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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


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Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and theAgujero del Ferro.

Carbet Point, on the s. coast of lake Superior,in New France, opposite the island of Philipeaux.

Carbet, a river of the island of Guadalupe,which tuns nearly e. and enters the sea betweenthe Grande and the Orange.

CARBON, Island of, situate in the middle ofa lake on the coast of the province and govern-ment of Buenos Ayres.

Carbon, Monte de, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Puchacay in the king-dom of Chile; situate upon the coast and on theshore of the bay of Culumo, near the mouth ofthe river Biobio.

CARBONIERE, a settlement of the island ofNewfoundland, situate on the e. coast, on theshore of the bay of Concepcion.

CARCAI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water ofvery medicinal properties, and its heat is so greatthat an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.

CARCARANAL, a river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the pro-vince of Tucuman, in the mountains of the cityof Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with thename of Tercero, and changing it into Carcara-iial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joinsthe Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hec-manas.

CARCAZI, a settlement of the government andJurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, situate betAveen two mountains, whichcause its temperature to be very moderate. It pro-duces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts suchfruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in themilder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhoodabounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number ofinhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniardsand 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhichdivide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.

CARCHIPOR, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cayenne in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises in the mountains of the same pro-vince, and runs into the sea on the side of capeOra nge.

(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouthcollege, New Hampshire. The township ofOrange once bore this name, which see.)

CARDIN, a settlement of the province of Ve-nezuela and government of Maracaibo, situate onthe shore of the coast, in the interior of the gulfformed by the peninsula of cape San Roman.

CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See articlePitangoas.

CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and realof gold mines in the province and captainship ofTodos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore ofthe large river of San Francisco, to the n. of thevillage of Tapuyas.

CAREHANEU, a small river of Pennsylvania,which runs w. and enters the Ohio.

CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the king-dom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty,and extent, being five leagues in length; also fora fountain of very delicate and salutary water,which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, ren-ders them so exceedingly porous, that a person tread-ing somewhat heavily seems to shake the groundunder him. There is an herb found here that keepsgreen all the year round: it is small, resemblingtrefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a veryagreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.

CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the king-dom of Tierra Firme in the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It is extremely convenientfor careening and repairing ships, and from thiscircumstance it takes its name. It lies behind capeCodera towards the e.

CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St.Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast,and in the part possessed by the French beforethey ceded the island to the Englissh. It is be-tween the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuenteand Morro.

=CARETI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the n. mountains, and enters the sea iathe bay of Mandinga.

CAREU, a settlement of the island of Barba-does, in the district of the parish of Christchurch.

CARGONACHO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Philpichaca.

CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and vol-cano of the province and corregimiento of Rio-bamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the dis-trict of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snowthe whole year round. Its skirts are covered withfine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this pro-vince was visited by a terrible earthquake, whichopened the mountain and let in a river of mud,formed by the snows which were melted by thefire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up.So dreadful were the effects of this revolution thatthe whole of the crops were completely spoiled ;and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-

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[boyes. or pretended magicians, sacrifices and wor-ship ; wounding themselves on such solemnitieswith an instrument made of the teeth of the agouti,which inflicted horrible gashes ; conceiving, per-haps, that the malignant powers delighted ingroans and misery, and were to be appeased onlyby human blood,]

Caribe, a settlement of the same province andgovernment ; situate on the windward coast of thecape of Tres Puntas. In its district are 26 plan-tations, 15 of cacao, and the rest of vines andmaize, which yield but indifferently, from a wantof water; although they find means of supplyingthis in some degree by the rain. The communityconsists of 1070 souls ; and is five leagues dis-tant from the settlement of Carupano.

(CARIBEANA, now called Paria or NewAndalucia, which see.)

CARIBES, a barbarous and ferocious nation ofIndians, who are cannibals, inhabiting the pro-vince which by them is called Caribana. Theyare divided under the titles of the Maritiraos andMediterraneos : the former live in plains and uponthe coast of the Atlantic, are contiguous to theDutch and French colonies, and follow the lawsand customs of the former, with whom they carryon a commerce. They are the most cruel of anythat infest the settlements of the missions of theriver Orinoco, and are the same as those calledGalibis. The Mediterraneos, who inhabit thes. side of the source of the river Caroni, are of amore pacific nature, and began to be reduced tothe faith by the regular order of the abolished so-ciety of the Jesuits in 1738, The name of Caribesis given not only to these and other Indians of theAntilles, but to all such as are cannibals. See Ca-ribe.

(CARIBOU, an island towards the e. end oflake Superior in N. America, n. w. of Cross cape,and s. w. of Montreal bay.)

CARICARI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Toledo.

Caricari, also called Laguacina, a point ofland on the coast of the province and governmentof the Rio del Hacha.

CARICHANA, a settlement of the province ofGuayana, and government of Cumana ; one of themissions of the Rio Meta, which was under thecare of the society of Jesuits, of the province ofSanta Fe. It is situate on the shore of the Ori-noco, by the torrent of its name ; and is at presentunder the care of the religious order of Capuchins.

Carichana, Torrent of, a strait of the river

Orinoco, formed by different islands, some coveredby, and some standing out of, the water, so thatthe navigation is very difficult and dangerous. Itis near the mouth of the river Meta.

CARIJANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Camata.

=CARILLON==, a fort belonging to the French,in New France.

(CARIMBATAY, a parish of the province andgovernment of Paraguay ; situate a little to then. w. of the town of Curuguaty. Lat. 24° 33' 35".Long. 55° 57' w.)

Carimbatay, a river of the above provinceand government, which runs w. and enters theXexuy near the town of Curuguato.

CARIMU, a small river of the province andcolony of the Dutch, in Surinam ; one of thosewhich enter the Cuium on the s. side.

CARINIS, a small river of the province andcaptainship of Para in Brazil. It rises in the coun-try of the Aritus Indians, runs e. and enters theGuiriri.

CARIOCOS, a lake of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the Portuguese territories, on the shoreof the river. It is formed by the Topinamba-ranas, which, according to Mr. Bellin, makes thissheet of water before it enters the former river.

CARIPE, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, situate in the middle of a serranía; one ofthe missions in that province belonging to theAragonese Capuchin fathers.

CARIPORES, a settlement of S. America, tothe n. of Brazil and of the river of Las Amazo-nas : although of barbarian Indians, it deservesparticular mention, on account of its virtuous andpacific customs, so different from the brutality andsloth of the surrounding nations. These Indiansare handsome, lively, bold, valorous, liberal, ho-nest, and affable, and in short the most polishednation of Indians in all America ; they esteem ho-nour, justice, and truth; are enemies to deceit, eatbread made of cazave, which they have a methodof preserving good for three or four years. Theydo not scruple to eat the flesh of some ugly snakesfound in their woods, but are not cannibals ; nei-ther do they revenge upon their prisoners takenin war the cruelties they experience from theirenemies.

CARIUITOS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela in the kingdom of TierraFirrae.

(CARIY, a parish of the province and govern-

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an hermitage dedicated to St. Denis the Areopa-gite. It lies to the s. of the city of Barquisimeto,Between that of Tucuyo and the lake of Maracaibo.(Carora is 30 leagues to the s. of Coro. Its situa-tion owes nothing to nature but a salubrious air.Its soil, dry and covered with thorny plants, givesno other productions but such as owe almost en-tirely their existence to the principle of heat. Theyremark there a sort of cochineal silvestre as fine asthe misleca, which they suffer to perish. Theland is covered with prolific animals, such asoxen, mules, horses, sheep, goats, &c. ; and theactivity evinced by the inhabitants to make theseadvantageous to them, supports the opinion thatthere are but few cities in the Spanish West In-dies where there is so much industry as at Carora.The principal inhabitants live by the produce oftheir flocks, whilst the rest gain their livelihoodby tanning and selling the hides and skins. Al-though their tanning be bad, the consumer cannotreproach the manufacturer, for it is impossible toconceive how they can sell the article, whatevermay be its quality, at the moderate price it fetches.The skins and leather prepared at Carora are usedin a great degree by the inhabitants themselvesfor boots, shoes, saddles, bridles, and strops.The surplus of the consumption of the place isused throughout the province, or is sent to Ma-racaibo, Cartagena, and Cuba. They also manu-facture at Carora, from a sort of aloe disthica, veryexcellent hammocs, which form another article oftheir trade. These employments occupy andsupport a population of 6200 souls, who, with asterile soil, have been able to acquire that ease andcompetency which it appears to have been theintention of nature to deny them. The city is wellbuilt ; the streets are wide, running in straightparallel lines. The police and the administrationof justice are in the hands of a lieutenant of the go-vernor and a cabildo. There is no military au-thority. Carora lies in lat. 9° 50' n. and is 15leagues e. of the lake of Maracaibo, 12 n. ofTocuyo, IS n. w. of Barquisimeto, and 90 w. ofCaracas.)

Carora, a great llanura of the same province,which extends 16 leagues from e. to w, and sixfrom n. to s. It was discovered by George Spirain 1534, abounds greatly in every kind of grainand fruit, but is of a very hot temperature. Itspopulation is not larger than that of the former city,to which it gives its name.

CARORI, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of theChirimichale, in the point of Hicacos.

(CAROUGE Point, the northernmost extremity

of the island of St. Domingo in the W. Indies ;25 miles n. from the town of St. Jago.)

CARPE, Island of the, in lake Superior ofNew France, between the n. coast and CapeBreton.

CARPINTO, Punta De, a point on the coastof the province and government of the Rio delHacha.

CARQUIN, a port of the coast of Peru andS. sea, in the province and corres^imiento of Chan-cay.

(CARR, a small plantation in Lincoln county,district of Maine.)

(CARRANTASCA Lagoon, or Cartago, isa large gulf on the s. side of the bay of Hon-duras, about 70 miles n. w. of cape Gracios aDios, and nearly as far s. e. from Brewer’s la-goon.)

CARRASCAL, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cuio in the kingdom of Chile;situate s. of the city of Mendoza, and on the shoreof the river of this name.

CARRETAS, Puerto de las, a port in thesierra of its name, in Nueva España,

CARRETO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cartagena ; situate on the shore ofthe cano or dike near the sea-coast.

Carreto, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme ; itrises in the mountains of the n, coast, and entersthe sea behind the bay of Calidonia.

CARRION DE Velazco, a small but beauti-ful and well peopled city of the kingdom of Peru,in the pleasant llanura of Guaura ; it is of a mild,pleasant, and healthy climate, of a fertile and de-lightful soil, and inhabited by a no small numberof distinguished and rich families.

CARRIZAL, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela; situate on the coast andpoint of Coro, to the n. of this city.

Carrizal, sierra or chain of mountains ofthe same province and government, which runsfrom e. to w. from the shore of the river Guaricoto the shore of the Guaya.

Carrizal, another settlement of the provinceand government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situ-ate near a river, between the settlements of Bateguiand San Marcelo.

Carrizal, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Rancagua in the kingdom of Chile,to the s. of the city of Mendoza, and on the shoreof the river of this name.

Carrizal, another, of the province and go-vernment of the Rio del Hacha, situate on thecoast of the country of the Guajiros Indians, be-

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merit of Venezuela ; situate upon the coast nearcape Blanco.

(CATABAW River. See Wateree.)

(Catabaw Indians, a small tribe who have onetown called Catabaw, situate on the river of thatname, hit. 44° S9' n, on the boundary line betweenN. and S. Carolina, and contains about 450 inha-bitants, of which about 150 are fighting men.They are the only tribe w hich resides in the state ;144,000 acres of land . were granted them by theproprietary government. These are the remains ofa forrnidalile nation, the bravest and most generousenemy thp Six Nations had, butthey have degenera-ted sincp they have been surrounded by the whites.)

CATABUHU, a river of the province andcountry of Las Amazonas: it rises near the equi-noctial line, runs s. e. and enters the Rio Negro.

CATACACHI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiehto of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Cruz, in which there is astream of water Avhich distils from some crevices,and deposits in its bed a sort of white stone orcrystalline substance, which they call catachi^ andwhich being dissolved in water, is accounted a spe-cific in the flux.

CATACAOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Piura in Peru.

CATACOCHA, a settlement of the province andcorreghniento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito.

CATACUMBO, a river of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo, which rises to the e. ofthe city of Las Palmas, and runs e. increasing itsstream by many others which flow into it, until itunites itself with the Sulia, to enter the lake ofMaracaibo; where, at its mouth, it extends itselfand forms a large pool of water called La Lagu-neta.

CATAGANE, a settlement of Canada, situateon the side of lake Superior, close to the point ofChagovamigon, (or more properly called Camanis-tigovan.)

CATAGUAR, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná ; situate to the e. of thecity of Cariaco.

CATALANA, an island of the gulf of Califor-nia, or Mar Roxo de Cories ; situate near thecoast, between the islands of Monserrat and SantaCruz.

CATALINA, Santa, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nue-va Espana ; annexed to the settlement of NuestraSenora de la Purificacion. It contains 132 fami-lies of Indians.

CATALINA, Santa, another seUlement in the head settle-mentand district of Tepaxtlan, and alcaldia mar/orof Cuercavaca, in Nueva España.

CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of thehead settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tepeaca inthe same kingdom.

CATALINA, Santa, another, with the distin-gnishing title of Martyr, in the head settlement andah aldia mayor of Zacatlan in the same kingdom.

CATALINA, Santa, anotlier settlement of thehead settlement of Teutalpan, and alcaldia mayorof Zacatlan, in the same kingdom.

CATALINA, Santa, a small settlement of thehead settlement and alcaldia mayor of Juxtlahua-ca in the same kingdom.

CATALINA, Santa, another, of the head set-tlement of Tantoyuca, and alcaldia mayor ofTampico, in the same kingdom : it is of a hot tem-perature, and contains 80 families of Indians, whoapply themselves to the culture of the soil ; is 10leagues to the e. of its head settlement.

CATALINA, Santa, another, of the provinceand corregimiento of Omasuyos in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Huaicho.

CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Cauta in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Pari ; it has some hot me-dicinal baths.

CATALINA, Santa, a small settlement of thedistrict and jurisdiction of Valladolid in the pro-vince and bishopric of Mechoacan of NuevaEspana.

CATALINA, Santa, another,' of the head set-tlement of Mistepeque, and alcaldia mayor of Ne-japa, in Nueva España: it is of a cold temperature,situate at the foot of a mountain, with 60 familiesof Indians, and is 4 leagues from its head settle-ment.

CATALINA, Santa, another, of the head set-tlement of Quiatoni, and alcaldia mayor of Teutit-lan, in Nueva España, with 20 families of Indians ;and is one league n. of its head settlement.

CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of themissions which were held by the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguanaand kingdom of Nueva Viscaya, on the shore ofthe river Las Nasas ; is 30 leagues to the n. w. ofits capital.

CATALINA, Santa, another settlement, withthe addition of Sera, of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo, in the district of the city ofPedraza ; situate on the shore of the river Pariva ;is one of the missions which are held in Barinas bjthe religion of St. Domingo.

CATALINA, Santa, another, of the same pro-

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CAT 339

CATAMARCA, S. Fernando de, a city ofthe province and government of Tucumán, found-ed by Juan Gomez Zurita, in 1538, in the fertileand extensive valley of Conando. It has a fort torepress the encroachments of the Indians. Thename of Canete was given it in honour to the vice-roy who then commanded in Peru ; this was after-wards changed to London, in honour to the queenof England, wife of Philip II. king of Spain. Theinquietudes caused amongst the inhabitants by theinfidel Indians induced Don Geronimo Luis deCabrera, son of a governor of that province, in1663, to remove it to another not less fertile val-ley, and to give it the name of San J uan de la Ri-vero ; and lastly, by the permission of the king,in 1683, it was transferred to a spot in the valleyof Catamarca ; where it still remains, under thesame title, at 80 leagues distance from its first sta-tion. It has, besides the parish church, a conventof the Recoletos monks of St. Francis, with thededicatory title of San Pedro de Alcantara ; anhospital of Merced ; aud a house of residence,which formerly belonged to the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits. On the w. side of the val-ley is a mountain in which there are gold mines ;and on the w. also from n. to s. runs a serrama^ theskirts of which are for many leagues covered withestates and cultivated grounds, and filled, fromthe abundance of fine pastures, with lage and smallcattle and with mules. A tolerably large riverruns through the valley in the rainy season, andterminates in some lakes M’hich are formed by itabout 30 leagues s. of the city. The commerce ofthis city is very small, so that there is no coin cur-rent ; and even the payments of the royal dutiesare paid in effects, and in the productions of thecountry, such as cotton, linens, pepper, brandy,and wheat. Lat. 27° s.

Catamarca, a settlement of the same provinceand government ; situate in the district of thiscity.

CATAMBUCU, a settlement of the provinceand government of Popayán in the kingdom ofQuito.

CATAN, San Francisco de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru ; annexed to the curacy of Chetu.

CATANERA, an ancient province of Peru, inthat of Condesuyos, in which dwelt the nation ofthe Quechuas. It was subjected to the empire bythe Inca Capac Y upanqui, fifth Emperor.

CATANIAPU, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises to the s. of the settlement of San Joseph de

Mapoyes, runs w. and enters the Orinoco close tothe torrent of Los Atures.

CATAPUIN, San Juan de, a settlement ofthe province and government of Quixos y Macasin the kingdom of Quito.

CATARAQUA, or Catarakui, a copiousriver of the province and country of the IroqueesIndians. It rises from the lake Ontario, runs n. e.and continues its course as far as Quebec, fromwhence it takes the name of St. Lawrence, andthen enters the sea.

Cataraqua, a bay on the n. coast of lakeOntario, in New France or Canada.

CATARUBEN, a settlement of the missions ofSan Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; one of the seven which were held bythe regulars of the company of Jesuits, and be-longing to the nation of the Salivas Indians. TheCaribes burnt and destroyed it in 1684.

CATAROSI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aymaraez in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Pampamarca.

CATAS-ALTAS, a settlement or village of thePortuguese, in the province and captainship ofEspiritu Santo, and kingdom of Brazil ; situate onthe shore of the river Doce or Dulce.

CATAUBA, a river of Virginia, which runsn. e. and enters the Thames.

Catauba, another river in S. Carolina, whichruns s. e. and enters the Watery.

(CATAWESSY, a township in Northumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania ; situate on the s. e. bankof the e. branch of Susquehannah river, oppositethe mouth of Fishing creek, and about 20 milesn. e. of Sunbury.)

CATCA, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Paucartambo in Peru.

CATCH, or Boutin, a port of the coast ofNova Scotia, between the bay of Cheboucto andtbe island of Samborough.

CATEMU, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile,on the shore of the river Quillota.

(CATHANCE, or Cathants, a small river inLincoln county, Maine, which rises in Topsham,and empties into Merry Meeting bay, and has se-veral mills upon it.)

(CATHERINE’S Isle, St, a small island inthe captainship of St. Vincent’s in Brazil, be-longing to the Portuguese, 47 leagues s. of Cana-nea island. It is about 23 miles from n. to s. in-habited by Indians, wiio assist the Portugueseagainst their enemies, the natives of Brazil. Lak27° 10' s. Long. 47° 15' w.)

X X 2

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DEL PUERTO, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; founded by Gaspar de Kodas, on thespot of the Matanza of Valdivia, in 1676. It haschanged its place several times, on account of thebadness of.its temperature : and, lastly, in the year1588, it was removed by Francisco Redondo tothe spot where it now stands : is one league fromthe river Cauca, on a very steep declivity, whichis also of an unhealthy temperature, althoughabounding greatly in gold mines, which are,however, but little worked. Jt is the nativeplace of,

Fr. Marcos Vetancur, provincial of St. Domingoin Santa Fe:

Fr. Lorenzo de Figueroa, of the province ofSan Francisco :

Don Andres de Vetancur, elected bishop ofLa Concepcion in Chile;

Fr. Diego de Figueroa, provincial of San Augus-tin in Santa Fe : and

Don Luis de Vetancur, precentor of Quito, in-quisitor of Lima, and bishop-elect of Popayan ;all brothers, and men of singular virtue andlearning.

CEAPA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chilques and Marques in Peru; an-nexed to the curacy of Pampacucho.

CEBACO, a settlement of the province andalcaldia major of Matagalpa in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CECIL, a county, being one of the ten whichcompose the colony and province of Maryland.

(Cecil, a township in Washington county,Pennsylvania.)

CECILIA, Dona, a settlement of the provinceand government of Santa Marta in the kingdomof Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the largeriver Magdalena, opposite the lake Zapatosa, threeleagues from the town of Mompox.

CECONTEPEC, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia major of San Salvador in the king-dom of Guatemala.

(CEDAR Point, a port of entry in Charlescounty, Maryland, on the e. side of Potowmacriver, about 12 miles below port Tobacco, and 96s. by w. of Baltimore. Its exports are chiefly to-bacco and Indian corn, and in 1794 amounted invalue to 18,593 dollars.)

(Cedar Point, a cape on the w. side of Dela-ware bay, in St. Mary’s county, Maryland.)

(Cedar Lick, a salt spring in the state of Ten-nessee, 19 miles from Nashville, four from Bigspring, and six from Little spring.)

Cedar, a river of the province and colony of


Pennsylvania, which traverses New Jersey, andenters the sea.

Cedar, another small river of the province andcolony of Delaware, which runs e. and enters thesea in the bay of its name.

Cedar, a small island of South Carolina; situatewithin the strait of Parapticoe.

Cedar, another island of the province and co-lony of Maryland, between that of Chingoteagand that of Little Matompkin.

CEDAZOS, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Zapopan in Nueva Es-paña, in which dwell some Maslees, Mulattoes,and Indians, who live by cultivating seeds.

CEDROS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paucartambo in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Challabamba.

Cedros, another settlement in the province andgovernment of Cinaloa ; situate on the shore of theriver Mayo, on the confines of the province ofAstimuri.

Cedros, a river of New France or Canada.It runs s. e. and enters the lake Erie near themouth of the strait of Misigagues.

CEGUEHUE, a small river of the provinceand government of Quijos y Macas in the king-dom of Quito. It enters, a little way from itssource, into the Azuela.

CELAYA, a town of the intendancy of Gua-naxuato in the kingdom of Nueva Espana.Sumptuous edifices have been recently constructedhere, as also at Queretaro and Guanaxuato. Thechurch of the Carmelites of Celaya has a fineappearance ; it is adorned with Corinthian andIonic columns. Its height is 1833 metres, or 6018feet.

CELEDIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

CELLACACA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chichas and Tarija in Peru.

CENDRE, a cape or point of land of the coastof Acadia.

CENEGUANGA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Santa Marta in the kingdom ofTierra Firme; situate on the coast near the riverPiedras.

CENEGUETAS, a settlement of the provinceand government of Guayaquil in the kingdom ofQuito.

CENGUYO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Yrimbo, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan,and kingdom of Nueva Espaiia. It contains 60families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. zo.of its head settlement.

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CENEWINI, a port of the river Poumaron, inthe part of the province and government of Cuay-ana in the possession of the Dutch.

CENIS, a settlement of Indians of the provinceand government of Louisiana, situate in the roadwhich leads to Mexico. It has a fort whicli wasbuilt by the French when they had possession ofthe province.

CENOMANAS, a barbarous nation of Indians,descended from the Naunas, who live in the woods,and without any fixed abode, along the banks ofthe great river Magdalena.

CENOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, to then. of the river Marañon, w ho inhabit the woodsnear the river Aguarico. They are at continualwar with that of the Encabellados.

CENTA, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán. It runs from the z£. to e.and enters the Bermejo. The Fathers Antonio Sa-linis and Pedro Ortiz de Zarate, of the extin-guished company, suffered martyrdom upon itsshores whilst pn'aching to the barbarian Indians.

CENTERVILLE, the chief town of QueenAnne’s county, and on the e. side of Chesapeakbay, in Maryland. It lies between the forksof Corsica creek, which runs into Chester river,and has been lately laid out; 18 miles s. of Ches-ter, S4 s. e, by e. of Baltimore, and 93 s. xso. by s.of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 6' n,~\

CEPEE, a small river of Nova Scotia, whichruns s. and enters the Miamis.

CEPEROUX, a French fort, called also SanLouis, in Cayenne ; situate at the mouth of theriver, and on a lofty spot commanding the en-trance of the same. It was taken by the Dutch in1676 ; and in the following year it was recoveredby the French ; which date has been mistaken byMons. Martiniere, who mentions it as having beenlost the year preceding.

CEPITA, a small settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Charcas in Peru, above thechannel of the great lake Titicaca, near the fa-mous bridge that was built by the Emperor CapacYiipanqui over the channel, and which is 160yards in length. The Indians of this settlementare diligent in keeping this bridge in repair, andassist in helping and directing the cavalcades whichare continmdly passing it,

CEQUER, a small settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom ofQuito, to the n. of this city, and on the shore ofthe river Telembi. Its temperature is cold, and itis the direct road for such as are going to the pro-vince of Barbacoas.

CEQUIN, a mountain of the province of LosCanelos in the kingdom of Quito. Its skirts arewashed by the river Puyuc, and on the other sideby the Bobonasa : from it rise the rivers Tinguisaand Paba-yacu, which run from w. to e. until theyenter the Bobonasa. It is entirely covered withthick woods, save upon the top, where there isncifher tree nor plant.

CERCADO, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. by that of Chancay, n.e. bythat of Canta, e. by that of Huarochiri, bythat of Cañete, and w. by the S. sea; is 13 leagueslong s. and eight wide at the widest part; is ofa very mild and kind temperature, but somewhatsickly ; and is neither subject to tempests nor highAvinds, although it is often visited by earthquakes.It only rains in the winter, and this is a speciesof small sprinkling shower which they call garua;so that they have no necessity for houses with roofs,and they are covered only with clay or mortar.The whole of its territory is fertile, and aboundsin seeds and fruits. The herb alfalfa, which isgood forage for horses, is particularly cultivated,there being a great demand for it at Lima. Hereare many estates of sugar-cane, from Avhich sugaris manufactured, as Avell as honey, and a kind ofdrink called guarape. Chica is also made here;this being the common drink of the Indiansthroughout the whole kingdom. It is irrigated bythe rivers Rinac and Lurin, which run downfrom the province of Guarochiri, and by the Car-rabayilo, which runs from the province of Canta :all three of them are small ; but in the months ofDecember, January and February, which is therainy season in the sierra^ they swell greatly. Itspopulation consists of seven parochial settlements,and as many others thereunto annexed. Its repar-timiento used to amount to 10,000 dollars, and itpaid an alcaxala of 80 dollars per annum. Thecapital is of the same name, and the other 14 set-tlements are,













San Joseph de Bel-lavista.

Cercado, San Cristoval de, a settlementto the s. of the city of Lima, to which it is as asuburb. It is inhabited only by Indians, who aregoverned by a cazique ; and until 1776, it was acure of the regulars of the company of Jesuits,who had in it a college.

CERCELLES, a river of the island of Gua-dalupe. It rises in the mountains, runs e. and en-

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lar way by a river of its name. It abounds inlarge alligators and mosquitoes, which render itsnavigation very troublesome. Its shores are co-vered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited bya variety of birds and apes of several species, whichmake an incredible chattering and noise. It wasby this river that the pirate John Morgan camewhen he took and sacked Panama in 1670. Itwas discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527,when he called it the river of Lagartos, but itsmouth was before discovered by Lope de Olanoin 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, avery small fish of the size of a pin, called titles,and these are so abundant, that putting into thewater a large basket, it is certain to be drawn outfull ; they are fried, and make very savouryfritters.

CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lo-renzo, a settlement of the same province and king-dom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at theentrance or mouth of the former river. It has forits defence a strong castle, which was built by theorder of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uanBautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirateJohn Morgan, after having made a glorious de-fence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt andsacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English,commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirelydestroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied bytwo strong batteries, which hindered the Englishfrom making a breach, for the third time, whenthey came with three frigates of war : but theywere driven back by Captain Don Juan de Her-mida, who was formerly captain of the regimentof Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in themost perfect manner, by the lieutenant-generaland engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor ofCartagena, who came hither for this purpose byorder of the king. In this fortress several per-sonages of distinction' have been held prisoners,ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina,])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of thekingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Porto-belo.

CHAGUANES, an island of the river Orinoco,formed at its entrance into the sea by variouscanals or arms, is large and inhabited by Indiansof the Mariussa nation.

CHAGUARAMA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela, situate on the con-fines of the province of Cumana, near the riverManapire.

CHAGUARAMA, a bay on the coast of the pro-vince of Cumaná, on the n. e. side ; being formedby the island of Trinidad, and by the mouths of

the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulfTriste.

CHAGUAREM, a small river of the provinceand government of Venezuela, which runs s. andenters that of Los Aceytes.

CHAHUALTEPEQUE, Santiago de, a set-tlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Mex-ilcaltzingo in Nueva España. It contains 138families of Indians, and is three leagues from itscapital.

CHAHUANTLA, a small settlement or wardof the alcaldía mayor of Guauchinango in NuevaEspaña ; annexed to the curacy of Naupan.

CHAIALA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chayanta or Charcas in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Pocoata.

CHAILLON, Cabo de, a cape on the e. coastof lake Superior, in New France.

CHAINAR, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán ; situate on the shore ofthe river San Miguel.

CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in whichwas venerated, ever since the time of the conquest,a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which,with the temple, was burnt a few years since, andthe parishioners being much afflicted at their loss,the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito,sent them another equal to the first : at the cele-bration of the festival people assemble from all theneighbouring districts.

CHAIUIN, a river of the province and govern-ment of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile, whichruns s. e. and enters Valdivia near its entrance intothe sea.

CHALA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Cumaná in Peru.

Chala, with the distinction of Alta, anothersettlement of the province and corregimiento ofSaña in the same kingdom , situate on the shore ofthe river Chicama.

CHALA, another, with the addition of Baxa,in the same kingdom and province; situate nearthe former.

CHALA, a large and beautiful valley on the seashore, in the province and corregimiento of Cu-maná.

CHALA, a small port, frequented only by fisher-men, in the same province and corregimiento.

CHALACOS, a settlement and asiento of thesilver mines of the province and corregimiento ofPiura in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huan-cabamba.

==CHALALA, a large river of the Nuevo Reyno

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either in the service of the United States duringthe war, or fled to them for protection. The in-digence or ill habits of these people occasioned thebreaking up of the settlement, and a better sort ofinhabitants have now taken their place. The landsare fertile, and two rivers run through it, wellstored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and threeslaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the in-habitants are electors.)

CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, ofmore than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It wasdiscovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tliename of Champlain, who gave it his name, whichit still retains. It communicates with a smallerlake called Sacrament, and the canal passing fromone side to the other of these is extremely rapidanddangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. Atthe distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some verylofty mountains, which are covered with snow, andin which are found castors and a variety 'of ani-mals of the chase; and between these mountainsand the aforesaid lake are some beautiful levelmeadows or llanuras^ which, when first discover-ed, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; butthese have greatly diminished in numbers, throughthe continual wars Avith the French and English.[This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and liese. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing linebetween the states of New York and Vermont. Ittook its name from a French governor, who wasdrowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake.Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s,a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadthis from one to 18 miles, being very different in diffe-rent places ; the mean width is about five miles, andit occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is suf-ficient for the largest vessels. There are in it abovesixty islands of different sizes : the most consider-able are North and South Hero and Motte island.North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, andfrom two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderogathe waters of lake George from the s. s. w. whichis said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of thislake. Half the rivers and streams which rise inVermont fall into it. There are several which cometo it from New York state, and some from Cana-da ; to which last it sends its own waters a n.course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into theSt. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish,particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, andpickerel, and the land on its borders, and on thebanks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in severalplaces appear to be marked and stained with theformer surface of the lake, many feet higher than


it has been since its discovery in 160S. The wa-ters generally rise from about the 20th of April tothe 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the great-est variation is not more than eight feet. It is sel-dom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle ofJanuary, Between the 6th and 15th of April theice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon formany square miles of it to disappear in one day.]

CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of theprovince of Taraumara, and kingdom of NuevaVizcaya, in which there is a mountain aboundinggreatly in silver mines. Here is also a missionAvhicli Avas established by the regulars of the com-pany for the reduction of the natives : is 12leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.

CHAMPOTON, a river of the province andgovernment of Jucatan. It runs into the sea nearthe lake of Tenninas.

CHAMUINA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Costarica in the kingdom of Guate-mala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the li-mits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui inthe kingdom of Tierra Firme.

CHAMULA, a settlement of the province andalcaldía mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHANAR-PUGIO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tucumán, in the district andjurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, andeight leagues from the same.

CHANCAILLO, a small port of the S. sea, inthe province and corregimiento of Chancay, tothe n. of Lima ; little frequented, from lying ex-posed, and being insecure. In lat. 12° 3' 5.

CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of San-ta ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by thatof Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado.It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and thesame in width e. w. and has on its coast some portsand creeks not remarkable for their security. Itcomprehends in its district two territories, one ofa cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, calledDe los Checras; and another of a warm tempera-ture, lying in the valleys towards the sea, calledDe Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, oneon the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the otherHuama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge,which was built in the time of the viceroy, theMarquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of whichare two rocks, through which the river passes.On the e. and in the cold part of this province,are found the productions peculiar to the cli-mate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat andmaize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which

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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito,who had served as captain of cavalry in the regi-ment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was go-vernor of the province of Moxos, being of the rankof colonel ; he was nominated as president by wayof reward for his services, in having been instru-mental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru,and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, whichwas besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786,when he was removed from the presidency.

Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aul-laga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac,fourth monarch of the Incas. At present theyare reduced to the Christian faith in the govern-ment of Chuquisaca or La Plata.

Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory titleof Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of thekingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are markedthe boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those ofNueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains a convent of the religi-ous order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spa-niards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of In-dians dispersed in the rancherias and the estatesof its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to then. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 tothe n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'.Long. 100° 40'.

Charcas, another settlement and real of themines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from thecapital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco,in which they work with quicksilver the metals ofthe mines. To its curacy, which is adminsteredby one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed twosmall settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whomare found some few of the Tepeguana nation.

CHARIMIZA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito.It rises in the cordillera towards the s. and entersthe Maranon.

(CHARLEMONT, a township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusets, 16 miles w. of Deerfield,having 665 inhabitants.)

(Charles, a cape on the s.w. part of the straitentering into Hudson’s bay. Lat. 62° 40' n.Long. 75° 15' w.)

Charles, a small lake of New France, to then. of the city of Quebec, which empties itself intothe river St. Lawrence.

Charles, another cape or point of the coast ofthe country of Labrador ; one of those which formthe w. entrance or mouth of the strait of Belle-isle.

(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called an-ciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream,the principal branch of which rises from a pondbordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Hollis-ton and Bellingham, and divides Medway fromMed field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thenceinto Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms apeninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream calledlother brook runs out of this river in this town,and falls into Neponsit river, forming a naturalcanal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a num-ber of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham thecourse of the river is n. dividing Newton fromNeedham, Weston, and Waltham, passing overromantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e.through Watertown and Cambridge, and passinginto Boston harbour, mingles with the waters ofMystic river, at the point of the peninsula ofCharlestown. It is navigable for boats to Water-town, seven miles. The most remarkable bridgeson this river are those which connect Boston withCharlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereareseven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.][Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland,lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Itschief town is port Tobacco, on the river of thatname. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is gene-rally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indiancorn, sweet potatoes, &c.)

(Charles City County, in Virginia, lies betweenChickahominy and James rivers. It containedformerly part of what now forms Prince George’scounty. It has 5588 inhabitants, including 3141slaves.)

(Charles, a cape of Virginia, in about lat. 37°15' n. It is on the n. side of the mouth of Chesa-peak bay, having cape Henry opposite to it.]

Charles, a promontory in N. America, men-tioned by the English captain Thomas James, inhis voyage published 1663, which was made forthe sake of discovering a pass to S. America.

CHARLES. See Carlos, San.

CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina,is one of the best of N. America, excelling inbeauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situateupon a long strip of land between two navigablerivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and thegreater part of it upon the latter. This forms inthe city two small bays, the one to the n. and theother to the s. The town is of a regular construc-tion, and well fortified both by nature and art,having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; onthe side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of

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America called New South Wales. Its territoryconsists of a white dry sand, and it is covered withsmall trees and shrubs. This island has a beauti-ful appearance in the spring to those Avho discoverit after a voyage of three or four months, and afterhaving seen nothing but a multitude of mountainscovered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in thestrait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrifiedwith eternal ice. This island appears at that sea-son as though it were one heap of verdure. Theair at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit.and nearer to the sun than London, is excessivelycold for nine months, and extremely hot the remain-ing three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. Thesoil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces allkinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, whichare cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert.Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.

CHARNACOCHA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya inPeru,

CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayorof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva España, of a mild and dry temperature,being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ;the heights of which are intersected with manyveins of metals, which manifest themselves veryplainly, although they have never yet been dugout ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pitsrender the roads impassable. It is watered by theriver which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid,and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, andthe fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertileand productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongsto the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to theDukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced tosome ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour,and to the capital, which has the same name, andwhich contains a convent of the religious order ofSt. Augustin, this being one of the first templesbuilt by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the presentdilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony toits great antiquity. It contains 430 families ofPirindas Indians, employed in labour and in thecultivation of the land, and in making bread, whichis carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neigh-bouring ranchos and estates. It should also have45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulat-toes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and twoto the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat.19“34'.

CHARON, a small river of Canada, which runse. and enters the lake Superior in the bay of Beau-harnois.

CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.

coast of the island of Martinique, between the townand parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.

CHARPENTIER, a small river of the same islandwhich runs n. e. and enters the sea in the formerbay.

CHARQUEDA, a lake of the province andcaptainship of Rey in Brazil, near the coast whichlies between this lake and that of Los Patos.

CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofParaguay, who inhabit the parts lying between therivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians arethe most idle of any in America, and it has beenattempted in vain to reduce them to any thing likea civilized state.

Charruas, a settlement of this province andgovernment.

Charruas, a river of the same province, whichruns s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.

CHARTIER, Bahia de, a bay on the s. coastof the straits of Magellan, between the bay of SanSimon and the point of Tunquichisgua.

Chartier, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and colony of Virginia ; situate on the shoreof a river of the same name. It runs s. and entersthe sea in the county of Hampshire.

(Chartier, a township in Washington county,Pennsylvania.)

(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg andMorganza.)

(CHARTRES, a fort which was built bythe French, on the e. side of the Mississippi,three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or theRock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve,on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in1772, being untenable by the constant washings ofthe Mississippi in high floods. The village s. ofthe fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mileabove this is a village settled by 170 warriors of thePiorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians,who are idle and debauched.)

CHASPAIA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aricá in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Tarata.

CHASSES, a small river of N. Carolina, whichruns n. n. e. and enters that of Cutawba.

CHAT, Trou de, a settlement of the parish andisland of Martinique ; situate near the bay of theCul de Sac Royal, and to the n. e. of the capital.

Chat, a river of the island of Guadalupe, whichrises in the mountains of the e. coast, and runninge. enters the sea between the rivers Grand Bananierand Trou au Chien, or Hole of the Dog.

Chat, a cape or point of land on the coast ofthe river St. Lawrence, on the shore opposite tothe port of San Pacracio.

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CHATACANCHA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Olleros.

(CHATA-HATCHI, or Hatchi, is the largestriver which falls into St. Rose’s bay in W. Florida.It is also called Pea river, and runs from n. e. en-tering the bottom of the bay through severalmouths, but so shoal that only a small boat orcanoe can pass them. Mr. Hutchins ascended thisriver about 25 leagues, where there was a smallsettlement of Coussac Indians. The soil and tim-ber on the banks of the river resemble very muchthose of Escambia.)

CHATAHOUCHI, a settlement of Indians ofGeorgia, in which the English have an establish-ment. It is situate on the shore of the river Apala-chicola.

CHATAS, some islands of the N. sea, whichare very small and desert, and lie to the n. of theisland of Ynagua.

(CHATAUCHE, or Chatahuthe, a river inGeorgia. The n. part of Apalachiola river bearsthis name. It is about SO rods wide, very rapid,and full of shoals. The lands on its banks are lightand sandy, and the clay of a bright red. Thelower creeks are settled in scattering clans and vil-lages from the head to the mouth of this river.Their huts and cabins, from the high colour of theclay, resemble clusters of new-burned brick kilns.The distance from this river to the Talapose river,is about 70 miles, by the war-path, which crossesat the falls, just above the town of the Tucka-batches.)

(CHATAUGHQUE Lake, in Ontario county.New York, is about 18 miles long, and three broad.Conewango river, which runs a s. s. e. course,connects it with Alleghany river. Tliis lake isconveniently situated fora communication betweenlake Erie and the Ohio ; there being water enoughfor boats from fort Franklin on the Alleghany tothe n. w. corner of this lake ; from thence there isa portage of nine miles to Cliatanghque harbour onlake Erie, over ground capable of being made agood waggon road. This communication was onceused by the French.)

CHATEAU, a settlement of New France, inwhich the French have a castle and establishment,on the shore of the river St. Lawrence.

CHATEAUX, a small river of the country andland of Labrador. It runs s. and enters the sea inthe strait of Belleisle.

(CHATHAM, a maritime township in Barn-staple county, Massachusetts ; situate on the ex-terior extremity of the elbow of cape Cod, conve-

niently for the fishery ; in which they have usuallyabout 40 vessels employed. It has 1140 inhabi-tants, and lies 95 miles s. e. of Boston. See CapeCod.)

(Chatham, a township in Grafton county,New Hampshire, it Avas incorporated in 1767,and in 1790 contained 58 inhabitants.)

(Chatham, a flourishing township in Middlesexcounty, Connecticut, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, and opposite Middleton city, it was a partof the township of Middleton till 1767.)

(Chatham, a township in Essex county, N. Jer-sey, is situated on Passaic river, 13 miles zd. ofElizabethtown, and nearly the same from New-ark.)

(Chatham, a township of Columbia county,New York. By the state census of 1796, 380 ofits inhabitants were electors.)

(Chatham County, in Hillsborough district,N. Carolina, about the centre of the state. It con-tains 9221 inhabitants, of whom 1632 are slaves.Chief town, Pittsburg. The court-house is a fewmiles w. of Raleigh, on a branch of Cape Fearriver.)

(Chatham, a town of S. Carolina, in Cherawsdistrict ; situate in Chesterfield county, on the w.side of Great Pedee river. Its situation, in a highlycultivated and rich country, and at the head of anavigable river, bids fair to render it a place ofgreat importance. At present it has only about 30houses, lately built.)

(Chatham County, in the lower district ofGeorgia, lies in the n. e. corner of the state, havingthe Atlantic ocean e. and Savannah river n. e. Itcontains 10,769 inhabitants., including 8201 slaves.The chief toAvn is Savannah, tlie former capital ofthe state.)

(Chatham or Punjo Bay, a large bay on thew. side of the s. end of the promontory of E. Flo-rida. It receives North and Delaware rivers.)

(Chatham House, in the territory of the Hud-son bay company. Lat. 55° 28' n. Long. 97*32' w. from Greenwich.)

CHAUCA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Casta.

Chauca, another settlement, in the provinceand corregimiento of Canta ; annexed to the curacyof Pari.

CHAUCAIAN, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huailas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Caxacai, in the province of Caxa-tambo.

CHAUCHILLOS, a settlement of the province

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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore ofthe river Choromoros.

(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St.Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock coun-ties, in the district of Maine. The carrying placefrom boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in theKetmebeck, is only five miles.)

(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine milesabove Quebec, on the opposite shore, and aboutthree or four miles back from the river St. Law-rence, into which the river Chaudiere disemboguesitself. The river is seen at a distance, emergingfrom a thick wood, and gradually expandingfrom an almost imperceptible stream till it reachesdie cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, whichiippear to have been rent from their bed by someviolent convulsion of nature, break the course ofthe waters, and precipitate them from a height of120 feet into an immense chasm below. In someparts large sheets of water roll over the precipice,and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in otherplaces the water dashes from one fragment of therock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellow-ing and foaming with rage in every hollow andcavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence itrushes down with the rapidity of lightning intothe boiling surge beneath, where it rages with in-conceivable fury, till driven from the gulf byfresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself inthe waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenerywhich accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere isbeautiful and romantic beyond description. Inthe centre, a large fragment of rock, which firstdivides the water, at the summit of the precipice,forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree,which grows upon it, is thus placed in a mostsingular and picturesque situation. The forest oneither side the river consists of firs, pines, birch,oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs,intermingled in the most wild and romantic man-ner. Their dark green foliage, joined with thebrown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments overwhich the water precipitates itself, form a strik-ing and pleasing contrast to the snowy white-ness of the foaming surge, and the columns ofsparkling spray which rise in clouds and minglewith the air.)

CHAUGE, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina ; situate on the shore of the riverTugelo.

CHAUICO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Tlacotepec, and alcaldía


mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It con-tains 57 families of Indians.

CHAUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Chupamarca in the province ofYauyos.

Chauin, another settlement in the provinceand corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CHAUINA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Paraisancos.

CHAUINILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huamalies in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pachas.

CHAUITAS, La Presentacion de, a settle-ment of the province and government of Mainas inthe kingdom of Quito.

CHAULAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacar.

CHAUNAMILLA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Maule in the kingdomof Chile ; situate upon the shore and at the sourceof the river Jecudahue.

CHAUPICOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Atabillos Baxos.

CHAUPIMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Tapú.

CHAUTLAN, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldía mayor of Zoques in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHAUX, PUNTA DE, an extremity of the e.coast of the island of Martinique, one of the An-tilles. It runs into the sea nearly equal with thatof Carabelle.

CHAXAL, a river of the province and alcaldíamayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala.It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of Hi-gueras.

CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Co-chabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by thatof Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leaguesin length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Itstemperature is various, since it contains the settle-ments of Puna and Valles ; in the former of theseare found in abundance the productions of thesierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and otherseeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic withthe surrounding provinces, especially in the ar-ticles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred

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cattle of all sorts; aiul there arc some gold mines,though they produce at present very sp:n ingly;some of the silver mines, Avhlch were very fruitful,have lately filled with water, and attempts havebeen made in vain to empty them. Indeed theonly mines which have produced any great wealthare those found in the mountains of Aullagas, andfrom them, for some years past, metals of therarest qualities have been extracted. In the woodsof the valleys, which produce very fine and excel-lent timber, are found wolves, tigers, and otherwild beasts inhabiting the mountains ; also aspecies of bees, which form their combs in the hol-lows of trees, and the honey of which they callde charas. There is a river in this province com-posed of several streams, and which unites itselfwith the Cochabamba. The number of its inha-bitants amounts to 36,000, who are divided into27 settlements. Its reparlimienfo used to amountto 92,665 dollars, and its n/cflxvife to 7-11 dollarsper annum. It is one of the richest provinces ofPeru.

The capital is of the same name, and the othersettlements are,










San Pedro





de Macha,





San Francisco dc Micani,San Marcos de Mirailo-res,


Santiago de l\Ioscari,

San Pedro de Buenavista,Acasio,




CHEANE, a river of the province and govern-ment of Paraguay.

CHEARA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Huaiama.

(CHEAT River rises in Randolph county,Virginia, and after pursuing a n. n. w. course, joinsMonongahela river, three or four miles within thePennsylvania line. It is 200 yards wide at itsmoutli, and 100 yards at the Dunkards settlement,50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, exceptin dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 milesfrom this river to the Potowmack, at the mouth ofSavage river.)

CHEBA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-

nada, of a cold temperature. It lies between somemountains, and abounds in the produclioris of a,cold climate, such as wheat, maize, trullles, andbarley ; it consists of 100 house-keepers, and of40 Indians, all of Avliom are subject to the disorderof the cotos, or swelling of the throat; is 21leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.

CHEBANONKOGUE, a town of the French,in Canada ; situate in the country of the MistasuisIndians, on the n. shore of a lake which gives it itsname.

CHEBEN, a river of Nova Scotia. It risesfrom a small lake near the settlement and fort ofSackville, runs n. and enters the Basin des Mines,or of the Mines, of the bay of Fundy.

(CHEBUCTO, a bay and harbour on the s. s. e.coast of Nova Scotia, distinguished by the loss ofa French fleet in a former war between Franceand Great Britain. Near the head of this bay,on the w. side, stands the city of Halifax, the ca-pital of the province.)

CHECA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tinta in Peru.

CHECACUPI, a settlement of the same pro-vince and kingdom as the former.

CHECACUPI, another, in the province of Quispi-canchi or Urcos in the same kingdom.

CHECASA, La Nueva, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspayain Peru.

CHECHIRGANTI, a river of the provinceand government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the n.side, runs n. and enters the sea in the small beechor playon, opposite the port of Calidonia.

CHECODIN, a small lake of the province andcountry of the Iroquees Indians in Canada, liesbetween the lake Oswego and the river Ohio.

CHECHAS. See Chancay.

(CHEDABUCTO, or Milford Haven, alarge and deep bay on the easternmost part ofNova Scotia, at the mouth of the gut of Canso.Opposite to its mouth stands isle Madame. Sal-mon river falls into this bay from the w. and isremarkable for one of the greatest fisheries in theworld.)

CHEDIAC, a small river of Nova Scotia,which runs e. and enters the sea in the strait formedby the coast and the island of San Juan.

(CHEESADAWD Lake, about 210 miles n. e. of the Canadian house, on the c. end ofSlave lake, in the Hudson bay company’s terri-tory, is about 35 miles in length, and the same inbreadth. Its w. shore is mountainous and rocky.)

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(CHEGOMEGAN, a point of land about 60miles in length, on the s. side of lake Superior.About 100 miles w. of this cape, a considerableriver falls into the lake ; upon its banks abundanceof virgin copper is found.)

CHEGONOIS, a small river of the same pro-vince and colony as the former. It runs s. w, andenters the Basin des Mines.

CHEGUEHUE, a river of the province ofSucumbios in the kingdom of Quito. It runs s. w.and enters the Aguarico, in lat. 6' n.

CHEGUIQUILLA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the king-dom of Chile ; situate to the s. of the town ofCopiapo.

CHEJANI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed totlie curacy of Para.

CHEKOUTIMI, a settlement of Indians ofCanada, in the country of the nation of its name,on the shore of the river Saguenay.

CHELEL, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Cheto.

(CHELMSFORD, a township in Middlesexcounty, Massachusetts ; situated on the s. side ofMerrimack river, 26 miles n. w. from Boston, andcontains 1144 inhabitants. There is an ingeniouslyconstructed bridge over the river at Pawtucketfalls, which connects this town with Dracut. Theroute of the Middlesex canal, designed to connectthe waters of Merrimack with those of Bostonharbour, will be s. through the e. part of Chelms-ford.)

CHELQUE, a settlement of Indians of thedistrict of Guadalabquen in the kingdom of Chile;situate on the shore of the river Valdivia.

(CHELSEA, called by the ancient natives Win-nisimet, a town in Suffolk county, Massachusetts,containing 472 inhabitants. Before its incorpora-tion, in 1738, it was award of the town of Boston,It is situated n. e. of the metropolis, and separatedfrom it by the ferry across the harbour, calledWinnisimet.)

(Chelsea, a township in Orange county, Ver-mont, having 239 inhabitants.)

(Chelsea, the name of a parish in the city ofNorwich, (Connecticut), called the Landing, situ-ated at the head of the river Thames, 14 miles n.of New London, on a point of land formed bythe junction ofShetucket and Norwich, or Littlerivers, w hose united waters constitute the Thames.It is a busy, commercial, thriving, romantic, andagreeable place, of about 150 houses, ascending

one above another in tiers, on artificial founda-tions, on the 5. point of a high rocky hill,)

Chelsea, a settlement of the English in theprovince and colony of Massachusetts, one of thefour of New England, on the shore of the port ofBoston.

CHEMIN, Croix de la Molle De, a crossin Canada, standing in the middle of the road nearthe river W abache.

(CHEMUNG, The w. branch of Susquehannahriver is sometimes so called. See Tioga River.)

(CHEMUNG is a township in Tioga county,New York. By the state census of 1796, 81 ofits inhabitants were electors. It has Newton w.and Oswego e. about 160 miles n. w. fiom NewYork city, measuring in a straight line. Betweenthis place and Newton, General Sullivan, in his vic-torious expedition against the Indians in 1779, hadadesperate engagement with the Six Nations, whomhe defeated. The Indians werestrongly entrenched,and it required the utmost exertions of the Ame-rican army, with field pieces, to dislodge them ;although the former, including 250 tories, amount-ed only to 800 men, while the Americans were5000 in number, ami well appointed in every re-spect.)

CHENE, a river of Canada, which runs n. w,and enters the river St. Lawrence, opposite thesettlement of New Port.

(CHENENGO is a n. branch of Susquehan-nah river. Many of the military townships arewatered by the n. w. branch of this river. Thetowns of Fayette, Jerico, Greene, Clinton, andChenengo, in Tioga county, lie between this riverand the e. waters of Susquehannah.)

(Chenengo, a post town, and one of the chiefin Tioga county, New York. The settled partof the town lies about 40 miles w. e. from Tiogapoint, between Chenengo river and Susquehan-nah ; has the town of Jerico on the n. By thestate census of 1796, 169 of its inhabitants areelectors. It was taken off from Montgomerycounty, and in 1791 it had only 45 inhabitants.It is 375 miles n. n. w. of Philadelphia.)

(CHENESSEE or GENESSEE River rises in Penn-sylvania, near the spot, which is the highest groundin that state, where the eastern most water of Allegha-ny river, and Pine creek, a water of Susquehannah,and Tioga river, rise. Fifty miles from its sourcethere are falls of 40 feet, and five from its mouth of 75feet, and a little above that of 96 feet. These fallsfurnish excellent mill-seats, which arc improved bythe inhabitants. After a course of about 100 miles,mostly n, e. by n. it empties into lakeQntario, four

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CHI 383

in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,

Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,

Xicotlan, Huehetlan.

Forty-five leagues s. e. to the s. w. of Mexico.
CHIBACOA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore ofa river to the w. of the town of Nirua.

CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.

CHIBAI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Collahuas in Peru.

CHICA, an island of the N. sea, one of theLucayas ; situate between the islands Siguate andSt. Andrew. The English gave it the name ofLittle.

CHICACHAE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Louisiana or S. Carolina, in whichthe English have a fort and establishment to carry

on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.

CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.

CHICAGOU, a port of Canada, on the w. sideof the lake Michigan.

Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.

CHICAHOMINI, a river of the province andcolony of Virginia, runs s.e. and turning itscourse to the s. enters the Thames.

CHICAHUASCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Huipuxtla, and alcaldia mayor of Tepe-tango, in Nueva Espana, contains 72 families ofIndians.

CHICAHUASTEPEC, San Miguel de, asettlement of the head settlement of Zoyaltepec, andalcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan. It contains 48 fa-milies of Indians, and is 10 leagues from its headsettlement.

CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.

Chicahuaztla, another, a small settlement orward of the alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of that ofTlaola.

CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.

Chicama, a river of this province and corregi-miento. It rises in the province of Guamachuco,from two very lofty mountains, called Y ulcaguancaand Yanaguanca, to the n. e . ; and waters and fer-

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c o c

c o c


venerated an image of Oar L idy, the most cele-brated for miracles of any in the whole kingdom.The wonderful things, indeed, that have beenwrought here, have caused it to be the object ofgreat devotion ; accordingly an handsome templehas been erected, and the riches and ornamentswhich adorn the same are exceedingly valuable.People conse here from all the distant provinces tooffer up their prayers, to implore the protection ofthe Holy Virgin, and to thank her for benefits re-ceived. The festival here celebrated is on the 8thof September, when the quantity of people as-sembled is so large as to give the place, for thespace of 12 days, t!ie‘ appearance of a fair.

COCHAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru.

COCHE, an island of the North sea, near the coastof Nueva Andalucia, and belonging to the islandof Margarita. It is nine miles in circumference,and its territory is low and barren. It was cele-brated for the pearl-fishery formerly carried onhere. It is four leagues to the e. of Cubagiia.

COCHEARI, a river of the province and coun-try of Las Amazonas. It runs w. and enters theMadera opposite the Yamari.

[COCHECHO, a n.w. branch of Piscataquariver in New Hampshire. It rises in the Bluehills in Strafford county, and its mouth is fivemiles above Hilton’s point. See Piscat.xqua.J

COCHEIRA, Cumplida, a river of the coun-try of Brazil. It rises to the n. of the gold minesof La Navidad, runs w. and enters the Tocantineson the e. side, between the Salto de Ties Leguasand the settlement of the Portal de San Luis.

COCHIMATLAN, a settlement of the headsettlement of Almololoyan, and alcald'ia mayor ofColima, in Nueva Espana. It contains 100 fami-lies of Indians, whose trade consists in the manu-facturing of salt, and the cultivation of their gar-dens, which produce various kinds of fruits. Twoleagues to the w. of its head settlement.

COCHINOCA, a settlement of the provinceand governmeist of Tucuman, in the jurisdictionof the city of Xnjui. It has an hermitage, withthe dedicatory title of Santa Barbara, which is achapel of ease, and three other chapels in the set-tlement of Casivindo. The Indians of this placemanufacture gunpowder equal to that of Europe,and in its district are some gold mines.

COCHINOS, Ensenada de, a bay on the s.coast of the island of Cuba, between the pointGorda and the bay of Xagua, opposite the falls ofi)iego Perez.

COCHITI, a settlement of the kingdom ofNuevo Mexico ; situate at the source of a riverwhich enters the large river Uel Norte, or of theNorth.

COCHOAPA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Tlapa in Nueva Espana; situate upon a dryand barren plain. It contains 150 families of In-dians, who are busied in the cultivation of cotton,the only production of the place.

COCHON, a small isle of the North sea,near the island of Guadalupe, in the bay ofthe Cul de Sac Petit, or Cala Angosta.

COCHUTA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Sonora in Nueva Espana.

COCHUY, a province of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, to the n. e. ; bounded by the provinceof Chita. It has now the name of Laches, fromhaving been inhabited by this nation of Indians.It is very thinly peopled, of a hot climate, andabounding in Avoods.

COCKAHISPEN, a small river of Canada,which runs n. e. and enters Hudson’s bay.

[COCKBCRNE, a township in the n. part ofNew Hampshire, Grafton county, on the e. bankof Connecticut river, s, of Colebrooke.]

[COCKERMOUTH, a town in Grafton county,New Hampshire, about 15 miles n. e. of Dart-mouth college. It was incorporated in 1766, andin 1775 contained 118 inhabitants ; and in 1790,373.]

[COCKSAKIE. See Coxakie.]

COCLE, a large river of the province and go-vernment of Panama in the kingdom of TierraFirmc. It is formed by the union of the Penomeand the Nata, which run to the right and left ofthe mountain of Toabre, becoming navigable fromthat part to their entrance into the sea. A contra-band trade was in former times constantly carriedon through this river into the S. sea ; for whichreason Don Dionisio de Alcedo (the father of theauthor of this Dictionary) built a fort which de-fended its entrance, as likewise a rvatch-tower orsignal-house, to give notice of any strange vesselswhich might enter the river for the above pur-poses. The English took this tower, and built an-other fort by it in 1746, having been assisted by acompany of at least 200 smugglers. These w eredislodged in their turn by the aforesaid president,who inflicted condign punishment upon the headsof all the offenders.

COCMONOMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who inhabit the mountains ol' theprovince of Guanuco. They are docile, of a noblespirit, and in continual warfare with the Callisecasand Mazupes.

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CON 505

purchase, obtained an act of incorporation, Sep-tember 3, 1655 ; and this was the most distantsettlement from the sea-shore of New England atthat time. The settlers never liad any contest withthe Indians ; and only three persons were ever kill-ed by them within the limits of the town. In1791, there were in this township 225 dwellinglionses, and 1590 inhabitants ; of the latter therewere 80 persons upwards ot 70 years old. For 13years previous to 1791, the average number ofdeaths was 17 ; one in four of whom were 70 yearsold and upwards. The public buildings are, aCongregational church, a spacious stone gaol, thebest in New England, and a very handsome countycourt-house. The town is accommodated withthree convenient bridges over the river ; one ofwhich is 208 feet long, and 18 feet wide, supportedby 12 piers, built after the manner of Charles riverbridge. This town is famous in the history of therevolution, having been the seat of the provincialcongress in 1774, and the spot where the first op-position was made to the British troops, on thememorable 19th of April 1775. The generalcourt have frequently held their sessions here whencontagious diseases have prevailed in the capital.Lat. 42° 20'

(Concord, a small river of Massachusetts,formed of two branches, which unite near thecentre of the town of Concord, whence it takes itscourse in a n. e. and n. direction through Bed-ford and Billerica, and empties itself into Merri-mack river at Tewksbury. Concord river isremarkable for the gentleness of its current, whichis scarcely perceivable by the eye. At low watermark it is from 100 to 200 feet wide, and from threeto 12 feet deep. During floods. Concord riveris near a mile in breadth ; and when viewed fromthe town of Concord, makes a fine appearance.)

(Concord, a township in Delaware county,Pennsylvania.)

(Concord, a settlement in Georgia, on the of the Mississippi, about a mile from the s.line of Tennessee, 108 miles h. from the mouth ofYazoo river, and 218 bclov/ the Ohio.)

CONDACHE, a river of the province and go-vernment of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. Itruns n. e. and traversing the royal road whichleads from Baza to Archidono, enters the river Co-quindo on its s. side, in 37' lat.

(CONDE, Fort, or Mobile City, is situate onthe w. side of Mobile bay, in W. Florida, about40 miles above its mouth, in the gulf of Mexico.Lat. 30° 59' n. Long. 88° 11' a'.)

CONDE, a small river of the province andcountry of the Iroquees Indians, in New France or


Canada. It runs n. and enters the lake On-tario.

CONDE, another of the same name. SecV E H D E .

(CONDECEDO, or Desconocida, a cape orpromontory of N. America, in the province ofYucatán, *100 miles w. of Merida. Lat. 20° 50' n.Long. 90° 45' w.)

CONDEBAMBA, a large and beautiful valleyof the provitice and fo?TCg7'??//f>«/o of Huamachucoin Peru ; celebrated for its fertility.

CONDES, River of the, in the straits of Ma-gellan. It runs into the sea opposite the islandSanta Ana.

CONDESA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cartagena; situate near the coast,at the mouth of the Dique, which forms a com-munication between the sea and the grand riverMagdalena.

CONDESUIOS DE Arequipa, a provinceand corregimiento of Peru : bounded n. by that ofParinocochas, e. by that of Chumbivilcas, s. that of Canes and Canches, and s. by that ofCollahuas. It is generally of a cold temperature,even in the less lofty parts of the cordillera ; ofa rough and broken territory, and with very badroads. Nevertheless, no inconsiderable proportionof wheat is grown in the low grounds, as likewise ofmaize, and other seeds and fruits, such as grapes,pears, peaches, apples, and some flowers. Upontlie heights breed many vicunas, huanacos, andvizcachas, and in other parts is obtained cochineal,here called macno, and which is bartered by theIndians for baizes of the manufacture of the country,and for cacao. It has some gold mines whichwere worked in former times, and which, on ac-count of the baseness of the metal, the depth of themines, and hardness of the strata, have not pro-duced so much as formerly they did, althoughthey are not now without yielding some emolu-ment : such are those of Airahua, Quiquimbo,Araure, and Aznacolea, which may produce alittle more than the expences incurred in Avorkirigthem. The gold of these mines is from 19 to 20carats, and they produce from tliree to four ounceseach cfljjow. They are Avorked by means of steeland powder, and the metals are ground in mills.The greater part of the natives of tliis province oc-cupy themselves in carrying the productions of thevalley of Mages, of the province of Carnana, suchas Avines and brandies, to the other provinces ofthe sierra; also in the cultivation of seeds, andsome in working the mines. It is watered by somesmall rivers or streams, which, incorporate them-selves, and form t-wm large rivers. The capital is3 T

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into tlie Banos, and which, after the great cas-cade, is known by the name of Pastaza. To then. rises the Padregal, afterwards called Pita, as itpasses through the llanura of Chillo ; and at theskirt of the mountain of Guangopolo, where theplain terminates, it unites itself with the Ama-g^uaiia, and then turning w. takes the names ofTumbaco and Huallabamba, to enter the Esmeral-das, which disembogues itself into the S. sea. Atthe skirt of this great mountain are the estates ofSinipu, Pongo, Pucaguaita, and Papaurca, It isdistant from the settlement of Mula-halo half aleague, and five leagues from its capital. In lat.40° IPs. (The height of this volcano was dis-covered, in 1802, to be only 260 feet lower thanthe crater of Antisana, which is 19,130 feet abovethe level of the sea.)

COTOPASSA, a river of the province of Ca-nela in the kingdom of Quito, towards the s. e. Itruns s. e. and enters the n. side of the river Pastaza,which, from that point, begins to be navigable.

COTOPAXI. See Cotopacsi.

COTUA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná ; situate on the shore ofa river near the coast of the gulf of Cariaco, be-tween the city of this name and thatof Cumanagoto.

COTUE, a small island of the N. sea; siPiatenear the n. coast of the island of Cuba.

COTUI, a town of St. Domingo ; founded, in1504, by Rodrigo Mexia deTruxillo, by the orderof the cometidador mayor of Alca.ntara, Nicolasde Obando, 16 leagues to the n. of the capital, St.Domingo, on the skirt of some mountains whichare 12 leagues in height, and at the distance oftwo leagues from the river Yauna. It is a smalland poor town. Its commerce depends upon thesalting of meats, and in preparing tallow and hidesto carry to St. Domingo, and in the chase of wildgoats, which are sold to the French. In its moun-tains is a copper mine, two leagues to the s. e. ofthe town. The Bucaniers, a French people of theisland of Tortuga, commanded by Mr. Pouancy,their governor, took and sacked it in 1676. (In

1505, the gold mines were worked here. Thecopper mine above alluded to is in the mountain ofMeymon, whence comes the river of the samename, and is so rich, that the metal, when refined,will produce eight per cent, of gold. Here are alsofound excellent lapis lazuli, a streaked chalk, thatsome painters prefer to bole for gilding, load-stone, emeralds, and iron. The iron is of the bestquality, and might be conveyed from the chain ofSevico by means of the river Yuna. The soilhere is excellent, and the plantains produced hereare of such superior quality, that this manna of the

Antilles is called, at St. Domingo, Sunday plan-tains. The people cultivate tobacco, but arechiefly employed in breeding swine. The inhabi-tants are called clownish, and of an unsociablecharacter. The town is situated half a leaguefrom the s. w. bank of the Yuna, which becomesunnavigable near this place, about 13 leagues fromits mouth, in the bay of Samana. It contains 160scattered houses, in the middle of a little savana,and surrounded Avith woods, SO leagues n. of St.Domingo, and 15 s.e. of St. Yago.)

COUCHSAGE, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and colony of New York ; situate on theshore of the river Hudson.

(COUDRAS, a small island in St. Lawrenceriver, about 45 miles n. e. of Quebec.)

COUECHI, a settlement of Indians of N. Ca-rolina, in the territory of the Cheroquees.

COUICAN, a settlement of the head settlementof Guiméo, and alcald'ia mayor of Cirindaro, inNueva Espafia. It contains 93 families of In-dians.

COUL, Bay of, on the e. coast of the capeBreton, in Spanish bay, and at the entrance of thelake Labrador.

COULEURE, a bay of the island of Marti-nique, one of the Antilles, on the n. w. coast, nearPearl island.

Couleure, a small river of this island, whichruns «. w. and enters the sea in the bay of itsname.

CORUCO. Sec Cabo.

(COUNTRY Harbour, so called, is about 20leagues to the e. of Halifax, in Nova Scotia.)

COUPEE, a point of the coast and shore of theMississippi in Canada, [it is also called CutPoint, and is a short turn in the river Mississippi,about 35 miles above Mantchac fort, at the gut ofIbberville, and 259 from the mouth of the river.Charlevoix relates that the river formerly made agreat turn here, and some Canadians, by deepen-ing the channel of a small brook, diverted thewaters of the river into if, in the year 1722. Theimpetuosity of the stream was such, and the soilof so rich and loose a quality, that in a short timethe point was entirely cut through, and the oldchannel left dry, except in inundations ; by whichtravellers save 14 feagues of their voyage. Thenew channel has been sounded Avith a line of SOfathoms, without finding bottom. The Spanishsettlements of Point Coupee extend 20 miles on thew. side of the Mississippi, and there are some plan-tations back on the side of La Fause Riviere,through Avhich the Mississippi passed about 70years ago. The fort at Point Coupee is a square

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datorj parties against the settlements in their vici-nity. The Creeks are very badly armed, havingfew rifles, and are mostly armed with muskets.For near 40 years past, the Creek Indians havehad little intercourse with any other foreigners butthose of the English nation. Their prejudice infavour of every thing English, has been carefullykept alive by tories and others to this day. Mostof their towns have now in their possession Britishdrums, with the arms of the nation and other em-blems painted on them, and some of their squawspreserve the remnants of British flags. They stillbelieve that “ the great king over the water” isable to keep the whole world in subjection. Theland of the country is a common stock ; and anyindividual may remove from one part of it to an-other, and occupy vacant ground where he canfind it. The country is naturally divided intothree districts, viz. the Upper Creeks, Lower andMiddle Creeks, and Seminoles. The upper dis-trict includes all the waters of the Tallapoosee,Coosahatchee, and Alabama rivers, and is calledthe Abbacoes. The lower or middle district in-cludes all the waters of the Chattahoosee and Flintrivers, down to their junction ; and although oc-cupied by a great number of different tribes, thewhole are called Cowetaulgas or Coweta people,from the Cowetan town and tribe, the most warlikeand ancient of any in the whole nation. Thelower or s. district takes in the river Appala-chicola, and extends to the point of E. Florida,and is called the Country of the Seminoles. Agri-culture is as far advanced with the Indians as itcan well be, without the proper implements of hus-bandry. A very large majority of the nationbeing devoted to hunting in the winter, and to waror idleness in summer, cultivate but small parcelsof ground, barely sufficient for subsistence. Butmany individuals, (particularly on Flint river,among the Chehaws, who possess numbers of Ne-groes) have fenced fields, tolerably well cultivated.Having no ploughs, they break up the groundwith hoes, and scatter the seed promiscuously overthe ground in hills, but not in rows. Theyraise horses, cattle, fowls, and hogs. The onlyarticles they manufacture are eartlien pots andpans, baskets, horse-ropes or halters, smokedleather, black marble pipes, wooden spoons, andoil from acorns, hickery nuts, and chesnuts.)

(Creeks, confederated nations of Indians. SeeMuscogulge.)

(Creeks Crossing Place, on Tennessee river, isabout 40 miles e. s. e. of the mouth of Elk river, atthe Muscle shoals, and 36 s.w. of Nickajack, inthe Georgia w. territory.)

(CREGER’S Town, in Frederick county,Maryland, lies on the w. side of Monococy river,between Owing’s and Hunting creeks, which fallinto that river ; nine miles s. of Ermmtsburg, nearthe Pennsylvania line, and about 11 n. of Frede-rick town.)

CREUSE, or River Hondo, a river of Canada,which runs s.w. and enters the St. Lawrence, inthe country of the Acones Indians.

CRIPPLE, Bay of, on the s. coast of the islandof Newfoundland, on the side of Race cape.

CRISIN, a small island of the N. sea, near the71. coast of the island of St. Domingo, between theislands of Molino and Madera, opposite to portBelfin.

CRISTO. See Manta.

(CROCHE, a lake of N. America, in New SouthWales, terminated by the portage La Loche, 400paces long, and derives its name from the appear-ance of the water falling over a rock of upwardsof 30 feet. It is about 12 miles long. Lat. 36°40'. Long, 109° 25' w.)

CROIX, or Cross, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana, the same as that which,with the name of the Ovadeba, incorporates itselfwith the Ynsovavudela, and takes this name, till itenters the Mississippi.

Croix, another river of Nova Scotia or Acadia.It rises in the lake Konsaki, runs s. and enters thesea in the port of Portages.

Croix, another, of the same province and colony,which rises near the coast of the city of Halifax,runs 7^. and enters the basin of the Mines of the bayof Fundy.

Croix, an island near the coast of the sameprovince and colony, between that of Canes andthe bay of Mirligueche.

Croix, a bay of the island of Guadalupe, on thes. w. coast, between the river Sence, and the portof the Petite Fontaine, or Little Fountain.

Croix, a port of the n. coast of the island ofNewfoundland, in the strait of Bellisle.

Croix, a lake of Canada, in the country andterritor}'’ of the Algonquins Indians, between thatof St. 'I'homas and the river Bastican.

Croix, a small settlement in the island of Mar-tinique.

(Croix, St. See Cruz, Santa.)

CRON, a small river of the province and cap-tainship of Seara in Brazil. It rises near tliecoast, runs n. and enters the sea at the point ofTortuga.

(CROOKED Island, one of the Bahama islands,or rather a cluster of islands, of which NorthCrooked island, South Crooked island, (com-


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