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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
hind the cape of La Vela, which is at presentdestroyed.
CARTAGENA, a province and governmentof the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the jurisdictionof the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, bounded n. bythe sea, s. by the province of Antioquia, e. bythe province and government of Santa Marta, fromwhich it is divided by the Rio Grande de la Mag-dalena, and w. by the province of Darien, beingseparated by the river San J uan ; it is 100 leagueslong, running nearly from n. e. to s. w. and 80wide, e. w. It was discovered by Rodrigo Bas-tidas in 1520, and subdued by the addantado orgovernor Pedro de Heredia, at the expence ofmany battles, owing to the valour and warlike dis-position of the natives. This country is of a veryhot and moist temperature, full of mountains andwoods, and towards the n. part swampy, sandy,and full of pools of sea-water, from the lowness ofthe territory ; but it is at the same time fertile, andabounds in maize, pulse, and fruits, as also incattle, of the hides and fat of which this provincemakes a great traffic. Its mountains produce ex-cellent woods, and the famous dyeing wood, equalto that of Campeche, with an abundance of excel-lent gums, medicinal balsams, and herbs. Hereare many kinds of rare birds, animals, and snakesof different species ; amongst the former the mostremarkable are the penco, of the figure of a cat,and so heavy that it takes a full hour to moveitself 20 paces ; the mapurito^ of the size of a smalllap-dog, whose arms and means of defending him-self from other animals and his pursuers consistsimply in discharging some wind with such forceand noise as to stupify his enemies, whilst hequietly makes his retreat to some neighbouringthicket. This province produces also indigo,tortoise-shell, and cotton, and some cacao of anexcellent quality in the Rio de la Magdalena. Itwas well peopled with Indians in the time of itsgentilism, but its inhabitants are now reduced toa very trifling number. It is watered by variousrivers, but those of the most consideration are ElGrande de la Magdalena, and thatof San Juan, orAtracto, both of which are navigable and wellstocked with alligators, tortoises, and a multitudeof fishes. Its district contains 83 setttleraents, of
which there are two cities, seven towns, and 96settlements or villages, inhabited by 59,233 whites,13,993 Indians, and 7770 Negro and Mulattoslaves, according to the numeration of the fiscal ofthe royal audience of Santa Fe, Don FranciscoMoreno y Escandon, in the year 1770. The ca-pital has the same name, and the other settlementsare.
Nuestra Senora del
S. Benito Abad,
San Augustin de
San Francisco de
Palmar de la Can-
San Juan de Saha-
Sto. Tomas Cantu-
Cerro de S. Anto-
Real de la Cruz,
S. Antonio Abad,
San Juan Nepomu-
The antidote, however, is oil taken in abundanceinternally, and applied outwardly. Neither wheatnor barley are known here, but the place aboundsin maize and rice, of which they make cakes, andwhich are the common bread of the natives, andmore particularly so that called cazave^ being asort of cake made of the root yiica^ name, or mo-niato. There are also a great number of cottontrees. The arms of this city are a green crossupon a gold ground, with a lion rampant oneach side. It was sacked in 1593 by RobertBaal, a pirate ; in 1583, by Sir Francis Drake, 23years from the time of its being fortified, and notfrom its foundation, as according to Mr. La Ma-tiniere ; again iti 1695, by Mr. Ducase, assisted bythe adventurers or fiibustiers, who completely pil-laged it : but a great sensation having been causedamongst the inhabitants at the loss of a superb se-pulchre made of silver, in which it rvas usual ona good Friday to deposit the eucharist, they hadthe good fortune to obtain its restitution throughthe interest and favour of Louis XI F. TheEnglish, under the command of Admiral Vernonand Sir Charles Ogle, besieged this city in 1740,when, although its castles were destroyed, andit was completely besieged, it would not surren-der, being gloriously defended by the viceroyDon Sebastian de Esiava, and Don Bias de Lezo,who caused the English to abandon the enterprisewith precipitancy and with great loss. [For thisconduct on the part of the English, several reasonswere assigned besides the strength of the place ;namely, the mortality among the troops, wantof skill in the commanders, and certain ditferencesbetween the admiral and the general. The forti-fications which they demolished have since beenrepaired.] It is the only part of all America wherethere is etfective coin of a fourth part of a real insilver. Its inhabitants amount to 9160 souls incommunion. It has been the native place of manycelebrated persons, such are,
Don Augustin Samiento de Sotomayor, of the or-der of Santiago, viscount of Portillo.
Don Andres de la Vega, professor at Salamanca,a famous lawyer.
Fray Carlos de Melgarejo, a religious Domini-can, an excellent preacher, and a man of unble-mished life.
Don Caspar de Cuba and Arce, head collegiateof San Marcos de Lima, oidor of Chile.
Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Villalta,governor of Antioquia.
Don Gregorio Castellar y Mantilla, governor ofCumana, and general of the armada of the guardof the coasts of Cartagena.
Don Joseph de Paredes, captain of infantry,knight of the order of Santiago.
Fray Joseph Pacheco, of the order of St. Au-gustin, master, visitor, and vicar-general i:i his pro-vince of the Nuevo Reyno.
The Father Joseph de Urbina, of the extin-guished company, rector of the college of SantaFe.
Don.Iuan Fernandez Rosillo, dean of the churchof his country, bishop of V^erapez and of Mecho-acan .
Fray Juan Pereyra, a religious Dominican.
Don Lope Duke Estrada, kiiight of the order ofSantiago.
It is in long. 75° 24' and lat. 10° 25' n. [Foraccount of the present revolutions, see Vene-zuela.]
Bishops who have presided in Cartagena.
1. Don Fray Tomas del Toro, a monk of theorder of St. Domingo, elected the . first bishop in1532; but being at Talavera, his country, at thetime, he unfortunately died before he was conse-crated.
2. Don Fray Geronimo de Loaisa, a Dominicanmonk, renowned for his virtue and talent, and forhis experience in Indian affairs ; he was elected inthe room of the former, was consecrated at Valla-dolid, and there he erected the church into a ca-thedral in 1538, the same year in which he enteredCartagena ; from hence he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Lima in 1542.
3. Don Fray Francisco de Santa Maria y Bena-vides, of the order of St. Gerome, of the illustriousfamily of the Marquises of Fromesta ; serving atthat time the Emperor in Flanders, he took to areligious life, and was elected bishop of Cartagenain 1543. The city, in his time, was plundered bytwo pirates, lieaded by the Spanisli pilot AlonsoVexines, who cominitted thisactout of revenge fora flogging he had received ; they also ill-treatedthe venerable prelate, who had the additional griev-ance, in the year L551, of witnessing the city inflames. In 1554 he was promoted to the churchof Modonedo in Galicia, and was succeeded inCartagena by,
4. Don Fray Gregorio de Beteta, a Dominicanmonk, brought up in the convent of Salamanca, andone of the twenty who went to the Nuevo Reynode Gratiada, from whence he passed over to Mex-ico to convert the Indians, and afterwards withthe same object to the provinces of Santa Marta,Uraba, ami Cartagena ; and being teacher amicurate in one of his settlements, he received theorder of presentation to this bishopric in 1555 ;although he endeavoured to decline the dignify,
der of Santiago, a commander of tlie galleons; hewas deposed and sent to Spain for having marriedwithout a licence; and in his place the audience ofSanta Fe nominated as provisional governor,
32. Don Francisco Rexe Corbalan, until arrivedthe right owner in,
33. Don Clemente Soriano, colonel of militia,in 1616 ; he died in the following year.
34. Don Pedro Zapata, colonel of militia, of theorder of Santiago ; nominated as governor jyrotempore in 1648.
35. Don Fernando de la Riva Agiicro, of theorder of Santiago, a field-officer, being governorof Puertorico ; he entered Cartagena in 1649, andwas promoted to the presidency of Panama in1634.
36. Don Pedro Zapata, twice nominated as pro-prietor in the aforesaid year ; but dying, his placewas filled pro tempore by,
37. Don Francisco Rexe Corbalan.
38. Don Juan Perez de Guzman, of the habitof Santiago, a field-officer, and governor of An-tioquia ; nominated provisionally, and afterwardsappointed to the government of Puertorico.
39. Don Diego de Portugal, colonel of militia,knight of the order of Alcantara; nominated in1659, through the circumstance of Don FernandoAgiiero being appointed governor of Cartagena inCadiz.
40. The Licentiate Don Manuel Martin de Pa-lomeque, nominated by the king ; he afterwardsbecame oidor of St. Domingo.
41 . Don Juan Perez de Guzman, the second timenominated as proprietor; he entered in 1661, andwas removed to the presidency of Panama in 1664.
42. Don Benito de Figueroa Barrantes, of thehabit of Alcantara, a field-officer ; he went as go-vernor of Larache in Africa in 1665, and fromthence to be president of Panama.
43. Don Joseph Sanchez Xiraenez, who wasgovernor of the island of Santa Catalina, nomi-nated to this government, which he did not exer-cise, having been found poniarded and killed inhis bed.
44. Don Antonio de Vergara Azearate, knightof the order of Santiago, nominated previouslyin 1668.
45. Don Pedro de Ulloa Ribadeneyra, of theonler of Santiago ; nominated in 1669.
46. Don Joseph Daza, general of the artillery.
47. Don Rafael Caspir y Sanz, colonel of mi-litia, native of Tortosa, nominated in 1678 ; inwhose time happened those weighty disputes withthe bishop Don Antonio de Benavides; he wassucceeded by,
48. Don Juan de Pando y Estrada, a field-of-ficer ; w ho took possession in 1684.
49. Don Martin de Ceballos y la Cerda, in 1686.
50. Don Diego de los Rios, a field-officer ; inhis time happened the sacking and taking of Car-tagena by the French, in 1695.
51. Don Juan Diaz Pimienta, knight of theorder of Caltrava, a field-officer, gentleman of thecluamberto the Emperor Leopold, of the house ofthe Marquises of Villareal, noted for his valourand military conduct in the siege of Buda, wherehe was wounded ; nominated as governor to con-sole the afflicted natives of Cartagena, taking withhim a certain number of Spansih troops from thekingdom of Galicia ; he entered in 1696, diedin 1706.
52. Don Joseph de Zuniga y la Cerda, of noless credit than the former ; he was governor ofFlorida at the time that he w'as elected to this, in1712, and which he exercised until 1718, whenhe returned to Spain in the unlucky fleet of Anto-nio Ubilla, which was lost in the channel of Baha-ma, the frigate in which he sailed being the onlyvessel saved.
53. Don Alberto de Bertodano, a renowned bri-gadier in Flanders, where he had lost an arm inaction ; he was nominated in 1720, and exercisedthe government until his death, in 1722.
54. Don Luis de Aponte, colonel of the regi-ment of the crown, afterwards brigadier, an officerof the greatest skill and renown of any in thearray ; he was nominated in 1723, and exercisedthe government until his death.
55. Don Juan Joseph de Andia, Marquis ofVillaherraosa, brigadier-general; nominated throughthe death of the general ; he entered Cartagena in1712, and governed till 1730, when he was pro-moted to the presidency of Panama.
56. Don Antonio de Salas, who had becui colo-nel of the regiment of infantry of Saboya ; he e.u-tered in 173i, and died in 1735.
57. Don Pedro Fidalgo, brigadier and captainof the royal Spanish guards ; promoted to this go-vernment in 1736 : he died in 1739.
58. Don Melchor de Navarrete, who was king^slieutenant ; he entered as provisional governorthrough the death of the proprietor : in his timethe town was besieged by the English until the ar-rival of the right owner,
59. Don Basilio de Gante ; who had risen <o therank of brigadier, at that time king’s lieutenantof the fortified town of Ceuta, when he was pro-moted to the government of this, in 1742 : he ex-ercised it till 1739, when he returned to Spain.
60. Don Ignacio de Sala, lieutenant-general, ua-
C A U
C A U
(==CATORCE, or La Purissima ConcepcionDe Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest minesof New Spain, and in the intendancy of San LuisPotosi. The real de Catorce, however, has onlybeen in existence since 1773, when Don SebastianCoronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepedadiscovered these celebrated seams, which yield an-nually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 mil-lions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/.sterling.)
CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situ-ate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bayof its name, between the settlements of Torbec andLos Cayos.
CAUAIU, a small river of the same provinceand government as the former. It runs w. andenters the Parana, between the rivers Verde andYocare-mini.
Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite theIsla Vaca or Cow island.
CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, atown of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierraof Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shoreof the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesservessels, which has oftentimes been invaded byenemies. It is a curacy administered by the cler-gy, and to which two small settlements of MexicaaIndians are annexed.
CAUCA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince and government of Popayán, which risesin the mountains of the government of Mariquita,and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in whichcourse it collects the ’waters of many other rivers,it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali,and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until itenters the large river of the Magdalena. It is verynarrow where it passes through the cities of Po-payan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, tak-ing its course through rocks, which render its na-vigation very dangerous. The Indians, however,are so dexterous in guarding their canoes fromrunning against the rocks by paddles, that it isvery seldom indeed that any accident occurs tothem. They call this strait Las Mamas de Cara-manta, from a city which was here of this name.Many make this navigation for the purpose ofavoiding a round-about journey of many days, andin a bad road through the mountains ; and it issaid that some have had the good fortune to dis-cover a route by water free from all difficulties,and that this was actually made by the pontificateof the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Mon-toy.