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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ABANCAY, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the E by the large city of Cuzco, (its jurisdiction beginning at the parish of Santa Ana of that city), and on the W by the province of Andahuailas; N by that of Calcaylares, forming, in this part, an extended chain of snowcovered mountains ; S by the provinces of Cotabamba and Aimaraez; S W by Chilques and Masques. It extends 26 leagues from E to W and is 14 broad. Its most considerable river is the Apurimac, which is separated from it at the N W and bends its course, united with other streams, towards the mountains of the Andes. This river is crossed by a wooden bridge of 80 yards long and 3 broad, which is in the high road from Lima to Cuzco, and other provinces of the sierra. The toll collected here is four rials of silver for every load of goods of the produce of the country, and twelve for those of the produce of Europe. The temperature of this province is mild, and for the most part salubrious, with the exception of a few vallies, where, on account of the excessive heat and humidity, tertian agues are not uncommon. It produces wheat, maize, and other grain in great abundance, and its breed of horned cattle is by no means inconsiderable; but its principal production is sugar, which they refine so well, that it may challenge the finest European sugars for whiteness : this is carried for sale to Cuzco and other provinces, and is held in great estimation. It also produces hemp, cloth manufactures of the country ; and in its territories mines of silver are not wanting, especially in the mountain which they call Jalcanta, although the natives avail themselves not of the advantages so liberally held out to them. Its jurisdiction comprehends 17 settlements. The repartimento, quota of tribute, amounted to 108,750 dollars, and it rendered yearly 870 for the alcabala. The following are the 17 settlements : The capital, Limatambo, Huanicapa, Mollepata, Curahuasi, Pantipata, Cachora, Pibil, Antilla, Chonta, Anta, Pocquiura, Ibin, Surite, Chachaypucquio, Huaracondo. Sumata,
Abancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a spacious valley, which gives it its title: it is also so called from a river, over which has been thrown one of the largest bridges in the kingdom, being the first that was built there, and looked upon as a monument of skill. In the above valley the jurisdiction of this province, and that of Andahuailas, becomes divided. It is also memorable for the victories gained in its vicinity by the king's troops against Gonzalo Pizarro, in the years 1542 and 1548. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic ; this order being the first of those which established themselves in Peru. 20 leagues distant from the city of Cuzco. Lat. 13° 31' 30" S Long. 72° 26' W.7
ABANES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the plains of San Juan, to the N of the Orinoco. They inhabit the woods on the shores of this river, as well as other small woods ; and are bounded, E by the Salivas, and W by the Caberres and Andaquies. They are docile, of good dispositions, and are easily converted to the Catholic faith.
ABANGOUI, a large settlement of the province and government of Paraguay. It is composed of Indians of the Guarani nation, and situate on the shore of the river Taquani. It was discovered by Alvar Nuñez Cabezade Vaca, in 1541.
ABBEVILLE County, in Ninetysix district, S. Carolina, bounded on the N E by the Saluda, and on the SW by the Savannah, is 35 miles in length and 21 in breadth ; contains 9197 inhabitants, including 1665 slaves.
ABEICAS, a nation of Indians of New France, bounded on the N by the Alibamis, and E by the Cheraquis. They live at a distance from the large rivers, and the only produce of their territory is some canes, which are not thicker than a finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success : the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
ABISMES, Quartel des, that part or division of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to the NE. It takes its name from its having some creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they stand in no need of being anchored, which would be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on account of the thick roots thrown out by the above trees. Further on is a small island called Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, which is a good one.
ABITANIS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechuan tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a celebrated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, from the want of workmen. It is nearly contiguous to the settlement of Colcha.
ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the S side of which is a settlement called Frederick, which last lies in N lat. 48° 35'. W long. 82°. Also the name of a river which runs N and joins Moose river near its mouth at James's bay.
ABITIBIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, in the territory of the Indians of this name. This lake is N of Nipissing lake, the NE boundary of Canada, in New South Wales: it has communication with James's bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 48° 39' N Long. 79° 2' W.
ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is very numerous and warlike ; and they live a wandering life in the woods. It is 60 leagues to the E of the mountains of the Andes; bounded on the S, by the Ipillos Indians.
ABREOLHOS, on the coast of Brasil, and of the province and capitainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers Percipe and Quororupa, in S lat. 18° 19' 30". W long. 39° 5 1° 30". Here are some hidden rocks, or sandbanks, extremely dangerous ; and although there are various navigable channels, it requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, this having been the lot of an infinite number of vessels. These sandbanks are more than 20 leagues distant from the continent, and extend themselves upwards of five leagues to the E of the Island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the the centre, is in 170° 51' 20" S lat. W long. 39° 18'.
[ABROJOS, a bank, with several small rocks and isles, E of Turk's island, in N lat. 21° 5'. W long. 70° 40'. Between this bank and Turk's Island is a deep channel, for ships of any burden, three leagues wide.]
ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of the same name. It was anciently the capital of this province, and had the same denomination. At present it is much reduced, the corregidor having left it to establish himself in Lucanas. Lat. 15° 33' S Long. 73° 28' W
ABUCEES, S. Joseph de los, a settlement of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who were founded by, and maintained at the expence of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 0° 36' N Long. 75° 22' W.
ABURRA, S. Bartolomé de, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 1542, by the Marshal George Robledo, in a fertile and extensive valley of the same name, which was discovered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are some streams of salt water, from which the Indians procure salt for their use. Lat. 5° 51' 30" N Long. 75° 17' W ACA, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlaxclala, in Nueva España.
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AGUADILLA, a river of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the moun-tains on the s. and enters the large river Chagrevery near its mouth, and the castle of this name.Here ships take in water, on account of the conve-nience of a bay, for the defence of which there is,upon the shore, a battery belonging to the samecastle, which was built under the directions ofDon Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.
AGUADORES, River of the, in the islandof Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast ofthis island, having at its mouth a watch-tower andguard to give notice of vessels which may enter theport of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it isseven leagues distant.
AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in theyear 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Quere-taro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of SierraGorda.
AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of thejurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It hasa convent of the religious order of St. Francis, andin 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families ofIndians, including the wards of its district; 17leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n.Long. 103° 33' w.
AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Santiago de las Atalayas, and government ofSan Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It isof a hot temperature, and produces the same fruitsas the other settlements of this province.
AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro,^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold tem-perature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo,and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain theirlivelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteenleagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.
AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlementof the province and government of Mainas in thekingdom of Quito ; one of those which belongedto the missions held there by the Jesuits, andthus called from the nation of Indians of whom it iscomposed. It was founded in 1670 by the fatherLorenzo Lucero.
AGUAPAI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It rises between the Pa-rana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of SanCarlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c.enters the last of the above rivers not far from thesettlement of La Cruz.
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from which they are enabled to make sugar. It isintersected by three rivers, which are of no usewhatever to it, being too low in their beds ; but theyunite and form the Pachachaca, which enters theprovince of Abancay, and has more than 40 bridgesof wood and cord thrown over it in different parts.There are innumerable veins of gold and silver orein this province, which are not worked, from thewant of energy, and from the poverty existingamong the inhabitants ; and thus only some tri-fling emoluraeul is now and then derived from oneor the other. It was otherwise in former times,but these mines are now almost all filled with water.Some mines of quicksilver have been discovered,but the working of them has been forbid. Hereis little of the cattle kind, and no cloth manufac-tures peculiar to the country arc made here, withthe exception of a sort of thick quilt, which theycall Chuces ; and a kind of grain is gathered here,known by the name of Maino. This province wasunited to the empire of Peru by Capac Yupan-qui V. Emperor of the Incas. The language of thenatives is the same as that which is most universalthroughout the kingdom. The capital formerlyconsisted of a large and w ell ordered settlement,which was called Tintay, but which is at presentbut thinly inhabited, on account of the scarcity ofwater, and from a plague, in which almost all itsinhabitants perished. The number of souls in thewhole of the province may amount to 15,000. Iteontains 50 settlements within its jurisdiction. Theyearly tribute received by the corregidor used toamount to 800,100 dollars, and the duties paidupon the alcavahif (a centage on goods sold), to688 dollars.
The settlements of its jurisdiction are ;
AINACOLCA, a gold mine of the province andcorregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is famousfor the excellent quality of this metal, but it is verydifficult to be worked, on account of the hardnessof its stone.
AIOCUESCO, Santa Maria de, the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofAntequera, in the province and bishopric of Me-choacan in Nueva España. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains a convent of the religious orderof Santo Domingo, and 400 Indian families, whocarry on some commerce in the cochineal, (theplant producing which they cultivate), and a veryconsiderable one in the manufacture of Pulgues^on account of the abundance of Magueyes whichare found here. Seven leagues s. of its capital.
AIOTITLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcaldia mayor of Amola in NuevaEspana, immediately upon the coast of the S. sea,and situate between two deep ravines. Its tem-perature is very hot and troublesome to live in, onaccount of the various venomous animals and in-sects that abound in its territory. It contains 76Indian families, whose trade consists in makingtroughs and trays very finely painted. This set-tlement, in which there is a convent of the orderof St. Francis, is beautifully surrounded withplantations. Fifteen leagues distant from its capital.
Massachusetts, incorporated in 1797, it beingformerly the n. part of Stoughton.)
CANZE, a river of the colony and govern-ment of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessedby the Dutch. It rises between the Berbice andthe Corentin, and after a very round-about course,enters the former, close to its mouth, or where itruns into the sea.
CAO, Santa Maria Magdalena de, asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofTruxillo in Peru, situate in the valley of Chicama.It was the capital in the time of the Indians, andthe number of these 200 years ago was 3000 ; butnow it is reduced to a wretched state, and occu-pies a small spot on the other side of the river,being nine leagues distant from its capital.
Cao, with the dedicatory title of Santiago, todistinguish it from another settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento, although they areboth equally poor and reduced. Its inhabitantsmaintain themselves by the cultivation of maize,wheat, rice, and vegetables, which they carryfor sale to the other provinces, so that they arefor the most part a race of carriers, and indeedpossess no inconsiderable droves of mules. It issix leagues from its capital, just by the sea.
CAOBAS, River of the, in the island of St.Domingo, in that part possessed by the French.It rises in the valley of San Juan, runs to the w.and afterwards changing its course to the n. w. en-ters the Artibonito.
Cassipa, into which it enters ; and afterwardsrunning out at the n. side of this lake, it findsits way through a subterraneous passage, until itempties itself into the Orinoco, on its s. shore.The borders of this river are inhabited by anation of barbarous Indians, who wander con-tinually through the forests without any fixedabode. They are cannibals as well as the otherIndian tribes around them, and with whom theykeep up a continual warfare.
Capachica, a narrow strip of land formed bythe great lake Titicaca. Of these strips there arethree, and this appears, for the distance of a league,to be completely divided from any main land.
CAPACHO, a village under the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Christoval, in the new kingdom ofGranada ; of a warm temperature ; abounding insugar-cane, from which much sugar is manufac-tured, and in cacao ; but it is much infested bythe barbarian Indians, called the Motilones (short-haired), who destroy the plantations. It contains200 house- keepers, and is 24; leagues n. e. ofPamplona, in the road which leads to Mérida andLa Grita, and eight leagues from the city of SanChristoval.
Capaia, a river of the same province and go-vernment, which rises in the serranía, and aftermaking many turnings runs into the sea, near thecape Codera towards the e.
sels can go 25 miles above Wilmington, and largeboats 90 miles, to Fayetteville. The n. e. branchjoins the n. w. branch a little above Wilmington,and is navigable by sea vessels 20 miles above thattown, and by large boats to S. Washington, 40miles further, and by rafts to Sarecto, which isnearly 70 miles. The whole length of Cape Fearriver is about 200 miles.)
(Cape May is the s. westernmost point of thestate of New Jersey, and of the county to which itgives name. Lat. 38° 59' n. Long. 74° 55' w.It lies 20 miles n. e. from cape Henlopen, whichforms the s. w. point of the mouth of Delaware bay,as cape May does the n. e.)
(Cape May County spreads n. around the capeof its name, is a healthy sandy tract of country, ofsufficient fertility to give support to 2571 industri-ous and peaceable inhabitants. The county isdivided into Upper, Middle, and Lower pre-cincts.)
CAPETI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the mountains in the interior of this pro-vince, runs from e. to w. and enters the large riverof Tuira.
Capi, a small river of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. It runsfrom e. to w. and enters the Marañon opposite thecity of Pará. Don Juan de la Cruz, in his map ofS. America, calls it Cupiu.
Santiago del Estero, on the bank of the river Cho-romoros.
Capillucas, a lake of the same province andgovernment; formed from an overflow or channelof the river Napo, and at no great distance fromthe banks of this river.
CAPINOTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cochambaba in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas ; in which there is, inde-pendent of the parish-church, a convent of theorder of San Agustin.
CAPITANEJO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tunja in the new kingdom ofGranada; situate on the bank of the river Soga-moso, in the territory called Cabuya de Chica-mocha, which is the direct road from Tunja toSanta Fe. It is of a very hot temperature, abound-ing in sugar-cane, and other productions of a warmclimate. The natives are very subject to an epi-demic disorder of lumps or swellings under thechin. Its population consists of 100 housekeepers.
Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and theAgujero del Ferro.
CARCAI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water ofvery medicinal properties, and its heat is so greatthat an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.
CARCARANAL, a river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the pro-vince of Tucuman, in the mountains of the cityof Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with thename of Tercero, and changing it into Carcara-iial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joinsthe Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hec-manas.
CARCAZI, a settlement of the government andJurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, situate betAveen two mountains, whichcause its temperature to be very moderate. It pro-duces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts suchfruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in themilder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhoodabounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number ofinhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniardsand 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhichdivide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.
(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouthcollege, New Hampshire. The township ofOrange once bore this name, which see.)
CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See articlePitangoas.
CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and realof gold mines in the province and captainship ofTodos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore ofthe large river of San Francisco, to the n. of thevillage of Tapuyas.
CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the king-dom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty,and extent, being five leagues in length; also fora fountain of very delicate and salutary water,which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, ren-ders them so exceedingly porous, that a person tread-ing somewhat heavily seems to shake the groundunder him. There is an herb found here that keepsgreen all the year round: it is small, resemblingtrefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a veryagreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.
CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the king-dom of Tierra Firme in the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It is extremely convenientfor careening and repairing ships, and from thiscircumstance it takes its name. It lies behind capeCodera towards the e.
CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St.Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast,and in the part possessed by the French beforethey ceded the island to the Englissh. It is be-tween the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuenteand Morro.
CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and vol-cano of the province and corregimiento of Rio-bamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the dis-trict of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snowthe whole year round. Its skirts are covered withfine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this pro-vince was visited by a terrible earthquake, whichopened the mountain and let in a river of mud,formed by the snows which were melted by thefire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up.So dreadful were the effects of this revolution thatthe whole of the crops were completely spoiled ;and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-
[boyes. or pretended magicians, sacrifices and wor-ship ; wounding themselves on such solemnitieswith an instrument made of the teeth of the agouti,which inflicted horrible gashes ; conceiving, per-haps, that the malignant powers delighted ingroans and misery, and were to be appeased onlyby human blood,]
Caribe, a settlement of the same province andgovernment ; situate on the windward coast of thecape of Tres Puntas. In its district are 26 plan-tations, 15 of cacao, and the rest of vines andmaize, which yield but indifferently, from a wantof water; although they find means of supplyingthis in some degree by the rain. The communityconsists of 1070 souls ; and is five leagues dis-tant from the settlement of Carupano.
(CARIBEANA, now called Paria or NewAndalucia, which see.)
CARIBES, a barbarous and ferocious nation ofIndians, who are cannibals, inhabiting the pro-vince which by them is called Caribana. Theyare divided under the titles of the Maritiraos andMediterraneos : the former live in plains and uponthe coast of the Atlantic, are contiguous to theDutch and French colonies, and follow the lawsand customs of the former, with whom they carryon a commerce. They are the most cruel of anythat infest the settlements of the missions of theriver Orinoco, and are the same as those calledGalibis. The Mediterraneos, who inhabit thes. side of the source of the river Caroni, are of amore pacific nature, and began to be reduced tothe faith by the regular order of the abolished so-ciety of the Jesuits in 1738, The name of Caribesis given not only to these and other Indians of theAntilles, but to all such as are cannibals. See Ca-ribe.
CARICHANA, a settlement of the province ofGuayana, and government of Cumana ; one of themissions of the Rio Meta, which was under thecare of the society of Jesuits, of the province ofSanta Fe. It is situate on the shore of the Ori-noco, by the torrent of its name ; and is at presentunder the care of the religious order of Capuchins.
Carichana, Torrent of, a strait of the river
Orinoco, formed by different islands, some coveredby, and some standing out of, the water, so thatthe navigation is very difficult and dangerous. Itis near the mouth of the river Meta.
Carimbatay, a river of the above provinceand government, which runs w. and enters theXexuy near the town of Curuguato.
CARIOCOS, a lake of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the Portuguese territories, on the shoreof the river. It is formed by the Topinamba-ranas, which, according to Mr. Bellin, makes thissheet of water before it enters the former river.
CARIPE, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, situate in the middle of a serranía; one ofthe missions in that province belonging to theAragonese Capuchin fathers.
CARIPORES, a settlement of S. America, tothe n. of Brazil and of the river of Las Amazo-nas : although of barbarian Indians, it deservesparticular mention, on account of its virtuous andpacific customs, so different from the brutality andsloth of the surrounding nations. These Indiansare handsome, lively, bold, valorous, liberal, ho-nest, and affable, and in short the most polishednation of Indians in all America ; they esteem ho-nour, justice, and truth; are enemies to deceit, eatbread made of cazave, which they have a methodof preserving good for three or four years. Theydo not scruple to eat the flesh of some ugly snakesfound in their woods, but are not cannibals ; nei-ther do they revenge upon their prisoners takenin war the cruelties they experience from theirenemies.
(CARIY, a parish of the province and govern-
an hermitage dedicated to St. Denis the Areopa-gite. It lies to the s. of the city of Barquisimeto,Between that of Tucuyo and the lake of Maracaibo.(Carora is 30 leagues to the s. of Coro. Its situa-tion owes nothing to nature but a salubrious air.Its soil, dry and covered with thorny plants, givesno other productions but such as owe almost en-tirely their existence to the principle of heat. Theyremark there a sort of cochineal silvestre as fine asthe misleca, which they suffer to perish. Theland is covered with prolific animals, such asoxen, mules, horses, sheep, goats, &c. ; and theactivity evinced by the inhabitants to make theseadvantageous to them, supports the opinion thatthere are but few cities in the Spanish West In-dies where there is so much industry as at Carora.The principal inhabitants live by the produce oftheir flocks, whilst the rest gain their livelihoodby tanning and selling the hides and skins. Al-though their tanning be bad, the consumer cannotreproach the manufacturer, for it is impossible toconceive how they can sell the article, whatevermay be its quality, at the moderate price it fetches.The skins and leather prepared at Carora are usedin a great degree by the inhabitants themselvesfor boots, shoes, saddles, bridles, and strops.The surplus of the consumption of the place isused throughout the province, or is sent to Ma-racaibo, Cartagena, and Cuba. They also manu-facture at Carora, from a sort of aloe disthica, veryexcellent hammocs, which form another article oftheir trade. These employments occupy andsupport a population of 6200 souls, who, with asterile soil, have been able to acquire that ease andcompetency which it appears to have been theintention of nature to deny them. The city is wellbuilt ; the streets are wide, running in straightparallel lines. The police and the administrationof justice are in the hands of a lieutenant of the go-vernor and a cabildo. There is no military au-thority. Carora lies in lat. 9° 50' n. and is 15leagues e. of the lake of Maracaibo, 12 n. ofTocuyo, IS n. w. of Barquisimeto, and 90 w. ofCaracas.)
Carora, a great llanura of the same province,which extends 16 leagues from e. to w, and sixfrom n. to s. It was discovered by George Spirain 1534, abounds greatly in every kind of grainand fruit, but is of a very hot temperature. Itspopulation is not larger than that of the former city,to which it gives its name.
(CAROUGE Point, the northernmost extremity
of the island of St. Domingo in the W. Indies ;25 miles n. from the town of St. Jago.)
CARRION DE Velazco, a small but beauti-ful and well peopled city of the kingdom of Peru,in the pleasant llanura of Guaura ; it is of a mild,pleasant, and healthy climate, of a fertile and de-lightful soil, and inhabited by a no small numberof distinguished and rich families.
Carrizal, sierra or chain of mountains ofthe same province and government, which runsfrom e. to w. from the shore of the river Guaricoto the shore of the Guaya.
caldia mayor of Zacattan, in Nueva España, fiveleagues from its head settlement.
CAXICA, or Busongote, a settlement of thecorregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reynode Granada, is of a moderately cold temperature,being agreeable and healthy, and producing muchwheat, maize, barley, and other productions inci-dental to a cold climate. Its population amountsto 150 families, and as many families of Indians,who had in it a capital fortress, in which the Zipaor king of Bogota shut himself up in order to de-fend the entrance into his kingdom against theSpaniards: he was, however, routed and taken byGonzalo Ximenez de Quesada in 1537. Is fiveleagues to the n. of Santa Fe.
CAXITITLAN, the alcaldia mayor and dis-trict or jurisdiction of the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara : in its districtis a large, fertile valley, abounding in every kind ofseed, as maize, wheat, French beans, and varioussorts of pulse : is of a mild temperature, and thedistrict of its jurisdiction consists of six settlements :in it is the great lake or sea of Chapala : it is sevenleagues s, e. of Guadalaxara. Long. 102° 43'. Lat.20° 35'.
San Luis, Istahuacan,
Cuyatan, Santa Cruz,
CAXITLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Almololoyan, and alcaldia mayor of Colina,in Nueva España : it contains 30 families of Spa-niards, 20 of Mustees, and five of Mulattoes : inits district are various estates of palms of Cocos,(palmasde Qocos)^ and some herds of large cattle :is seven leagues to the w. of its head settlement.
(CAYAHAGA, or Cayuga, sometimes calledthe Great River, empties in at the s. bank of lakeErie, 40 miles e. of the mouth of Huron ; havingan Indian town of the same name on its banks. Itis navigable for boats ; and its mouth is wide, anddeep enough to receive large sloops from the lake.Near this are the celebrated rocks which projectover the lake. They are several miles in lengtl),and rise 40 or 50 feet perpendicular out of thewater. Some parts of them consist of several strataof different colours, lying in a horizontal direction,and so exactly parallel, that they resemble thework of art. The view from the land is grand,but the water presents the most magnificent pros-pect of this sublime work of nature ; it is attended,however, with great danger ; for if the least stormArises, the force of the surf is such that no vessel
can escape being dashed to pieces against the rocks .Colonel Broadshead suffered shipwreck here in thelate war, and lost a number of his men, when astrong wind arose, so that the last canoe narrowlyescaped. The heathen Indians, when they passthis impending danger, offer a sacrifice of tobaccoto the water. Part of the boundary line betweenthe United States of America and the Indiansbegins at the mouth of Cayahaga, and run‘< up thesame to the portage between that and the Tuscarawabranch of the Muskingum. The Cayuga nation,consisting of 500 Indians, 40 of whom reside in theUnited States, the rest in Canada, receive of thestate of New York an annuity of 2300 dollars, be-sides 50 dollars granted to one of their chiefs, as aconsideration for lands sold by them to the state,and 500 dollars from the United States, agreeablyto the treaty of 1794. See Six Nations.)
CAYENNE, a large island of the province andgovernment of Guayana : it is six leagues in lengthfrom n. to s. and three quarters of a league in itsbroadest part. On the n. side it has the sea, onthe VO . the river Cayenne, on thee, the Ou>ti, andon the s. an arm which is formed by this and theOrapii. The soil is excellent, fertile, and irrigatedby many streams. That part whicli looks to then. is the most pleasant and healthy ; and in it aremany mountains well cultivated and covered withcountry seats. The part facing the s. is muchlower, and abounds in meadows, called salanas,and which arc inundated in the rainy seasons.The point of the island formed by the mouth ofthe river Cayenne, is called Caperoux, where thereis a fortress with a French garrison, and below thisa convenient and large port, capable of containingin security 100 ships. The French establishedthemselves in this island in the year 1625, andabandoned it in 1654, when the English enteredit, and were routed by Mr. de la Barre, in the year1664. The Dutch had their revenge in 1676 : butthe year following it was recovered by the French,under the command of D’Estrees, on whom the ce-lebrated Jesuit Carlos de la Rue made the followinginscription :
Vice AmeralioCayana. TabacoVI. CaptisBatavorumAmericana classedeleta
[The capitulation of Cayenne to the Englisharms, in conjunction with the Portuguese, took
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CENIS, a settlement of Indians of the provinceand government of Louisiana, situate in the roadwhich leads to Mexico. It has a fort whicli wasbuilt by the French when they had possession ofthe province.
CENOMANAS, a barbarous nation of Indians,descended from the Naunas, who live in the woods,and without any fixed abode, along the banks ofthe great river Magdalena.
CENOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, to then. of the river Marañon, w ho inhabit the woodsnear the river Aguarico. They are at continualwar with that of the Encabellados.
CENTA, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán. It runs from the z£. to e.and enters the Bermejo. The Fathers Antonio Sa-linis and Pedro Ortiz de Zarate, of the extin-guished company, suffered martyrdom upon itsshores whilst pn'aching to the barbarian Indians.
CENTERVILLE, the chief town of QueenAnne’s county, and on the e. side of Chesapeakbay, in Maryland. It lies between the forksof Corsica creek, which runs into Chester river,and has been lately laid out; 18 miles s. of Ches-ter, S4 s. e, by e. of Baltimore, and 93 s. xso. by s.of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 6' n,~\
CEPEROUX, a French fort, called also SanLouis, in Cayenne ; situate at the mouth of theriver, and on a lofty spot commanding the en-trance of the same. It was taken by the Dutch in1676 ; and in the following year it was recoveredby the French ; which date has been mistaken byMons. Martiniere, who mentions it as having beenlost the year preceding.
CEPITA, a small settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Charcas in Peru, above thechannel of the great lake Titicaca, near the fa-mous bridge that was built by the Emperor CapacYiipanqui over the channel, and which is 160yards in length. The Indians of this settlementare diligent in keeping this bridge in repair, andassist in helping and directing the cavalcades whichare continmdly passing it,
CEQUER, a small settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom ofQuito, to the n. of this city, and on the shore ofthe river Telembi. Its temperature is cold, and itis the direct road for such as are going to the pro-vince of Barbacoas.
CEQUIN, a mountain of the province of LosCanelos in the kingdom of Quito. Its skirts arewashed by the river Puyuc, and on the other sideby the Bobonasa : from it rise the rivers Tinguisaand Paba-yacu, which run from w. to e. until theyenter the Bobonasa. It is entirely covered withthick woods, save upon the top, where there isncifher tree nor plant.
CERCADO, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. by that of Chancay, n.e. bythat of Canta, e. by that of Huarochiri, bythat of Cañete, and w. by the S. sea; is 13 leagueslong s. and eight wide at the widest part; is ofa very mild and kind temperature, but somewhatsickly ; and is neither subject to tempests nor highAvinds, although it is often visited by earthquakes.It only rains in the winter, and this is a speciesof small sprinkling shower which they call garua;so that they have no necessity for houses with roofs,and they are covered only with clay or mortar.The whole of its territory is fertile, and aboundsin seeds and fruits. The herb alfalfa, which isgood forage for horses, is particularly cultivated,there being a great demand for it at Lima. Hereare many estates of sugar-cane, from Avhich sugaris manufactured, as Avell as honey, and a kind ofdrink called guarape. Chica is also made here;this being the common drink of the Indiansthroughout the whole kingdom. It is irrigated bythe rivers Rinac and Lurin, which run downfrom the province of Guarochiri, and by the Car-rabayilo, which runs from the province of Canta :all three of them are small ; but in the months ofDecember, January and February, which is therainy season in the sierra^ they swell greatly. Itspopulation consists of seven parochial settlements,and as many others thereunto annexed. Its repar-timiento used to amount to 10,000 dollars, and itpaid an alcaxala of 80 dollars per annum. Thecapital is of the same name, and the other 14 set-tlements are,
San Joseph de Bel-lavista.
Cercado, San Cristoval de, a settlementto the s. of the city of Lima, to which it is as asuburb. It is inhabited only by Indians, who aregoverned by a cazique ; and until 1776, it was acure of the regulars of the company of Jesuits,who had in it a college.
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CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of theIndian district of this name in Louisiana, in whichthe French had a fort and establishment. (TheChactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy,subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabita very fine and extensive tract of hilly country,with large and fertile plains intervening, betweenthe Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w.part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had,not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, inthree divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which4041 were fighting men. They are called by thetraders Flat-heads, all the males having the foreand hind part of their skulls artificially flattenedwhen young. These men, unlike the Muscogul-ges, are slovenly and negligent in every part oftheir dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious,sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yetquiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, how-ever, have observed that they pay little attentionto the most necessary rules of moral conduct, atleast that unnatural crimes were too frequent amongthem. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nationsbordering on the United States, they have largeplantations or country farms, where they employmuch of their time in agricultural improvements,after the manner of the Avhite people. Althoughtheir territories are not one-fburth so large as thoseof the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of in-habitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeksare inveterate enemies* to each other. There area considerable number of these Indians on the w.side of the Mississippi, who have not been homefor several years. A bout 12 miles above the postat Oachcta on that river, there is a small villageof them of about 30 men, who have lived there forseveral years, and made corn ; and likewise onBayau Chico, in the n. part of the district ofAppalousa, there is another village of them ofabout fifty men, who have been there for aboutnine years, and say they have the governor of
Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besidesthese, there are rambling hunting parties of themto be met with all over Lower Louisiana. Theyare at war with the Caddoques, and liked by. neither red nor white people.)
(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, wholive on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. ofBayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ;a small, honest people ; are aborigines of thecountry where they live; of men about 30 ; di-minishing; have their own peculiar tongue;speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on BayauBceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depthand richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasant-ness of surface, and goodness of water.. TheBayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and dischargesthrough Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilionbay.)
CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdictionof the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, is of the missions which were held thereof the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, andits climate is hot.
(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine,called by some Great Works river, about 30 milesfrom the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, fromwhich it flows. It is said to have taken its lattername from a mill with 18 saws, moved by onewheel, erected by one Lodors. But the projectwas soon laid aside. The former name is derivedfrom Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,,who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of thenatives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)
CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Panamá in the king-dom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and sourcein the mountains near the valley of Pacora, andtakes its course in various directions, makingmany windings, which are called randa/es, until itenters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vesselscalled chatas, (having no keels), up as far as thesettlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for un-lading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greaterpart of the commerce being conducted by thismeans, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a badand rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It hasdifferent forts for the defence of its entrance ; thefirst is the castle of its name, at the entrance ormouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upona long strip of land formed by a river of this name ;and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb
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lar way by a river of its name. It abounds inlarge alligators and mosquitoes, which render itsnavigation very troublesome. Its shores are co-vered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited bya variety of birds and apes of several species, whichmake an incredible chattering and noise. It wasby this river that the pirate John Morgan camewhen he took and sacked Panama in 1670. Itwas discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527,when he called it the river of Lagartos, but itsmouth was before discovered by Lope de Olanoin 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, avery small fish of the size of a pin, called titles,and these are so abundant, that putting into thewater a large basket, it is certain to be drawn outfull ; they are fried, and make very savouryfritters.
CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lo-renzo, a settlement of the same province and king-dom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at theentrance or mouth of the former river. It has forits defence a strong castle, which was built by theorder of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uanBautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirateJohn Morgan, after having made a glorious de-fence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt andsacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English,commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirelydestroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied bytwo strong batteries, which hindered the Englishfrom making a breach, for the third time, whenthey came with three frigates of war : but theywere driven back by Captain Don Juan de Her-mida, who was formerly captain of the regimentof Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in themost perfect manner, by the lieutenant-generaland engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor ofCartagena, who came hither for this purpose byorder of the king. In this fortress several per-sonages of distinction' have been held prisoners,ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina,])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of thekingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Porto-belo.
the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulfTriste.
CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in whichwas venerated, ever since the time of the conquest,a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which,with the temple, was burnt a few years since, andthe parishioners being much afflicted at their loss,the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito,sent them another equal to the first : at the cele-bration of the festival people assemble from all theneighbouring districts.
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It was conquered and united to the empire byInca Roca, the sixth Emperor.
CHALLAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla or Pataz in Peru,in the district of which is an estate called Huasil-las, where there is a house of entertainment be-longing to the religion of St. Francis, in whichreside the missionaries who assist in the conversionof the infidel Indians of the mountains.
CHAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo. It rises at the foot of thesnowy sierra, runs, making the form of two SS, tothe e. and rt;. and passing by to the s. of the cityof Merida, returns n. and enters the great lake ofMaracaibo at the side opposite its mouth.
CHAMACON, a river of the province and go-vernment of Darien in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; it rises in the mountains of the e. coast,and runs from s. e. to n. w. until it enters the largeriver Atrato near its mouth.
CHAMACUERO, San Francisco de, a set-tlement and head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zelaya in the province and bi-shopric of Meohoacan. It contains 690 families ofIndians, and more than 30 of Spaniards, Mustees,and Mulaltoes, with a convent of the order of St.Francis ; is five leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHAMAL, a settlement of Indians of the Chi-chimeca nation, in the head settlement of the dis-trict of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a valley of the samename. Its inhabitants having been reduced atthe beginning of the 18th century, and having re-quested a priest, one was sent them of the religionof St. Francis ; but no sooner did he arrive amongstthem than they put him to death, eating his body,and at the same time destroying the settlement.They were, however, afterwards reduced to thefaith, rather through the hostilities practised against
them by their neighbours than a desire of embrac-ing it. It is five leagues from Nuestra Senorade la Soledad.
CHAMANGUE, a river of the province andgovernment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs through the territory of the city ofAvila from n. w. to s. e. and enters the river Coca,on the w. side, in lat. 46° s.
CHAMARIAPA, a settlement of the provinceof Barcelona, and government of Curaana, in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which areunder the care of the religious observers of St.Francis, the missionaries of Piritu. It is to thew. of the mesa (table land) of Guanipa.
CHAMBA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, towardsthe s. It runs from e. to w. passes near the settle-uient of Vilcabamba, and then enters the river Ma-lacatos.
(CHAMBERSBURG, a post town in Pennsyl-vania, and the chief of Franklin county. Itis situated on the e. branch of Conogocheaguecreek, a water of Potow.mac river, in a rich andhighly cultivated country and healthy situation-.Here are about 200 houses, two Presbyterianchurches, a stone gaol, a handsome court-housebuUt of brick, a paper and merchant mill. It is58 miles e. by s. of Bedford, 11 w. zo. of Shippens-burg, and 157 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 57'n. Long. 77° 40' a-'.)
CHAMBIRA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito ;situale at the source of the river of its name. Itrises to the e. of the settlement of Pinches, betweenthe rivers Tigre and Pastaza, and runs nearly pa-rallel to the former, where it enters, with a muchincreased body, into the Maranon.
(CHAMBLEE River, or Sorell, a water ofthe St. Lawrence, issuing from lake Champlain,300 yards wide when lowest. It is shoal in dryseasons, but of sufficient breadth for rafting lumber,&c. spring and fall. It was called both Sorcll andRichlieu when the French held Canada.)
CHAMBLI, a French fort in the province and
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either in the service of the United States duringthe war, or fled to them for protection. The in-digence or ill habits of these people occasioned thebreaking up of the settlement, and a better sort ofinhabitants have now taken their place. The landsare fertile, and two rivers run through it, wellstored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and threeslaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the in-habitants are electors.)
CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, ofmore than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It wasdiscovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tliename of Champlain, who gave it his name, whichit still retains. It communicates with a smallerlake called Sacrament, and the canal passing fromone side to the other of these is extremely rapidanddangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. Atthe distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some verylofty mountains, which are covered with snow, andin which are found castors and a variety 'of ani-mals of the chase; and between these mountainsand the aforesaid lake are some beautiful levelmeadows or llanuras^ which, when first discover-ed, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; butthese have greatly diminished in numbers, throughthe continual wars Avith the French and English.[This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and liese. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing linebetween the states of New York and Vermont. Ittook its name from a French governor, who wasdrowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake.Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s,a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadthis from one to 18 miles, being very different in diffe-rent places ; the mean width is about five miles, andit occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is suf-ficient for the largest vessels. There are in it abovesixty islands of different sizes : the most consider-able are North and South Hero and Motte island.North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, andfrom two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderogathe waters of lake George from the s. s. w. whichis said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of thislake. Half the rivers and streams which rise inVermont fall into it. There are several which cometo it from New York state, and some from Cana-da ; to which last it sends its own waters a n.course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into theSt. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish,particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, andpickerel, and the land on its borders, and on thebanks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in severalplaces appear to be marked and stained with theformer surface of the lake, many feet higher than
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it has been since its discovery in 160S. The wa-ters generally rise from about the 20th of April tothe 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the great-est variation is not more than eight feet. It is sel-dom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle ofJanuary, Between the 6th and 15th of April theice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon formany square miles of it to disappear in one day.]
CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of theprovince of Taraumara, and kingdom of NuevaVizcaya, in which there is a mountain aboundinggreatly in silver mines. Here is also a missionAvhicli Avas established by the regulars of the com-pany for the reduction of the natives : is 12leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.
CHAMUINA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Costarica in the kingdom of Guate-mala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the li-mits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui inthe kingdom of Tierra Firme.
CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of San-ta ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by thatof Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado.It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and thesame in width e. w. and has on its coast some portsand creeks not remarkable for their security. Itcomprehends in its district two territories, one ofa cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, calledDe los Checras; and another of a warm tempera-ture, lying in the valleys towards the sea, calledDe Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, oneon the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the otherHuama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge,which was built in the time of the viceroy, theMarquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of whichare two rocks, through which the river passes.On the e. and in the cold part of this province,are found the productions peculiar to the cli-mate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat andmaize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which
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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito,who had served as captain of cavalry in the regi-ment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was go-vernor of the province of Moxos, being of the rankof colonel ; he was nominated as president by wayof reward for his services, in having been instru-mental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru,and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, whichwas besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786,when he was removed from the presidency.
Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aul-laga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac,fourth monarch of the Incas. At present theyare reduced to the Christian faith in the govern-ment of Chuquisaca or La Plata.
Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory titleof Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of thekingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are markedthe boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those ofNueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains a convent of the religi-ous order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spa-niards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of In-dians dispersed in the rancherias and the estatesof its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to then. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 tothe n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'.Long. 100° 40'.
Charcas, another settlement and real of themines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from thecapital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco,in which they work with quicksilver the metals ofthe mines. To its curacy, which is adminsteredby one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed twosmall settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whomare found some few of the Tepeguana nation.
(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called an-ciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream,the principal branch of which rises from a pondbordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Hollis-ton and Bellingham, and divides Medway fromMed field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thenceinto Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms apeninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream calledlother brook runs out of this river in this town,and falls into Neponsit river, forming a naturalcanal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a num-ber of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham thecourse of the river is n. dividing Newton fromNeedham, Weston, and Waltham, passing overromantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e.through Watertown and Cambridge, and passinginto Boston harbour, mingles with the waters ofMystic river, at the point of the peninsula ofCharlestown. It is navigable for boats to Water-town, seven miles. The most remarkable bridgeson this river are those which connect Boston withCharlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereareseven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.][Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland,lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Itschief town is port Tobacco, on the river of thatname. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is gene-rally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indiancorn, sweet potatoes, &c.)
CHARLES. See Carlos, San.
CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina,is one of the best of N. America, excelling inbeauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situateupon a long strip of land between two navigablerivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and thegreater part of it upon the latter. This forms inthe city two small bays, the one to the n. and theother to the s. The town is of a regular construc-tion, and well fortified both by nature and art,having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; onthe side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of
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(CHATA-HATCHI, or Hatchi, is the largestriver which falls into St. Rose’s bay in W. Florida.It is also called Pea river, and runs from n. e. en-tering the bottom of the bay through severalmouths, but so shoal that only a small boat orcanoe can pass them. Mr. Hutchins ascended thisriver about 25 leagues, where there was a smallsettlement of Coussac Indians. The soil and tim-ber on the banks of the river resemble very muchthose of Escambia.)
(CHATAUCHE, or Chatahuthe, a river inGeorgia. The n. part of Apalachiola river bearsthis name. It is about SO rods wide, very rapid,and full of shoals. The lands on its banks are lightand sandy, and the clay of a bright red. Thelower creeks are settled in scattering clans and vil-lages from the head to the mouth of this river.Their huts and cabins, from the high colour of theclay, resemble clusters of new-burned brick kilns.The distance from this river to the Talapose river,is about 70 miles, by the war-path, which crossesat the falls, just above the town of the Tucka-batches.)
(CHATAUGHQUE Lake, in Ontario county.New York, is about 18 miles long, and three broad.Conewango river, which runs a s. s. e. course,connects it with Alleghany river. Tliis lake isconveniently situated fora communication betweenlake Erie and the Ohio ; there being water enoughfor boats from fort Franklin on the Alleghany tothe n. w. corner of this lake ; from thence there isa portage of nine miles to Cliatanghque harbour onlake Erie, over ground capable of being made agood waggon road. This communication was onceused by the French.)
niently for the fishery ; in which they have usuallyabout 40 vessels employed. It has 1140 inhabi-tants, and lies 95 miles s. e. of Boston. See CapeCod.)
(Chatham County, in Hillsborough district,N. Carolina, about the centre of the state. It con-tains 9221 inhabitants, of whom 1632 are slaves.Chief town, Pittsburg. The court-house is a fewmiles w. of Raleigh, on a branch of Cape Fearriver.)
(Chatham, a town of S. Carolina, in Cherawsdistrict ; situate in Chesterfield county, on the w.side of Great Pedee river. Its situation, in a highlycultivated and rich country, and at the head of anavigable river, bids fair to render it a place ofgreat importance. At present it has only about 30houses, lately built.)
(Chatham County, in the lower district ofGeorgia, lies in the n. e. corner of the state, havingthe Atlantic ocean e. and Savannah river n. e. Itcontains 10,769 inhabitants., including 8201 slaves.The chief toAvn is Savannah, tlie former capital ofthe state.)
(Chatham House, in the territory of the Hud-son bay company. Lat. 55° 28' n. Long. 97*32' w. from Greenwich.)
CHAUCHILLOS, a settlement of the province
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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore ofthe river Choromoros.
(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St.Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock coun-ties, in the district of Maine. The carrying placefrom boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in theKetmebeck, is only five miles.)
(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine milesabove Quebec, on the opposite shore, and aboutthree or four miles back from the river St. Law-rence, into which the river Chaudiere disemboguesitself. The river is seen at a distance, emergingfrom a thick wood, and gradually expandingfrom an almost imperceptible stream till it reachesdie cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, whichiippear to have been rent from their bed by someviolent convulsion of nature, break the course ofthe waters, and precipitate them from a height of120 feet into an immense chasm below. In someparts large sheets of water roll over the precipice,and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in otherplaces the water dashes from one fragment of therock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellow-ing and foaming with rage in every hollow andcavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence itrushes down with the rapidity of lightning intothe boiling surge beneath, where it rages with in-conceivable fury, till driven from the gulf byfresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself inthe waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenerywhich accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere isbeautiful and romantic beyond description. Inthe centre, a large fragment of rock, which firstdivides the water, at the summit of the precipice,forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree,which grows upon it, is thus placed in a mostsingular and picturesque situation. The forest oneither side the river consists of firs, pines, birch,oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs,intermingled in the most wild and romantic man-ner. Their dark green foliage, joined with thebrown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments overwhich the water precipitates itself, form a strik-ing and pleasing contrast to the snowy white-ness of the foaming surge, and the columns ofsparkling spray which rise in clouds and minglewith the air.)
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mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It con-tains 57 families of Indians.
CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Co-chabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, e.by the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by thatof Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leaguesin length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Itstemperature is various, since it contains the settle-ments of Puna and Valles ; in the former of theseare found in abundance the productions of thesierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and otherseeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic withthe surrounding provinces, especially in the ar-ticles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred
raent and head settlenient of the district of the al-caldia mayor of Tepozcolula in the same kingdom.It is of a mild temperature, and contains a conventof the religious order of St. Domingo, and 128 fa-milies of Indians, who occupy themselves in thetrade of cochineal, as likewise of certain seedswhich they sow in ihe ranchos. Four leagues tothe n. by s. of its capital.
Chilapa, San Pedro de, another, of the headsettlement of the district of Huitepec, and alcaldiamayor of Ixquintepec, in the same kingdom. Itcontains 30 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto the n. with a slight inclination to the e. of itscapital.
CHILAQUE, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Olintla, and alcaldia mayorof Zacatlan, in Nueva España. It is situate in adelightful glen surrounded by rocks, and is water-ed by various streams, being distant five leaguesfrom its head settlement.
CHILATECA, S. JUAN DE, a settlement ofthe head settlement of the district of Cuilapa, andalcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas, in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 52 families of Indians, whotrade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, and collectcoal and timber, all of which form branches oftheir commerce. Five leagues to the s.e. of itshead settlement.
CHILCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canete in Peru, with a small butsafe and convenient port. It abounds in saltpetre,which its natives carry to Lima for the purpose ofmaking gunpowder, on which account they arefor the most part muleteers or carriers. In itsvicinity are the remains of some magnificent build-ings which belonged to the Incas of Peru. Thename of Chilca is given by the Indians of the samekingdom, as also by those of the kingdom of Quito,to a small tree or shrub which is a native of hotclimates, and which, when burnt to ashes, isoften used as lye for the use of the sugar en-gines.
Chi DC A, a beautiful and extensive valley ofthis province, which, although it be not irrigatedby any river, stream, or fountain, by which itmight be fertilized, produces an abundant harvest ofmaize. The seed of this is accustomed to beburied in the ground with heads of pilchards, anabundance of which fish is found upon the coast;and thus, by the moisture arising from this prac-tice, and by the morning dews, the soil becomessuflaciently moistened to produce a very fair crop.The same method is observed, and the same effectproduced, with regard to other fruits and herbs ;but for drinking and culinary uses, the little
water that is procured is drawn from wells. Lat.12° 3P 5. Long. 76° 35' w.
CHILCHAIOTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofZochicoatlan in Nueva España; situate on theside of a hill. It is of a hot temperature, contains26 families of Indians, and is 11 leagues to the n.of its capital.
CHILCHOIAQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of TIacolula, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a very ex-tensive glen, surrounded by heights which beginin the neighbourhood of Xilotepec, and run some-what more than a league in length. The popula-tion is very scanty, and the temperature bad ;indeed, out of the many families which formerlyinhabited it, 19 only are remaining ; these employthemselves in the rancherias^ agriculture beingindispensably necessary to their maintenance,owing to the barrenness of the territory of the dis-trict. At the distance of a league to the n. of Xa-lapa, and on the side of the royal road leading to^^exico, is the great mill of Lucas Martin. Herethe lands are fertilized by the large river Cerdeilo ;by the waters of which also other settlements arcsupplied, as likewise some of ihe ranchos^ whereinemployment is found for upwards of SO familiesof Spaniards, some Mustees^ and many Indians.Four leagues to the s. w. of its head settlement.
GHILCHOTA, the alcaldia mayor and juris-diction of the province and bishopric of Mecho-aedn. It is very mean, and reduced to a few smallsettlements, which lie so nigh together, that theirsituations are pointed out to tlie traveller by crossesstuck up in the roads. Its population consists of470 families of Tarascos Indians, and about 300 ofSpaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees\ who are,for the most part, scattered in the agriculturalestates of its district, where, from the fertility of thesoil, wheat, maize, and other seeds, are cultivatedin abundance. The country is agreeable, and wellstocked with every kind of fruit trees. The capi-
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
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the river Marailon has its rise in tins lake ; its realorigin being in the lake Lauricociia, as may beseen under that article.
CHINCHERO, a settlement of the provinceand correghniado of Calca y Lares in Perú. Thecemetery of its church is composed of some large,thick Avails of Avrouglit stone, well fitted together,and having in them certain niches similar to sentryboxes ; so that they appear as having formerly be-longed to some fortress.
Same name, a river of this province, whichrises from the mountain desert or paramo of La Sabanilla. It Avashes the city and territory of Val-ladolid, and on its c. side receives the rivers Nnm-balla, Vergel, Patacones, Sangalla, San Francisco,and Nambacasa ; and on its zs. side those of Pa-landa, Simanchi, Namballe, and Guancabamba ;when, being sAA'^elled to a considerable size by all ofthese, it enters the Maranon on the n. shore, to thew. w. of the settlement of Tompenda.
CHINCHULAGUA, a very lofty desert mountainor paramo, covered with eternal snow, in theprovince and corregimiento of Tacunga in thekingdom of Quito. It lies five leagues to the n. ofTacunga, Avith a slight inclination to the n. c.
CHINCONTLA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of Olintla, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a delightful defile ornarroAV tract, watered by various rivers. Eightleagues from its head settlement.
CHINGA, a fortress of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; one of the six Avhich were held by the%ipas or kings of Bogota, against the Punches na-tion, who border upon their country ; 10 leaguesto the s. w. of Bogota.
CHINU, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierraFirme ; founded in the sahanas, and formed by are-union of other settlements, in 1776, by the G'o-A^ernor Uon Juan Piraiento.
CHIPALZINGO, a settlement and head ettlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tixtlanin Nueva Espana. It contains 353 families ofIndians, and of Spaniards, Mustces, and Mn-lattoes, and lies three leagues from the sett lemcn!,of Zurnpango.
CHIPANGA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom oiQuito. It rises in the sierra, Avhich divides thedistrict of Macas from the province of Mainas, runsfrom n. to s. and enters the Morona.
CHIPAQUE, a settlement of the corregimientoof Ubaque in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itis of a mild temperature, and abounds in fruits andseeds peculiar to a warm climate. It consists of150 housekeepers, and of as many Indians. It isso infested with snakes, that it is impossible to findany part of it clear of them. Eight leagues .9. .of Santa Fe, in the road which leads to San Juande los Llanos.
CHIPASAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of an hot temperature, lying 24 leagues to thes. e. of Santa Fe, and close to the settlement ofChaqueta, in the road Avhich leads to San Juan dc
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[CLARE, a township on St. Mary’s bay, inAnnapolis county, Nova Scotia. It has about50 families, and is composed of woodland andsalt marsh.]
CLARE, a small island of the South sea, close tothe port of Guayaquil. It is desert, and twoleagues in length. It is commonly called Amorta~jado, since, being looked upon from any part, itbears the resemblance to a dead man. Twenty-five leagues from Cape Blanco.
[Clare, a very lofty mountain of the provinceand government of Sonora in Nueva Espaila, nearthe coast of the gulf of California, and in themost interior part. It was discovered in 1698.]
[CLAREMONT, a township in Cheshire coun-ty, New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecti-cut river, opposite Ascutney mountain, in Ver-mont, and on the n. side of Sugar river ; 24; milesi. of Dartmouth college, and 121 s.w. hy w. ofPortsmouth. It was incorporated in 1764, andcontains 1435 inhabitants.]
[Claremont County, in Camden district, S.Carolina, contains 2479 white inhabitants, and2110 slaves. Statesburg is the county town.]
[Clarendon, a township near the centre ofRutland county, Vermont, watered by Ottercreek and its tributary streams; 14 or 15 miles e.of Fairbaven, and 44 «. e. of Bennington. It con-tains 1478 inhabitants. On the s. e. side of amountain in the w. part of Clarendon, or in theedge of Tinmouth, is a curious cave, the mouthof which is not more than two feet and a half indiameter ; in its descent the passage makes anangle with the horizon of 35° or 40°; but con-tinues of nearly the same diameter through itswhole length, which is 31^ feet. At that distancefrom the mouth, it opens into a spacious room, 20feet long, 12| wide, and 18 or 20 feet high ; everypart of the floor, sides, and roof of this room ap-pear to be a solid rock, but very rough and un-even. The water is continually percolating throughthe top, and has formed stalactites of variousforms ; many of which are conical, and some havethe appearance of massive columns ; from thisroom there is a communication by a narrow pas-sage to others equally curious.]
Same name, another (settlement), of the same island (Barbadoes), on the 5 ..coast.
[Clarke, a new county of Kentucky, betweenthe head waters of Kentucky and Licking rivers-Its chief town is Winchester.]
[CLARKSBURG, the chief town of Harrisoncounty, Virginia. It contains about 40 houses, acourt-house, and gaol ; and stands on the e. sideof Monongahela river, 40 miles s. w. of Morgan-town.]
[CLARKSTOWN, in Orange county. NewYork, lies on the w. side of the Tappan sea, twomiles distant, n. from Tappan township six miles,and from New York city 29 miles. By the statecensus of 1796, 224 of its inhabitants are elec-tors.]
[CLARKSVILLE, the chief town of what wastill lately called Tennessee county, in the state ofTennessee, is pleasantly situated on the e. bank ofCumberland river, and at the mouth of Red river,opposite the mouth of Muddy creek. It containsabout SO houses, a court-house, and gaol, 45,miles w. w. of Nashville, 220 n. w. by w. ofKnoxville, and 940 zso. by s. of Philadelphia.Lat. 36° 25' n. Long. 87° 23' a).]
[Clarksville, a small settlement in the n, w.territory, which contained in 1791 about 60 souks.It is situate on the n. bank of the Ohio, oppositeLouisville, a mile below the rapids, and 100miles s. e. of post Vincent. It is frequently flood-ed when the river is high, and inhabited bypeople who cannot at present find a better situa-tion.]
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kingdom of Chile. It rises from one of the lakesof Avendafio, runs w. and then turning s. entersthe river Laxa. On its shore the Spaniards havea fort, called Yumbel, or Don Carlos de Austria,to restrain the Araucanos Indians.
[CLAVERACK, a post-town in Columbiacounty. New York, pleasantly situated on a largeplain, about two miles and a half e. of Hudsoncity, near a creek of its own name. It containsabout 60 houses, a Dutch church, a court-house,and a goal. The township, by the census of 1791,contained 3262 inhabitants, including 340 slaves.By the state census of 1796 tkere appears to be412 electors. It is 231 miles from Philadelphia. 1
[CLERK’S Isles lie s, w. from, and at theentrance of Behring’s straits, which separate Asiafrom America. They rather belong to Asia, beingvery near, and s. s. w. from the head-land whichlies between the straits and the gulf of Anadir inAsia. They have their name in honour of thatable navigator, Captain Clerk, the companion ofCaptain Cook. In other maps they are called St.Andrea isles.]
[CLERMONT, a post-town in Columbia coun-ty, New York, six miles from Red hook, 15from Hudson, 117 miles n. of New York, and212 from Philadelphia. The township contains867 inhabitants, inclusive of 113 slaves.]
[Clermont, a village 13 miles from Camden,S. Carolina. In the late war, here was ablock-house encompassed by an abbatis; it wastaken from Colonel Rugely of the British militia,in December 1781, by an ingenious stratagem ofLieutenant-colonel W ashington.]
[CLIE, Lake Le, in Upper Canada, about 38miles long and 30 broad; its waters communicatewith those of lake Huron,]
[CLINCH Mountain divides the waters ofHolston and Clinch rivers, in the state of Tennessee.In this mountain Burk’s Garden and MorrisesNob might be described as curiosities.]
[Clinch, or Peleson, a navigable branch ofTennessee river, which is equal in length to Hol-ston river, its chief branch, but less in width. Itrises in Virginia, and after it enters into the stateof Tennessee, it receives Powel’s and Poplar’screek, and Emery’s river, besides other streams.The course of the Clinch is s. w. and s. w. by w . ;its mouth, 150 yards wide, lies 35 miles belowKnoxville, and 60 above the mouth of the Hiwasse.It is beatable for upwards of 200 miles, andPowel’s river, nearly as large as the main river, isnavigable for boats 100 miles.]
[CLINTON, the most n. county of the state ofNew York, is bounded n. by Canada, e. by thedeepest waters of lake Champlain, which line se-parates it from Vermont, and s. by the county ofWashington. By the census of 1791, it contained16 14 inhabitants, including 17 slaves. It is di-vided into five townships, viz. Plattsburgh, thecapital. Crown Point, Willsborough, Champlain,and Peru. The length from n. to s. is about 96miles, and the breadth from e. to w. including theline upon the lake, is 36 miles. The number ofsouls was, in 1796, estimated to be 6000. By thestate census, in Jan. 1796, there were 624 personsentitled to be electors. A great proportion of thelands are of an excellent quality, and produce
mills. The whole of the district of its territory iscovered with estates and country-seats, whichabound in all kinds of fruits, at once rendering ita place pleasing and advantageous for residence.
Concepcion, anotlier, of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, in the samekingdom ; a reduccion of the missions which wereheld in this province by the regulars of the com-pany of the Jesuits ; situate between the source ofthe river Verde and the river Ubay.
Concepcion, another, of the province andcountry of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos-sessions ; a reduccion of the missions which are heldby the Carmelite fathers of this nation ; situate onthe shore of a pool or lake formed by the riverUrubu. . .
Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, and district ofChaco ; being a reduccion of the Abipones Indians,of the mission held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, and to-day under the charge of the reli-gious order of S. Francisco.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-
suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the w. shore of the river Uru-guay. (Lat. 27° 58' 43". Long. 53° 27' 13" re.)
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the country of the Chiquitos Indians, inthe kingdom of Peru ; situate to the e. of that ofSan Francisco Xavier.
Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom ofQuito, which produces nothing but maize, yucas^plantains, and quantities of aloes, with the whichthe natives pay their tribute, and which are muchesteemed in Peru.
Concepcion, a town of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, between therivers Bermejo and Salado. It was destroyed bythe infidel Indians.
(Concepcion, a large bay on the c. side ofNewfoundland island, whose entrance is betweencape St. Francis on the s. and Flamborough headon the n. It runs a great way into the land in a s.direction, having numerous bays on the w. side,on which are two settlements, Carboniere andHavre de Grace. Settlements were made here in1610, by about 40 planters, under Governor JohnGuy, to whom King James had granted a patentof incorporation.)
(There is no necessity of serving an apprentice-ship to the business, nor of a large stock of moneyto commence it to advantage. Farmers who dealmuch in barter, have less need of money than anyother class of people. The ease with which acomfortable subsistence is obtained, induces thehusbandman to marry young. The cultivation ofhis farm makes him strong and healthful. Hetoils cheerfully through the day, eats the fruit ofhis own labour with a gladsome heart, at night de-voutly thanks his bounteous God for his dailyblessings, retires to rest, and his sleep is sweet.Such circumstances as these have greatly contri-buted to the amazing increase of inhabitants in thisstate. Besides, the people live under a free go-vernment, and have no fear of a tyrant. Thereare no overgrown estates, with rich and ambitiouslandlords, to have an undue and pernicious in-fluence in the election of civil officers. Propertyis equally enough divided; and must continue tobe so, as long as estates descend as they now do.No person is prohibited from voting. He who hasthe most merit, not he Avho has the most money,is generally chosen into public office. As instancesof this, it is to be observed, that many of the citi-zens of Connecticut, from the humble walks oflife, have arisen to the first offices in the state, andfilled them with dignity and repulation. Thatbase business of electioneering, which is so di-rectly calculated to introduce wicked and design-ing men into office, is yet but little known in Con-necticut. A man who wishes to be chosen intooffice, acts wisely, for that end, when he keepshis desires to himself.
A thirst for learning prevails among all ranks ofpeople in the state. More of the young men inConnecticut, in proportion to their numbers, re-ceive a public education, than in any of the states.The revolution, which so essentially affected thegovernment of most of the colonies, produced novery perceptible alteration in the government ofConnecticut. While under the jurisdiction ofGreat Britain, they elected their own governors,and all subordinate civil officers, and made theirown laws, in the same manner and with as littlecontroul as they now do. Connecticut has everbeen a rejmblic, and perhaps as perfect and ashappy a republic as has ever existed. Whileother states, more monarchical in their governmenand manners, have been under a necessity of un-dertaking the difficult task of altering their old, orforming new constitutions, and of changing theirmonarchical for republican manners, Connecticuthas uninterruptedly proceeded in her old track,both as to government and manners ; and, by these
means, has avoided those convulsions which haverent other states into violent parties.
The present territory of Connecticut, at thetime of the first arrival of the English, was pos-sessed by the Pequot, the Mohegan, Podunk, andmany other smaller tribes of Indians. In 1774,there were of the descendants of the ancient nativesonly 1363 persons ; the greater part of whomlived at Mohegan, between Norwich and NewLondon. From the natural decrease of the In-dians, it is imagined that their number in this statedo not now exceed 400. The first grant of Connec-ticut was made by the Plymouth council to theEarl of Warwick, in 1630. The year followingthe earl assigned this grant to Lord Say and Seal,Lord Brook, and nine others. Some Indian traderssettled at Windsor in 1633. The same year, alittle before the arrival of the English, a few Dutchtraders settled at Hartford, and the remains of thesettlement are still visible on the bank of Connec-ticut river. In 1634, Lord Say and Seal, &c.sent over a small number of men, who built a fortat Saybrook, and made a treaty with the PequotIndians for the lands on Connecticut river. Mr.Haynes and Mr. Hooker left Massachusetts bay in1634, and settled at Hartford. The followingyear, Mr. Eaton and Mr. Davenport seated them-selves at New Haven. In 1644, the Connecticutadventurers purchased of Mr. Fenwick, agentfor Lord Say and Seal, and Lord Brook, their rightto the colony, for 1600/, Connecticut and NewHaven continued two distinct governments formany years. At length, John Winthrop, Esq.who had been chosen governor of Connecticut,was employed to solicit a royal charter. In 1662,Charles II, granted a charter, constituting the twocolonies for ever one body corporate and politic,by the name of “ The Governor and Company ofConnecticut.” New Haven took the affair ill;but in 1665, all difficulties were amicably adjusted ;and, as has been already observed, this charterstill continues to be the basis of their government.The capital is Boston.)
(Connecticut is the most considerable riverin the c. part of the Linited States, and rises inthe high lands which separate the states of Vermontand New Hampshire from Lower Canada. Ithas been surveyed about 25 miles beyond the 45°of latitude, to the head spring of its n. branch ;from which, to its mouth, is upwards of 300 miles,through a thick settled country, having upon itsbanks a great number of the most flourishing andpleasant towns in the United States. It is from80 to 100 rods wide, 130 miles from its mouth.Its course between Vermont and New Hampshire]
seasons, and is flooded by waters rushing downthrough a neighbouring channel, and in factAvould be hereby rendered iinitdiabitable, but forthe mounds Avhich have been raised for its defence.One half of the city experiences in one day a va-riation of all the winds from n. to s. These winds,thus changing, are accompanied with great tem-pests of thunder and lightning. At one momentthe heat which accompanies the n. wind is ex-cessive, and at another the cold which accompaniesthe s. is intolerable. It is, indeed, to this causethat the number of sudden deaths which occurhere are attributed. The city is small, and nearlyof a square figure, but the buildings are superiorto any in the province. It has three convents ;those of the religious order of St. Francis, St. Do-mingo, and La Merced, an hospital of Bethleraites,with the dedicatory title of San Roque ; two mo-nasteries of nuns, tlie one of Santa Teresa, the otherof Santa Clara, and two colleges with the titles ofuniversities, it is the head of a bishopric, erectedin 1570, and is very rich, owing to the great com-merce which it carries on in mules bought in theprovince of Buenos Ayres, and fattened in thepastures here, for the purpose of being sold for thesupply of the other provinces, and in fact of thewhole of Peru. It abounds in all kinds of pro-ductions, and is 70 leagues from Santiago del Es-tero, to the s. in 62° 39'; long. 31° 20' s. lat. (Foran account of the late revolutions of this place,see La Plata.)
Cordova, another city, in the province andgovernment of Cumaná, founded by Gonzalo deOcampo in 1525, near the sea-coast. It is so re-duced and poor, that it does not deserve the nameof a city. It is bounded by the Caribes Indians.
CORE, Bank of, an isle of the N. Sea, nearthe coast of S. Carolina, between those of Oca-cook and Drum.
CORENA, a port on the coast of the province
and captainship of the Rio Janeiro in Brazil, closeto the island of Santa Maria.
CORENTIN, a river of the province and co-lony of Surinam, or part of Guayana in the Dutchpossessions, according to the last advices ot theFather Bernardo Rosclla of the extinguished so-ciety, Avhich advices were received from theDutch, and served, in 1745, to the making the mapof this province and the Orinoco. It rises in then. part of the famed lake Parime, which some havethought to exist merely in fable. It runs s. wa-teringtlie Dutch colonies; and five leaguesto the w.of Berbice, and to the s. e. of the Orinoco, emptiesitself into the sea, in 5° 22' n. lat. : at its entranceit is one league wide. The English call it Devil’screek, which signifies Barranco del Diablo. Inthe interior of its course it has some sand-banks,which extend for three leagues, and render its na-vigation difficult, notwithstanding that at the lowtide there arc still some channels of water. In thisriver are likewise three small well cultivated islands,lying in a direction from n. tov. They are veryfertile, and covered with trees, and the soundingsof the river about them varies from five to sixfathoms.
CORIANA. See Coro.
CORIXAS, a river of the kingdom of Brazil,It rises in the sierra Bermeja, runs n. forming acurve, and eaters the Tocantines near that of LosMonges, according to tl>e account given by thePortuguese.
CORIXAS, some sierras of the same kingdom,which run s. s. e. and are a continuation of thesierra Bermeja ; they then run e. forming acurve, as far as the river Tocantines, and ex-tend their course on as far as the shore of theAraguaya.
(CORNISH, a township in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, between Claremont and Plainfield, about 15miles n. of Charlestown, and 16 s. of Dartmouthcollege. It was incorporated in 1763. In1775 it contained 309, and in 1790, 982 in-habitants.
CORO, Santa Ana de, a city of the provinceand government of Venezuela, thus named in thetime of the Indians, after the district called Coriana.It was founded by Juan de Ampues in 1529.The Weltzers, under the orders of Nicholas Fe-derman, were the first Avho peopled it, giving it thename of Cordoba, to distinguish it from the othercity of the same name which had been founded byGonzalo de Ocampo in the province of Cumana,This name it afterwards lost, and took that ofCoro, which it preserves to this day, from a smallsettlement of Indians thus named. It is of a dryand hot temperature, but so healthy that physiciansare said here to be of no use. The territory, al-though sandy and lack of water, produces everykind of vegetable production ; so that it may besaid to abound in every thing that luxury or con^venience may require. Here are large breeds ofcow-cattle and goats, and a considerable numberof good mules. Its articles of merchandize, suchas cheese, tanned hides, and cacao, meet with aready sale in Cartagena, Caracas, and the island ofSt. Domingo. It has a reduced convent of the re-ligious order of St. Francis, and an hermitagededicated to St. Nicholas. The town is very rich.It was plundered, by the English in 1567. Itschurch was a cathedral, and the head of thebishopric, from the time that it was erected in1532 until 1636, when this title was transferred toSantiago of Caracas. It is two leagues distantfrom the sea, where there is a port insecure, butmuch frequented by trading vessels.
(From the time that the governor began to re-side at Caracas, in 1576, there remained no con-spicuous authority at Coro but the bishop andchapter, and they did all they could to follow th«governor; and indeed, not being able to leaveCoro by legal measures, they put tlieir wishesinto effect by flight, in 1636. At three leaguesfrom the city are lands where they cultivate withsuccess, if not with abundance, all the usual pro-duce of the country. The inhabitants, who aremuch addicted to indolence, glory that they aredescended from the first conquerors of the country ;and there is here, generally speaking, more rankthan wealth, and more idleness than industry. Thelittle trade that is carried on here consists in mules,goats, hides, sheep-skins, cheeses, &c. which comein a great measure from the interior, and thelarger part fromCarora; shipments of these ar-ticles are made for the islands. The most commonintercourse is with Cura 9 oa, from whence they2
C O U
into tlie Banos, and which, after the great cas-cade, is known by the name of Pastaza. To then. rises the Padregal, afterwards called Pita, as itpasses through the llanura of Chillo ; and at theskirt of the mountain of Guangopolo, where theplain terminates, it unites itself with the Ama-g^uaiia, and then turning w. takes the names ofTumbaco and Huallabamba, to enter the Esmeral-das, which disembogues itself into the S. sea. Atthe skirt of this great mountain are the estates ofSinipu, Pongo, Pucaguaita, and Papaurca, It isdistant from the settlement of Mula-halo half aleague, and five leagues from its capital. In lat.40° IPs. (The height of this volcano was dis-covered, in 1802, to be only 260 feet lower thanthe crater of Antisana, which is 19,130 feet abovethe level of the sea.)
COTOPAXI. See Cotopacsi.
COTUI, a town of St. Domingo ; founded, in1504, by Rodrigo Mexia deTruxillo, by the orderof the cometidador mayor of Alca.ntara, Nicolasde Obando, 16 leagues to the n. of the capital, St.Domingo, on the skirt of some mountains whichare 12 leagues in height, and at the distance oftwo leagues from the river Yauna. It is a smalland poor town. Its commerce depends upon thesalting of meats, and in preparing tallow and hidesto carry to St. Domingo, and in the chase of wildgoats, which are sold to the French. In its moun-tains is a copper mine, two leagues to the s. e. ofthe town. The Bucaniers, a French people of theisland of Tortuga, commanded by Mr. Pouancy,their governor, took and sacked it in 1676. (In
1505, the gold mines were worked here. Thecopper mine above alluded to is in the mountain ofMeymon, whence comes the river of the samename, and is so rich, that the metal, when refined,will produce eight per cent, of gold. Here are alsofound excellent lapis lazuli, a streaked chalk, thatsome painters prefer to bole for gilding, load-stone, emeralds, and iron. The iron is of the bestquality, and might be conveyed from the chain ofSevico by means of the river Yuna. The soilhere is excellent, and the plantains produced hereare of such superior quality, that this manna of the
Antilles is called, at St. Domingo, Sunday plan-tains. The people cultivate tobacco, but arechiefly employed in breeding swine. The inhabi-tants are called clownish, and of an unsociablecharacter. The town is situated half a leaguefrom the s. w. bank of the Yuna, which becomesunnavigable near this place, about 13 leagues fromits mouth, in the bay of Samana. It contains 160scattered houses, in the middle of a little savana,and surrounded Avith woods, SO leagues n. of St.Domingo, and 15 s.e. of St. Yago.)
CORUCO. Sec Cabo.
COUPEE, a point of the coast and shore of theMississippi in Canada, [it is also called CutPoint, and is a short turn in the river Mississippi,about 35 miles above Mantchac fort, at the gut ofIbberville, and 259 from the mouth of the river.Charlevoix relates that the river formerly made agreat turn here, and some Canadians, by deepen-ing the channel of a small brook, diverted thewaters of the river into if, in the year 1722. Theimpetuosity of the stream was such, and the soilof so rich and loose a quality, that in a short timethe point was entirely cut through, and the oldchannel left dry, except in inundations ; by whichtravellers save 14 feagues of their voyage. Thenew channel has been sounded Avith a line of SOfathoms, without finding bottom. The Spanishsettlements of Point Coupee extend 20 miles on thew. side of the Mississippi, and there are some plan-tations back on the side of La Fause Riviere,through Avhich the Mississippi passed about 70years ago. The fort at Point Coupee is a square