiving those of Purare andTacoragua. To the w. of this river are the reduc-ciones of the Pantos Indians, and to the n. those ofthe Pautes ; to the e. and upon a plain, is the riverSan Salvador, aftbrding an handy port for commu-nication with the Meta and the Orinoco : it is after-wards entered by the river Tame, which pours intoit in a large stream from the same sierras, and hasupon its banks the two numerous nations, the reduc-ciones of the Giraras and Botoyes Indians.
Casanare, a settlement of Indians, of the reduc-ciones which were made by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits, in the same province and govern-ment as the former river : it consists of the AchaguasIndians, being situate on the shore of that river,with a good and well-frequented port : it is fertile^and abounds in maize, yucas, and above all incattle : its natives, who are very numerous, employthemselves in making little trunks of cane neatlypainted of various colours, and mats and sieves^which they call manares : here are also some whiteinhabitants, and the reduccion is now under the careof the religion of St. Domingo.
CASAPA, a settlement of the missions which
Presurapscot river. It has a good harbour at itsmouth for small vessels, and has several mills uponit ; two miles higher a fall obstructs the navigation.Between it and Kennebeck there are no rivers ;some creeks and harbours of Casco bay throw them-selves into the main land, affording harbours forsmall vessels, and intersecting the country in variousforms.)
CASIBANI, a river of the province and countryof the Amazonas : it rises in the cordillera of theMochovos and Pichambios Indians, runs in a ser-pentine course to the n. then inclining for manyleagues to the s. e. enters the Maranon or Amazonas,near the settlement of N uestra Seilora de Guada-lupe.
CASIDI, a river of the province and governmentof Guayana : it enters the Orinoco, according toBeilin, but which is afterwards contradicted by hisown map, since it is^there represented as having itssource to the e. of the city of Pamplona, and asrunning into the river Apure.
CASIMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe city of Santiago de los Atalayas, in the govern-ment of San Juan de los Llanos, of the NuevoReyno de Granada : it is of a very hot temperature,and abounds in fruits of a similar climate. Its na-tives, who are numerous and consist of the NeolitosIndians, are very industrious, docile, and of gooddispositions, having been reduced to the faith bythe missionaries of the extinguished society of Je-suits. The settlement is at present in the charge ofthe barefooted order of St. Francis, and lies threeleagues from the settlement of Surimena, on theshore of the large river Meta.
CASIPA, a large lake of the province of NuevaAndalucía Austral or South, to the w. ofthe Vaca-ronis Indians : it is 30 leagues in length from n. to s.and 24 in width from e. to w. Four large riversflow from it, the principal of which areArous or Aroiand Caroa, the which enter the Orinoco on its e.side. Its woods are inhabited by some barbarous
nations of Caribes Indians, such as are the Canuristo the n. the Bsparagois to the e. the Aravis to thes. and the Chaguas and Lasipagotes to thezw. Inthis lake tortoises and alligators abound ; its watersare hurtful, and the climate here is unhealthy;hurricanes are frequent here, from the winds whichblow from the neighbouring mountains.
Casipoure, a cape or point of the coast oppositethe side of cape Orange.
CASIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacocha in Peru ; annexed to the.curacy of its capital : in its vicinity is an elevatedmountain, in which great Indian wealth is said tobe secreted.
CASIRIAQUI, Cano de, a large and copiousarm of the river Negro, by which this communi-cates with the Orinoco, and through that with theMaranon or Las Amazonas ; which communication,however, has been frequently doubted and con-troverted since the short time of its having beendiscovered.
CASIRRUENTI, a large and copious riverabounding in fine fish, of the province and govern-ment of San Juan de los Llanos : it passes throughthe llanuras of Cazanare and Meta, and, near thesettlement of San Joaquin de Atanari, enters theMeta.
CASIUINDO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of thecity of Xuxuy ; annexed to the curacy of Cochino-ca ; it has two hermitages, which serve as chapelsof ease, with the dedicatory title of Rinconada andRio de San Juan. The natives fabricate powderof excellent quality, and in its district are goldmines, which are not worked.
Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and LittleMance.]
CASTRO, a capital city of the province andgovernment of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile;peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Cas-tro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has agood port; is inhabited by some good and opu-lent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthytemperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of aregular and beautiful form ; has, besides the pa-rish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis,and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was.sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. ofthe city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.
Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete,«. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes,and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga andHuanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. bythat of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of\^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabi-tants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900,although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as,and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been dis-covered here, nor are there any other roads to itthan merely such as are opened through passes inthe snow, or where no obstruction is ofered bythe copious streams which every where precipi-tate themselves down from the mountains, andwhich are particularly large in the rainy season,which is from October to Slarch. Its productionsare wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in someglens, where the cold is not so great, fruits andcattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of whichthey turn to some profit. This province is wa-tered by rivers, some of which descend from theprovinces of the coast of the S. sea, and othersfrom the further side of the cordillera, runningtowards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it isalso watered by the Canete, which rises from theChicha, and collects other streams in this province ;by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called.firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-
cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters theprovince of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters ofthis province, notwithstanding they are very abun-dant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and withoutdoubt this arises from the cold which prevailshere. This province is but thinly peopled, and itsinhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard,amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of sixcuracies, to which there are 29 other settlementsannexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; thisis a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot,where the cold is most intense : close to it runs ariver, which is made use of for working the millsof the silver mines ; which, although they pro-duce this metal of a good quality, they are by nomeans well stocked with it. The town has a con-vent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estatescalled Huallanto and Huallanga, in which theraare churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leaguesfrom Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from
la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The
ements of the province
CATA, a settlement of the province and govern-
merit of Venezuela ; situate upon the coast nearcape Blanco.
(CATABAW River. See Wateree.)
(Catabaw Indians, a small tribe who have onetown called Catabaw, situate on the river of thatname, hit. 44° S9' n, on the boundary line betweenN. and S. Carolina, and contains about 450 inha-bitants, of which about 150 are fighting men.They are the only tribe w hich resides in the state ;144,000 acres of land . were granted them by theproprietary government. These are the remains ofa forrnidalile nation, the bravest and most generousenemy thp Six Nations had, butthey have degenera-ted sincp they have been surrounded by the whites.)
CATACACHI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiehto of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Cruz, in which there is astream of water Avhich distils from some crevices,and deposits in its bed a sort of white stone orcrystalline substance, which they call catachi^ andwhich being dissolved in water, is accounted a spe-cific in the flux.
CATACUMBO, a river of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo, which rises to the e. ofthe city of Las Palmas, and runs e. increasing itsstream by many others which flow into it, until itunites itself with the Sulia, to enter the lake ofMaracaibo; where, at its mouth, it extends itselfand forms a large pool of water called La Lagu-neta.
CATALINA, Santa, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nue-va Espana ; annexed to the settlement of NuestraSenora de la Purificacion. It contains 132 fami-lies of Indians.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the head set-tlement of Tantoyuca, and alcaldia mayor ofTampico, in the same kingdom : it is of a hot tem-perature, and contains 80 families of Indians, whoapply themselves to the culture of the soil ; is 10leagues to the e. of its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another,' of the head set-tlement of Mistepeque, and alcaldia mayor of Ne-japa, in Nueva España: it is of a cold temperature,situate at the foot of a mountain, with 60 familiesof Indians, and is 4 leagues from its head settle-ment.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of themissions which were held by the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguanaand kingdom of Nueva Viscaya, on the shore ofthe river Las Nasas ; is 30 leagues to the n. w. ofits capital.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement, withthe addition of Sera, of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo, in the district of the city ofPedraza ; situate on the shore of the river Pariva ;is one of the missions which are held in Barinas bjthe religion of St. Domingo.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the same pro-
vince and government, on the shore of the riverMasparro, between the cities of New and Old Ba-rinas.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and government of La Sonora in NuevaEspana ; situate in the country of the SobaipurisIndians, on the shore of a river which enters theGila, between the settlements of San Cosme andSan Angelo.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in thekingdom of Guatemala.
Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea,near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escu-do de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fer-tile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had init a settlement defended by two castles, called San-tiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with thetown, were destroyed by an English pirate, JohnMorgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and al-though it was recovered in the same year by thepresident of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perezde Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.
Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there isalso a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno deLeon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, fromwhence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains20 families in its neighbourhood, and producesonly some sorts of pulse and some goats.
CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of theprovince and government of Loxa in the kingdomof Quito, also called Chira, at the part where itenters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desertmountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the watersof several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n.until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, whichenters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it thenturns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of therivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all ofwhich enter it on the s. side. Being swelled withthese, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settle-ment of this name, situate on its shore. Near itsmouth this river is called Colan, and it empties it-self into the sea in the corregimiento and provinceofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertileand beautiful, and its banks are covered with or-chards and plantations of sugar-canes of the terri-tory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, andin the valleys formed by this river the inhabitantsare much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its wa-ters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.
CATAMARCA, S. Fernando de, a city ofthe province and government of Tucumán, found-ed by Juan Gomez Zurita, in 1538, in the fertileand extensive valley of Conando. It has a fort torepress the encroachments of the Indians. Thename of Canete was given it in honour to the vice-roy who then commanded in Peru ; this was after-wards changed to London, in honour to the queenof England, wife of Philip II. king of Spain. Theinquietudes caused amongst the inhabitants by theinfidel Indians induced Don Geronimo Luis deCabrera, son of a governor of that province, in1663, to remove it to another not less fertile val-ley, and to give it the name of San J uan de la Ri-vero ; and lastly, by the permission of the king,in 1683, it was transferred to a spot in the valleyof Catamarca ; where it still remains, under thesame title, at 80 leagues distance from its first sta-tion. It has, besides the parish church, a conventof the Recoletos monks of St. Francis, with thededicatory title of San Pedro de Alcantara ; anhospital of Merced ; aud a house of residence,which formerly belonged to the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits. On the w. side of the val-ley is a mountain in which there are gold mines ;and on the w. also from n. to s. runs a serrama^ theskirts of which are for many leagues covered withestates and cultivated grounds, and filled, fromthe abundance of fine pastures, with lage and smallcattle and with mules. A tolerably large riverruns through the valley in the rainy season, andterminates in some lakes M’hich are formed by itabout 30 leagues s. of the city. The commerce ofthis city is very small, so that there is no coin cur-rent ; and even the payments of the royal dutiesare paid in effects, and in the productions of thecountry, such as cotton, linens, pepper, brandy,and wheat. Lat. 27° s.
Catamarca, a settlement of the same provinceand government ; situate in the district of thiscity.
Mapoyes, runs w. and enters the Orinoco close tothe torrent of Los Atures.
CATARAQUA, or Catarakui, a copiousriver of the province and country of the IroqueesIndians. It rises from the lake Ontario, runs n. e.and continues its course as far as Quebec, fromwhence it takes the name of St. Lawrence, andthen enters the sea.
CATARUBEN, a settlement of the missions ofSan Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; one of the seven which were held bythe regulars of the company of Jesuits, and be-longing to the nation of the Salivas Indians. TheCaribes burnt and destroyed it in 1684.
(CATAWESSY, a township in Northumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania ; situate on the s. e. bankof the e. branch of Susquehannah river, oppositethe mouth of Fishing creek, and about 20 milesn. e. of Sunbury.)
(CATHERINE’S Isle, St, a small island inthe captainship of St. Vincent’s in Brazil, be-longing to the Portuguese, 47 leagues s. of Cana-nea island. It is about 23 miles from n. to s. in-habited by Indians, wiio assist the Portugueseagainst their enemies, the natives of Brazil. Lak27° 10' s. Long. 47° 15' w.)
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(==CATORCE, or La Purissima ConcepcionDe Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest minesof New Spain, and in the intendancy of San LuisPotosi. The real de Catorce, however, has onlybeen in existence since 1773, when Don SebastianCoronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepedadiscovered these celebrated seams, which yield an-nually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 mil-lions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/.sterling.)
CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situ-ate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bayof its name, between the settlements of Torbec andLos Cayos.
CAUAIU, a small river of the same provinceand government as the former. It runs w. andenters the Parana, between the rivers Verde andYocare-mini.
Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite theIsla Vaca or Cow island.
CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, atown of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierraof Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shoreof the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesservessels, which has oftentimes been invaded byenemies. It is a curacy administered by the cler-gy, and to which two small settlements of MexicaaIndians are annexed.
CAUCA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince and government of Popayán, which risesin the mountains of the government of Mariquita,and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in whichcourse it collects the ’waters of many other rivers,it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali,and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until itenters the large river of the Magdalena. It is verynarrow where it passes through the cities of Po-payan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, tak-ing its course through rocks, which render its na-vigation very dangerous. The Indians, however,are so dexterous in guarding their canoes fromrunning against the rocks by paddles, that it isvery seldom indeed that any accident occurs tothem. They call this strait Las Mamas de Cara-manta, from a city which was here of this name.Many make this navigation for the purpose ofavoiding a round-about journey of many days, andin a bad road through the mountains ; and it issaid that some have had the good fortune to dis-cover a route by water free from all difficulties,and that this was actually made by the pontificateof the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Mon-toy.
shore of the river Maranon, near the port of Cu-rupa.
CAUIANA, an island of the N. sea; situate inthe middle of the mouth of the large river Ma-rañon.
CAUINAS, an ancient and barbarous nation ofthe province of Charcas in Peru, which wasbounded by the nation of the Canches ; here wasa superb palace belonging to the Incas, builtupon the top of an high mountain, the remains ofwhich are yet to be seen near the settlement ofUrcos, and those of Querquesana and Quiquijana,these being about nine miles distant from the afore-said palace.
CAUIUSARI, a river of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It rises in the mountains ofthe country of the Guames Indians, runs e. formany leagues, and enters the Apure,
CAUMARES, a barbarous nation inhabitingthewoods which lie upon the banks of the river Ma-ranon towards the n. Some of them were reducedto the faith by the missionaries of the extinguishedcompany of Jesuits of the province of Mainas, andformed part of the population of the settlement ofSan Ignacio de Pevas.
CAUO, or Couvo, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana. It runs towards the e.and enters the sea, at the distance of leaguesfrom the mouth of the river Aprovaca : its bankson the e. side are inhabited by some barbarous In-dians of the Yaus nation.
CAUQUIS, a nation of Indians of the kingdomof Chile, and one of the most warlike and valorous,who resisted and put a check to the conquests ofYupanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, obligingliim to retreat with his army to Coqnimbo.
CAURA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince of Guayana, and government of Cumana.It rises in some very lofty sierras, and its shoresare inhabited by many Indiatis, wlio retreat hitherwhen pursued by the Caribes, who are accustonicdto kill the adults, and to ko('p as prisoners tliewomen and children, iit order to sell them to theDutch. This river is the largest of the kingdomof Tierra Firme ever discovered since that of theOrinoco. It runs 60 leagues before it enters into thislatter river, through chains of rocks, which so im-pede its navigation as to render it unsafe for anybut very small craft. On its shores are two forts,one at tlie mouth, where it enters the Orinoco ; andthe other at its mid-course. The Maranon andthe Orinoco also communicate with it by an armwhich is very considerable, and is called the RioNegro.
CAUTEN, a large river of the kingdom ofChile, in the district and province of Repocura.It rises in the district of Maquegua, runs continu-ally from e. to vs. collecting the waiters of manyother rivers, in such a gentle and mild course, thatit has also acquired the name of Las Damns. Itpasses before the Ciudad Imperial, and enters theS. sea. It is 500 toises broad at its mouth, and ofsufficient depth to admit of a ship of the line ; at
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from six to 20 feet diameter, worn almost perfectlysmooth, into the solid body of a rock.]
CAXAMARCA, a province and corregimientoof Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo ; boundeds. e. by the province of Caxamarquilla, e. by thatof Chachapoyas, n.w. by that of Luya and Chil-Igos : all these three being situate at that part oft^e Maranon which serves as a limit to this pro-vince of Caxamarca. It is bounded ». by the pro-vince of Jaen, n. w. by that of Piura, w. by thatof Saha and by a part of Truxillo, and s. by thatof Huamachuco. It is in length 40 leagues froms. e. ion. w. ; and in breadth, or across, 36 leagues.To enter it through the province of Truxillo, whichis the grand road, it is necessary to pass the cordil-lera, which is not here so lofty as in the s. pro-vinces. This province, however, abounds witheminences which are branches of the cordillera;and on account of the height and situation ofthese, a great variety of temperature is experienced,some parts being subject to an intense heat, andothers to , a severe cold. Thus it partakes of thenature of the sierra, and its uneven figure no lesscorresponds with it : but it is for the most part of agood temperature, particularly in the capital. Theprovince abounds greatly in all kinds of fruits andcattle : in it are fabricated cloths, baizes, blankets,canvas for sails of ships, and cotton garments of aVery fine and excellent quality. Formerly its prin-cipal commerce was in swine ; at present it is not,though these animals still abound in some parts.It is watered by many rivers, of which those risingon the w. side of the cordillera, as the Sana, Lam-bay eque, and those passing through the provinceof Truxillo, all enter the S. sea. The others,amongst which that of the Criznejas is the largest,incoporate themselves with the Maranon. On itsshores are lavaderos, or washing-places of gold;and its rivers in general abound in very good andwholesome fish. Besides the fruits and the pro-ductions of every kind found in this province, ithas to boast many gold and silver mines, some ofwhich are worked. There a e also some of copper,
very fine lead, brimstone, and alcaparrosa. To-wards the n. part, where it touches the province ofJaen, are found some bark-trees, the production ofwhich, although not equal to the trees of Loxa, isof the colour of heated copper, and possesses allthe virtues of the common bark. Here are alsomany medicinal herbs, and amongst them the cele-brated calagimla. In the time of the Indians, andbefore the conquest, it was so well peopled that itsnatives formed upwards of 500 settlements. Atpresent they amount to 46,000, being divided into46 settlements. The capital bears the same title,and the repartimiento of the corregidor used toamount to 80,000 dollars, and it paid an alcavalaof 640 dollars per annum.
The settlements are.
Caxamarca, the ca-pital,
Trinidad de Chetu,S. Francisco doCay an,
Santa Catalina deChugod,
San Pablo de Cha-lique,
S. Luis de Tuniba-din,
S. Bernardino de
S. Juan de Llallan,Nepos,
San Miguel de Pal-laques,
San Juan de Huam-bos,
Todos Santos deChota,Tacabamba,Yauyucan.
its figure is
The capital is large and handsomeirregular, and it is situate upon a level plainT Thehouses are of clay, and the streets are wide andstraight. The parish church, Avhich has threenaves, is of finely worked stone, and the buildingexpences of it Avere defrayed by King Charles II.in the time of the viceroy the Duke of La Palata,in 1682. It has a parish of Spaniards, calledSanta Catalina ; two of Indians, which are SanPedro and San Joseph ; two convents of the orderof St. Francis, one of the Observers, and anotherof the Recoletans ; an hospital and a convent ofBethlemites, a monastery of nuns of La Concepcion,an house of entertainment of Nuestra Senora de
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Las Mercedes, and an hospital for women. Itcontains more than 2000 inhabitants, and amongstthese many illustrious families, descended from thefirst conquerors. The Indians here are accountedthe most industrious of any in the kingdom. Theleinperaturc is mild, and it abounds in fruits andpastures : here arc also mines of various metals. Hereit was that Atahualpa was put to death by theSpanish, being the last Inca and Emperor ofPeru ; and there is still to be seen a stone, of ayard and an half long and two-thirds wide, whichserves as the foundation to the altar of the chapelwhere he met his fate. Of this palace, which wasfor the most part built of mud, but which was verylarge, and was afterwards converted into the prison,the chapel, and house of the corregidor, called DeCahildo, nothing has been left save a piece of wallof about 12 yards long and eight wide. It hasnot long been forgotten to what point the Emperorwaved Ins hand,' to signify where his pursuersmight find the treasure which might secure to himhisliberty. At a league’s distance, to the e. of thecity, arc seen the termas, or baths, as they arecalled, of the Inca ; the waters of which are notso plentiful as they were formerly, although so hotas to boil an egg ; but the egg, although it ap-pears completely done, will, if put on a commonfire to boil, take just as much time as an egg whichis perfectly cold ; if kept a day or more it breaks,and the smell and flavour of h, when eaten, is likemud ; but if it be not eaten until it be cold, thenits flavour is similar to that of any other egg* Onthe banks of the stream from whence these watersflow, and in the pools formed by them, there isfound a multitude of animalcule, which looked atthrough a microscope appear like shrimps. Lat.6° 54' 5.
CAXAMARQUILLA y Collaos, a pro-vince and corregimiento of Peru, called also Pa-táz ; bounded e. by the mountains of the infidelIndians, n.e. and n. by the province of Cha-chapoyas, ti.zo. by that of Caxarnarca, the riverMarailon flowing between the two, w. by part ofthe province of Conchucos, and s. by that of Iluai-malies. It is 26 leagues long from ?^. to s. and sixwide, where it extends itself farthest along the e.shore of the river Maranon, Avhich divides thisprovince from those of Conchucos and Huama-chuco. Its temperature is various ; in the hol-lows and uneven I'laces it is mild ; in the partslying upon the above river it is hot, and in thevery lofty parts it is cold. The territory is ruggedand uneven, and a level spot of ground, or Uarmra,is scarcely to be seen throughout the w'hole. Onthe e. side it is as it were walled in by vejy
lofty and craggy mountains, increasing in heightuntil they gradually reach the loftiest summit:but these are the provident sources of streamswhich flow down from them into the Maranon, andwhich, together with the rains, fertilize several spotsof kind, producing maize, wheat, potatoes, ocas,bark, French beans, herbs, and sugar-cane, for theworking of which there are mills on the spot.Every kind of cattle is found here in moderation,and the Maranon abounds in fish. Almost all themountains of this province have in them veins ofsilver and gold ore : but these are very deceitful,and as well upon this account as from the want ofhands, they are for the most part abandoned. Thegold mines, however, have always been worked,though the silver mines not more than 20 yearsback up to now, in which time some riches havebeen discovered ; and even at the present day thegold mines would produce 600 marks, and those ofsilver 3000. The trade of the mines is certainlythe principal commerce of the place, and it is faci-litated by four ports in the Maranon, which afforda convenient opening and communication with theother provinces. The inhabitants of this placescarcely amount to 8000, who live in 17 settle-ments. Its repartimiento used to amount to50,000 dollars, and its alca'oala to 400 dollarsper annum.
The settlements are,
Asiento de Saru-milla,
Santa Isabel dePias,
Santa Magda leade Huayo,Pataz,
The settlement, the capital of this province, is ofthe same name. Lat. 7° 36' s.
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dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pasco ; in whichis the celebrated mountain and mine of Lauri-cocha.
CAXAMARQUILLA Y COLLAOS, the territory ofthe missions which forms part of the former pro-vince, and which is a reduccion of the infidel moun-tain Indians, who have been converted by themonks of St. Francis: these Indians are main-tained by a portion paid by the kin«?’s procuratorout of the royal coffers at Lima. They dwell tothe e. of the province, and are reduced to foursettlements ; two of the Ibita, and two of the Cho-lona nation. It is now 90 years since their foun-dation, and the number of Indians may at presentamount to 2000. Those settlements are situateupon mountains covered with trees and thickwoods ; from whence the natives procure incense,cffCflo, resinous gums, oil of Maria, dragon’s blood,the reed called bejuco^ dried fish, honey, wax,monkeys, parrots, and macaws, whicli^ are thebranches of its commerce ; tliough not less so isthe coca plant, which they pack up in measures offour bushels each , and carry in abundance to differentparts, for the consumption of the whole province.The missionaries of the above order have madevarious attempts, and have spared neither painsnor labour in penetrating into the interior parts ofthe mountains ; having repeatedly discovered otherbarbarous nations, whom they would fain have re-duced to the divine knowledge of the gospel.
The aforesaid settlements are,
Jesus de Sion, San Buenaventura,
Jesus de Ochonache, Pisano.
CAXATAMBO, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. by that of Huailas, n. e. bythat of Conchuios, e. by that of Huamalies, s. e.by that of Tarma, s. by the part of Chancay calledChecras, s. e. by the low part of Chancay, and n.w. by that of Santa. It is in length 34 leagues n. e.s. w. and 32 in width n. w. s. e. ; the greaterpart of it is situate in a serrama. Its temperatureis consequently cold, except in the broken and un-even spots and in the low lands. Besides the pro-ductions peculiar to the serrama., this provinceabounds in all sorts of seeds and fruits; in allspecies of cattle, especially of the sheep kind, fromthe fleece of whicli its inhabitants manufacturemuch cloth peculiar to the country ; this beingthe principal source of its commerce. It producessome grain and cochineal, used for dyes ; and if thislatter article were cultivated, it would bring greatprofit. Amongst tlie mountains of this provincethere is one called Huilagirca of fine flint, and twomines of sulphur and alcaparrosa, articles employedin the colouring of wools, not only in this province,
but in those of Huanuco, Huamalies, and Jauja:It has also mines of good yeso or gypsum. Theprincipal rivers by which it is irrigated, are twowhich rise in the same soil, and both of which enterthe S. sea, after having laved the contiguous pro-vinces ^ in former times there were fine silver mines,which are still worked, but for some reason or other,to very little profit. On the n. c. part, on some emi-nences, is a spot called Las Tres Cruces, (The ThreeCrosses), there being as many of these fixed up hereto determine its boundaries, and that of the pro-vince of Santa Huailas. Its population consists ofthe 69 following settlements : its repartimiento usedto amount to 1^0, (XX) dollars, and the akavala to1046 dollars per annum.
Caxatambo, the ca-
A cay a,
Palpas, distinct from
caldia mayor of Zacattan, in Nueva España, fiveleagues from its head settlement.
CAXICA, or Busongote, a settlement of thecorregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reynode Granada, is of a moderately cold temperature,being agreeable and healthy, and producing muchwheat, maize, barley, and other productions inci-dental to a cold climate. Its population amountsto 150 families, and as many families of Indians,who had in it a capital fortress, in which the Zipaor king of Bogota shut himself up in order to de-fend the entrance into his kingdom against theSpaniards: he was, however, routed and taken byGonzalo Ximenez de Quesada in 1537. Is fiveleagues to the n. of Santa Fe.
CAXITITLAN, the alcaldia mayor and dis-trict or jurisdiction of the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara : in its districtis a large, fertile valley, abounding in every kind ofseed, as maize, wheat, French beans, and varioussorts of pulse : is of a mild temperature, and thedistrict of its jurisdiction consists of six settlements :in it is the great lake or sea of Chapala : it is sevenleagues s, e. of Guadalaxara. Long. 102° 43'. Lat.20° 35'.
San Luis, Istahuacan,
Cuyatan, Santa Cruz,
CAXITLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Almololoyan, and alcaldia mayor of Colina,in Nueva España : it contains 30 families of Spa-niards, 20 of Mustees, and five of Mulattoes : inits district are various estates of palms of Cocos,(palmasde Qocos)^ and some herds of large cattle :is seven leagues to the w. of its head settlement.
(CAYAHAGA, or Cayuga, sometimes calledthe Great River, empties in at the s. bank of lakeErie, 40 miles e. of the mouth of Huron ; havingan Indian town of the same name on its banks. Itis navigable for boats ; and its mouth is wide, anddeep enough to receive large sloops from the lake.Near this are the celebrated rocks which projectover the lake. They are several miles in lengtl),and rise 40 or 50 feet perpendicular out of thewater. Some parts of them consist of several strataof different colours, lying in a horizontal direction,and so exactly parallel, that they resemble thework of art. The view from the land is grand,but the water presents the most magnificent pros-pect of this sublime work of nature ; it is attended,however, with great danger ; for if the least stormArises, the force of the surf is such that no vessel
can escape being dashed to pieces against the rocks .Colonel Broadshead suffered shipwreck here in thelate war, and lost a number of his men, when astrong wind arose, so that the last canoe narrowlyescaped. The heathen Indians, when they passthis impending danger, offer a sacrifice of tobaccoto the water. Part of the boundary line betweenthe United States of America and the Indiansbegins at the mouth of Cayahaga, and run‘< up thesame to the portage between that and the Tuscarawabranch of the Muskingum. The Cayuga nation,consisting of 500 Indians, 40 of whom reside in theUnited States, the rest in Canada, receive of thestate of New York an annuity of 2300 dollars, be-sides 50 dollars granted to one of their chiefs, as aconsideration for lands sold by them to the state,and 500 dollars from the United States, agreeablyto the treaty of 1794. See Six Nations.)
CAYENNE, a large island of the province andgovernment of Guayana : it is six leagues in lengthfrom n. to s. and three quarters of a league in itsbroadest part. On the n. side it has the sea, onthe VO . the river Cayenne, on thee, the Ou>ti, andon the s. an arm which is formed by this and theOrapii. The soil is excellent, fertile, and irrigatedby many streams. That part whicli looks to then. is the most pleasant and healthy ; and in it aremany mountains well cultivated and covered withcountry seats. The part facing the s. is muchlower, and abounds in meadows, called salanas,and which arc inundated in the rainy seasons.The point of the island formed by the mouth ofthe river Cayenne, is called Caperoux, where thereis a fortress with a French garrison, and below thisa convenient and large port, capable of containingin security 100 ships. The French establishedthemselves in this island in the year 1625, andabandoned it in 1654, when the English enteredit, and were routed by Mr. de la Barre, in the year1664. The Dutch had their revenge in 1676 : butthe year following it was recovered by the French,under the command of D’Estrees, on whom the ce-lebrated Jesuit Carlos de la Rue made the followinginscription :
Vice AmeralioCayana. TabacoVI. CaptisBatavorumAmericana classedeleta
[The capitulation of Cayenne to the Englisharms, in conjunction with the Portuguese, took
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DEL PUERTO, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; founded by Gaspar de Kodas, on thespot of the Matanza of Valdivia, in 1676. It haschanged its place several times, on account of thebadness of.its temperature : and, lastly, in the year1588, it was removed by Francisco Redondo tothe spot where it now stands : is one league fromthe river Cauca, on a very steep declivity, whichis also of an unhealthy temperature, althoughabounding greatly in gold mines, which are,however, but little worked. Jt is the nativeplace of,
Fr. Marcos Vetancur, provincial of St. Domingoin Santa Fe:
Fr. Lorenzo de Figueroa, of the province ofSan Francisco :
Don Andres de Vetancur, elected bishop ofLa Concepcion in Chile;
Fr. Diego de Figueroa, provincial of San Augus-tin in Santa Fe : and
Don Luis de Vetancur, precentor of Quito, in-quisitor of Lima, and bishop-elect of Popayan ;all brothers, and men of singular virtue andlearning.
CECILIA, Dona, a settlement of the provinceand government of Santa Marta in the kingdomof Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the largeriver Magdalena, opposite the lake Zapatosa, threeleagues from the town of Mompox.
(CEDAR Point, a port of entry in Charlescounty, Maryland, on the e. side of Potowmacriver, about 12 miles below port Tobacco, and 96s. by w. of Baltimore. Its exports are chiefly to-bacco and Indian corn, and in 1794 amounted invalue to 18,593 dollars.)
Cedar, a river of the province and colony of
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Pennsylvania, which traverses New Jersey, andenters the sea.
CELAYA, a town of the intendancy of Gua-naxuato in the kingdom of Nueva Espana.Sumptuous edifices have been recently constructedhere, as also at Queretaro and Guanaxuato. Thechurch of the Carmelites of Celaya has a fineappearance ; it is adorned with Corinthian andIonic columns. Its height is 1833 metres, or 6018feet.
CENGUYO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Yrimbo, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan,and kingdom of Nueva Espaiia. It contains 60families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. zo.of its head settlement.
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CENIS, a settlement of Indians of the provinceand government of Louisiana, situate in the roadwhich leads to Mexico. It has a fort whicli wasbuilt by the French when they had possession ofthe province.
CENOMANAS, a barbarous nation of Indians,descended from the Naunas, who live in the woods,and without any fixed abode, along the banks ofthe great river Magdalena.
CENOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, to then. of the river Marañon, w ho inhabit the woodsnear the river Aguarico. They are at continualwar with that of the Encabellados.
CENTA, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán. It runs from the z£. to e.and enters the Bermejo. The Fathers Antonio Sa-linis and Pedro Ortiz de Zarate, of the extin-guished company, suffered martyrdom upon itsshores whilst pn'aching to the barbarian Indians.
CENTERVILLE, the chief town of QueenAnne’s county, and on the e. side of Chesapeakbay, in Maryland. It lies between the forksof Corsica creek, which runs into Chester river,and has been lately laid out; 18 miles s. of Ches-ter, S4 s. e, by e. of Baltimore, and 93 s. xso. by s.of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 6' n,~\
CEPEROUX, a French fort, called also SanLouis, in Cayenne ; situate at the mouth of theriver, and on a lofty spot commanding the en-trance of the same. It was taken by the Dutch in1676 ; and in the following year it was recoveredby the French ; which date has been mistaken byMons. Martiniere, who mentions it as having beenlost the year preceding.
CEPITA, a small settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Charcas in Peru, above thechannel of the great lake Titicaca, near the fa-mous bridge that was built by the Emperor CapacYiipanqui over the channel, and which is 160yards in length. The Indians of this settlementare diligent in keeping this bridge in repair, andassist in helping and directing the cavalcades whichare continmdly passing it,
CEQUER, a small settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom ofQuito, to the n. of this city, and on the shore ofthe river Telembi. Its temperature is cold, and itis the direct road for such as are going to the pro-vince of Barbacoas.
CEQUIN, a mountain of the province of LosCanelos in the kingdom of Quito. Its skirts arewashed by the river Puyuc, and on the other sideby the Bobonasa : from it rise the rivers Tinguisaand Paba-yacu, which run from w. to e. until theyenter the Bobonasa. It is entirely covered withthick woods, save upon the top, where there isncifher tree nor plant.
CERCADO, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. by that of Chancay, n.e. bythat of Canta, e. by that of Huarochiri, bythat of Cañete, and w. by the S. sea; is 13 leagueslong s. and eight wide at the widest part; is ofa very mild and kind temperature, but somewhatsickly ; and is neither subject to tempests nor highAvinds, although it is often visited by earthquakes.It only rains in the winter, and this is a speciesof small sprinkling shower which they call garua;so that they have no necessity for houses with roofs,and they are covered only with clay or mortar.The whole of its territory is fertile, and aboundsin seeds and fruits. The herb alfalfa, which isgood forage for horses, is particularly cultivated,there being a great demand for it at Lima. Hereare many estates of sugar-cane, from Avhich sugaris manufactured, as Avell as honey, and a kind ofdrink called guarape. Chica is also made here;this being the common drink of the Indiansthroughout the whole kingdom. It is irrigated bythe rivers Rinac and Lurin, which run downfrom the province of Guarochiri, and by the Car-rabayilo, which runs from the province of Canta :all three of them are small ; but in the months ofDecember, January and February, which is therainy season in the sierra^ they swell greatly. Itspopulation consists of seven parochial settlements,and as many others thereunto annexed. Its repar-timiento used to amount to 10,000 dollars, and itpaid an alcaxala of 80 dollars per annum. Thecapital is of the same name, and the other 14 set-tlements are,
San Joseph de Bel-lavista.
Cercado, San Cristoval de, a settlementto the s. of the city of Lima, to which it is as asuburb. It is inhabited only by Indians, who aregoverned by a cazique ; and until 1776, it was acure of the regulars of the company of Jesuits,who had in it a college.
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ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settle-ment and parisli of Cul de Sac.
CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofTunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of acold temperature, and abounds in cattle and theproductions peculiar to the climate. It contains300 families, and lies in a valley, from which ittakes its name.
CERMEN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the side ofthe town of San Felipe, towards the e. betweenthis town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, onthe shore of the river Iraqui.
CERRALUO, a town and presidency of theNuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadronof 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor ofthis district, for the'purpose of restraining the bor-dering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. isthe large river of this name ; and from this begins atract of extensive country, inhabited by barba-rous nations, who impede the communication andcommerce Avith regard to this part and the pro-vinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35leagues to the e. of its capital.
Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of Ca-lifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an islandwhich is also thus called ; the one and theother hav-ing been named out of compliment to the Marquis ofCerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie afore-said island is large, and lies between the formerbay and the coast of Nueva Espana.
Cerrito, another, with the surname of SantaAna. See Ctuayaquie.
==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de CerroGordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Te-peguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Itssituation is similar to the road which leads to it,namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed,it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is apool of water, and by Avhich passengers usuallypass. This garrison is the residence of a captain,a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed tosuppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In itsvicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautifulorchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas,which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour.The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capitalGuadiana.
Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayorof Valladolid, in the province and bishopric ofMcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians,and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settle-ment, and 10 from the capital.
CESARA, a large and copious river of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called bythe Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom,“ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of severalsmall rivers, which flow down from the snowysierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the ex-tensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lakeZapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into fourarms, which afterwards unite, and so, following acourse of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magda-lena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settle-ment called Banco.
CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of themare told many fabulous accounts, although theyare, in fact, but little known. Some believe themto be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being thoseAvho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and be-longed to the armada which, at the beginning ofthe conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop ofPlacencia to discover the Malucas. Others pre-tend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyedthe city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with themthe Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the pro-duction of these Avomen and the Indiatis that thisnation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that theyare of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect,and of good dispositions. They have some lightof Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; andsome have affirmed that they have heard the soundof bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo
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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discoveryof this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662the innermost part of this country was penetratedby Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits. He discovered anation of Indians, whose manners correspondedwith this ; but he did not succeed in establishingmissions, for want of labourers, and from other ob-stacles which arose.
Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the sameprovince and kingdom, from which the above set-tlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake ofCoraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or"pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing bythe former settlement, becomes united witli anotherriver, formed by two streams flowing down fronrtheparamo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste watersof the lake Colta ; it then passes through the set-tlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly tothe e. and at a league’s distance from the settlementof Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cu-bigies, another river which flows down from themountain of Chimborazo, and following its courseto the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon asit reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua,and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhenit passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flowsin so large a body that it can be passed only bymeans of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ;and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it col-lects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and otherrivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and theother cordillera, have their rise in the s. summitof Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi andCotopasci.
CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island ofthe river Taquari, formed by this dividing itselfinto two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in theprovince and government of this name.
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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vesselstill it enters the S. sea.
CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofCozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moisttemperature, and situate on the shore of the largeriver Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spa-niards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 ofPopolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 en-gines or mills for making refined sugar ; and itsterritory produces maize and cotton in abundance ;is three leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlementand head settlement of the district of the alcaldiamayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature,and surrounded by eight wards within its district ;in all of which there are 160 families of Indians,who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is sevenleagues between the e. and s. of its capital.
(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)
CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the pro-province and government of Cumaná in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the mid-dle of the serrania of that province. It isunder the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fa-thers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast ofthe sea of Paria.
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CHACAYACU, a river of the province ofQuixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs frome. to w. then turns its course to s. w. and shortlyafter, passing tlirough the settlement of Loreto,enters the river Suno on its w. shore.
CHACHAGUI. See Tambo Pintado.
CHACHAPOIAS, a province and corregimientoof Peru ; bounded e. and s. by the mountains ofthe infidel Indians, n. w. by the provinces ofLuya and Chillaos, and w. by C.axaraarca. Itsgreatest length is 38 leagues from n. w. to s. e. andits breadth is nearly as great. Its temperatuse isfor the most part mild, though in some places ex-ceedingly hot, and in others equally cold, since abranch of the cordillera intersects it. Upon thisaccount also it abounds greatly in all productions,such as wheat, maize, and other seeds, and in allkinds of herbs and fruits. It produces a good pro-portion of sugar ; but the principal sources of itscommerce are cotton and tobacco ; these produc-tions belonging peculiarly to the district of Mayo-bamba, three leagues distant to the s. e. and beingheld in great estimation. The women spin cot-ton, of which they manufacture canvass for thesails of ships, also for bags : they spin likewiseanother sort of delicate thread, of which theymake linen for garments ; the men employingtliemselves in the looms and in the cultivation ofcotton and tobacco : of this they used to gatheryearly 600 measures, consisting of 200 mazos orrollos each, each mazo being valued at one real.At present less is cultivated, from the prohibitionof commerce, so that the settlement has becomemuch poorer, and the price of the cotton for mak-ing sails is now at two reals per lb. ; thougli thatwhich is very fine, at a dollar. As there is no cur-rent coin, the inhabitants make barters in kind forthe necessaries they want. Thus also they pay liieirtributes, duties, and taxes ; and the treaties amongstthem for canvass and linen cloths are consequentlyvery large, the prices being regulated amongstthemselves. They cultivate coca, and with thisthey supply some of the neighbouring provinces.
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They breed cattle of every sort, horses, sheep, andcows ; of whose hides, when tanned and dried bythe fire, they manufacture trunks, saddles, chests,&c. It has but a tew mines, and of these, oneonly is gold, and a few of salt are worked. It iswatered by several rivers ; but the principal arethe Moyobamba and the Uccubaraba. Its inha-bitants amount to 10,000, and are divided into 43settlements. Its reparti mi etHo amounted to 32,000dollars ; and it paid nearly 256 for alcavala,
San Juan de la Fron- Nixaque,tera, Corobamba,
Santa Ana, Pomacocha,
San Lazaro, Quispis,
El Santo Christo de Bur- Santo Tomas,
San Christoval de las Junvilla,
San Pedro de Utac, Yambrasbamba,
Santo Tomas de Guillai, Chirta,
San lldefonso, Yapa,
La Magdalena, San Miguel de los 01-
Moyobamba, city, Palanca,
Y rinari, Thoe,
Chachapoias, a river of the above province,which runs «. w. and enters the Marafion.
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Brocal de la Mina de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru ;finnexed to the curacy of Santa Barbara.
CHACMA, or Chamaca, a valley of the pro-vince of Cuzco and kingdom of Peru, near thecoast of the S. sea. It was well peopled in formertimes, and abounds now in sugar-cane, from whichsugar is made. It was conquered and united tothe empire by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor.
CHACO, a province of the kingdom of Peru,called the Gran Chaco, is an extensive country ;having as its boundary to the e. the river Para-guay, and being bounded on the [n.e. by the pro-vince of the Chiquitos Indians ; on the n. by thatof Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the zo. it touchesupon the provinces of Mizque, Tomina, Porna-bamba, Pilaya, Paspaya, Tarija, and Tucuman.On the s. it extends as far as the jurisdiction of thegovernment of Buenos Ayres, which is its farthestlimits. Towards the n. it is 150 leagues widefrom e. to w. and 250 leagues long from n. to s. ;but to make these distances, it requires manymonths, owing to the unevenness and roughness ofthe territory. It is called Chaco, or, with morepropriety, Chacu, which, in the Quechuan lan-guage, signifies junta, or company, from the cir-cumstance of its having been formed of Indians ofseveral countries, who had fled from the conquer-ing arms of the Incas, and afterwards from thoseof the Spaniards. Towards the w. it has someserraniasj which are branches of the cordilhrn ;where, on account of their immense height, thecold is very great ; but in the low grounds, whichare for the most part plains, the temperature is hot.It is full of thick woods, and in many parts isswampy and wet ; particularly in the part lyingtowards the e. on the road to Paraguay. In thewet season, which lasts from the month of Novem-ber to April, the rivers leave their beds and formvarious lakes, some of which dry up, and someremain. This province has some rivers of note ;such are the Salado and the Bermejo ; is one of themost fertile provinces in America, and would, ifit were cultivated, afford, in the greatest abun-dance, those productions wnich are now thrownaway upon the infinite number of barbarous na-
tions who inhabit it. It produces a great varietyof fine woods and fruit-trees; such as walnuts andnuts, although different from those of Europe, butwhich arc extremely well tasted ; beautiful cedars ;quebrachos^ thus called on account of their hard-ness ; guqyacanes, carob-trees, balsams, marias,palms, some of which are more than 30 yards inheight; almonds, cacaos, ceihas, whicli are verylarge trees, bearing in the pods a remarkable softwool, used for quilts, since it cannot be spun ; cot-ton-trees, mistoles, of the heart of which the In-dians make darts and cimeters ; myrrh, sarzafraz-trees, bark, and others, which have the interiorbark so delicate and white as occasionally to serveinstead of writing paper; others there are, whicli,at one or two yards up their stems, form a kind ofbarrel or pipe, and being of a very tough bark,are accustomed to be ripped open by the Indians,and thus serve as vessels, in which these keep theirliquor called chieha ; it is from this that theywhimsically call this plant palo borracho, ordrunken tree. In this province are found alsocanes for walking sticks, as fine as those of Asia ;and in the trunks of trees, in holes of the rocksand below the ground, are quantities of honey andwax wrought by bees, of which there are reckonedto be more than 12 sorts : some of the wax, besidesbeing transparent, is extremely fragrant and deli-cious to the taste, whilst some is so sour as to re-semble the juice of boiled lemons. One sort ofthese bees fabricate, with great skill, excellenthives of mud upon the branches of trees, and ofthe shape of a decanter, which are so hard thatthey will not break in falling down upon theground ; they, morever, are filled Avith exquisitewax and Avell-flavoured honey. The fruit-treeswhich this province produces, are oranges, cedars,lemons, apples, pears, melocotones^ (or peaches en-grafted on quinces), figs, nuts, prunes, and olives,also passion-floAvers ; all of which have beenbrought hither from the city of Santiago de Gua-dalcazar. Here are palms Avhich have cups con-taining 25 kernels each, differing only slightlyfrom the palms of Europe by having a flavour ofthe cocoa, and being somewhat larger. Here isalso a plant called chahuar, having prickles likethe savine, of which are made threads similar tohemp, for the manufacture of nets, bags, and somesorts of coarse garments : its root serves as food forthe Indians, as do also yucas, potatoes, and others.It has an innumerable quantity of birds, namely,Avild pigeons, ducks, herons, mountain-peacocks’pheasants, crows, condors, partridges, falcons,SAvans, periguanas, ostriches, parrots, and onekind of bird which exactly imitates an organ, and
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another whose note resembles atrumpet. It aboundsin quadrupeds, as mules, horses, and cattle of thelarge and small kind, the antas, which is calledhere gran bestia^ (great beast), huanacos, vicunas,llamas, or native sheep, stags, bears, ant-eaters,wild bears, otters, tigers, mountain cats, visca-chas, (or large hares), large and small foxes, tor-toises, higuanos, and others ; all of which affordfood to tlie voracious Indians. In this provinceare also found many insects, such as scorpions,vipers, snakes of several kinds, some of two heads,and some with rattles, squirrels, mocamucas, am-palabas, or what are called in other countries owls,which are extremely deformed, and attract smallanimals to them by their screeching, quiriquinchosof various sorts, glow-worms, a great variety offlies and spiders, and of these a large kind veryvenomous, silk-worms, Avhich, if taken care of,would yield an abundance of silk, locusts, Avhichare eaten by the Indians both dry and fresh ; also ants,the beds of which are so deep as to render the roaddangerous for men and for horses to pass, theseinsects being of such an undaunted and trouble-some nature as often to attack a viper or locust inlarge bodies, and in some settlements to enter ahouse like a plundering army, devouring every in-sect and worm in their way, not leaving a singleeatable thing untouched ; scarcely shall these havefinished their operations, but they are succeeded byanother band, and indeed it is very liazardous todisturb them, since they bite very fiercely andcause much pain. This province has no mines,although it is said that formerly some were workedby the Indians ; some little time since, however,one of iron was discovered, when it was thought tohave been of gold. This extensive and pleasantcountry is inhabited by a multitude of infidel In-dians, of different nations and of various barbarouscustoms. It was casually discovered in 1586 byJuan de Banos, a native of Chuquisaca, a factorof the settlement of Yala ; he had an Indian slavewho used frequently to run away from his masterfor a time and return again, and who being askedonce whither he went, replied toChacu; this itAvas tliat led to its discovery, and to the subse-•quent attempts at several times made to conquerit; first by Martin de Ledesma, afterwards by.Tuan Manso, Don Pedro Lasarte, and lastly byD >11 Christoval de Sanabri, all of which were in-effectual. San Francisco Solano entered the coun-try, and succeeded in reducing some of the nativesto the Christian faith ; these, however, soon re-turned to their idolatry. The regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits likewise engaged themselves in thereduction of this country in 1587, the first of their
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preachers here being Father Alonzo Barzana,called the apostle of Peru ; they continued herefor a number of years, and during their stayfounded seven settlements. The inhabitants ofthe whole province are computed at 100,000.Catalogue of the nations which inhabit Chaco.
(Chaco, a large plain of the above province,in which Azara noticed a singular phenomenon,which he calls a large piece of pure iron, flexibleand malleable in the forge, but at the same timeso hard as not to be cut, though obedient to thefile. It contains about 468 cubic feet, and lieson the surface of the large plain of Chaco, on whichnot a single stone excepting this is to be found ;and what is still more curious, there is no volcanowithin 300 leagues, nor any iron mine to be heardof in that part of tho country.)
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lar way by a river of its name. It abounds inlarge alligators and mosquitoes, which render itsnavigation very troublesome. Its shores are co-vered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited bya variety of birds and apes of several species, whichmake an incredible chattering and noise. It wasby this river that the pirate John Morgan camewhen he took and sacked Panama in 1670. Itwas discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527,when he called it the river of Lagartos, but itsmouth was before discovered by Lope de Olanoin 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, avery small fish of the size of a pin, called titles,and these are so abundant, that putting into thewater a large basket, it is certain to be drawn outfull ; they are fried, and make very savouryfritters.
CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lo-renzo, a settlement of the same province and king-dom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at theentrance or mouth of the former river. It has forits defence a strong castle, which was built by theorder of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uanBautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirateJohn Morgan, after having made a glorious de-fence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt andsacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English,commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirelydestroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied bytwo strong batteries, which hindered the Englishfrom making a breach, for the third time, whenthey came with three frigates of war : but theywere driven back by Captain Don Juan de Her-mida, who was formerly captain of the regimentof Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in themost perfect manner, by the lieutenant-generaland engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor ofCartagena, who came hither for this purpose byorder of the king. In this fortress several per-sonages of distinction' have been held prisoners,ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina,])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of thekingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Porto-belo.
the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulfTriste.
CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in whichwas venerated, ever since the time of the conquest,a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which,with the temple, was burnt a few years since, andthe parishioners being much afflicted at their loss,the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito,sent them another equal to the first : at the cele-bration of the festival people assemble from all theneighbouring districts.
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de Granada, rises in the valley of Cerinza, runsn. and passing tlirough the city of San Gil, turnsto the w. and enters the Suarez or Sabandija.
CHALCO, Hamanalco, a district and alcal-día mayor of Nueva España ; situate between then. and s. of the city of Mexico, at eight leaguesdistance ; is very fertile, and abounds in produc-tions and the necessaries of life, especially in wheatand maize; the crops of the former usually amount to30,000 (argas (a measure containing four bushels)yearly, and of the latter to 25,000. Besides thisit produces great quantities of seeds, woods, sugar,honey, and the fruits of a hot climate, all ofwhich arc carried to Mexico, as well by land car-riage as by the lake, which is so favourable to itscommerce. In the sierra of the volcano of thisjurisdiction, there are silver mines, but they arenot worked, on account of the great expence. Thepopulation consists of 46 settlements, of which 16are head settlements of districts, and in 15 of thesethere are parish churches. Tlie capital is of thesame name, and it is situate on the shore of a lakeenjoying a mild temperature, and well knownfrom the fair which it celebrates every Fridaythroughout the year, to which flock a great num-ber of people from the neighbouring provinceswith merchandize ; some even coming from themost distant parts in canoes by the lake, or withdroves of mules on land. It lies between the riversFiamanalco and Tenango, which run into thelake, and the waters of this serve, when it is ne-cessary, to replenish the lake of Mexico, forwhich purpose there are proper sluices provided.It contains 350 families of Indians, and someSpaniards and Mustees ; is seven leagues fromMexico. The other settlements are,
San Pedro de Ecazingo, Ayapango,
San Juan Tenango, Ayozingo,
CHALCO, with the dedicatory title of SanAgustin, another settlement of the head settle-
ment of Coxcotlan, and the alcaldia mayor of Val-les, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacyof Aquismon ; is of an extremely hot and moisttemperature, on account of which it has beenabandoned by several Indian families who residedin it formerly ; 12 of these families only are nowremaining ; is 23 leagues from its capital.
CHALCO, another, of the head settlement andalcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan ; situate in theplain of a deep break or hole made by mountainfloods ; is of a hot temperature, and contains 35families of Indians ; lies 12 leagues to the n. of itscapital.
(Chalco Lake. See Mexico.)
(CHALEURS, a deep and broad bay on the w.side of the gulf of St. Lawrence. From this bayto that of Verte, on the s. in the s. e. corner of thegulf, is the n. e. sea line of the British provinceof New Brunswick.)
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(country of the Iroquees Indians. It is handsomeand well built, on the margin of the river of thesame name, about 12 or 15 miles s. w. from Mont-real, and n. of St. John’s fort. It was taken bythe Americans, Oct. 20, 1775, and retaken by theBritish, Jan. 18, 1776. Lat. 45° 26' w.)
Chambo, a very large river, which rises nearthe former settlement, and runs with such rapiditythat it cannot be forded ; is consequently passedover by means of various bridges made of osiers.
CHAME, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Natá in the province and kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near a river, and two leagues fromthe coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, plan-tains, and other fruits ; swine, fowl, turkeys, andother birds, with which it supplies, by means ofcanoes, the markets of the city of Panama, fromwhence it is nine leagues distant.
CHAMETLAN, a province and alcaldia mayorof Nueva España, also called Del Rosario ; bound-ed n. by the province of Culiacan, s. by that of Xa-lisco or Sentipac, e. and n. e. by that of Zacate-cas and Nueva Galicia, and w. by the S. sea ; is30 leagues long from e. to w. and 25 wide n. s. ;is of, a very hot temperature, and the greater partof it is a mountainous and rugged country, abound-ing in. noxious animals and insects, and on thisaccount uninhabitable in the summer and in therainy season. It was conquered by Don Juan deIbarra in 1554, has many mines of silver and gold,which were formerly worked, but which at presentare all abandoned, as well from their having filledwith water, as from the scantiness of the means ofthe inhabitants to work them. The royal mines,however, are productive of some emolument, andare in fafct the support of the place. It producessome maize, and much tobacco , and cotton, towhich article the soil is exactly suited, though notso to wheat, which yields here but sparingly. Onthe banks of the lakes formed by the sea, is left athick incrustation of salt in the month of April ;and although the inhabitants spare no pains to col-lect this valuable commodity, yet abundance of itis lost from the Avant of hands to collect it ere theheats come on, when it very quickly disappears.
Some large cattle are bred here. It is very badlypeopled, or, to speak more truly, it is as it weredesert, having only three settlements and someestates. It is irrigated by a river which flowsdown from the sierra Madre, and passes throughthe capital, the waters of which are made usefulfor the working of the mines. The same river entersthe sea two leagues from the settlement of Chamet-lan, and has abundance of fish, which are caughtwith ease, as well upon its shores as in marsheswhich it forms. Tlie capital, which is the resi-dence of the alcalde mayor, is the real del Ro-sario.
Chametlan, a settlement of the former alcaldíamayor ; from thence taking its name. It containsonly five or six Indians, and some Spaniards, Mus-tees, and Mulattoes, who, the greater part of theyear, live in the estates which they have for thebreeding of large cattle, and on the farms for thecultivation of maize and cotton.
CHAMESA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; annexed to the curacy of Nopsa. Itis of a cold temperature, and produces the fruitscorresponding to such a climate, particularlywheat, which is of the best quality. It contains100 Avhite inhabitants, and as many Indians, andis a little more than eight leagues from its ca-pital.
CHAMI, San Juan de, a settlement of theprovince and government of Chocó ; situate in thedistrict of Thatama, near the ruins of the city ofSan Juan de Rodas, to the w. of the city of San-tiago de Arma.
CHAMICUROS, S. Francisco Xavier de,a settlement of the missions which were held by theregulars of the company of Jesuits, in the provinceand government of Mainas, of the kingdom ofQuito ; founded in 1670 by the Father LorenzoLucero. '
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either in the service of the United States duringthe war, or fled to them for protection. The in-digence or ill habits of these people occasioned thebreaking up of the settlement, and a better sort ofinhabitants have now taken their place. The landsare fertile, and two rivers run through it, wellstored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and threeslaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the in-habitants are electors.)
CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, ofmore than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It wasdiscovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tliename of Champlain, who gave it his name, whichit still retains. It communicates with a smallerlake called Sacrament, and the canal passing fromone side to the other of these is extremely rapidanddangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. Atthe distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some verylofty mountains, which are covered with snow, andin which are found castors and a variety 'of ani-mals of the chase; and between these mountainsand the aforesaid lake are some beautiful levelmeadows or llanuras^ which, when first discover-ed, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; butthese have greatly diminished in numbers, throughthe continual wars Avith the French and English.[This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and liese. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing linebetween the states of New York and Vermont. Ittook its name from a French governor, who wasdrowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake.Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s,a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadthis from one to 18 miles, being very different in diffe-rent places ; the mean width is about five miles, andit occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is suf-ficient for the largest vessels. There are in it abovesixty islands of different sizes : the most consider-able are North and South Hero and Motte island.North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, andfrom two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderogathe waters of lake George from the s. s. w. whichis said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of thislake. Half the rivers and streams which rise inVermont fall into it. There are several which cometo it from New York state, and some from Cana-da ; to which last it sends its own waters a n.course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into theSt. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish,particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, andpickerel, and the land on its borders, and on thebanks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in severalplaces appear to be marked and stained with theformer surface of the lake, many feet higher than
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it has been since its discovery in 160S. The wa-ters generally rise from about the 20th of April tothe 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the great-est variation is not more than eight feet. It is sel-dom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle ofJanuary, Between the 6th and 15th of April theice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon formany square miles of it to disappear in one day.]
CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of theprovince of Taraumara, and kingdom of NuevaVizcaya, in which there is a mountain aboundinggreatly in silver mines. Here is also a missionAvhicli Avas established by the regulars of the com-pany for the reduction of the natives : is 12leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.
CHAMUINA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Costarica in the kingdom of Guate-mala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the li-mits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui inthe kingdom of Tierra Firme.
CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of San-ta ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by thatof Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado.It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and thesame in width e. w. and has on its coast some portsand creeks not remarkable for their security. Itcomprehends in its district two territories, one ofa cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, calledDe los Checras; and another of a warm tempera-ture, lying in the valleys towards the sea, calledDe Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, oneon the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the otherHuama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge,which was built in the time of the viceroy, theMarquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of whichare two rocks, through which the river passes.On the e. and in the cold part of this province,are found the productions peculiar to the cli-mate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat andmaize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which
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the natives make friezes. The low part, lookingupon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal inmildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, andin the many estates which are in it maize grows ingreat quantities, and it, besides serving as food forthe labourers, and independent of that which is de-voured by the wild pigeons with which those fieldsare filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which arecarried to supply the markets of Lima ; those ani-mals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000head, and producing an emolument of 300,000dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here arealso some estates of sugar-cane, and others ofFrench beans and wheat, of which the crops wereformerly very great, and used, together with thevines, to be reckoned amongst the chief produc-tions of this country, though they have now maderoom for a more general cultivation of maize.What conduces much to render the soil fertile, iswhat the Indians call huano^ and which, in theirlanguage, signifies dung, this being brought fromsome small islands at a little distance from thecoast towards the n. It is thought to be the excre-ment of some birds called huanaes^ who have beenaccustomed to deposit it in the above places fromtime immemorial. Some of it has also been foundin various other islands of the coast of Canete,Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that ahandful being put at the root of a plant of maize,it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwardsof 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly.In the centre of the province, and upon the coast,are some fine salines^ which supply some of theneighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, thoseof Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Hua-nuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted.The salt is not only used in the workingof the me-tals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomousinsect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrailsuntil it destroys them. The population consists of37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town ofArnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amountedto 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dol-lars per annum.
Arnedo or Chancay,
S. Juan de Huaral,
Cauchaz or Maráz,
Chancay, the capital of the above province,founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, ata league and a half’s distance from the river Pasa-mayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being anuniversity, at which however it never attained. Ithas a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels,a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, anda good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inha-bitants consist of several noble and rich families.One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat.11° 30' 5.
CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort uponthe river Tapo, in the part washed by this river,called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. TheChunchos Indians of this province took possessionof it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.
CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of SantaElena in the province and government of Guaya-quil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port whichis frequented by vessels only in stress ; it havingsome extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance.Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armadadel Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as itwas dropping down to Panama, for the purpose ofdispatching the galleons under the charge of theMarquis de Villarubia ; although, through the op-portune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Countde Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, DonPedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of theproperty on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721.another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries tothe Plaza of Panama, without a single thing onboard being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious windfrom the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the
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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of goldand silver, which had grown quite discoloured, tothe amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.
CHANEL, some islands near the coast of thecountry of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence.They are numerous and very small, one of thembeing very long and narrow ; forming a channelwith the coast, and giving its name to the rest.
CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, ofthe province and government of Paraguay ; dwell-ing to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and boundedby the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have theirhouses near the lakes, and maintain themselves byfishing.
CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea,and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and go-vernment of Tierra Firme. They are two in num-ber, being situate near the coast, and having be-tween them a shallow or quicksand, by which theyare communicated. They abound in a species ofbirds, from which they take their name.
CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory orcape of the province and corregimiento of Valdiviain the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues tothe s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers themouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados,with the other cape, which is to thes. called De laBallena.
CHANTACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito,to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of SanPedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies uponthe bank of a small river, being of an excellentclimate.
diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near therivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of theMontana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.
CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, ormountain of San Antonio. Through it passes asmall river, which runs down from this mountain,and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of avery cold temperature, and lies in the middle of awood. Lat. l°40's.
CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan inNueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of this name ; has a good convent ofthe monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, whichis very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds ofseed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many de-licious fruits.
Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate ina plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 fa-milies of Indians, who trade in seeds and otherfruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds.It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ;lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.
Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom ofNueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on ac-count of its size, is navigated by many vessels,and is extremely well stocked with fish ; fromwhich the inhabitants of the immediate settlementsderive their source of commerce.
CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.
CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the provinceand government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Itrises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Inti-nuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs inan inclined course to the e. and enters the Mar-more Grande, forming a good port.
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Granada ; situate in a beautiful and delightfulcountry. Its temperature is hot, it abounds incacao, maize, yucas, and plantains, and has someneat cattle and gold mines. The inhabitantsamount to 100 families, and it is annexed to thecuracy of its capital.
(CHAPEL Hill, a post-town in Orangecounty, N. Carolina ; situated on a branch of New-hope creek, which empties into the n.w. branch ofCape Fear river. This is the spot chosen for theseat of the university of N. Carolina. Few housesare as yet erected ; but a part of the public build-ings were in such forwardness, that students Avereadmitted, and education commenced, in January1796. The beautiful and elevated site of thistown commands a pleasing and extensive view ofthe surrounding country : 12 miles s. by e. ofHillsborough, and 472 s.w. of Philadelphia.Lat. 35° 56' n. Long. 79° 2' w.)
CHAPIGANA, a fort of the province and go-vernment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme,built upon a long strip of land, or point, formedby the great river of Tuira. There is also a smallfort of the same name in a little gulf, and nearlyclosed at the entrance, behind the fort of San Mi-guel, in the S. sea.
CHAPUARE, a river of the province and go-vernment of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito, risesin the mountains of Cacao, which are upon theshore of the river Madera ; runs w. forming acurve, and enters the latter river, just where theYtenes and Marmore also become united.
CHAPULTEPEC, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Corjoacan in Nueva España ; situate onthe skirt of a mountainous eminence, on which arethe castle and palace Avhich were the residence ofthe viceroys until they made their public entriesinto Mexico. Here are beautiful saloons andcharming gardens, bedecked with all sorts of deli-cate flowers ; also a wood of branching savins,which was filled Avith stags and rabbits, and anabundant supply of water to render the soil fertile ;although, independently of a large and deep pool,it is also intersected by several streams, which,through canals, are carried to supply the s. part of
the city of Mexico. Its inhabitants amount to 40families of Indians, in the district of the parish ofa convent of St. Francis, with certain families ofSpaniards and Mustecs, embodied with the parishof Vera Cruz of Mexico ; from Avheuce this is dis-tant one league to the w. s.w.
Chapultepec, with the dedicatory title of SanJuan, another settlement of the district and headsettlement of Tlacoluca, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in the same kingdom ; founded betweenfour mountains, the skirts of Avhich form a circleround it. It contains 100 families of Indians, in-cluding those of the settlement of Paztepec, closeto it. Although its population was formerlythought to amount to 500 families, no cause canbe assigned for the present diminution ; notAvith-standing the elder people affirm, that this is a judg-ment of God for their having caused so many sor-rows and anxieties to the poor curate, who hadlaboured so hard and with such zeal to convertthem from their idolatry : certain it is, they arenow extremely humble and docile. It is tAvo leaguesn. e. of its capital.
Chapultepec, another, with the same dedica-tory title of San Juan, in the head settlement of thetown of Marquesado, and alcaldia mayor of QuatroVillas. It contains 25 families of Indians, Avhooccupy themselves in the cultivation of cochineal,wheat, maize, fruits, woods, coal, lime-stone, andtimber. It is a little more than a mile to the s. u\of its capital.
CHAPULUACAN, a settlement of the jurisdic-tion and alcaldia mayor of Valles in Nueva Es-pana ; situate on the skirt of a very lofty sierra ;is of a mild temperature, and produces maize, cot-ton, bees-Avax, and honey, and large cattle. It isannexed to the curacy of Tamzunchale, contains58 families of Indians, and lies 38 leagues from itscapital.
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