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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]

ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.

ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.

[Abineau Port, on the N side of lake Erie, is about 13 miles W S W from fort Erie. Lat. 42° 6' N Long. 79° 15' W. ]

[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]

[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]

[ABINGTON, a township in Plymouth county, Massachusetts; 22 miles SE from Boston, and contains 1453 inhabitants. Lat. 42° 4' 30". ]

[another, a parish in the town of Pomfret in Connecticut. Lat. 42° 4' 30". Long. 70° 51' 30".]

[another, a village in Pennsylvania, 32 miles N of Philadelphia.]

Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.

ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.

Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

Last edit over 2 years ago by Romina De León

vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito. It runs from 7i. to s, and enters tlieChinchipe on the n. side, somewhat lower thanwhere this latter is entered by the Naraballe, andnear a small settlement of Indians.

CHERNAL, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Chile, in the district of the province and ccr-regimiet7tn of Copiapó. Lat. 27° 27'.

CHEROKEE, a settlement of North Carolina,where there is a fort built by the English on theshore of the river of its name, and at the mouth ofthe Agiqua.

Cherokee, a large river of the above colonyand province, called also Hogohegee and Calla-maco. It rises in the county of Augusta, and takesits name from a numerous nation of Indians ; runsV). for many leagues, forming a curve, and entersthe Ohio near the fourches of the Mississippi. Nearto this river are some very large and fertile plains ;and according to the account rendered by the In-dians, there are, at the distance of 40 leagues fromthe Chicazas nation, four islands, called Tahogale,Kakick, Cochali, and Tali, inhabited by as manyother different nations of Indians. (Cherokee wasthe ancient name of Tennessee river. The name ofTennessee was formerly confined to the fourteenthbranch, which empties 15 mites above the mouth ofClinch river, and 18 below Knoxville.)

Cherokee, the country of the Indians of thenation of this name in North Carolina. It standsw. as far as the Mississippi, and w. as far as theconfines of the Six Nations. It was ceded to theEnglish by the treaty of Westminster, in 1729.(This celebrated Indian nation is now on the de-cline. They reside in the n. parts of Georgia,and the s. parts of the state of Tennessee ; havingthe Apalachian or Cherokee mountains on the e.which separate them from North and South Caro-lina, and Tennessee river on the n. and w. and theCreek Indians on the s. The present line betweenthem and the state of Tennessee is not yet settled.A line of experiment was drawn, in 1792, fromClinch river across Holston to Chilhove mountain ;but the Cherokee commissioners not appearing, itis called a line of experiment. The complexion ofthe Cherokees is brighter than that of the neigh-bouring Indians. They are robust and well made,and taller than many of their neighbours ; beinggenerally six feet high, a few are more, and someless. Their women are tall, slender, and delicate.The talents and morals of the Cherokees are heldin great esteem. They were formerly a powerfulnation ; but by continual wars, in which it has beentheir destiny lo be engaged with the n. In-dian tribes, and with the whites, they are now re-duced to about 1500 warriors ; and they are be-coming weak and pusillanimous. Some writersestimate their numbers at 2500 warriors. Theyhave 43 towns now inhabited.)

Cherokee, a settlement of Indians of this na-tion, in the same country as that in which the Eng-lish had a fort and establishment, at the source ofthe river Caillon ; which spot is at present aban-doned.

CHERREPE, a port of the coast of Peru, and ofthe S. sea, in the province and corregimienlo ofSaña, is open, unprotected, and shallow ; andconsequently frequented only by vessels driven toit through stress, and for the sake of convenience.It is in lat. 7° 70' s.

CHERRITON, a port of the coast of the pro-vince and colony of Maryland, within the bay ofChesapeak, behind cape Charles.

(CHERRY Valley, a post-town in Otsegocounty, New York, at the head of the creek of thesame name, about 12 miles >/. e. of Coopersfown,and 18 s. of Canajohary, 61 w. of Albany,and 336 from Philadelphia. It contains about 30houses, and a Presbyterian church. There is anacademy here, which contained, in 1796, 50 or 60scholars. It is a spacious buildit)g, 60 feet by 40.The township is very large, and lies along the e.side of Otsego lake, and its outlet to Adiqnatangiecreek. By the state census of 1796, it appearsthat 629 of its inhabitants are electors. This set-tlement sutlered severely from the Indians in thelate war.)

(CHESAPEAK is one of the largest and safestbays in the United States. Its entrance is nearlye. n. e. and s. s. between cape Charles, lat. 37°13' and cape Henry, lat. 37°, in Virginia, 12 mileswide, and it extends 70 miles to the ??. dividingVirginia and Maryland. It is from 7 to IS milesbroad, and generally as much as 9 fathoms deep ;affording many commodious harbours, and a saleand easy navigation. It has many fertile islands,and these are generally along the c. side of the bay,except a few solitary ones near the xo. shore. Anumber of navigable rivers and other streamsempty into if, the chief of which are Susque-hannab, Fatapsco, Patuxent, Pofowmack, Rap-pahannock, and A^ork, which are all large and na-vigable. Chesapeak bay'- afibrds many excellentfisheries of herring and shad. There are also ex-cellent crabs and oysters. It is the resort ofswans, but is more particularly remarkable for aspecies of wild duck, called camashac/c, whoseflesh is entirely free from any fishy taste, and isadmired by epicures for its richness and delicacy.In a coinnierciul point of view, this bay is of im--

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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of whichgreat quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital,and near to the settlement of Turmeque.

CHIROBIO, a river of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela. It runs e. and enters thesea opposite the island Tarata.

CHIRTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Yambrasbamba.

CHIRU, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorand jurisdiction of Penonome in the kingdom andgovernment of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shoreof the S. sea, upon an extensive plain.

Same name, a river of this jurisdiction, which risesin the mountains of Penonome, and enters the S.sea near the settlement of Anton.

Same name, a very small island of the same juris-diction, close upon the coast, and called El Fa-rallon.

CHISAHALO, a settlement of theprovince and corregimienlo of Tacunga in thekingdom of Quito.

==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature.Its productions correspond with those of a similarclimate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a veryfew whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.

CHISGAS, Paramo de, a very lofty mountain covered with eternal snow, in the provinceand government of San Juan de los Llanos of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, between the riversApure and Sinaruco.

CHISLOCA, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; be-longing to the district of the former. It is annexedto the curacy of Tupisa.

CHISME, a settlement of the head settlementof Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor of Villalta.It contains 71 families of Indians, and lies 18leagues from its capital.

CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s.coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo,in the territory possessed by the French ; lyingbetween the settlement and parish of the English,and the point of Burgados.

CHISQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Canta in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Atabillos Altos.

CHISQUILLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee,two miles and a half from English ferry, on Newriver, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Longisland, on Holston.]

CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty ofSanta Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It isbounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. bythe country bt the Laches Indians, or province ofCochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of theOrinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, aGerman, and he was the first who entered it withhis companions in 1535. This territory is fertile,abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which isextremely large, as also in other seeds, and hasgoats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hotand unhealthy temperature, and has palms similarto those of Palestine and Barbary, producing ex-cellent dates. The capital is of the same name.This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bo-gota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly en-titled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwardsof 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twenty-four leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.

Same name, another settlement, which is the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofVillalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tempe-rature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is threeleagues and a half to the s. of its capital.

CHITAGA, Punta de, a bridge in the province and government of Merida, to the s. ofthe city of Pamplona, and upon the river of thisname.

CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians;bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct fromit, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They in-habit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains ofBogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto,and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people,and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535,having joined company with the Jiraras, theytook and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.

CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregi-mienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the NuevoReyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliytemperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains,cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from whichare made fine and much esteemed conserves.

CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pam-plona ; they are mixed with some families of theLaches. This nation is extremely numerous, andpass a wandering life without any fixed abode ;they go entirely naked, and are much given to sen-sual gratifications ; some of them have embraced2

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kingdom of Chile. It rises from one of the lakesof Avendafio, runs w. and then turning s. entersthe river Laxa. On its shore the Spaniards havea fort, called Yumbel, or Don Carlos de Austria,to restrain the Araucanos Indians.

Same name, another river in the province and cor-regimiento of Maule of the same kingdom. It runsw. and enters the Maule.

Same name, another river of the province and go-vernment of Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the valley of Corpus Christi,and running through it, enters the great riverMagdalena.

Same name, another, a small river of the provinceand government of Paraguay. It runs w. and en-ters the Mbotetei.

Same name, another small river of the kingdom ofBrazil, which also runs w. and enters the Preto orPalma, opposite the Benito.

Same name, another (river) of the same kingdom of Brazil,distinct from the former. It rises in the country ofthe Araes Indians, runs n. n. e. and enters theParcuipasa, to the w. of the toM'n Boa.

Same name, a port of the coast of the South sea, in theprovince and government of Choco in the kingdomof Tierra Firme. It lies between the port Quemadoand the bay of San Francisco Solano.

CLAUCAC, a settlement of the head settlementof Xonacatepec, and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca,in Nueva Espana.

CLAUDIO, San, a small island of the North sea,near the e. coast of Nova Scotia in N. America,in the strait which this coast forms with the islandof San Juan.

[CLAVERACK, a post-town in Columbiacounty. New York, pleasantly situated on a largeplain, about two miles and a half e. of Hudsoncity, near a creek of its own name. It containsabout 60 houses, a Dutch church, a court-house,and a goal. The township, by the census of 1791,contained 3262 inhabitants, including 340 slaves.By the state census of 1796 tkere appears to be412 electors. It is 231 miles from Philadelphia. 1

CLAYCAYAC, a head settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Zultepec in Nueva Espana ; annexedto the curacy of Teraascaltepec. It contains 84families of Indians, and is four leagues s. of itscapital.

CLEAUER, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of San Juan.

CLERC, Ensenada de, a bay of the n. coastand w. head of the island of St. Domingo, in theFrench possessions, between the bay of Los Cai-raitos and the Agujero or Trou of Jeremias.

[CLERK’S Isles lie s, w. from, and at theentrance of Behring’s straits, which separate Asiafrom America. They rather belong to Asia, beingvery near, and s. s. w. from the head-land whichlies between the straits and the gulf of Anadir inAsia. They have their name in honour of thatable navigator, Captain Clerk, the companion ofCaptain Cook. In other maps they are called St.Andrea isles.]

[CLERMONT, a post-town in Columbia coun-ty, New York, six miles from Red hook, 15from Hudson, 117 miles n. of New York, and212 from Philadelphia. The township contains867 inhabitants, inclusive of 113 slaves.]

[Clermont, a village 13 miles from Camden,S. Carolina. In the late war, here was ablock-house encompassed by an abbatis; it wastaken from Colonel Rugely of the British militia,in December 1781, by an ingenious stratagem ofLieutenant-colonel W ashington.]

CLEYALI, a settlement of Indians of South Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Alabama.

[CLIE, Lake Le, in Upper Canada, about 38miles long and 30 broad; its waters communicatewith those of lake Huron,]

[CLINCH Mountain divides the waters ofHolston and Clinch rivers, in the state of Tennessee.In this mountain Burk’s Garden and MorrisesNob might be described as curiosities.]

[Clinch, or Peleson, a navigable branch ofTennessee river, which is equal in length to Hol-ston river, its chief branch, but less in width. Itrises in Virginia, and after it enters into the stateof Tennessee, it receives Powel’s and Poplar’screek, and Emery’s river, besides other streams.The course of the Clinch is s. w. and s. w. by w . ;its mouth, 150 yards wide, lies 35 miles belowKnoxville, and 60 above the mouth of the Hiwasse.It is beatable for upwards of 200 miles, andPowel’s river, nearly as large as the main river, isnavigable for boats 100 miles.]

[CLINTON, the most n. county of the state ofNew York, is bounded n. by Canada, e. by thedeepest waters of lake Champlain, which line se-parates it from Vermont, and s. by the county ofWashington. By the census of 1791, it contained16 14 inhabitants, including 17 slaves. It is di-vided into five townships, viz. Plattsburgh, thecapital. Crown Point, Willsborough, Champlain,and Peru. The length from n. to s. is about 96miles, and the breadth from e. to w. including theline upon the lake, is 36 miles. The number ofsouls was, in 1796, estimated to be 6000. By thestate census, in Jan. 1796, there were 624 personsentitled to be electors. A great proportion of thelands are of an excellent quality, and produce

Last edit over 2 years ago by LLILAS Benson
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