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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACAXUCHITLAN the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tulazingo, to the N E. It contains 406 Indian families, and is a curacy of the bishopric of La Puebla de los Angeles. Distant four leagues to the E of its capital.
ACAYUCA, the alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, and of the province of Goazacoalco. Its jurisdiction is very extended, and consists, for the most part, of places of a hot and moist temperature, but so fertile is it that it gives annually four crops of maize; and as there is no demand for this production in the other provinces, it follows, of course, that the Indians here are little given to industry. Indeed the ground never requires the plough, and the whole of their labours during the seedtime consist merely in smoothing the surface of the mountains, and in scratching up the ground with a pointed stick. It is at times infested by locusts, which destroy the plants and crops ; and having never been able to find a remedy against this evil, the inhabitants had recourse to the protection of the virgin of La Conception, which is revered in the head settlement of the district of the Chichimecas ; and it is said that, owing to her mediatory influence, the plague has been thought to diminish. This province is watered by the abundant river of the Goazacoalco. The settlements of this alcaldía are, Xocoteapa, Macayapa, Menzapa, Molocan, Theimanquillo, Tinantitlan, Chinameca, Zoconusco, Olutla, Otcapa, Pochutla, Ostitan, Cozolcaque, Ixhuatla, Macatepeque.
another, the capital of the above, situate on the coast of the N. sea. Its inhabitants are composed of 30 families of Spaniards, 296 of Indians, and 70 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It lies a little more than 100 leagues S E of Mexico. Lat. 17° 53' N Long. 94° 46' 30" W.
Acacingo, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepcaca, situate in a plain of a mild temperature, and watered by two streams which run close to all the houses of the settlement, to the great comfort of the inhabitants. In the middle of the above plain there is a beautiful fountain, a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, a very ancient building, and some other buildings, which have been erected since the conquest of the country. The parish church is a piece of the most ancient architecture. The inhabitants are composed of 150 families of Spaniards, 104 of Mustees, 31 of Mulattoes, and 700 of Indians; 3 1/4 leagues E to the NE of its capital.
ACAZUTLA, a port of the S sea, on the coast of the province of the alcaldía mayor of Zuchitepec, in the kingdom of Guatemala, between the point of Los Remedios, and the settlement of Guapaca. [Lat. 14° 42' N Long. 90° 3'.]
ACCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru, situate on the skirt of a mountain, which has a prominence, seeming as though it were about to fall upon the settlement. This mountain is constantly dwindling away without any assignable cause. Lat. 13° 19 s. Long. 71° 13' W
[ACCOCESAWS. The ancient town and principal place of residence of these Indians is on the W side of Colorado of Rio Rouge, about 200 miles S W of Nacogdoches, but they often change their place of residence for a season : being near the bay, they make great use of fish, oysters &c.; kill a great many deer, which are the largest and fattest in the province ; and their country is universally said to be inferior to no part of the province in soil, growth of timber, goodness of water, and beauty of surface; they have a language peculiar to themselves, but have a mode of communication by dumb signs, which they all understand: number about 80 men. Thirty or forty years ago, the Spaniards had a mission here, but broke it up, or moved it to Nacogdoches. They talk of resettling it, and speak in the highest terms,of the country.]
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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.
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