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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACHACACHE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos, the capital of this province, in Peru. It contains, besides the parish chapel, another, in which is an image of Christ, with the dedicatory title of La Misericordia. [Lat. 16° 33' 30" S. Long. 79° 23' 20" W.]
ACHAGUA, a nation of Indians of the nuevo Reyno de Granada, who dwell among the plains of Gazanare and Meta, and in the woods which skirt the river Ele. They are bold in their engagements with wild beasts, but with human beings they have recourse rather to poison and stratagem; they are dexterous in the use of the dart and spear, and never miss their aim; are particularly fond of horses, of which they take the utmost care, anointing and rubbing them with oil ; and it is a great thing among them to have one of these animals of peculiar size and beauty. They go naked, but, for the sake of decency, wear a small apron made of the thread of aloes, the rest of their bodies being painted of different colours. They are accustomed, at the birth of their children, to smear them with a bituminous ointment, which hinders the hair from growing, even upon the eyebrows. The women's brows are also entirely deprived of hair, and the juice of jagua being immediately rubbed into the little holes formed by the depilatory operation, they remain bald for ever after. They are of a gentle disposisition, but much given to intoxication. The Jesuits reduced many to the catholic faith, forming them into settlements, in 1661 .
ACHIANTLAS, Miguel de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepozcolula. It contains a convent of monks of Santo Domingo, and 260 families of Indians, who occupy themselves in cultivating and improving the land. It is eight leagues to the W with an inclination to the S of its capital.
ACHINUTLAN, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It is on the shore of the river Orinoco, and to the E of the Ciudad Real, (royal city), the river Tacuragua running between them.
ACHOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru. In its vicinity is a volcano, called Amboto and Sahuarcuca, which vomits smoke and flames; the latter of which are seen clearly at night.
ACLA, a small city of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province of Darien, founded by Gabriel de Roxas, in 1514, on the coast of the S. sea, at the mouth of the gulph of Uraba, in front of the island of Pinos, with a good fort, then much frequented and very convenient, from having a good bottom, but somewhat incommoded by currents. Pedro Arias Davila built here a fort for its defence in 1516; but the settlement, nevertheless, did not keep long together, the Spaniards having abandoned it, on account of its unhealthiness, in 1532. [Lat. 8° 56' N. Long. 77° 40' W.]
ACOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It was the capital, but at present the town of Guancavelica bears that title, on account of its being the residence of the governor and other people of consequence. It is of a good temperature, and so abundant in grain, that its crops of wheat amount to 25,000 bushels yearly. In an estate near it, are some pyramidical stones, and in other parts
are the ruins or some well made benches in the shape of couches, which have been much injured by time, and were there before the corning of the Spaniards. Lat. 13° 16' 30" s. Long. 74° 32' 30" w.
ACOCHALA, a very lofty mountain of the province and corregimienento of Lipes, in the arch- bishopric of Charcas, where there are some very fine silver mines, which are, however, little worked for want of hands.
ACOLA , a settlement of the province and cor- regimiento of Lucanas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of its capital.
ACOLMAN, San Agustin de , a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez- coco, in Nueva Espana, situate in a pleasant valley of a benign temperature. There are some wards united to its district, and the number of its inhabitants, including these wards, amounts to 240 Indian families, besides a convent of monks of the order of St. Augustin.
ACOMA , a settlement of Nuevo Mexico, situ- ate on the shore of a river which enters the Grande of the N. between the settlements of San J uan and La Laguna. [It is on a high mountain, with a strong castle, and is the capital of the province. [Lat, 35° 24' «. Long. 106° 10'
ACOMACK , a county of the province and colony of Virginia, which preserves its Indian name. It is the largest county of the province, containing 200,925 acres of ground ; but not so well peopled as the others, and has only one parish, which is of the same name. Different rivers take their rise here ; among the most noted is the Clif>- sonossea,
ACOMAIO, a settlement of the province, and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle, situate on the confines of the infidel Panataguas Indians.
another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru.
ACOMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimityito of Vilcas Huaman in Peru, arinexed to the curacy of Vilcas.
ACOMES, a fall of the river Amariscoggin, in the prov'ince of Continent, one of the four w hich compose the colony of New England.
ACOMULCO, a settlement of the head settle- ment and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 12 Indian families, and is two leasrues to the w. of its capital.
ACONCAGUA, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by a part of the province of Quillota, e, by the Cordillera, s. by the valley of Colina, of the jurisdiction of Santiago, w. by the province of Quillota. Its territory is level and well watered. It is divided into two parts by a large river of the same name, having a bridge built of stone and mortar, w ith two arches. It produces abundance of wheat and much wild marjoram, which is carried to Peru, and forms the principal branch of its commerce. In this province is the royal road, lying through the Cordillera in the way to Mendoza, which is very rough and dangerous, on account of the many slopes and steep declivities towards the river ; the path is very narrow, and in various places it is necessary to open a pass by means of a pick-axe ; so that, if at any time the mules should crowd together, they would push each other into the river, w hich has not unfrequently been the case. The royal treasures are carried by this road from the month of Novem- ber to April and part of May. A few years since, some small houses of brick and mortar have been built on one or other side of the Cordillera, which they call casuchas (miserable huts) ; in these they put, in the winter time, some coal, biscuit, and hung beef, so that the couriers, providing them- selves with the keys of the doors at Mendoza, or, on the other side, at the Guardia of Aconcagua, may have something to live upon, incase they should be stopt by a fall of snow on their journey ; and with this precaution, a courier goes every month to Santiago, carrying with him the mails brought by the ships from Europe. In the winter it is customary to walk on foot over the snow, from Paramillo, which is three leagues from the top of the Cordillera, and four from its descent to tlie place which is called Los Ojos de Agua, through the valley of Putaendo ; but towards the ??. there is another way, which they call De Los Patos, which is the road generally taken in going to the city of San Juan ; but the Cordillera being more lofty here, it is only passable in the months of February and March. The inhabitants of this province amount, on an average, to 8000 souls. The capital' is San Felipe el Real. [Lat. 32° II' s. Long. 70° 12' 30" w. j
ACONCAGUA, a large river which runs through the above province, rising in the mountains of the Cordillera, and running through it by the side of the road which leads to Buenos Ayres : hrarcliing
out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.
ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.
ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.
ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.
an hermitage dedicated to St. Denis the Areopa-gite. It lies to the s. of the city of Barquisimeto,Between that of Tucuyo and the lake of Maracaibo.(Carora is 30 leagues to the s. of Coro. Its situa-tion owes nothing to nature but a salubrious air.Its soil, dry and covered with thorny plants, givesno other productions but such as owe almost en-tirely their existence to the principle of heat. Theyremark there a sort of cochineal silvestre as fine asthe misleca, which they suffer to perish. Theland is covered with prolific animals, such asoxen, mules, horses, sheep, goats, &c. ; and theactivity evinced by the inhabitants to make theseadvantageous to them, supports the opinion thatthere are but few cities in the Spanish West In-dies where there is so much industry as at Carora.The principal inhabitants live by the produce oftheir flocks, whilst the rest gain their livelihoodby tanning and selling the hides and skins. Al-though their tanning be bad, the consumer cannotreproach the manufacturer, for it is impossible toconceive how they can sell the article, whatevermay be its quality, at the moderate price it fetches.The skins and leather prepared at Carora are usedin a great degree by the inhabitants themselvesfor boots, shoes, saddles, bridles, and strops.The surplus of the consumption of the place isused throughout the province, or is sent to Ma-racaibo, Cartagena, and Cuba. They also manu-facture at Carora, from a sort of aloe disthica, veryexcellent hammocs, which form another article oftheir trade. These employments occupy andsupport a population of 6200 souls, who, with asterile soil, have been able to acquire that ease andcompetency which it appears to have been theintention of nature to deny them. The city is wellbuilt ; the streets are wide, running in straightparallel lines. The police and the administrationof justice are in the hands of a lieutenant of the go-vernor and a cabildo. There is no military au-thority. Carora lies in lat. 9° 50' n. and is 15leagues e. of the lake of Maracaibo, 12 n. ofTocuyo, IS n. w. of Barquisimeto, and 90 w. ofCaracas.)
Carora, a great llanura of the same province,which extends 16 leagues from e. to w, and sixfrom n. to s. It was discovered by George Spirain 1534, abounds greatly in every kind of grainand fruit, but is of a very hot temperature. Itspopulation is not larger than that of the former city,to which it gives its name.
(CAROUGE Point, the northernmost extremity
of the island of St. Domingo in the W. Indies ;25 miles n. from the town of St. Jago.)
CARRION DE Velazco, a small but beauti-ful and well peopled city of the kingdom of Peru,in the pleasant llanura of Guaura ; it is of a mild,pleasant, and healthy climate, of a fertile and de-lightful soil, and inhabited by a no small numberof distinguished and rich families.
Carrizal, sierra or chain of mountains ofthe same province and government, which runsfrom e. to w. from the shore of the river Guaricoto the shore of the Guaya.
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de Granada, rises in the valley of Cerinza, runsn. and passing tlirough the city of San Gil, turnsto the w. and enters the Suarez or Sabandija.
CHALCO, Hamanalco, a district and alcal-día mayor of Nueva España ; situate between then. and s. of the city of Mexico, at eight leaguesdistance ; is very fertile, and abounds in produc-tions and the necessaries of life, especially in wheatand maize; the crops of the former usually amount to30,000 (argas (a measure containing four bushels)yearly, and of the latter to 25,000. Besides thisit produces great quantities of seeds, woods, sugar,honey, and the fruits of a hot climate, all ofwhich arc carried to Mexico, as well by land car-riage as by the lake, which is so favourable to itscommerce. In the sierra of the volcano of thisjurisdiction, there are silver mines, but they arenot worked, on account of the great expence. Thepopulation consists of 46 settlements, of which 16are head settlements of districts, and in 15 of thesethere are parish churches. Tlie capital is of thesame name, and it is situate on the shore of a lakeenjoying a mild temperature, and well knownfrom the fair which it celebrates every Fridaythroughout the year, to which flock a great num-ber of people from the neighbouring provinceswith merchandize ; some even coming from themost distant parts in canoes by the lake, or withdroves of mules on land. It lies between the riversFiamanalco and Tenango, which run into thelake, and the waters of this serve, when it is ne-cessary, to replenish the lake of Mexico, forwhich purpose there are proper sluices provided.It contains 350 families of Indians, and someSpaniards and Mustees ; is seven leagues fromMexico. The other settlements are,
San Pedro de Ecazingo, Ayapango,
San Juan Tenango, Ayozingo,
CHALCO, with the dedicatory title of SanAgustin, another settlement of the head settle-
ment of Coxcotlan, and the alcaldia mayor of Val-les, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacyof Aquismon ; is of an extremely hot and moisttemperature, on account of which it has beenabandoned by several Indian families who residedin it formerly ; 12 of these families only are nowremaining ; is 23 leagues from its capital.
CHALCO, another, of the head settlement andalcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan ; situate in theplain of a deep break or hole made by mountainfloods ; is of a hot temperature, and contains 35families of Indians ; lies 12 leagues to the n. of itscapital.
(Chalco Lake. See Mexico.)
(CHALEURS, a deep and broad bay on the w.side of the gulf of St. Lawrence. From this bayto that of Verte, on the s. in the s. e. corner of thegulf, is the n. e. sea line of the British provinceof New Brunswick.)
CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nationof Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabitthe woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, tothe e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. Theyarc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, andin eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de laMartiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos isderived from the French wovd chevezLV, the menand the women both allowing and encouraging thegrowth of their hair till it reaches down to thewaist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indiansmust either have known French when they werediscovered, or that their discoverers, at all events,must have been French.
CHEURA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of theancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards enterstheriver of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.
CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zi-paquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; cele-brated in the time of the Indians for having beenthe title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the in-vestiture of which dignity was always transferredwith the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a verycold temperature, although salutary ; and issituate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of theriver Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.
CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.
CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of thekingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by theprovince of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w.by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. bythat of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e.to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part.It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegosin 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldiasmayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales,Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm andmoist temperature, although it has some parts inwhich the cold predominates. Its woods aboundwith large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and wal-nut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which
are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquidamber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, inabundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochi-neal, which is only made use of for the purposeof dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepperand achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfiriouskinds of domestic and wild birds, especially par-rots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ;a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon,with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians,who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich theyprize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; itbeing a capital offence, according to their laws, todestroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, whichhave been brought from Europe, have multipledin this province in a most extraordinary manner ;so also have horses, which are of such an esteemedbreed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mex-ico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breedmany lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars,a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet inlength, and others of a beautiful crimson colour,streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is,for the most part, rugged and mountainous, andwatered by different rivers : none of these, how-ever, are of any particular consideration, althoughthat which bears the name of this province is themedium by which the aforesaid productions arecarried to the other provinces ; and although thisprovince may be accounted comparatively poor,from being without mines of gold or silver, it isnevertheless of the greatest importance, as beingthe outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the fa-cility with which this kingdom might be enteredby the river Tabasco. The capital is the royalcity of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. Itis the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; andhas for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras,with a river passing between them : above theone is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ;and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit,and another lion, the whole being upon a red field.These arms were granted by the Emperor CharlesV. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. Itcontains three convents of the order of St. Francis,La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery ofnuns, and five hermitages. Its population isscanty and poor, and the principal commerce con-sists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal,and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, arevery proud, as having descended from some an-cient families of the first nobility of Spain ; suchas those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. Thewomen suffer great debility at the stomach on ac-count of the excessive heat, ami they can never
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fast for a long time together : they consequentlycat frequently ; the common food on these occa-sions being cJmcolatc, and which is even handedto them whilst at church. This irreverence thebishop very properly proclaimed against ; but itis said that this execution of his duty cost him noless than his life. It is 100 leagues distant fromGuatemala. Lat. 17'^ 4'. Long. 93° 53'.
CHIAPA, another city in the same province,which, to distinguish it from the former, is calledCliiapa de los Indios; these (the Indians) being,for the most part, its inhabitants ; is the largestsettlement in the whole province, and is situate ina valley close upon the river Tabasco, being 12leagues distant from the former city. It has va-rious churches, abounds in wealth, and is the placewherein the Indian families first settled. Theyenjoy many privileges and exemptions, owing tothe zeal of the bishop, J^rtr/y Bartolorae de las Ca-sas, their procurator at court. The river aboundsgreatly in fine fish ; and is full of barks, withwhich the}" occasionally represent sea-fights. Inthe city also there are commonly balls, plays, con-certs, bull-fights, and spectacles of horsemanship ;since the inhabitants are much given to diversions,and in these grudge no expence.
Bishops of Chiapa.
1. Don Fray Juan de Arteaga y Avendano, na-tive of Estepa in Andalucia ; elected in 1541 : hedied in the same year in Mexico, before he arrivedat his church.
2. Don Fray Bartolome de las Casas, a manrenowned lor his zeal in favour of the Indians ; hewas born at Seville, where he studied, and passedover to the island of St. Domingo, where he saidthe first mass ever celebrated in that part of theworld. He returned to Spain, in 1515, to declaimagainst the tyrannies which were practised againstthe Indians. He went back the following year tojNueva Espana, where he took the habit of a monkof St. Dominic ; and returning a second time toSpain, he was presented by the Emperor to thebishopric of Chiapa, which office he did not ac-cept ; blit was afterwards prevailed upon to do soby the united entreaties of the whole of his order ;he therefore entered upon it in 1544. He then leftthe bishopric, and returned, for the third time, toSpain ; and having retired to his convent of Val-ladolid, died in 1550.
3. Don Fray Tomas Casillas, also of the orderof St. Dominic ; he was sub-prior of the conventof Salamanca, and passed over to America withFray Bartolome de las Casas. Being renownedfor the great zeal which he manifested in tlie con-version of the infidel Indians, he was nominated
to be bishop in 1560 ; which office he accepted atthe express command of its general. He made thevisitation of all his bishopric, and died full of vir-tues, in 1567.
4. Don Fray Domingo de Lara, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; he made so strong a refusal of hiselection, his renunciation of the office not havingbeen admitted, that he prayed to God that hemight die before that the bulls should arrive fromRome; and this was actually the case, since hedeparted this life in 1572, before he was conse-crated.
5. Don Fray Alonzo de Noroila, who governedthe church here seven years, and had for suc-cessor,
6. Don Fray Pedro de Feria, native of the townof this name in Estreraadura, a monk of the orderof St. Dominic; he passed over to America, wasprior of the convent of Mexico, and provincial ofthat province ; he returned to Spain, refused thegeneral visitation to which he was appointed, andretiree! to his convent of Salamanca ; was presentedwith the bishopric of Chiapa, which he also re-fused ; but being commanded by his superiors, heafterwards accepted it, and governed 14 years,until 1588, when he died.
7. Don Fray Andres de Ubilla, of the order of St.Dominic, and native of the province of Guipuzcoa ;he took the habit in Mexico, where he studied andread the arls, and was twice prior and provincialof the province ; he came to Spain on affairstouching his religion, and returning to Mexico,found himself presented to this bishopric in 1592,where he governed until 1601, when he died, hav-ing been first promoted to the archbishopric ofMechoacan.
8. Don Lucas Duran, a friar of the order ofSantiago, chaplain of honour to his Majesty ; whoimmediately tiiat he was consecrated bishop ofChiapa, renounced his power, and the see was thenvacant nine years.
9. Don Fray Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza, na-tive of Toledo, a monk of the order of St. Augus-tin ; he passed over to America, was made bishopof Lipari, and titular in the archbishopric ofToledo ; and lastly of Chiapa, in 1607 ; fromwhence he was promoted in the following year toPopayan.
10. Don Tomas Blanes, native of Valen-cia, of the order of St. Dominic ; he passed overto Peru, where he resided many years, studyingarts and theology ; he assisted in the visitation ofthe province of St. Domingo, and having come toSpain, he was presented to the bishopric in 1609,holding the government until 1612, when he died.
of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,
l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,
And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.
Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.
Coquimbo or La Se-
San Juan de la Fron-tera,
San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,
Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,
Estancia del Rey or
Fernandez. The capi-
Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.
Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.
Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.
De la Sal,
Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.
1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-
[ing valiantly in a battle against the Araucanos, andkilled.
2. Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, son of theMarquis de Cahete, who was viceroy in Peru ;immediately that he received new's of the death ofValdivia, lie nominated him as his successor, andhe returned to Peru as soon as he had seen himconfirmed in the government, and his title sanc-tioned by the king.
3. Francisco de Villagra, a noble captain, who,in pursuing his conquests, was also killed by theIndians in battle ; provisionally succeeded by hisuncle, until a governor w'as appointed by the king.
4. The Adelantado Rodrigo de Quiroga, whogoverned peaceably until his death, leaving thegovernment to the charge of his father-in-law.
5. The Brigadier Martin Ruiz de Gamboa, untilhe was nominated by tlie king.
G. The Doctor Melchor Bravo de Saravia, withthe title of first president, until his death.
7. Don Alonso de Sotomayor, Marquis deVilla-hermosa, appointed in the year 1584 : having ma-nifested his valour, talent, and address, in the go-vernment, which he held with much credit, andwith great advantage, against the Indians, untilthe year 1592, when arrived,
8. Don Martin Garcia Onez y Loyola, knightof the order of Calatrava ; w'as killed by the In-dians succouring the fortof Puren, which was be-sieged in the year 1599.
9. The Licentiate Pedro de Vizcarra, who ex-ercised the employ of lieutenant-general of thekingdom ; he was appointed to it when theformer was killed, until the viceroyalty of Peruwas given to,
10. The Captain Francisco de Quinones, whoemployed himself in restraining the Araucanosfrom their rebellion, until his death ; afterwardswas nominated for the viceroyalty of Peru.
11. Captain Alonzo Garcia Remon, an officerof much credit, and skilled in the country and thewar with the Indians ; being colonel of foot ofDon Alonzo Sotomayor, began to govern, ap-pointed by the viceroy of Lima, until arrived,sanctioned and duly elected by the king,
12. Don Alonso de la Rivera, Avho was servingin Flanders, and was sent to Chile, where, havingmarried contrary to the prohibition of his Majesty,he was deprived of his office, and in his place wasappointed,
13. The aforesaid Don Alonso Garcia Remon,whose speedy death did not suffer him long toreign, and he was succeeded by,
14. The Doctor Don Luis Merlo de la Fuente,chief auditor of the royal audience, who, through
the death of his antecessor, governed also but ashort time before the arrival of,
15. Don Juan de Xaraquemada, native of (ka-naria, who was in Lima covered with honours ac-quired in the Avar of Chile, when he was nomi-nated governor by the viceroy of Peru, Marquisde Montes Claros.
16. Don Alonso de la Rivera again, being atthat time governor of Tucuman ; he Avas sepa-rated from this government, and Avas sent by theking, at the instance of the missionaries, to re-duce that kingdom by the experience he possessed,and gave proofs of his great ability in peace andAvar until his death.
17. The Licentiate Fernando Talaverano, mostancient oidor of the audience, Avas charged waththe government through this quality, and by theparticular recommendation of his antecessor, un-til the viceroy of Peru, Prince of Esquilache, re-gularly appointed,
18. Don Lope de Ulloa, ayIio, in the exercise ofthis office, Avas confirmed in it by his Majesty un-til his death, when the government was taken
19. Don ChristoA'al de la Cerda Sotomayor, na-tive of Mexico, chief auditor of the real audencia,whom, notAvithstanding his excellent qualities, andthe celebrity of his government, the viceroy ofPeru soon set aside, in favour of,
20. Don Pedro Sorez de Ulloa y Lemos, knightof the order of Alcantara, Avho in a short timeAvas confirmed in the government by the king, ex-ercising it until his death, and leaving it to thecare of his brother-in-laAV,
21. Don Francisco de Alva y Noruena, Avhoheld it a short time, from the viceroy Jiaving, ac-cording to custom, nominated a successor; andthis Avas,
22. Don Luis Fernandez de Cordoba y Arce,Senor del Carpio, Veinte y Quatro de Cordoba,who, although he was not confirmed by the king,maintained it some years, in consideration of thejudgment and skill he manifested, until, in theyear 1633, he Avas supplanted by,
23. Don Francisco Laso de la Vega, knight ofthe order of Santiago, a man of high endowmentsand splendid fortunes in the Avar of the Indians ;he finished his reign, delivering it to his suc-cessor,
24. Don Francisco de Zuniga, Marquis de Bay-des. Count del Pedroso, entered into the posses-sion of the government in the year 1640 ; it Avashe who established and secured the peace Avith theIndians by means of the missionaries of the so-ciety of the Jesuits ; with which glory he
[lized state.— ‘6 The metals.— 1 . Substitute forwriting.
Chap. II. Fi rst expedition of the Spaniards inChile.— Encounters with the natives., with varioussuccess, until the alliance formed between theSpaniards and Promaucians.
1. Almagvo marches against Chile. —2. Road fromPeru to Chile.-— o. Kindhj received at Copiapo.—4. First European blood shed.— 5. Battle withthe Promaucians.— Q. Expedition abandoned,and why.—l. Valdivia marches against Chile.—8. Province of St. Ja go describe'd.—'il. The ca-pital founded.— \0. Steady enmitnj of the Mapo-chinians.—l\. The mine of Quillota.— 12. The
compassionate ulmena. 13. Recruits fom
Peru, under Monroy.—-\t^. Stratagem of theQuillotanes.-—\5. Serena founded.— \Q. Pro-maucian cdlies.—ll . Valdivia sets sail for Peru,and returns with men and supplies.— \8. Con-cepcion founded.
Chap. III. Of the character and manners of theAraucanians .
1. Local situation.— 2. Character .-—3. Dress.—
4. Dwellings.— b. Division of the Araucanian
state.— 6. Its political form.-— 7. Civil institu-tions.— 8. Military system.— 3. Their arms,and mode of making av/r.— -10. Division of thespoil.— 1\. Sacrifice after the war. — \2. Con-gress of peace.— 13. System of religion.—!^.Funeral ceremonies.— \b. Division of time.—16. Astronomical ideas.— \7. Measures.— \8.Phetoric.— \9. Poetry . — 20. Medical skill.— -21. Commerce.— 22. National pride.— 23. Kind-ness towards each other.— 2^. Mode of saluta-tion. 25. Proper names.-— 20. Domestic em-
ployments. — 27. Food. -— 28. Music, and otherdiversions.
Chap. IV. The wars of the Araucanians with theSpaniards, and concomitant events.
1. The Toqui Aillavila.—2. The Toqui Lincoyan.—3. Imperial founded.---!^. Villariqa founded. —
5. The Cunches.—G. Valdivia founded.-— 7 . For-tresses of Fiiren, Tucapel, and Araiico built.—8. City of the Frontiers founded. -— 9. Threeprincipal military offices instituted at Concepcion.
— \Q. The Toqui Caupolican. 11. Valdivia
slain.— Lautaro appointed lieutenant-general,—12. The mountain Mariguenu. 13. The Go-
vernor Villa gr an. —1^. Conception destroyed.—15. The small-pox appears.-— \0. Decision ofthe audience of Lima 1 'especting the governors.-—17. Concepcion rebuilt, and destroyed by Lau-taro.— Lautaro arrives at Santiago.— 19.Death of Lautaro.— 20. Caupolican raises thesiege of Imperial.— 21. The Governor Don Gar-
cia Hurtado de Mendoza.— 22. Caupolican takenprisoner and impaled.— 23. Cahete founded.—24. The Cur.ches, their curious embassy and stra-tagem.— 25. Archipelago of Chiloe discovered.-—26. City of Osorno founded.— 27 . Caupolican theSecond.— 28. The Guarpes subjected.— 29. St.Juan and Mendoza founded,— 30. Villagran re-instated. — 31. The province of Tucuman re-stored, afterwards retaken. 32. Cahete de-stroyed.— 33. Pedro Villagran. ---34. The To-qui Pcdllataru,— 35. Archipelago of Chiloe sub-jected; description of the same ; its inhabitants,fc.-—36. The court of audience established.—
37. Suppression of the tribunal of audience.— -
38. Description of the Pehuenches .—39 . De-scription of the Chiquillanians . — 40. Landingand defeat of the English.— ^1. Nature oj thewar in anno 1589. — 42. Independence restored.--43. Expedition of the Dutch.-— All theSpanish settlements destroyed.— 1^5. Court of au-dience re-established.— i6. Ineffectual efforts ofPhilip III. to establish a lasting peace. — VI .Second expedition of the Dutch.— F8. Secondexpedition o f the English.— ^9. Peace at lengthconcluded.-— 50. Last expedition of the Dutch.— 51. Dreadful earthquake. — 52. Commercewith the French.— 53. How the Pehuenches be-came inimical to the Spaniards.— 51. Peace re-stored.
Chap. V. Present state of Chile.
1. Civil government.— 2. Military force.— -3. Ec-clesiastical government. 4. The cities anddwellings.— 5. Population.— 6. Chilian Creoles.—7. ^ate of arts and sciences.— 8. The pea-santry .—9. Dress, S;c.— 10. Diseases; small-pox, how cured.— 11 . Manners, moral and phy-sical. 12. Internal and external commerce,
mines, imports, and exports. — 13. Natural divi-sions.— U. Poliiiced divisions.— 15. Climate.— -16. Of rain. — 11 . Winds.— -IS. Meteors.— 19.Volcanoes. — 20. Earthquakes. —21. Some de-tail of productions.— 22. Present revolution.
Origin and language of the Chilians .—Conquestof the Peruvians, and state of Chile before thearrival of the Spaniards.-— What was then itspolitical establishments, government, and arts.Of the origin and huiguage of the Chilians, notraces are to be found further back than the middleof the 15th century, -which was the time when (hePeruvians first began (heir conquests in this de-lightful country. It is the general opinion thatAmerica was settled from the n. e. part of Asia,but the opinion entertained by the Chilians is, (hat '3 E 2
[modesty and simplicity ; their dress is entirely ofwool, and, agreeable to the natural taste, of agreenish blue colour ; it consists of a tunic, a gir-dle, and a short cloak, called ichella, which isfastened before with a silver buckle. The tunic,called chiamal^ is long, and descends to the feet ; itis without sleeves, and is fastened upon the shoul-der by silver broches or buckles ; this dress,sanctioned by custom, is never varied ; but togratify their love of finery, they adorn themselveswith all those trinkets which caprice or vanity sug-gests. They divide their hair into several tresses,Avhich float in graceful negligence over their shoul-ders, and decorate their heads with a species offalse emerald, called glianca, held by them in highestimation ; their necklaces and bracelets are ofglass, and their ear-rings, which are square, ofsilver ; they have rings upon each finger, thegreater part of which are of silver. It is calculatedthat more than 100,000 marks of this metal areemployed in these female ornaments, since theyare worn even by the poorest class.
4. Dwellings . — We have already given someaccount of the dwellings of the ancient Chilians :the Araucanians, tenacious, as are all nations notcorrupted by luxury, of the customs of theircountry, have made no change in their mode ofbuilding. But as they are almost all polygamists,the size of their houses is proportioned to the num-ber of women they can maintain ; the interior ofthese houses is very simple ; the luxury of conve-nience, splendour, and show, is altogether un-known in them, and necessity alone is consultedin the selection of their furniture. They neverform towns, but live in scattered villages or ham-lets on the banks of rivers, or in plains that areeasily irrigated. Their local attachments arestrong, each family preferring to live upon theland inherited from its ancestors, which they cul-tivate sufficiently for their subsistence. The geniusof this haughty people, in which the savage stillpredominates, will not permit them to live irtwalled cities, which they consider as a mark ofservitude.
5. Division of the Araucanian state.— Althoughin their settlements the Araucanians are wanting inregularity, that is by no means the case in thepolitical division of their state, which is regulatedwith much nicety and intelligence. They havedivided it from n. to s. into four tdhal-mapiis, orparallel tetrarchates, that are nearly equal, towhich they give the names of Laiiquen-mapu, themaritime country ; L,elbun-mapu^ the plain coun-try ; Inapire-mapUy the country at the foot of theAndes ; and Pire-mapuj or that of the Andes.
Each uthal-mapu is divided into five aillareguesor provinces; and each aillaregue, into nine reguesor counties. The maritime country comprehendsthe provinces of Arauco, Tucapel, lllicura, Bo-roa, and Nagtolten ; the country of the plain in-cludes those of Encol, Puren, Reposura, Ma-quegua, and Mariquina ; that at the foot of theAndes contains Mar veil, Colhue, Chacaico, Que-cheregua, and Guanagua ; and in that of theAndes is included all the valleys of the cordillerasysituate within the limits already mentioned,which arc inhabited by the Puelches. These moun-taineers, who were formerly a distinct nation, inalliance Avith the Araucanians, are now unitedunder their government, and have the same ma-gistrates. In the second and third articles of theregulations of Lonquilmo, made in the year 1784,the limits of each uthal-mapu are expresslj" defined,and its districts marked out. It declares to beappertaining to that of the cordilleras., the Huilli-ches of Changolo, those of Gayolto and Rucacho-roy, to the s. ; the Puelches and Indian pampas tothe n. from Malalque and the frontiers of Mendozato the Mamil-mapu in the pampas of BuenosAyres ; the whole forming a corporate body withthe Puelches and Pehuenches of Maule, Chilian,and Antuco; so that at present, in case of an in-fraction of the treaty, it may easily be known whatuthal-mapu is to make satisfaction. This divi-sion of Araucania, Avhich discovers a certain de-gree of refinement in its political administration, isof a date anterior to the arrival of the Spaniards,and serves as a basis for the civil government ofthe Araucanians, w'hich is aristocratic, as that ofmany other barbarous nations has been. Thisspecies of republic consists of three orders of no-bility, each subordinate to the other; the toqiiis,the apo~ulmenes, and the ulmenes, all of Avhomhave their respective vassals. The toquis, whomay be styled tetrarchs, are four in number, andpreside over the uthal-mapus. The appellation oftoqui is derived from the verb toquin, which sig-nifies to judge or command ; they are independentof each other, but confederated for the publicAvelfare. The apo-iilmenes or arch-ulmenes go-vern the provinces under their respective toquis.The ulraenes, who are the prefects of the regues orcounties, are dependent upon the apo-ulmenes ;this dependence, however, is confined almost en-tirely to military affairs. Although the ulmenesare the lowest in the scale of the Araucanian aris-tocracy, the superior ranks, generally speaking,are comprehended under the same title, which isequivalent to that of cacique. The discriminativebadge of the toqui is a species of battle-axe, made]
[thinking he had freed himself from a rival, he be-lieved he had lost his chief co-operator in the glo-rious work of restoring his country. As soon ashe received the mournful news, he quitted thesiege of Imperial, which was reduced to the lastextremity, and returned with his army to thefrontiers to protect them from the incursions of theenemy.
21. The Governor Don Garcia Hurtado deMendoza .—The next person this general had toencounter, proved more formidable than any ofthe former Spanish chiefs; it was Don GarciaHurtado de Mendoza, wlio was appointed to thegovernraetit by his father, the Marquis of Canete,viceroy of Peru.
22. Cuupolican taken prisoner and impaled.— -He took possession of the island of Quriquina, andduring his stay there, wiiich was almost the wholewinter, he did not fail to send embassies to theAraucanians, expressing the w ish of coming to anamicable accommodation ; but they were not in-clined to listen to any proposals, and on the 6thof August military operations again commenced,and the result of several battles wliic h were foughton this occasion was, that the Araucanians were ge-nerally defeated, and that they eventually lost theirleader Caupolican, who being taken prisoner bythe Spaniards was, by the command of DonGarcia, and with the entire disapprobation of theSpanish army, put to an ignotninious death.
23. Canete founded . — But it should be remark-ed, that the Spanish general having proceeded inhis marches to the province ofTucapel, and hav-ing come to the place where Valdivia had beendefeated, built there, in contempt of his con-querors, a city which he called Canete, from thetitular appellation of his family ; and that, con-sidering the Araiicanian Avar as already terminated,he gave orders for the rebuilding of the city ofConcepcion,
24. The Ctinches, their curious embassy and
stratagem.— -\i Avas in 1558 that the above com-mander first marched with a numerous body oftroops against the Clinches, a people who had notyet been opposed to the Spanish arms. These,when they first heard of the arrival of the strangers,met to deliberate whether they should submit, orresist their victorious forces ; and an Araucanianexile, called Tunconobuf who Avas present at theassembly, and who was desired to give his opinionupon the measures proposed, replied in the fol-lovt ing terms : Be cautious how you adopt
either of these measures ; as vassals you Avill bedespised, and compelled to labour ; as enemies, youwill be exterminated. If you wish to free your-
selves of these dangerous visitors, make them be-lieve you are miserably poor ; hide your pro-perty, particularly your gold ; tliey Avill not re-main where they have no expectation of findingthat sole object of their Avishes ; send them sucha present as will impress them Avith an idea of yourpoverty, and in the mean time retire to thewoods,” The Clinches approved the wise counselof the Araucanian, and commissioned him, AVithnine natives of the country, to carry the presentAvhich he had recommended to the Spanish gene-ral. Accordingly, clothing himself and compa-nions in Avretched rags, he appeared Avith ei'erymark of fear before that officer, and after compli-menting him, in rude terms, presented him a bas-ket containing some roasted lizards and Avild fruits.The Spaniards, who could not refrain from laugli-ter at the appearance of the ambassadors and theirpresents, began to dissuade the governor from pur-suing an expedition Avhich, from all appearances,would prove unproductive. But although lie waspersuaded that these people Avere poor and Avretch-ed, yet, lest he sliould discover too great facilityin relinquishing his plan, he exhorted his troopsto prosecute the expedition he had undertaken,assuring them, that further on, according to theinformation he liad received, they avouIcI find acountry that abounded in all the metals. Havingtherefore inquired of the Cunches the best road tothe s. Tnncoaobal directed him toAvards the w.which was the most rough and mountainous; andthe same, being applied to for a guide, gave himone of his companions, whom he charged to con-duct the army by the most desolate and difficultiiroads of the coast. The guide pursued so strictlythe instruction of the Araucanian, that the Spa-niards, who in their pursuit of conquest Avere ac-customed to surmount Avith ease the severestfatigues, acknowledged that they had never before,in any of their marches, encountered difficultiescomparable with these.
25. Archipelago pf Chiloe d/sforerer/.— Havingat length overcome all obstacles, they came to thetop of a high mountain, from Avhence they dis-covered the great Archipelago of Anced, morecommonly called Chiloe, wliose channels Averecovered with a great number of boats navigatedwith sails and oars. From these islanders the Spa-niards experienced every mark of politeness andhumanity, and constantly regaled by them, theycoasted the Archipelago to the bay of Reloncavi,when some Avent over to the neighbouring islands,where they found land well cultivated, and womenemployed in spinning wool mixed with feathers ofsea birds, with Avhich they made their clothes.]
[The celebrafed poet Ercilla was one of the party,ami solicitous of the rcj)utation of having pro-ceeded Anther s. than any other European, hecrossed the gulf, and upon the opposite shore in-scribed on the bark of a tree some verses contain-ing his name, and the time of the discovery, the5Jst January 1559.
26. Cit?/ of Osorno founded. — Don Garciasatisfied with having bee ti the first to discover byland the Archipelago of Chiioe, returned, takingfor his guide one of those islanders, who conduct-cfl liim safely to Imperial through the country ofthe Huiiliches, which is for the most part level,a d abounds in provisions. The inhabitants, whoare similar in every respect to their western neigh-bours the Cunches, made no opposition to hispassage. He there founded, or, according to somewriters, rebuilt the city of Osorno, which increas-ed rapidly, not less from its manufactures ofwoollen and linen stuffs, than from the fine goldprocured from its mines, which were afterwardsdestroyed by tlie Toqui Paillamacu.
Sect. II. Comprising a period of 27 ^ears, from1559 to 1586.
27. Coupolican //. — The campaign of thefollowing year was rendered still more memorableby the numerous battles that were fought betweenthe two armies ; that of the Araucanians was com-manded by Caupolican, the eldest son of the gene-ral of that name ; but though he possessed thecelebrated talents of his father, he was not equallysuccessful in defeating his enemy. lJut of all hisicontests, thalof Quipeo was the most unfortunate ;for here he lost all Ids most valiant officers, andbeing pursued by a detachment of Spanish horse,he slew himself to avoid the melancholy fate of hisfather.
28. The Guarpes subjected. —~T)on Garcia, con-sidering this baftle decisive in every point of view,and finding himself provided with a good numberof veteran troops, sent a part of them, under theeornmand of Pedro Castillo, to complete the con-quest of Cujo, which had been commenced byFrancis de Aguirre. That prudent officer sub-jeclcd the Guarpe.s, the ancient inhabitants of thatprovince, to the Spanish government.
29. St. J uan and Mendoza founded.—We found-ed on the c, limits of the Andes two cities, one ofwhich he called .It. .Tuan, and the other Mendoza,from the family name of the governor. This ex-tensive and fertile country remained for a consider-able time under the government of Chile, but hassince been transferred to the viceroyalty of BuenosAyres, to which, from its natural situation, it ap-
pertains. Whilst in this manner Don Garcia tookadvantage of the apparent calm that prevailed inthe country, he heard of the arrival at BuenosAyres of the person appointed his successor by thecourt of Spain. In consequence of this informa-tion, confiding the government for the present toRodrigo de Quiroga, he returned to Peru, w here,as a reward for his services, he was promoted tothe exalted station which his father had filled.
SO. Villagran reinstated.— ~'VUe governor ap-pointed in place of Don Garcia was his predeces-sor, Francis Villagran, w ho having gone to Eu-rope after he had been deprived of the government,procured his reinstatement therein from the courtof Spain. On his arrival at Chile, supposing,from the information of Don Garcia and Quiroga,that nothing more was necessary to be done withthe Araucanians, and that they were in no condi-tion to give him trouble, Villagran turned his at-tention to the re-acquisition of the province ofTucuman, which, after having been by him, in1549, subjected to the government of Chile, hadbeen since attached to the viceroyalty of Peru.
31. The province of Tucuman restored, after-wards retaken.— Gvegon Castaneda, who had thecharge of this enterprise, defeated the Iferuviancommander, Juan Zurita, the author of the dis-memberment, and restored the country to theobedience of the captains-generalof Chile ; it was,however, retained under their government but ashort time, as they were obliged by the court ofSpain, before the close of the century, to cede itagain to the government of Peru. But neitherDon Garcia nor Quiroga, notwithstanding the longtime they had fought in Chile, had formed a cor-rect opinion of the temper of the people whom theypretended they bad conquered. The invincibleAraucanian cannot be made to submif to the bit-terest reverses of fortune. The few ulraenes whohad escaped from the late defeats, more than everdetermined to continue the war, assembled, imme-diately after the rout of Quipeo, in a wood, wherethey unanimously elected as toqui an officer ofinferior rank, called Antiguenu, who had signa-lized himself in the last battle. He, with a fewsoldiers, retired to the inaccessible marches ofLumaco, called by the Spaniards the Rochela,wheie he caused high scaffolds to be erected tosecure his men from the extreme moisture of thisgloomy retreat. The youth , who were from time totime enlisted, went thither to be instructed in thescience of arms, and the Araucanians still consi-dered themselves free, since they had a toqui.
32. Cahete r/eitrqyec?.— -Antiguenu began nowto make incursions in the Spanish territory, in]
C I N
C I N
four or five times in the year ; which causes theground to be so parched, that it would be entirelyuninhabitable, were it not for the multitude ofstreams with which it is intersected, and whichrender the temperature mild and healthy. Thecountry for the most part consists of levels, coveredwith green shrubs and trees, forming shady woodsof three or four leagues in extent. In these arefound the Brazil-wood, ebony, &c. which serve asan asylum for wild beasts, leopards and wildboars, deer and rabbits, a variety of mountain cats,coyotes, serpents and vipers. In the valleys arefound a multitude of quails, turtle-doves, pheasants,cranes, parrots, macaws, much esteemed for thebeauty of their plumage, and with which the In-dians adorn themselves, and an infinite variety ofother birds. The rivers, all of which descend fromthe sierras of Topia, in the rainy season increase tosuch a degree as to inundate the country for thespace of three or four leagues ; and generally re-maining out for eight days at least, the Indians areunder the necessity of forming for themselves akind of terrace upon the branches of trees, by meansof planks and sods, where they make fires and dresstheir food. There are many salt ponds, also minesof silver, which are not worked for want of la-bourers. This province was peopled by severalnations of Indians, who had their villages and hutson the sides of rivers. They used to maintain them-selves on maize, which they cultivated, afso on ca-labashes, which are very sweet and savoury, Frenchbeans, and a species of wild caroh plant, called bythem mesqnites, and which being ground, theyused to drink in water, after the manner of choco-late. They had also another delicacy in the plantcalled mezcalj which resembles the savila ; of thisthere are several sorts, of which they make wine,sweets, and vinegar ; of its tendrils thread, and ofits prickles needles. This country also abounds innopales, pitahayas, and other plants, includingmany which are native to Europe. Alvar NunezCabeza de Vaca was the first who discovered thisextensive province in his perigrination, after he hadsuffered shipwreck in going from Florida toMexico ; and from his report of it, the viceroyBon Antonio de Mendoza was induced to send intoit some persons to discover more concerning it. In1590 it was visited by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits, who came hither to preach thegospel. They succeeded in making proselytesamongst the natives, and established a regularmission, which was patronized by the Queen DonaMargarita of Austria, wife of Philip III. ; shehaving sent, for the promotion of the interests of
this* great object, and for the decorations of thealtars, &c. several valuable presents of jewels,ornaments, and other precious articles. Thecapital is the town of San Felipe and Santiago,and the other settlements are,
Montes Claros, Toro,
Real de Alamos, Concepcion,
Ocosconi, Real de los Fra-
San Ignacio, Vaca,
Santa Ana, Toriz,
Chiguaguilla, Valle Umbroso,
San Miguel, Canamoas,
[CINCINNATI, a flourishing town in the ter-ritory of the United States, n. w. of the Ohio, andthe present seat of government. It stands on then. bank of the Ohio, opposite the mouth of Lick-ing river, two miles and a half s. w. of fort Wash-ington, and about eight miles w. of Columbia.Both these towns lie between Great and LittleMiami rivers. Cincinnati contains about 200houses ; and is 82 miles n. bye. of Frankfort;90 n. w. of Lexington, and 779 w. by s. ofPhiladelphia. Lat. 38° 42' n. Long. 84° IPw.']
[CINCINNATUS is the s. easternmost of themilitary townships of New York state. It has Vir-gil on the and Salem, in Herkemer county, on the
e. and lies on two branches of Tioughnioga river,a n. w. branch of the Chenango. The centre ofthe town lies 53 miles s. w. by w. of Cooperstown,and 39 s. e. by s. of the 5. e, end of Salt lake.Lat. 42° 27'
management of the horse, and in this they are notunrivalled by the women. The common sort arealso extremely skilful in the management of the^azo, which they throw over the animal in itsflight, never missing their aim. This citjr hassuffered extreme misfortunes ever since the time ofits foundatiqn ; for shortly after this took place,its inhabitants found themselves under the neces-sity of retiring frona it to Santiago, through theinvasion of the Araucanos and Tucapeles Indians,who made themselves masters of it, and sackedand burnt it in 1554, under the command of theCazique Lautaro : again, though the Spaniardsendeavoured to repeople it, they were a secondtime driven back, as also a third time, in 1603,when the Governor Don Garcia Hurtardo de Men-doza, Marquis of Canete, had come to suppressthe general insurrection of the Indians. It wasafter this rebuilt, and in 1730 again destroyed by adreadful earthquake, being entirely inundated bythe sea. It suffered also much from a similarshock in 1751. In the chief square, or market-place, is a beautiful fountain, made by the com-mand of Don Diego Gonzalo Montero. The tri-bunal of royal audience was fixed in this city fromthe time that it was founded, in 1567, and re-mained here until the year 1574, when it wastranslated to the capital of the kingdom, Santiago.It has been the head of a bishopric ever since 1620,when this honour was transferred to the city ofImperial. It is the residence of a governor, de-pendent on the captain-general and president itbeing his duty to reside six months of the year inSantiago, and the other six in this city. [Besidesthe commerce of hides, tallow, and dried beef, theinhabitants of Concepcion carry on a trade inwheat, which Frazier asserts yields 100 for one.Also near this city, as well as in various otherparts of Chile, pit-coal is found in great abund-ance; and, according to the above author, minesof it have been discovered at the depth of one ortwo feet from the surface. See Chile.] Sixtyleagues to the s. of Santiago, in lat. 36° 48' 15"$. and long. 73° 8'.
Bishops who have presided in Concepcion ofChile.
1. Don Frat/ Antonio de San Miguel, a monkof the order of St. Francis, native of Salamanca;elected to be first bishop in 1564, and promotedto Quito in 1587.
2. Don Agustin de Cisneros, dean of the churchof Santiago of Chile ; elected bishop of this, and©f Concepcion, in 1587 ; he died in 1534.
3. Don Fray Pedro de Azuaga, and not Diego de
Zuaga, as Gil Gonzalez Davila will have it, amonk of the order of St. Francis; elected in1595 ; he died before he was consecrated.
4. Don Fra^ Reginaldo de Lizarraga, native ofLima; elected in 1796 ; he died in 1613.
5. Don Carlos Marcelo Corni, native of Trux-illo in Peru, magistral canon of Lima ; promotedto the bishopric of his country in 1620.
6. Don Fra^ Luis Geronimo de Ore, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Guamanga, a ce-lebrated writer in the different Indian languages,for which he had a peculiar talent ; elected in1622 ; he died in 1628.
7. Don Fray Alonso de Castro, of 4he order ofSt. Augustin ; he did not accept the bishopric. .
8. Don Diego de Zambranaand Villalbos ; pro-moted to Santiago of Chile.
9. Don Fray Dionisio Cimbron, of the orderof St. Bernard, native of Cintruenigo in Navarra ;he was prior in the monasteries of Espina, Jun-quera, and Ossera, secretary of the difinidor gene-ral, and presented to the bishopric of Concepcionin 1651.
10. Don Fray Diego Medellin, of the order ofSt. Francis, native of Lima.
11. Don Fray Antonio de Morales, native ofLima, of the order of preachers, provincial inhis religion.
12. Don Fray Francisco de Vergara Loyola deIza, of the order of St. Augustin, provincial ofhis religion, and native of Lima.
13. Don Fray Andres de Betancur, of the orderof St. Francis, provincial in the province of SantaFe ; elected in 1664.
14. Don Fray Luis de Lemos y Usategui, ofthe order of St. Augustin, preacher to KingCharles II. native of Lima.
15. Don Diego Montero del Aguila; promotedto the bishopric of Truxillo in 1716.
16. Don Francisco Antonio de Escandon; pro-moted to the bishopric of Quito in 1730.
17. Don Salvador Bermudez, school-master inthe church of Quito; he did not accept the ap-pointment, and in his place was nominated by theking,
18. Don Andres de Paredes Polanco y Ar-mendariz, who was afterwards promoted to Quitoin 1734.
19. Don Pedro Azua Iturgoyen, native of Lima ;promoted, in 1744, to be archbishop ofSanta Fe.
20. Don Joseph de Toro Zambrano, native ofpSantiago of Chile, doctoral canon of its church;elected, in 1744, bishop of Concepcion ; he go-verned until his death in 1760.
(bring in exchange dry goods, and this they doeither by avoiding the vigilance of the guards, orby purchasing a connivance. The population ofCoi^ is composed of 10,000 people of all colours ;few slaves are to be seen here, since the Indians,although they everywhere else have a particularpartiality for the blacks, entertain a decided aver-sion against them in this city. This antipathywas very useful in 1797 to the public tranquillity,for when the Negro slaves employed at w ork inthe fields, wished to follow the example of theblacks of St. Domingo, and selected chiefs, underwhom they committed some robberies, the In-dians of Corojoined the white people, and marchedagainst the rebels with most extraordinary cou-rage ; the revolt was thus suppressed almost assoon as it broke out ; the ring-leaders were hang-ed, and every thing was restored to order ; therebel army never amounted to more than 400blacks. All work at Coro is done by Indians,notwithstanding the wages are very low ; indeedthey li ve here with so much parsimony that a per-son cannot fetch fire from his neighbour’s withoutcarrying in exchange a piece of wood of the sizeof the firing he takes away, and even this is notalways done without difficulty. The city has nospring, and the water they drink is brought fromthe distance of half a league by asses in barrels, ofwhich two compose a load. The houses, thoughoriginally well built, bear evident marks of misery,and of the ravages of time; those belongingtothe Indians are yet more pitiful. The streets runin parallel lines, but are not paved ; the publicbuildings consist of a parish church, formerly acathedral, which title is yet given to it by the in-habitants, although for more than 160 years ithas been without a bishop or a chapter, the dutybeing performed by two curates, belonging to aconvent containing about seven or eight Francis-cans, and to a parish church in which are threemonks of the same order. The civil power isexercised by a cahildo. Since 1799, a militarycommandant has been established here, who sharesat the same time the judicatory authority, and thatof the police ; his revenue being 2000 dollars perannum. Two miles to the n. of Coro is an isthmusof about one league in breadth, which joins tlie pen-insula of Paragona to the continent ; it stretches outfrom the s. w. to n. w. about 20 leagues ; is inhabit-ed by Indians and a few whites, whose only em-ployment is the rearing of cattle, which they smug-gle over in great numbers to Cura^oa ; thebutchers’ shops of that island being always bettersupplied than those of the principal cities of TicrraFirme.
This was the only city of Venezuela, exceptMaracaibo, which had not declared independenceon the 2Ist August 1811. See Venezuela.The city is in lat. 11° 24' n. and long. 69° 40'; itis a league distant from the sea, SO leagues w. ofCaracas, 33 n. of Barquisimeto, and 55 of Mara-caibo.)
COROBAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru, inwhich is venerated a miraculous image of NuestraSenora de Guadalupe. Near it are two caves,each capable of containing 50 horsemen with theirspears erect.
COROBANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, which, according to Mr.Beilin, in his chart and description of the course ofa part of the Orinoco, runs continually n. andenters this river near where it runs into the sea.
COROCOTO, a town of the above province andcorregimiento, a reduccion of the Pampas Indians ;situate on the shore of the river Tunuyan, nearthe high road which leads from Mendoza to BuenosAyres, in the district of which are tiie estates ofCarrizal Grande, Carvalillo, Lulunta, and Men-docinos.
COROCUBI, a river of the province and coun-try of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions.It is small, runs s. and enters the Negro, forminga dangerous torrent or whirl-pool, which bears thesame name.
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llio Naipi to Cartagena. The same way offersthe advantage of a very quick communication be-tween Cadiz and Lima. Instead of dispatchingcouriers by Cartagena, Santa Fe, and Quito, orby Buenos Ayres and Mendoza, good quick-sail-ing packet-boats might be sent from Cupica toPeru. If this plan were carried into execution,the viceroy of Lima would have no longer to waitfive or six months for the orders of his court. Be-sides, the environs of the bay of Cupica aboundswith excellent timber fit to be carried to Lima.We might almost say that the ground betweenCupica and the mouth of the Atrato is the onlypart of all America in which the chain of theAndes is entirely broken.]
CUQUIO, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdictionof Nueva Espana, in the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara ; is one of themost civilized and fertile, abounding in fruits andseeds, and being of a mild temperature. It iswatered by three rivers, which are the Verde onthe e. the Mesquital on the w. and the Rio Grandeon the s. in which last the two former becomeunited.
The capital is the settlement of its name, in-habited by a large population of Indians, some
[CURA, with the surname of St. Louis de, issituate in a valley formed by mountains of a verygrotesque appearance ; those on the s. w. side arecapped with rocks. The valley is, however, fer-tile, and covered with produce, but the greaterpart of the property consists in animals. Thetemperature is warm and dry ; the soil is a reddishclay, which is extremely muddy in the rainy sea-sons ; the water is not limpid, although it is whole-some. The inhabitants are 4000, governed bya cabildo. In the church is an image of our Ladyof Valencianosy the claim to which was long asubject of dispute between the curate of Cura andthat of Sebastian de los Reynos ; and after a SO yearscontest, it was ordered by the bishop Don Fran-cisco de Ibarro to be returned to this place, whenit was received in a most triumphant manner. Thiscity is in lat. 10° 2' ; twenty-two leagues s. xo. ofCaracas, and eight leagues s. e, of the lake ofValencia.]
CURACOA, or Curazao, an island of theN. sea, one of the Smaller Antilles ; situate nearthe coast of the province and government of Vene-zuela. It is 30 miles long, and 10 broad, and is theonly island of any consideration possessed by theDutch in America. It was settled in 1527, by theEmperor Charles V. as a property upon theliouse ofJuan de Ampues ; is fertile, and abounds in sugarand tobacco, large and small cattle, also in very goodsaline grounds, by which the other islands are pro-vided : but its principal commerce is in a contra-band trade carried on with the coasts of TierraFirme ; on which account its storehouses are filledwith articles of every description imaginable.Formerly its ports were seldom without vessels ofCartagena and Portobelo, which were employedn the Negro trade, bringing home annually froiu1000 to 15,000 Negroes, with various other ar-ticles of merchandise, although this branch ofcom-merce has, from the time that it was taken up bythe English, greatly declined. On the s. part of
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CUTI, a river of the province and captainship of Maranan in Brazil. CUTIGUBAGUBA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate on the shore of the river of Las Amazonas ; to the n. of the city of Para. Cutiguba, an island of the river of Las Amazonas, opposite the city of Para.
CUTUBUS, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the river Besani. CUTUCUCHE, a river of the province and government of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It flows down on the s. side of the skirt of the mountain and volcano of Cotopacsi, and united with the Alaques, forms the San Miguel, which laves part of the llanura of Callo, runs near the settlement of Mulahalo, and by a country seat and estate of the Marquisses of Maenza, who have here some very good cloth manufactories. This river runs very rapid, and in 1766, owing to an eruption of the volcano, it inundated the country, doing infinite mischief; again it was, a second time, thrown out of its bed, though the damage it then did was nothing like what it was on the former occasion.
CUTUN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. COTUNLAQUE, a pass of the road which leads from the city of Quito to Machache, almost impracticable in the winter time, and only noted for being a place of infinite difficulty and vexation to such as are obliged to travel it. CUTUPITE, Cano de, an arm of the river Orinoco, in the province and government of Guayana, one of those which form ifs different mouths or entrances; it is that which lies most close to the coast of Tierra Firme, aud which, with the coast, forms part of the canal of Manao.
CUYO, Cotio, or Cujo, a large province of the kingdom of Chile, and part of that which is called Chile Oriental or Tramontano, from its being on the other side of the cordiUera of the Andes; bounded e. by the country called Pampas ; n. by the district of Rioxa, in the province and government of Tucuman ; *. by the lands of Magellan, or of the Patagonians; and®, by the cordillera of the Andes, which is here called the Western, Cismontana, part of those mountains. It is of a benign and healthy climate ; and although in the summer, the heat on the llanuras is rather oppressive, extremely fertile, and abounding, independently of the fruits peculiar to the country, in wheat, all kinds of pulse, wine, and brandies, which were formerly carried to the provinces of Tucuman aud Buenos Ayres, although this traffic has of late fallen into decay, from the frequent arrivals of vessels from Spain. It abounds in all kinds of cattle, and in the cordiUera, and even ia the pampas, are large breeds of vicunas, huanacos, vizcachas, turtles, two kinds of squirrels, ostriches, tigers, leopards, and an infinite quantity of partridges, pigeons, and turtledoves. The flesh of the swine and mules is esteemed the best in all America; and, generally speaking, victuals areso cheap that it may be procured at little or no expence. The skirts of the mountains are covered with beautiful woods, and their tops are overspread with snow. Throughout nearly the whole province is found a great quantity of glasswort, and in the cordiUera are some mines of silver, especially in the valley of Iluspallata, which were formerly worked by fusion, to the great detriment of the metal, but which are to this day worked in the same manner as those of Peru, and consequently afford greater emolument. Here are also some gold mines, and others of very good copper. The rivers which water this province all rise in the cordiUera, and the most considerable of them are the Tunuyan, which is the first to the s. those of Mendoza, San Juan, Jachal, and the Colorado to the n. e. In the cordiUera, near the high road leading from Santiago to Mendoza, is the great lake of the Inca, wherein are said to be great treasures deposited by the Incas at the beginning of the conquest, to keep them from the Spaniards. This lake is bottomless, and it is thought to be formed of the snows melted and flowing down from the mountainous parts of the district. On the side towards Chile the lake has a vent by six or seven small branches, forming the river of Aconcagua ; and from the opposite side issue some other streams in a contrary direction, and form the Mendoza. In the very heat of summer this
lake is as cold as snow itself, This province, like all the others of the kingdom which lie to the s. e. of the cordilfcra, is ever subject to terrible tempests of thunder and lightning, accompanied with boisterous winds and rains from October to March; the same not happening in the provinces which lie to the to. The Indians of this province are of a darker complexion than those of any other ; but they are also of loftier stature, better made, agile, and extremely addicted to the chase, in which they greatly excel, and more particularly in the taking of ostriches, which abound in the llanuras to \X\cs. ; and by all of these exercises they become so light and active as to be able to keep pace with a horse. These Indians are generally known here by the name of Guapes, and are descendants of the Pampas, their neighbours to the e. with whom they trade in the fruits of the country in exchange for clothes and other articles, money not being known amongst any of these barbarians. The Guapes are of a docile and generous disposition, but of great spirit, and very warlike, robust, and well formed. This country, considering its extent, is but thinly peopled, since its inhabitants amount to only 25,000 of all sexes and ages, according to the latest calculation. The capital is the city of Mendoza. [See Chile.] _ _
[ CUYOACAN, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, containing a convent of nuns founded by Hernan Cortes, in which, according to his testament, this great captain wished to be interred, " in whatever part of the world he should end his days." This clause of the testament was never fulfilled.] CUYOCUYO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. CUYOTAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Quishuares. CUYOTEPEC, San Bartolome de, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Antequera, in the province and bishopric of Oaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a middle temperature, contains 358 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic. In its district are sown in abundance various kinds of seeds and American aloes, of which is made pulque: Four leagues s. of its capital. CUYUANA, an island of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, formed by two arms of the river Cudiivara or Purus, which separate before they c u z enter the Maranon. It is large, and of an irregular square figure. CUYUM, or Cuyuni, a large river of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana. Its origin is not known for certain ; but, from the accounts of the Caribes Indians, it is somewhere near the lake Parime, in the interior of the province, and to the n. e. of the said lake. It runs nearly due from n. to s. making several turnings, until it enters the Esquivo. By this river the Dutch merchants of this colony, assisted by the Caribes, go to entrap the Indians, to make them labour in the estates ; and they have built two forts on either side of the mouth of this river.
CUZABAMBA, a large settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lamas in Peru ; close to which passes a small river of the same name, and which afterwards unites itself with the river Moyobamba. Cuzabamba, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Tacunga, of the kingdom of Quito.
CUZALAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Ayotitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Amola, in Nueva Espana. Its population is very small, and its inhabitants employ themselves in the cultivation of seeds and breeding of cattle. Nine leagues to the w. of its head settle ment. CUZAMALA, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Azuchitlan in Nueva Espana, lying 10 leagues to the n. of its capital, and being divided from the same by two large rivers. It is of a hot and dry temperature ; its population is composed of 36 families of Spaniards, 30 of Mustees, 48 of Mulattoes, and 53 of Indians, who speak the Taracan language. The trade here consists in large cattle, in the cultivation of maize, and making cascalote. Some emolument also is derived from renting the lands belonging to the capital and the neighbouring settlements. CUZCATLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of San Salvador in the kingdom of Guatemala. CUZCO, as it is called by the Indians, a city, the capital of a corregimiento in Peru, the head of a bishopric, erected in 1536, founded by the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac, in 1043, who divided it into Hanam Cozco and Hurin Cozco, which signify Cuzco Lofty and Low, or Superior and Inferior ; the former towards the n. and the second towards the s. It is situate upon a rough and unequal plain formed by the skirts of various mountains, which are washed by