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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


the same being the case with regard to the numerous rivers which intersect and fertilize the province ; all of them entering and augmenting the already abundant stream of the Mississippi. In the middle of the lake is a pyramidical mount, of above 100 yards in circumference, composed of a stone similar to crystal, and being the loftiest of any in the province. Its borders abound with cattle, called cibolas, a sort of wild cow, having the neck well covered with a long and soft wool, and affording delicious food to the natives. By the fat which they procure from the numerous anteaters, which breed here, they supply {he want of oil. There are also some castors, and other kinds of mountainanimals. Two leagues from the garrison.

Adaes, a river of the above province, which runs 5. e. in the district or country of the Indians, who give it the denomination ; and enters the river Mexicano.

[ADAIZE are Indians of N. America, who live about 40 miles from Natchitoches, below the Yattasses, on a lake called Lac Macdon, which communicates with the division of Red river that passes by Bayau Pierre. They live at or near where their ancestors have lived from time immemorial. They being the nearest nation to the old Spanish fort, or mission of Adaize, that place was named after them, being about 20 miles from them to the s. There are now but 20 men of them remaining, but more women. Their language differs from all others, and is so difficult to speak or understand, that no nation can speak ten Avoids of it; but they all speak Caddo, and most of them French, to whom they were always attached, and join them against the Natchez Indians. After the massacre of Natchez, in 1798, while the Spaniards occupied the post of Adaize, their priests took much pains to proselyte these Indians to the Roman Catholic religion, but, we are informed, were totally unsuccessful.]

[ADAMS, a township in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, containing 2040 inhabitants, is about 140 miles n. w. of Boston. In the n. part of this town is a great natural curiosity. A pretty mill stream, called Hudson's brook, which rises in Vermont, and falls into the n. branch of Hoosuck river, has, for 30 or 40 rods, formed a very deep channel, in some places 60 feet deep, through a quarry of white marble. Over this channel, where deepest, some of the rocks remain, and form a natural bridge. From the top of this bridge to the water is 62 feet ; its length is about 12 or 15, and its breadth about 10. Partly undcrthis bridge, and about 10 or 12 feet below it, is another, Which is wider, but not so long ; for at the e. end they form one body of rock, 12 or 14 feet thick, and under this the water flows. The rocks here are mostly white, and in other places clouded, like the coarse marble common at Lanesborough, and in other towns in Berkshire county.]

ADAMSTOWN, a town in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, containing about 40 houses; 20 miles n. e. of Lancaster.]

ADAUA, a river of the province and government of St. Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises between the Meta and Meteta, runs e. and enters the Orinoco in the port of San Francisco de Borja.

ADAUQUIANA, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia, which rises near the sierra of Parime ; and running from to. to e. enters the sources of the Cauca.

ADA YES. See Mexicano River.]

ADDI, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of a small river, between the settlements of Uquitoa and Tibutana.

ADDIS, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, one of the Antilles ; situate in the district of the parish of Christ Church, on the s. coast.

ADDISON, a township of the district of Maine in Washington county, 10 miles s. w. of Machias, on the seaboard, between Englishmen's bay and Pleasant river. It was called No. 6. until it was incorporated in Feb. 1797.]

[Addison County], in Vermont, is on the e, side of lake Champlain, and is divided nearly int© equal parts by Otter creek ; has Chittenden county on the n. and Rutland county on the s. and contains 6449 inhabitants, dispersed in 21 townships. It is about SO miles by 27. A range of the green mountains passes through it. Chief town Middlebury, granted Nov. 1761.]

Addison, a town of the above county (Addison County), containing 401 inhabitants. It lies on lake Champlain, and is separated from Newhaven, on the e. by Otter creek. Snake mountains on the s. e. lie partly in this township, granted 1761.1

ADEQUATANGIE Creek, in New York state, is the eastern headwater of Susquehannah river.]

ADICONI, a port on the coast of the N. sea, in the province and government of Venezuela. It is e. of the peninsula of Paraguana.

[ADMIRALTY Bay, and Port Mulgrave, on the n. w. coast of America, lie in Lat. 59° 31' n. Long. 140° 18'.]

ADOLES, a settlement of Indians, of the pro-

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shore of the Rio Grande Colorado, (large colouredriver), or of the North.

ALCO, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of Libitaca.

ALCOHOLADES, a nation of Indians of theprovince of Venezuela. They are of a docile andaffable disposition, and live upon the borders ofthe lake Maracaibo. Their numbers are muchdiminished, from the treatment they received fromthe German Weltzers, who, through a covetous-ness to possess the gold of these people, killed thegreater part of them.

ALCOZAUCA, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains104 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees;not a single Indian dwells in it. It is of a mildtemperature, and in its district were the once cele-brated mines of Cayro, which were crushed in anddestroyed, having been almost unparalleled for thequantity of silver that they produced. Eight lea-gues from its capital.

ALDAS, a small settlement or ward of the headsettlement of the district of Santa Ana, and alcaldiamayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana.

ALDEA, DEL Espiritu Santo, a settlementof the province and captainship of Tondos Santosin Brazil, situate on the coast, at the mouth of theriver Joana.

Aldea, del Espiritu Santo, another settle-ment of the province and captainship of Seregipe,in the same kingdom (Brazil), situate on the shore, andat the entrance of the river Real.

[ALDEN, Fort, in Cherry Valley, in thestate of New York.]

ALU WORT, a settlement of the island ofBarbadoes, in the district and parish of Santiago,on the coast.

ALEBASTER, or Eleuthera, an island ofthe channel of Bahama. See Alabaster.

ALEGRE, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of S. Vincente in Brasil, situate s.of the settlement of Alto.

[ALEMPIGON, a small lake northward oflake Superior.]

ALEXANDRIA, a city of Virginia, [formerlycalled Belhaven, and situated on the southernbank of the Patowmac river, in Fairfax county,about five miles s. w. from the Federal city, 60L from Baltimore, 60 n, from Fredericks-burgh, 168 n. of Williamsburgh, and 290 fromthe. sea; 38° 54' n. lat. and 77° 10' w. long.Its situation is elevated and pleasant. The soilis clayey. The original settlers, anticipating itsfuture growth and importance, laid out the streets

on the plan of Philadelphia. It contains about400 houses, many of which are handsomely built,and 2748 inhabitants. This city, upon openingthe navigation of Patowmac river, and in conse-quence of its vicinity to the future seat of thefederal government, bids fair to be one of the mostthriving commercial places on the continent. Ninemiles from hence is Mount Vernon, the celebratedseat of the late General Washington.]

[Alexandria, a township in Grafton county.New Hampshire, containing 298 inhabitants, in-corporoted in 1782.]

[Alexandria, a township in Hunterdon coun-ty. New Jersey, containing 1503 inhabitants, inclu-sive of 40 slaves.]

[Alexandria, a small town in Huntingdoncounty, Pennsylvania, on the Frankstown branchof Janiatta river, 192 miles n. w. of Philadel-phia.]

ALEXO, S. an island of the N. sea, near thecoast of Brazil, in the province and captainshipof Pernambuco, between the river Formoso andCape S. Agustin.

ALFARO, S. Miguel de, a settlement of theprovince and government of the Chiquitos Indians;situate on the shore of the river Ubay. It has agood port, from whence it is also known by thename of Port of the Chiquitos. It is, however,at present destroyed, and the ruins alone remain.

ALFAXAIUCA, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Kilotepec in Nueva Espana. It con-tains 171 Indian families, and is seven leaguese. n. e. of its capital.

ALFEREZ, Valley of the, in the provinceand correscimienlo of Bogota in the new kingdomof Granada.

Alfeuez, a river of the province and captain-ship Rey in Brazil; it runs w. and enters thelake of Mini.

[ALFORD, a township in Berkshire county,Massachusetts, containing 577 inhabitants ; 145miles w. from Boston.]

[ALFORDSTOWN, a small town in Moorcounty, North Carolina.]

ALfjrARROBO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Antioquia in the new kingdomof Granada ; situate on the bank of an arm of theriver Perico, in an island which it forms in th«serranias of Guamoca.

ALGODON, Island of the, one of thosewhich are in the N. sea, between the s. point ofthe Cayco Grande and the Panuelo Quadrado.

Algodon, a settlement of the same name. SeeBiezmet.

ALGODONALES, a .settlement of the province

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sels can go 25 miles above Wilmington, and largeboats 90 miles, to Fayetteville. The n. e. branchjoins the n. w. branch a little above Wilmington,and is navigable by sea vessels 20 miles above thattown, and by large boats to S. Washington, 40miles further, and by rafts to Sarecto, which isnearly 70 miles. The whole length of Cape Fearriver is about 200 miles.)

Cape Gross or Great, the point or extremityof the e. coast of lake Superior in Canada, wherethis begins to run out, in order to empty itself intolake Huron.

Cape Gross or Great, another point of theisland of St. Christopher, one of the Antilles, in thes. e. extremity, facing the s. w. and is one of thetwo which form the Grand Ance, or Great bay.

(Cape May is the s. westernmost point of thestate of New Jersey, and of the county to which itgives name. Lat. 38° 59' n. Long. 74° 55' w.It lies 20 miles n. e. from cape Henlopen, whichforms the s. w. point of the mouth of Delaware bay,as cape May does the n. e.)

(Cape May County spreads n. around the capeof its name, is a healthy sandy tract of country, ofsufficient fertility to give support to 2571 industri-ous and peaceable inhabitants. The county isdivided into Upper, Middle, and Lower pre-cincts.)

(CAPERIVACA, a large river in Guayana, S.America.)

CAPERU, a river of the province and govern-ment of Guayana, which enters the Apure, accord-ing to Mr. Bellin.

CAPETI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the mountains in the interior of this pro-vince, runs from e. to w. and enters the large riverof Tuira.

CAPI, a settlement of the province and corre-gimienio of Chilques and Masques in Peru.

Capi, a small river of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. It runsfrom e. to w. and enters the Marañon opposite thecity of Pará. Don Juan de la Cruz, in his map ofS. America, calls it Cupiu.

CAPIATA, a small settlement of the provinceand government of Paraguay ; situate on the shoreof the river of its name, three leagues e. of the cityof Asuncion. [Lat. 25° 21' 45". Long. 57° 31'48" w.]

CAPIGUI, a river of the province and caplain-ship of St. Vincent in Brazil. It runs to the s. s. w.and enters the Mboapiari.

CAPILLA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of

Santiago del Estero, on the bank of the river Cho-romoros.

Capilla Nueva, a parish of the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres, mentioned onlyby D. Cosme Bueno. [It is situate on theriver Negro. Lat. 33° 12' 30" s. Long. 67° 57'40" w.]

CAPILLAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru, an-nexed to the curacy of Huasitara.

CAPILLUCAS, a settlement of the regularorder of the Jesuits, now abolished, in the provinceand government of Mainas of the kingdom ofQuito ; situate on the shores of the river of theAmazonas.

Capillucas, a lake of the same province andgovernment; formed from an overflow or channelof the river Napo, and at no great distance fromthe banks of this river.

Capillucas, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Yauyos in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Tauripampa.

CAPINANS, a settlement of Louisiana ; situateon the banks of the river Panzacola.

CAPINATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Sicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Cabari.

CAPINOTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cochambaba in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas ; in which there is, inde-pendent of the parish-church, a convent of theorder of San Agustin.

CAPIRA, a settlement of the jurisdiction andalcaldía mayor of Nata, in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate on the skirts of a mountain, at alittle distance from the coast of the S. sea.

CAPIRATO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cinaloa in Nueva España; situateon the sea-coast.

==CAPITAINE, Oric du, or Barranco delCapitan==, a small river of Virginia. It runsto the s. e. and enters the Ohio.

CAPITANA, Point of the, on the coast of theisland Guaricura ; one of those islands which lie inthe river of the Amazonas : it looks to the n.

CAPITANEJO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tunja in the new kingdom ofGranada; situate on the bank of the river Soga-moso, in the territory called Cabuya de Chica-mocha, which is the direct road from Tunja toSanta Fe. It is of a very hot temperature, abound-ing in sugar-cane, and other productions of a warmclimate. The natives are very subject to an epi-demic disorder of lumps or swellings under thechin. Its population consists of 100 housekeepers.

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in beautiful singing birds ; and in its rivers aremany sorts of fish of a fine flavour, particularly thepatah. It is not without mines of gold, and laba~deros or washing places, but these are not worked,save by a few day-labourers. In the church of themonks of San Francisco is venerated an image of themost Holy Mary, with the title of La Probezuypainted on a piece of cotton-stuff, adorned with twofine pieces of silver, the natives payitig great de-votion to this superb work, from the wonderfulthings that have been said to have been effectedthrough the prayers offered up to her of whom thisis the semblance. This city has been the nativeplace of,

Don Melchor de Salazar, governor of Choco,and founder of the city Toro.

Of the Doctor Don Francisco Martinez Bueno,presbyter and visitor of the bishopric of Popayan ;a man of great literature.

Of the Doctor Don Manuel de Castro y Rada ; amost exemplary curate.

Of the Father Joseph Vicuna, who, after havingbeen a celebrated Jesuit, became a monk in thecollege of missions for propagating the faith in Po-payan, and died whilst preaching to the AndaquiesIndians.

Of the Father Estevan de Rivas, who, after hav-ing filled the title of jurist with great credit, be-came a Franciscan monk, and died an exemplarypenitent in his convent at Cartagena.

Of the Doctor Don Francisco Felipe del Campo,professor de prima of canons in the university ofSanta Fe ; a celebrated orator.

Of the Doctor Don Geronirao de Rivas, trea-surer and dignitary of the holy church of Popayan,provisor and ecclesiastical governor of that bishop-ric.

Of the Doctor Don Joseph de Renteria, assessorof the viceroyalties of Santa Fe and Lima, honoraryoidor of the audience of Charcas : all of whomhave borne testimony to the clearness and acutenessof their understandings and excellence of their dis-positions. But for all the information on thesesubjects, we have to thank Don Manuel del Cara-po, the son of the last mentioned, who resides inthis court, and to whom the merits thus severallyapplied, unitedly belong.

The arms of this city are three imperial crownswith a sun, and its inhabitants amount to about 5000or 6000 : 25 leagues n. e. of Popayan, in 4° 46'n. lat.

Cartago, another capital city, of the provinceof Costa Rica, in the kingdom of Guatemala,situate 10 leagues from the coast of the N. sea, and17 from that of the S. in each of which it has agood port ; it was formerly rich and flourishing, onaccount of its commerce w ith Panama, Cartagena,Portobclo, and the Havanah ; but it is at the presentday reduced to a miserable village of very few in-habitants, and without any commerce. It has, be-sides the parish church, a convent of monks of St.Francis, and is in 9° 42' s. lat.

Cartago, a river of the same province and go-vernment as is the former city : it runs w. and en-ters the S.sea, in the port of La Herradura.

Cartago, a bay in the province and govern-ment of Honduras, inhabited by the infidel Mos-quitos Indians.

CARTAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia: it rises in the mountains ofChoco, traverses the valley to which it gives itsname, and running e. enters the Cauca.

CARTEL, a port of the coast of the provinceand government of Florida, opposite the castle ofSt. Augustin.

(CARTER, a new county in the state of Tennes-see, formed of a part of the county of Washing-ton.)

(CARTERET, a maritime county of New Beradistrict, N. Carolina, on Core and Pamlico sounds.It contains 3732 inhabitants, including 713 slaves.Beaufort is the chief town.)

Carteret, a district and jurisdiction of S. Caro-lina, on the sea-coast.

Carteret, a cape or extremity of the coast ofthe same province, and one of those which formLong bay. See Roman.

(CARTERSVILLE, a town in Powhatancounty, Virginia, on the s. side of James rivtr, 4fmiles above Richmond.)

CARUALLEDA, Nuestra Senora de, acity of the province and government of Venezuela,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; founded byFrancis Faxardo in 1568, and not in 1560, as ac-cording to Coleti : it has a small but insecure port.The town is also a miserable place, having sufferedmuch injury, a short time after its foundation, bythe violent disturbances caused in its neighbour-hood by the Governor Don Luis de Roxas : 80leagues e. of Coro.

CARUALLO, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Paraiba in Brazil, situate near thesea-coast, and on the shore of the river Camara-tuba.

CARUGAMPU, a small river of the provinceand government of Paraguay ; it runs and en-ters the Parana between the rivers Capuy andParanay.

CARUJAL, PUNTA DE, a point on the coast ofthe province and government of Cartagena, called

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(the city clean and healthy ; but are too narrow forso large a place and so warm a climate. Theirgeneral breadth is from 35 to 66 feet. The houseswhich have been lately built are brick with tiledroofs. The buildings in general are elegant, andmost of them are neat, airy, and well furnished.The public buildings are, an exchange, a state-bouse, an armoury, a poor-house, and an orphan’shouse. Here are several respectable academies.Part of the old barracks has been handsomely fittedlip, and converted into a college, and there area number of students ; but it can only be called asyet a respectable academy. Here are two banks ;a branch of the national bank, and the S. Carolinabank, established in 1792. The houses for publicworship are, two Episcopal churches, two for In-dependents, one for Scotch Presbyterians, one forBaptists, one for German Lutherans, two for Me-thodists, one for French Protestants, a meeting-house for Quakers, a Roman Catholic chapel, anda Jewish synagogue. Little attention is paid tothe public markets ; a great proportion of the mostwealthy inhabitants having plantations, from whichthey receive supplies of almost every article ofliving. The country abounds with poultry andwild ducks. Their beef, mutton, and veal are notgenerally of the best kind ; and few fish are foundin the market. In 1787 it was computed that therewere 1600 houses in this city, and 15,000 inhabi-tants, including 5400 slaves ; and what evincesthe healthiness of the place, upwards of 200 of thewhite inhabitants were above 60 years of age. In1791 there were 16,359 inhabitants, of whom 7684were slaves. This city has often suffered muchby fire ; the last and most destructive happened aslate as June 1796. Charleston was incorporatedin 1783, and divided into three wards, which chooseas many wardens, from among whom the citizenselect an intendant of the city. The intendant andwardens form the city-council, who have power tomake and enforce bye-laws for the regulation ofthe city. The value of exports from this port, inthe year ending November 1787, amounted to505,279/. 19^. 5d. sterling. The number of vesselscleared from the custom-house the same year was947, measuring 62,118 tons; 735 of these, mea-suring 41,531 tons, were American ; theothers be-longed to Great Britain, Ireland, Spain, France, andthe United Netherlands. In the year 1794 the valueof exports amounted to 3,846,392 dollars. It is 60miles s. w. by s. of Georgetown, 150 e. by s. ofAugusta, 497 s. by w. of Richmond, 630 s. w. bys. of Washington city ; 763 s. w. by s. of Philadel-phia, and 1110 s. w. of Boston. Lat. 32° 48'.Long. 80° 2' w. Knoxville, the capital of the state

of Tennessee, is much nearer to this than to anysea-port town in the Atlantic ocean. A waggonroad of only 15 miles is wanted to open the com-munication ; and the plan is about to be executedby the state.)

Charleston, another capital city of the countyof Middlesex in New England; situate on thebank of the river Charles. It is well peopled andof a good construction, occupying the whole of thespace which lies between the aforesaid river andthat of Mystic, the former river dividing the cityfrom Boston, in the same manner as the Thamesdivides London from Southwark. It has a raft forthe traffic of the river instead of a bridge, the fareor produce of which belongs to the college of Nor-wood in the city of Cambridge, which is close by :this city is as it were the half of Boston, and itssituation, as being upon a peninsula, is very ad-vantageous. At certain times it has fairs, and isthe meeting place for the assembly of the county.It has a very large and handsome church, and amarketplace, ornamentally and conveniently situateon the river side, at which there are sold all kindsof flesh, fish, and other necessaries ; it has twolarge streets leading to it. The river is navigable,and runs through the country for many leagues. Isin Lat. 42° 24' n. Long. 71° 6' ay.

(CHARLESTOWN, the principal town inMiddlesex county, Massachusetts, called Misha-wun by the aboriginal inhabitants, lies n. of Boston,with which it is now connected by Charles riverbridge. The town, properly so called, is built ona peninsula formed by Mystic river on the e. anda bay setting up from Charles river on the w. Itis very advantageously situated for health, naviga-tion, trade, and manufactures of almost all the va-rious kinds. A dam across the mouth of the bay,which sets up from Charles river, would afford agreat number of mill-seats for manufactures. Bun-ker’s, Breed’s, and Cobble (now Barrell’s) hills,are celebrated in the history of the American revo-lution. The second hill has upon its summit amonument erected to the memory of Major-generalW arren, near the spot where he fell, among thefirst sacrifices to American liberty. The brow ofthe hill begins to be ornamented with eleganthouses. All these hills afford elegant and delight-ful prospects of Boston, and its charmingly varie-gated harbour, of Cambridge and its colleges, andof an extensive tract of highly cultivated country.It contains within the neck or parish about 250houses, and about 2000 inhabitants. The onlypublic buildings of consequence are, a handsomeCongregational church, with an elegant steepleand clock, and an alms-house, very commodious

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empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It formsan island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. sideof Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay.It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long,from Andover creek, a mile and a half fromBridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek,which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)

(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county,Virginia, situate on the point of land formed bythe junction of Allen’s or North river and Southriver, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long.78° 25' w.)

(Chester County, in Pinckney district, SouthCarolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, onW ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; ofwhom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sendstwo representatives, but no senator, to the statelegislature.)

(Chester, a town in Cumberland county, Vir-ginia ; situate on the s. w. bank of James river,15 miles n. of Blandford, and six s. of Rich-mond.)

(CHESTERFIELD, a township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusetts, 14 mites w. of Northamp-ton. It contains 180 houses, and 1183 inha-bitants.)

(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county.New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s.It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 in-habitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. ofCharlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Ports-mouth. About the year 1730, the garrison offort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions,and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted fromW est River mountain in th is township , and four milesdistant from that fort. The like appearances havebeen observed at various times since ; particularly,one in 1752 was the most severe of any. Thereare two places where the rocks bear marks of hav-ing been heated and calcined.)

(Chesterfield County, in South Carolina, isin Cheraws district, on the North Carolina line. Itis about 30 mites long, and 29 broad.)

Chesterfield County, in Virginia, is betweenJames and Appamatox rivers. It is about 30miles long, and 25 broad ; and contains 14,214inhabitants, including 7487 slaves.)

(Chesterfield Inlet, on the w. side of Hud-son’s bay, in New South Wales, upwards of 200miles in length, and from 10 to 30 in breadth ; fullof islands.)

(CHESTERTOWN, a post-town and the capi-tal of Kent county, Maryland, on the w. side of

Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel*phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church,college, court-house, and gaol. The college wasincorporated in 1782, by the name of Washing-ton. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, whoare empowered to supply vacancies and hold,estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/.currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12'n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)

CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana. It is an arm of theMississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea onthe side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [Onthe Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi,there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ;and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, andfrom two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water islowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal atits mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water isdeep under them they could be easily removed;and the Indians say there is nothing to impede na-vigation from their village to the gulf. The banksare more elevated than those of the Mississippi, andin some places are so high as never to be over-flowed. The natural productions are the same ason the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordi-nary size and compactness of the canes, is supe-rior. If measures were adopted and pursued witha view to improve this communication, there wouldsoon be on its banks the most prosperous and im-portant settlements in that colony.)

(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-.siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage,which is 13 miles long, and If broad, commu-nicates with this lake at the n. end, by a straita quarter of a mile wide. The country bor-dering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered withcypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the€. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya riveris divided by innumerable streams, which occa-sion as many islands. Some of these streams are*navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short?of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where per-sons passing that way generally halt as a restingplace. Nearly opposite this island there is anopening which leads to the sea. It is about 150yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)

CHETO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; tothe curacy of which is annexed the extensive val-ley of Huaillabamba, in the province of Chncha-poyas.

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four or five times in the year ; which causes theground to be so parched, that it would be entirelyuninhabitable, were it not for the multitude ofstreams with which it is intersected, and whichrender the temperature mild and healthy. Thecountry for the most part consists of levels, coveredwith green shrubs and trees, forming shady woodsof three or four leagues in extent. In these arefound the Brazil-wood, ebony, &c. which serve asan asylum for wild beasts, leopards and wildboars, deer and rabbits, a variety of mountain cats,coyotes, serpents and vipers. In the valleys arefound a multitude of quails, turtle-doves, pheasants,cranes, parrots, macaws, much esteemed for thebeauty of their plumage, and with which the In-dians adorn themselves, and an infinite variety ofother birds. The rivers, all of which descend fromthe sierras of Topia, in the rainy season increase tosuch a degree as to inundate the country for thespace of three or four leagues ; and generally re-maining out for eight days at least, the Indians areunder the necessity of forming for themselves akind of terrace upon the branches of trees, by meansof planks and sods, where they make fires and dresstheir food. There are many salt ponds, also minesof silver, which are not worked for want of la-bourers. This province was peopled by severalnations of Indians, who had their villages and hutson the sides of rivers. They used to maintain them-selves on maize, which they cultivated, afso on ca-labashes, which are very sweet and savoury, Frenchbeans, and a species of wild caroh plant, called bythem mesqnites, and which being ground, theyused to drink in water, after the manner of choco-late. They had also another delicacy in the plantcalled mezcalj which resembles the savila ; of thisthere are several sorts, of which they make wine,sweets, and vinegar ; of its tendrils thread, and ofits prickles needles. This country also abounds innopales, pitahayas, and other plants, includingmany which are native to Europe. Alvar NunezCabeza de Vaca was the first who discovered thisextensive province in his perigrination, after he hadsuffered shipwreck in going from Florida toMexico ; and from his report of it, the viceroyBon Antonio de Mendoza was induced to send intoit some persons to discover more concerning it. In1590 it was visited by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits, who came hither to preach thegospel. They succeeded in making proselytesamongst the natives, and established a regularmission, which was patronized by the Queen DonaMargarita of Austria, wife of Philip III. ; shehaving sent, for the promotion of the interests of

this* great object, and for the decorations of thealtars, &c. several valuable presents of jewels,ornaments, and other precious articles. Thecapital is the town of San Felipe and Santiago,and the other settlements are,

Montes Claros, Toro,

Real de Alamos, Concepcion,

Bocaverito, Loreto,

Noguera, Navajoa,

Camoa, Tecia,

Guarabe, Tepehue,

Ocosconi, Real de los Fra-

Mocorito, yeles,

San Ignacio, Vaca,

Santa Ana, Toriz,

Achogoa, Cuytes,

Caurimpo, Temoris,

Mocoyaguy, Chinipas,

Chiguaguilla, Valle Umbroso,

Tegueco, Guazapares,

Sivirijoa, Jatebo,

Charay, Guadalupe,

Mochicarui, Mayo,

San Miguel, Canamoas,

Haome, Batacosa.

Santa Maria,

Same name, a river of this province (Cinaloa), which runs toenter the sea in the gulf of CaJiforna, or Mar Roxode 'Cortes, between the rivers Culiacan and DelFuerte.

CINAMIN, a river of the province and cap^tainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises nearthe coast, and runs into the sea close to the capeof San Roque.

[CINCINNATI, a flourishing town in the ter-ritory of the United States, n. w. of the Ohio, andthe present seat of government. It stands on then. bank of the Ohio, opposite the mouth of Lick-ing river, two miles and a half s. w. of fort Wash-ington, and about eight miles w. of Columbia.Both these towns lie between Great and LittleMiami rivers. Cincinnati contains about 200houses ; and is 82 miles n. bye. of Frankfort;90 n. w. of Lexington, and 779 w. by s. ofPhiladelphia. Lat. 38° 42' n. Long. 84° IPw.']

[CINCINNATUS is the s. easternmost of themilitary townships of New York state. It has Vir-gil on the and Salem, in Herkemer county, on the

e. and lies on two branches of Tioughnioga river,a n. w. branch of the Chenango. The centre ofthe town lies 53 miles s. w. by w. of Cooperstown,and 39 s. e. by s. of the 5. e, end of Salt lake.Lat. 42° 27'


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>v1io inhabit the woods lying near the river Cuclii-gara, bomided by the nation of the Cunmnaes, Itis but little known.

CUMBA, a settlement of tlie province andcorregimicnto of Luya and Chillaos in Peru.

CUMBAL, a settlement of the province and jcorregimknlo of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito.

CUMBAL, a very lofty mountain of this pro-vince (Pastos), always covered with snow ; from it rises theriver Carlosama, which runs e. and the Mallama,which runs n. In Lat. .54° n.

CUMBAYA, a settlement of the kingdom ofQuito, in the corregimiento of the district of LasCinco Leguas de su Capital.

CUMBE. See Chumbe.

CUMBERLAND, Bay of, on the most «.coast of America. Its entrance is beneath thepolar circle, and it is thought to have a commu-nication with Batlin’s bay to the n. In it are se-veral islands of the same name. The bay wasthus called by the English, according to Marti-niere, who, however, makes no mention of theislands.

Cumberland, a port of the island of Cuba,anciently called Guantanamo; but the AdmiralVernon and General Werabort, who arrived herein 1741 with a strong squadron, and formed anencampment upon the strand, building at the sametime a fort, gave it this name in honour to theDuke of Cumberland. It is one of the best portsin America, and from its size capable of shelter-ing any number of vessels. The climate is salu-tary, and the country around abounds in cattleand provisions. Here is also a river of very goodfresh water, navigable for some leagues, andnamed Augusta by the said admiral. It is 20leagues to the e. of Santiago of Cuba, in lat. 20°71. and long. 75° 12' w.

Cumberland, another bay, of the island ofJuan Fernandez, in the S. sea. It lies betweentwo small ports, and was thus named by AdmiralAnson. It is the best in the island, although ex-posed to the n, wind, and insecure.

Cumberland Cumberland, an island of the province andcolony of Georgia, in N. America, near 20 milesdistant from the city of Frederick. It has twoforts, called William and St. Andrew. The first,which is at the s. extremity, and commands theentrance, called Amelia, is well fortified, and gar-risoned with eight cannons. There are also bar-racks for 220 men, besides store-houses for arms,provisions, and timber.

[Cumberland, a harbour on the e. side ofWashington’s isles, on the n, is, coast ofN. Ame-

C U M 559

rica. It lies s. of Skitikise, and n. of Cumma-shawaa.J

[Cumberland House, one of the Hudson’s baycompany’s factories, is situated in New SouthWales, in N. America, 158 miles e. n. e. of Hud-son’s 'house, on the s. side of Pine island lake.Lat. 53° 58' 7i. Long. 102° w. See NelsonRiver.]

[Cumberland, a fort in New Brunswick ;situated at the head of the bay of Fundy, on thee. side of its n. branch. It is capable of accom-modating 300 men.]

[Cumberland, a county of New Brunswick,which comprehends the lands at the head of thebay of Fundy, on the bason called Chebecton,and the rivers which empty into it. It has seve-ral townships ; those which are settled are Cum-berland, Sackville, Amherst, Hillsborough, andHopewell. It is watered by the rivers Au Lac,Missiquash, Napan Macon, Memrarncook, Pet-coudia, Chepodi^, and Herbert. The three firstrivers are navigable three or four miles for ves-sels of five tons. The Napan and Macon areshoal rivers ; the Herbert is navigable to its head,12 miles, in boats ; the others are navigable fouror five miles.]

[Cumberland, a town of New Brunswick, inthe county of its own name. Here are coal mines.]

[Cumberland, County, in the district of Maine,lies between Y ork and Lincoln counties ; has theAtlantic ocean on the s. and Canada on the w.Its sea-coast, formed into numerous bays, and linedwith a multitude of fruitful islands, is nearly 40miles in extent in a straight line. Saco river, whichruns s. e. into the ocean, is the dividing line be-tween this county and York on the s.w. CapeElizabeth and Casco bay are in this county. Cum-berland is divided into 24 townships, of whichPortlatid is the chief. It contains 25,450 inha-bitants.]

[Cumberland County`, in New Jersey, isbounded s. by Delaware bay, 7i. by Gloucestercounty, s. e. by cape May, and w. by Salemcounty. It is divided into seven townships, ofwhich Fairfield and Greenwich are the chief;and contains 8248 inhabitants, of whom 120 areslaves.]

[Cumberland, the «. easternmost township ofthe state of Rhode Island, Providence county.Pawtucket bridge and falls, in this town, are fourmiles 71. e. of Providence. • It contains 1964 inha-bitants, and is the only town in the state whichhas no slaves.]

[Cumberland County, in Pennsylvania,, is

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bounded ??. and 71 . w. by Mifiiin ; e. and n.e. bySusqiiehaiinah river, which divides it from Dau-phin ; i-. by York, and s.w. by Franklin county.It is 47 miles in length, and 42 in breadth, and has10 townships, of which Carlisle is the chief. Thecounty is generally mountainous; lies between^North and Soutli mountain ; on each side of Cone-dogwinet creek, there is an extensive, rich, andwell cultivated valley. It contains 18,243 inhabi-tants, of whom 223 are slaves.]

[Cumberland, a township in York county,Pennsylvania. Also the name of a township inWashington county, in the same state.]

[Cumberland County, in Fayette district, N.Carolina, contains 8671 inhabitants, of whom 2181are slaves. Chief town Fayetteville.]

rCUMBERLAND, a township of the above county (Cumberland),in N. Carolina,]

[Cumberland, a post-town and the chieftownship of Alleghany county, Maryland, lies onthe «. bank of a great bend of Potowmack river,and on both sides of the mouth of Will’s creek.It is 148 miles w. by n. of Baltimore, 109 mea-sured miles above Georgetown, and about 105». w. of Washington City. Fort Cumberlandstood formerly at the w. side of the mouth of Will’screek.]

[Cumberland County, in Virginia, on the«, side of Appamatox river, which divides it fromPrince Edward. It contains 8153 inhabitants, ofwhom 4434 are slaves. The court-house is 28miles from Pawhatan court-house, and 52 fromRichmond.]

[Cumberland Mountain occupies a part ofthe uninhabited country of the state of Tennessee,between the districts of Washington and Hamiltonand Mero district, and between the two firstnamed districts and the state of Kentucky. Theridge is about SO miles broad, and extends fromCrow creek, on Tennessee river, from s. w. ion. e.The place where the Tennessee breaks through theGreat ridge, called the Whirl or Suck, is 250miles above the Muscle shoals. Limestone isfound on both sides the mountain. The moun-tain consists of the most stupendous piles of craggyrocks of any mountain in the w. country ; inseveral parts of it, it is inaccessible for miles, evento the Indians on foot. In one place particularly,near the summit of the mountain, there is a mostremarkable ledge of rocks, of about SO miles inlength, and 200 feet thick, shewing a perpen-dicular face to the s. e. more noble and grand thanany artificial fortification in the known world, andapparently equal in point of regularity.]

[Cumberland River, called by the Indians“ Shawanee,” and by the French “ Shavanon,”falls into the Ohio 10 miles above the mouth ofTennessee river, and about 24 miles due e. fromfort Massac, and 1113 below Pittsburg. It isnavigable for large vessels to Nashville in Ten-nessee, and from thence to the mouth of Obed’s orObas river. The Caney-fork, Harpeth, Stones,Red, and Obed’s, are its chief branches ; some ofthem are navigable to a great distance. TheCumberland mountains in Virginia separate thehead waters of this river from those of Clinchriver ; it runs s. w. till it comes near the s. line ofKentucky, when its course is w. in general,through Lincoln county, receiving many streamsfrom each side ; thence it flows s. w. into the stateof Tennessee, where it takes a winding course, in-closing Sumner, Davidson, and Tennessee coun-ties ; afterwards it takes a n. w. direction, and re-enters the state of Kentucky ; and from thence itpreserves nearly an uniform distance from Tennes-see river to its mouth, where it is 300 yards wide.It is 200 yards broad at Nashville, and its wholelength is computed to be above 450 miles.]

[Cumberland-River, a place so called, wherea post-office is kept, in Tennessee, 13 miles fromCumberland mountain, and 80 from the Crab-Orchard in Kentucky.]

CUMBICOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Piura in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Trias.

CUMBINAMA. See Loyola.

CUMINACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Combaya.

[CUMMASHAWAS, or Cummasuawaa, asound and village on the e. side of Washingtonisland, on the n. w. coast of N. America. Theport is capacious and safe. In this port CaptainIngraham remained some time, and he observes,in his journal, that here, in direct opposition tomost other parts of the world, the women main-tained a precedency to the men in every point ;insomuch that a man dares not trade without theconcurrence of his wife, and that he has often beenwitness to men’s being abused for parting withskins before their approbation was obtained ; andthis precedency often occasioned much disturbance.

[CUMMINGTON, a township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusetts, having 873 inhabitants;lying about 20 miles n. w. of Northampton, and120 n. w. by zjj. of Boston. It was incorporatedin 1779.1

CUMPAYO, a settlement of the province of

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