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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ABANCAY, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the E by the large city of Cuzco, (its jurisdiction beginning at the parish of Santa Ana of that city), and on the W by the province of Andahuailas; N by that of Calcaylares, forming, in this part, an extended chain of snowcovered mountains ; S by the provinces of Cotabamba and Aimaraez; S W by Chilques and Masques. It extends 26 leagues from E to W and is 14 broad. Its most considerable river is the Apurimac, which is separated from it at the N W and bends its course, united with other streams, towards the mountains of the Andes. This river is crossed by a wooden bridge of 80 yards long and 3 broad, which is in the high road from Lima to Cuzco, and other provinces of the sierra. The toll collected here is four rials of silver for every load of goods of the produce of the country, and twelve for those of the produce of Europe. The temperature of this province is mild, and for the most part salubrious, with the exception of a few vallies, where, on account of the excessive heat and humidity, tertian agues are not uncommon. It produces wheat, maize, and other grain in great abundance, and its breed of horned cattle is by no means inconsiderable; but its principal production is sugar, which they refine so well, that it may challenge the finest European sugars for whiteness : this is carried for sale to Cuzco and other provinces, and is held in great estimation. It also produces hemp, cloth manufactures of the country ; and in its territories mines of silver are not wanting, especially in the mountain which they call Jalcanta, although the natives avail themselves not of the advantages so liberally held out to them. Its jurisdiction comprehends 17 settlements. The repartimento, quota of tribute, amounted to 108,750 dollars, and it rendered yearly 870 for the alcabala. The following are the 17 settlements : The capital, Limatambo, Huanicapa, Mollepata, Curahuasi, Pantipata, Cachora, Pibil, Antilla, Chonta, Anta, Pocquiura, Ibin, Surite, Chachaypucquio, Huaracondo. Sumata,
Abancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a spacious valley, which gives it its title: it is also so called from a river, over which has been thrown one of the largest bridges in the kingdom, being the first that was built there, and looked upon as a monument of skill. In the above valley the jurisdiction of this province, and that of Andahuailas, becomes divided. It is also memorable for the victories gained in its vicinity by the king's troops against Gonzalo Pizarro, in the years 1542 and 1548. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic ; this order being the first of those which established themselves in Peru. 20 leagues distant from the city of Cuzco. Lat. 13° 31' 30" S Long. 72° 26' W.7
ABANES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the plains of San Juan, to the N of the Orinoco. They inhabit the woods on the shores of this river, as well as other small woods ; and are bounded, E by the Salivas, and W by the Caberres and Andaquies. They are docile, of good dispositions, and are easily converted to the Catholic faith.
ABANGOUI, a large settlement of the province and government of Paraguay. It is composed of Indians of the Guarani nation, and situate on the shore of the river Taquani. It was discovered by Alvar Nuñez Cabezade Vaca, in 1541.
ABBEVILLE County, in Ninetysix district, S. Carolina, bounded on the N E by the Saluda, and on the SW by the Savannah, is 35 miles in length and 21 in breadth ; contains 9197 inhabitants, including 1665 slaves.
ABEICAS, a nation of Indians of New France, bounded on the N by the Alibamis, and E by the Cheraquis. They live at a distance from the large rivers, and the only produce of their territory is some canes, which are not thicker than a finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
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from which they are enabled to make sugar. It isintersected by three rivers, which are of no usewhatever to it, being too low in their beds ; but theyunite and form the Pachachaca, which enters theprovince of Abancay, and has more than 40 bridgesof wood and cord thrown over it in different parts.There are innumerable veins of gold and silver orein this province, which are not worked, from thewant of energy, and from the poverty existingamong the inhabitants ; and thus only some tri-fling emoluraeul is now and then derived from oneor the other. It was otherwise in former times,but these mines are now almost all filled with water.Some mines of quicksilver have been discovered,but the working of them has been forbid. Hereis little of the cattle kind, and no cloth manufac-tures peculiar to the country arc made here, withthe exception of a sort of thick quilt, which theycall Chuces ; and a kind of grain is gathered here,known by the name of Maino. This province wasunited to the empire of Peru by Capac Yupan-qui V. Emperor of the Incas. The language of thenatives is the same as that which is most universalthroughout the kingdom. The capital formerlyconsisted of a large and w ell ordered settlement,which was called Tintay, but which is at presentbut thinly inhabited, on account of the scarcity ofwater, and from a plague, in which almost all itsinhabitants perished. The number of souls in thewhole of the province may amount to 15,000. Iteontains 50 settlements within its jurisdiction. Theyearly tribute received by the corregidor used toamount to 800,100 dollars, and the duties paidupon the alcavahif (a centage on goods sold), to688 dollars.
The settlements of its jurisdiction are ;
AINACOLCA, a gold mine of the province andcorregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is famousfor the excellent quality of this metal, but it is verydifficult to be worked, on account of the hardnessof its stone.
AIOCUESCO, Santa Maria de, the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofAntequera, in the province and bishopric of Me-choacan in Nueva España. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains a convent of the religious orderof Santo Domingo, and 400 Indian families, whocarry on some commerce in the cochineal, (theplant producing which they cultivate), and a veryconsiderable one in the manufacture of Pulgues^on account of the abundance of Magueyes whichare found here. Seven leagues s. of its capital.
AIOTITLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcaldia mayor of Amola in NuevaEspana, immediately upon the coast of the S. sea,and situate between two deep ravines. Its tem-perature is very hot and troublesome to live in, onaccount of the various venomous animals and in-sects that abound in its territory. It contains 76Indian families, whose trade consists in makingtroughs and trays very finely painted. This set-tlement, in which there is a convent of the orderof St. Francis, is beautifully surrounded withplantations. Fifteen leagues distant from its capital.
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another whose note resembles atrumpet. It aboundsin quadrupeds, as mules, horses, and cattle of thelarge and small kind, the antas, which is calledhere gran bestia^ (great beast), huanacos, vicunas,llamas, or native sheep, stags, bears, ant-eaters,wild bears, otters, tigers, mountain cats, visca-chas, (or large hares), large and small foxes, tor-toises, higuanos, and others ; all of which affordfood to tlie voracious Indians. In this provinceare also found many insects, such as scorpions,vipers, snakes of several kinds, some of two heads,and some with rattles, squirrels, mocamucas, am-palabas, or what are called in other countries owls,which are extremely deformed, and attract smallanimals to them by their screeching, quiriquinchosof various sorts, glow-worms, a great variety offlies and spiders, and of these a large kind veryvenomous, silk-worms, Avhich, if taken care of,would yield an abundance of silk, locusts, Avhichare eaten by the Indians both dry and fresh ; also ants,the beds of which are so deep as to render the roaddangerous for men and for horses to pass, theseinsects being of such an undaunted and trouble-some nature as often to attack a viper or locust inlarge bodies, and in some settlements to enter ahouse like a plundering army, devouring every in-sect and worm in their way, not leaving a singleeatable thing untouched ; scarcely shall these havefinished their operations, but they are succeeded byanother band, and indeed it is very liazardous todisturb them, since they bite very fiercely andcause much pain. This province has no mines,although it is said that formerly some were workedby the Indians ; some little time since, however,one of iron was discovered, when it was thought tohave been of gold. This extensive and pleasantcountry is inhabited by a multitude of infidel In-dians, of different nations and of various barbarouscustoms. It was casually discovered in 1586 byJuan de Banos, a native of Chuquisaca, a factorof the settlement of Yala ; he had an Indian slavewho used frequently to run away from his masterfor a time and return again, and who being askedonce whither he went, replied toChacu; this itAvas tliat led to its discovery, and to the subse-•quent attempts at several times made to conquerit; first by Martin de Ledesma, afterwards by.Tuan Manso, Don Pedro Lasarte, and lastly byD >11 Christoval de Sanabri, all of which were in-effectual. San Francisco Solano entered the coun-try, and succeeded in reducing some of the nativesto the Christian faith ; these, however, soon re-turned to their idolatry. The regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits likewise engaged themselves in thereduction of this country in 1587, the first of their
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preachers here being Father Alonzo Barzana,called the apostle of Peru ; they continued herefor a number of years, and during their stayfounded seven settlements. The inhabitants ofthe whole province are computed at 100,000.Catalogue of the nations which inhabit Chaco.
(Chaco, a large plain of the above province,in which Azara noticed a singular phenomenon,which he calls a large piece of pure iron, flexibleand malleable in the forge, but at the same timeso hard as not to be cut, though obedient to thefile. It contains about 468 cubic feet, and lieson the surface of the large plain of Chaco, on whichnot a single stone excepting this is to be found ;and what is still more curious, there is no volcanowithin 300 leagues, nor any iron mine to be heardof in that part of tho country.)
of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,
l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,
And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.
Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.
Coquimbo or La Se-
San Juan de la Fron-tera,
San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,
Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,
Estancia del Rey or
Fernandez. The capi-
Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.
Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.
Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.
De la Sal,
Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.
1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-
[tains, which they fancy to be of a similar appear-ance, and which, of course, as they suppose, mustpossess the same property of floating upon thewater, assigning as a reason, that they are fearfulafter an earthquake that the sea will again returnand deluge the world. On these occasions, eachone takes a good supply of provisions, and woodenplates to protect their heads from being scorched,yjrovided the Thegtheg, when raised by the wafers,should be elevated to the sun. Whenever theyare told that plates made of earth would be muchmore suitable for this purpose than those of wood,which are liable to be burned, their usual replyis, that their ancestors did so before them.
15. Division of time.— ‘Time is divided by theAraucanians, as with us, into years, seasons,months, days, and hours, but in a very differentmethod. Their year is solar, and begins on the22d of December, or immediately after the southernsolstice ; for this reason they call this solsticeihaumathipantu, the head and tail of the year,and denominate June Udanthipmtu., the dividerof the year, from its dividing it into two equalparts. These two essential points they are ableto ascertain with sufficient exactness by means ofthe solstitial shadows. The year is called tipaniu,the departure, or course of the son, as that lumi-nary departs, or appears to depart, from the tropic,in order to make its annual revolution : it is divid-ed info 12 months of 30 days each, as was that ofthe Egyptians and Persians. In order to com-plete the tropical year, they add five intercalarydays, but in what manner they are introduced weare not able to determine ; it is, however, probablethey are placed in the last month, which in thatcase will have 35 days. These months are calledgenerally ci(/e«, or moons, and must have originallybeen regulated wholly by the phases of the moon.The proper names of them, as near as they can berendered by ours, are the following, which arederived from the qualities, or the most remarkablethings which are produced in each month :Avun-cujenj January, The month of fruit.Cogi~cujen, February, The month of har-vest.
Glor-cujen, March, The month of maize.JUnm-cujen, April, The first month of therimu.
May, The second month of therimu.
June, The first month of foam.July, The second month offoahi.August, The unpleasant month.September, The treacherousmonth.
Hueul-cujeny October, The first month of newwinds.
Inanhueul-cujeny November, The second month ofnew winds.
Huetiru-cujeny December, The month of newfruit.
The seasons, as in Europe, consist of threemonths ; the spring is called peughen, the sum-mer ucan, the autumn guafug, and the winter pu-chnm. To render the distribution of the yearuniform, they also divide the natural day into 12parts, which they call gliagantu, assigning six tothe day, and six to the night, in the manner of theChinese, the Japanese, the Otaheitans, and seve-ral other nations. Thus each gliagantu, or Arau-canian hour, is equal to two of ours. Those of theday they determine by the height of the sun, andthose of the night by the position of the stars ; butas they make use of no instrument for this purpose,it follows that this division, which must necessarilybe unequal, according to the different seasons ofthe year, will be much more so from the imperfectmanner of regulating it. They begin to numbertheir hours, as is general in Europe, from mid-night, and give to each a particular name. Incivil transactions they calculate indifferently,either by days, nights, or mornings; so that threedays, three nights, or three mornings, signify thesame thing.
16. Astronomical ideas.— To the stars in generalthey give the name of huagleny and divide theminto several constellations, which they call palor ritha. These constellations usually receivetheir particular appellations from the number ofremarkable stars which compose them. Thus thepleiades are called cajupal, the constellation ofsix ; and the antarctic cross, melerithoy the con-stellation of four ; as the first has six stars whichare very apparent, and the last four. The milkyway is called rupuepeu, the fabulous road, froma story which, like other nations, they relate of it,and which is considered as fabulous by the astro-nomers of the country. They are well acquaintedwith the planets, which they call gau, a wordderived from the verb gaun, to wash ; from whenceit may be inferred, that they have respecting thesebodies the same opinion as the Romans, that attheir setting they submerge themselves in the sea.Nor are there wanting Fontenelles among them,who believe that many of those globes are so manyother earths, inhabited in the same manner asours ; for this reason they call the sky Guenu-mapuy the country of heaven ; and the moon,Cuyen-mapUy the country of the moon. Theyagree likewise with the Aristotelians, in maintain-]
[spirit, the famous Andalucian race, from whichthey sprang. Nor has Nature exhausted herbounty on the surface of the earth ; she has storedits bowels with riches ; valuable mines of gold, ofsilver, of copper, and of lead, have been discoveredin various parts of it. A country distinguishedby so many blessings, we may be apt to conclude,would early become a favourite station of theSpaniards, and must have been cultivated withpeculiar predilection and care ; instead of this, agreat part of it remains unoccupied. In all thisextent of country there are not above 80,000 whiteinhabitants, and about three times that number ofNegroes and people of a mixed race. The mostfertile soil in America lies uncultivated, and someof its most promising mines remain unwrought.”16. Of rain . — From the beginning of springuntil autumn, there is throughout Chile a con-stant succession of fine weather, particularly be-tween tlie 24° and 36° of latitude ; but in the islands,which for the most part are covered with woods,the rains are very frequent, even in summer. Tlierainy season on the continent usually commencesin April, and continues until the end of August.In the n. provinces of Coquimbo and Copiapo itvery rarely rains ; in the central ones it usuallyrains three or four days in succession, and thepleasant weather continues 15 or 20 days ; in thes. the rains are much more frequent, and oftencontinue for nine or ten days without cessation.These rains are never accompanied with stormsor hail, and thunder is scarcely known in thecountry, particularly in places at a distance fromthe Andes, where, even in summer, it is seldomever heard. Lightning- is wliolly unknown in theprovince of Chile; and although, in the above-mentioned mountains, and near the sea, stormsoccasionally arise, yet they, according to the di-rection of the wind, pass over, and take theircourse to the n. or s. In the maritime provincessnow is never seen. In those nearer the Andes itfalls about once in five years ; sometimes not sooften, and the quantity very trifling; it usuallymelts while falling, and it is very uncommon tohave it remain on the ground for a day. In theAndes, however, it falls in such quantities fromApril to November, that it not only lies there con-stantly during that time, but even renders themwholly impassable during the greater part of theyear. The highest summits of these mountains,which are constantly covered with snow, are dis-tinguishable at a great distance l)y their whiteness,and form a very singular and pleasing appear-ance. Those of the inhabitants who are not suf-ficiently wealthy to have ice-houses, procure
snow from the mountains, which they transportupon mules. The consumption of this article isvery considerable, as a general use is made of itin summer to cool their liquors. The maritimecountries being at a distance from the Andes, donot enjoy this advantage, but they feel the priva-tion of it less, as the heat is much more moderateupon the coast than in the interior. In the mid-land provinces is sometimes seen, in the month ofAugust, a white frost, accompanied by a slight de-gree of cold, which is the greatest that is expe-rienced in those districts. This coldness continuestwo or throe hours after sun-rise; from which timethe weather is like that of a fine day in spring.The dews are abundant throughout Chile in thespring, summer, and autumual nigids, and in agreat measure supply the want of rain duringthose seasons. Although the atmosphere is thenloaded with humidity, its salubrity is not injuredthereby, for both husbandmen and travellerssleep in the open air with perfect security. Fogsarc common on the coast, especially in the au-tumn ; they cordinue but a few hours in the morn-ing, and as they consist only of watery particles,are not prejudicial either to the health of the inha-bitants, or to the vegetation.
17. Winds . — The n. and n. w. winds usuallybring rain, and the s. and s. e. a clear sky ; theseserve as infallible indications to the inhabitants,who are observant of them, and furnish themselveswith a kindofbarometer to determine previously thestate of the weather. The same winds producedirectly contrary effects in the s. and in the n.hemisplieres. The n. and northerly winds, be-fore they arrive at Chile, cross the torrid zone,and there becoming loaded with vapours, bringwith them heat and rain; this heat is, however,very moderate, and it would seem that these winds,in crossing the Andes, which are constantlycovered with snow, become qualified, and losemuch of their heat and unhealthy properties. InTucuman and Cujo, where they are known bythe name of sonda^ they are much more incom-modious, and are more suffocating than even thesiroc in Italy. The s. winds coming immediatelyfrom the antarctic pole, are cold and dry ; theseare usually from the s. w. and prevail in Chileduring the time that the sun is in the hemis-phere ; thej' blow constantly towards the equator,the atmosphere at that period being highly rare-fied, and no adverse current of air opposing itselfto their course : as they disperse the vapodrs,and drive them towards the Andes, it rains butseldom during their continuance. The cloudscollected upon these mountains, uniting with those]
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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.
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