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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]
ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.
ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.
[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]
[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]
Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.
ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.
Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success : the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
ABISMES, Quartel des, that part or division of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to the NE. It takes its name from its having some creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they stand in no need of being anchored, which would be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on account of the thick roots thrown out by the above trees. Further on is a small island called Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, which is a good one.
ABITANIS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechuan tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a celebrated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, from the want of workmen. It is nearly contiguous to the settlement of Colcha.
ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the S side of which is a settlement called Frederick, which last lies in N lat. 48° 35'. W long. 82°. Also the name of a river which runs N and joins Moose river near its mouth at James's bay.
ABITIBIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, in the territory of the Indians of this name. This lake is N of Nipissing lake, the NE boundary of Canada, in New South Wales: it has communication with James's bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 48° 39' N Long. 79° 2' W.
ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is very numerous and warlike ; and they live a wandering life in the woods. It is 60 leagues to the E of the mountains of the Andes; bounded on the S, by the Ipillos Indians.
ABREOLHOS, on the coast of Brasil, and of the province and capitainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers Percipe and Quororupa, in S lat. 18° 19' 30". W long. 39° 5 1° 30". Here are some hidden rocks, or sandbanks, extremely dangerous ; and although there are various navigable channels, it requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, this having been the lot of an infinite number of vessels. These sandbanks are more than 20 leagues distant from the continent, and extend themselves upwards of five leagues to the E of the Island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the the centre, is in 170° 51' 20" S lat. W long. 39° 18'.
[ABROJOS, a bank, with several small rocks and isles, E of Turk's island, in N lat. 21° 5'. W long. 70° 40'. Between this bank and Turk's Island is a deep channel, for ships of any burden, three leagues wide.]
ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of the same name. It was anciently the capital of this province, and had the same denomination. At present it is much reduced, the corregidor having left it to establish himself in Lucanas. Lat. 15° 33' S Long. 73° 28' W
ABUCEES, S. Joseph de los, a settlement of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who were founded by, and maintained at the expence of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 0° 36' N Long. 75° 22' W.
ABURRA, S. Bartolomé de, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 1542, by the Marshal George Robledo, in a fertile and extensive valley of the same name, which was discovered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are some streams of salt water, from which the Indians procure salt for their use. Lat. 5° 51' 30" N Long. 75° 17' W ACA, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlaxclala, in Nueva España.
ACARAI, a settlement of the province and government of Paraguay, founded near the river Paraná, and rather towards the W by the missionary Jesuits, in 1624, where they also built a fort to protect it against the incursions of the infidel Indians.
ACARI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Camaná, in Perú, situate in a beautiful and extensive valley, in which there is a very lofty mountain, which they call Sahuacario, composed of misshapen stones and sand, in which, at certain times of the year, especially in the months of December and January, is heard a loud and continued murmuring, which excites universal astonishment, and which, no doubt, is to be attributed to the air in some of its cavities. On its skirts are two fortresses, which were built in the time of the gentilism of the Indians. There is a port halfway between the town of St. Juan and the city of Arequipa, which is 8 leagues distant from the latter, and 11 from the former. It is very convenient, and has an excellent bottom, but is frequented only by small vessels. It is in lat. 15° 15'. S Long. 75° 8' 30" W
another river, of the province and capitainship of Pará in the kingdom of Brasil. It is small, runs N afterwards inclines to the N N W and enters the river of Las Amazonas, just where this empties itself into the sea.
[ACASATHULA, a sea-port, situated on a point of land, in the province of Guatemala Proper, in Mexico, on a bay of the S. sea, about four leagues from Trinidad. It receives the greatest part of the treasures from Perú and Mexico. In its neighbourhood are three volcanoes.]
ACATEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Thehuacan, where there is a convent or vicarage of the order of St. Francis. It contains 860 Indian families (including those of the wards of its district) in a spacious valley, which begins at the end of the settlement and extends itself above a league. In this valley are 12 cultivated estates, on which live 40 Indian families. It is four leagues S S W of its capital.
another settlement in the head settlement and district of Chinantla, of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan. It is situate in a very pleasant plain, and surrounded by three lofty mountains. The number of its inhabitants is reduced. A very rapid and broad river passes near this settlement; and as this is the direct way to the city of Oaxaca and other jurisdictions, and as the travellers, who come here in great numbers, must necessarily cross the river in barks or canoes, the Indians, who are very expert in this sort of navigation, contrive by these means to procure themselves a decent livelihood. 10 leagues W of its head settlement.
Tlacolula, from whence it is distant a league ant a half to the N.
ACATEPEQUE, S. Franciso de, a settlement of the head settlement of St. Andres de Cholula, and alcaldía mayor of this name. It contains 140 Indian families, and is half a league to the S of its capital.
ACATLAN, a settlement and capital of the alcaldía mayor of this name. It is of a mild temperature, and its situation is at the entrance of the Misteca Baxa. It contains 850 families of Indians, and 20 of Spaniards and Mustees. In its vicinity are some excellent saltgrounds, in which its commerce chiefly consists. The jurisdiction of this alcaldía, which contains four other head settlements of the district, is fertile and pleasant, abounding in flowers, fruits, all kinds of pulse and seeds, and is well watered. They have here large breeds of goats, which they slaughter chiefly for the skin and the fat, salting down the flesh, and sending it to La Puebla and other parts to be sold. In its district are many cultivated lands. It is 55 leagues leagues to the E S E of Mexico. Long. 275° 10' W Lat. 19° 4' N.
another settlement of the same name, with the dedicatory title of S. Andres, in the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Xalapa, in the same kingdom, situate on a clayey spot of ground, of a cold moist temperature, rendered fertile by an abundance of streams, which in a very regular manner water the lands; although,it being void of mountains and exposed to the N winds, the fruits within its neighourhood do not come to maturity. It contains 180 Indian families, including those of the new settlement, which was established at a league's distance to the S of its head settlement, and which is called San Miguel de las Aguastelas. Acatlan is a league and a half distant from its head settlement.
another settlement, having the dedicatory title of San Pedro, belonging to the head settlement of Malacatepec and alcaldía mayor of Nexapa, in the same kingdom. It contains 80 Indian families, who trade in wool and in the fish called bobo, quantities of which are found in a large river which runs close by the settlement, and which are a great source of emolument to them. It is four leagues N of its capital.
another settlement of the head settlement of Atotonilco, and alcaldía mayor of Tulanzingo in the same kingdom. It contains 115 Indian families, and a convent of the religious order of St. Augustin. — Two leagues N of its head settlement.
ACATLAZINGO, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of Xicula, and alcaldía mayor of Nexapa, situate in a plain that is surrounded on all sides by mountains. It contains 67 Indian families, who employ themselves in the culture of the cochineal plant.
ACAXEE, a nation of Indians of the province of Topia. It is well peopled, and was converted to the Catholic faith by the father Hernando de Santaren, and others of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1602. They are docile, of good dispositions and abilities. In the time of their idolatry, they used to bend the heads of their dead with their bodies and knees together, and in this posture inter them in a cave, or under a rock, giving them provisions for the journey which they fancied them about to make ; also laying by them a bow and arrows for their defence. Should an Indian woman happen to have died in childbed, the infant was put to death ; for they used to say, it was the cause of her death. These Indians were once induced by a sorcerer to make an insurrection, but it was quelled by the governor of the province, Don Francisco de Ordinola, in the year 1612.
ACAXETE, Santa María de, the head, settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepcaca, situate on the slope of the noted sierra of Tlascala. It is of a cold and dry temperature, contains seven Spanish families, 10 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 176 of Mexican Indians. In its vicinity is a reservoir, formed of hewn stone, which serves at once to catch the waters as they come down from the sierra, and to conduct them to Tepcaca, three leagues N N W of its capital.
ACHACACHE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos, the capital of this province, in Peru. It contains, besides the parish chapel, another, in which is an image of Christ, with the dedicatory title of La Misericordia. [Lat. 16° 33' 30" S. Long. 79° 23' 20" W.]
ACHAGUA, a nation of Indians of the nuevo Reyno de Granada, who dwell among the plains of Gazanare and Meta, and in the woods which skirt the river Ele. They are bold in their engagements with wild beasts, but with human beings they have recourse rather to poison and stratagem; they are dexterous in the use of the dart and spear, and never miss their aim; are particularly fond of horses, of which they take the utmost care, anointing and rubbing them with oil ; and it is a great thing among them to have one of these animals of peculiar size and beauty. They go naked, but, for the sake of decency, wear a small apron made of the thread of aloes, the rest of their bodies being painted of different colours. They are accustomed, at the birth of their children, to smear them with a bituminous ointment, which hinders the hair from growing, even upon the eyebrows. The women's brows are also entirely deprived of hair, and the juice of jagua being immediately rubbed into the little holes formed by the depilatory operation, they remain bald for ever after. They are of a gentle disposisition, but much given to intoxication. The Jesuits reduced many to the catholic faith, forming them into settlements, in 1661 .
ACHIANTLAS, Miguel de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepozcolula. It contains a convent of monks of Santo Domingo, and 260 families of Indians, who occupy themselves in cultivating and improving the land. It is eight leagues to the W with an inclination to the S of its capital.
ACHINUTLAN, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It is on the shore of the river Orinoco, and to the E of the Ciudad Real, (royal city), the river Tacuragua running between them.
ACHOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru. In its vicinity is a volcano, called Amboto and Sahuarcuca, which vomits smoke and flames; the latter of which are seen clearly at night.
ACLA, a small city of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province of Darien, founded by Gabriel de Roxas, in 1514, on the coast of the S. sea, at the mouth of the gulph of Uraba, in front of the island of Pinos, with a good fort, then much frequented and very convenient, from having a good bottom, but somewhat incommoded by currents. Pedro Arias Davila built here a fort for its defence in 1516; but the settlement, nevertheless, did not keep long together, the Spaniards having abandoned it, on account of its unhealthiness, in 1532. [Lat. 8° 56' N. Long. 77° 40' W.]
ACOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It was the capital, but at present the town of Guancavelica bears that title, on account of its being the residence of the governor and other people of consequence. It is of a good temperature, and so abundant in grain, that its crops of wheat amount to 25,000 bushels yearly. In an estate near it, are some pyramidical stones, and in other parts
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AGUADILLA, a river of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the moun-tains on the s. and enters the large river Chagrevery near its mouth, and the castle of this name.Here ships take in water, on account of the conve-nience of a bay, for the defence of which there is,upon the shore, a battery belonging to the samecastle, which was built under the directions ofDon Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.
AGUADORES, River of the, in the islandof Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast ofthis island, having at its mouth a watch-tower andguard to give notice of vessels which may enter theport of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it isseven leagues distant.
AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in theyear 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Quere-taro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of SierraGorda.
AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of thejurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It hasa convent of the religious order of St. Francis, andin 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families ofIndians, including the wards of its district; 17leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n.Long. 103° 33' w.
AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Santiago de las Atalayas, and government ofSan Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It isof a hot temperature, and produces the same fruitsas the other settlements of this province.
AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro,^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold tem-perature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo,and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain theirlivelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteenleagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.
AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlementof the province and government of Mainas in thekingdom of Quito ; one of those which belongedto the missions held there by the Jesuits, andthus called from the nation of Indians of whom it iscomposed. It was founded in 1670 by the fatherLorenzo Lucero.
AGUAPAI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It rises between the Pa-rana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of SanCarlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c.enters the last of the above rivers not far from thesettlement of La Cruz.
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AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the districtof the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and isannexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at twoleagues to the s. of its capital.
AIAPATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and veryopulent, on account of its silver mines. The sandson the banks of the rivers here have been known sorichly impregnated with this metal, that lumps ofit have been at different times picked up. It is themost considerable population in the province, andthe temperature is so salutary, that it is very com-mon to meet with persons of 90 years of age, andmany also of 100.
AIAPEL, a town of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Gra-nada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swampof the same name, and which is formed from thewaters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others.In its district are the lavaderos, or washing placesfor gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can,Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.
AIATASTO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Tucuman, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Salta, on the banks of whichare some pasture grounds of the same name, uponwhich are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000of horses for breeding.
AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity aresome forts, which were built by the Indians in thetime of their gentilism, and now in a state of greatdilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here,the bottom of which has never yet been found.The water always keeps at one height, so that it ispresumed that it finds its way out through somesubterraneous channel. There is also another warm
water spring at two leagues distance, which is verynoxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petri-fying, in like manner as the spring of water inGuancavelica.
AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila inNueva España, of a warm temperature, and inha-bited by 100 Indian families, who support them-selves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant.Nine leagues s. of its capital.
AICAROPA, a small river Of the province andgovernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runsfrom e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. andenters the Caura.
AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province ofAndahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. byParinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas,and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in lengthfrom «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). includ-ing in its figure on the w. side the last mentionedprovince. It js one of the most uneven soils in thekingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowymountains. It is on this account that its climate isvery cold, excepting, however, in some vallies,where it is more temperate, and where, on somesmall sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed andgrain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,
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which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of34 Indian families. It is a little more than threeleagues from its head settlement,
AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayorof Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shoreof the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at whichare embarked the fruits of many provinces for thesupply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is withineight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a goodconvent of S. Augustin, where a most beauti-ful image of the virgin is reverenced, and sup-posed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants con-sist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. Itis distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.
AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit theplains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdomof Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota,on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous,and feared by all its neighbours, on account of itsvalour and dexterity in the use of arms.
Airicos, with the dedicatory title of SanFrancisco Xavier, a settlement which belongedto the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father An-tonio de Monteverde, and composed of some ofthose Indians who were thus reduced to the Catho-lic faith.
AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.
AIRS, a small city of the province and colonyof New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.
AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a villageand settlement of the Portuguese, in the provinceand captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situateupon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the riverS. Miguel.
Aiuda, another settlement in the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon thecoast on the shore of the port.
AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guate-mala: It runs into the S. sea between the settle-ment of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.
AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the provinceand government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana,converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano,of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624.They live towards the n. of the above province,and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt inthe lofty mountains, in order that they might de-fend themselves from the other nations with whomthey were at war. They are docile, well-inclined,and of good habits.
AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and
viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and entersthe Rio Negro.
AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucuman, in the districtand jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero,from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situateon the shore of the river Dulce.
AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indianfamilies, and a convent of the religious order of S.Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capi-tal.
Aiutla, another settlement in the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlanof the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, whohave large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fer-tile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy ofTenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,
AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domin-go, situate in the line which divides the Spanishterritory from the French. It was the inhabitantsof this town who chiefly contributed to ensure thevictory which was gained against the Spaniards inthe plain of Puerto Real, by the president DonFrancisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.
AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coastof Florida, within the channel of Bahama, nearthe point of Canaveral ; memorable for the ship-wreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of NuevaEspana, which took place in 1715, being under thecommand of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorablealso for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme,commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; theloss of the one and the other amounting to nearly20 million dollars.
Aix, a river of the same province, which runsinto the sea very near the Palmar.
AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Coaza.
[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the moun-tains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Pa-rana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23°26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\
AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Louisiana, in which theFrench held a garrison and fort for its defence, onthe shore of a lake near the Missouri.
A joues, another settlement of the same provinceand government, situate on the shore of the riverMissouri.
AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N.America, who live at the conflux of the riversMississippi, and another abundant stream of its
ALACLATZALA, a branch of the head set-tlement of the district of S. Luis, of the coast andalcaldia mayor of TIapa in Nueva España. Itcontains 125 Indian families, and is one leaguefrom the settlement of Quanzoquitengo.
ALACRANES, some islands, or rather somehidden rocks, of the N. sea, in the bay of Mexico,opposite the coast of Yucatan. Those who navi-gate these parts are accustomed to pass round be-yond them for fear of venturing amongst them, al-though there are some good cliannels among them,and withgood soundings. They are for the most partbarren, producing nothing beyond a herb calledmoron, -And deficient in fresh water ; neither do theyproduce any animal except the mole, which isfound here in prodigious numbers. There are,however, a quantity of birds, of three distinct sorts,each forming a community of itself, and entirelyseparated from the other two ; and it has beenobserved, that if one party may have fixed uponany place for building their nests, the others neverthink of disturbing them, or driving them from it ;but the noise these birds make is so great, that onecannot pass near them without suffering consider-ably from their united clamours.
[ALADAS, a parish situate about 14; leaguess. e, of Corrientes, in Lat. 28° 15' 20" s. Long. 58°SO' e».]
ALAMILLOS, a settlement of the province ofTaraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the missions which belonged to the religious ofSt Francis. It is close to the town and real ofthe mines of Santa Eulalia.
ALAMOS, Real de Los, Real de Los, a settlement andreal of the mines of the province of Sinaloa inNueva España. It is situate s. e. of the SierraMadre, and surrounded by rich silver mines,which would produce abundantly but for want oflabourers. There are in its district five estatesthat are fertile in maize, French beans, and sugar-cane. The spiritual concerns of all these parts
are under the direction of a curate, whose jurisdic-tion extends as far as the river Mayo, which flowsdown from the sierra. It is 20 leagues distantfrom the town of Tuerte, and between these liesthe valley of Maquipo. [Population 7900 souls]
Alamos, with the dedicatory title of S. Jorge,a town of the province and captainship of Para inBrazil, founded by Jorge del Alamo, who gaveit his name, in a place called La Vigia. It has amagnificent parish church, with the title of NuestraSenora de Nazareth, with a large and good fort,and well furnished with artillery. Also, at the dis-tance of a league and an half from the settlement,is a house of charity belonging to the religiousorder of the Capuchins of La Piedad.
Alamos, another of the missions belonging tothe abolished society of Jesuits, in the provinceof Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.It is 27 leagues s. w. and a quarter of a league s.of the real of the mines and town of S. Felipe deChiguaga.
Alangasi, a river of the above corregimiento,and rising in the desert mountain of Sincholagua ;over it there is a large bridge, composed of a singlearch, but so strong, that when, in 1660, a partof the mountain fell upon it, and precipitated onehalf of it into the stream, the other half still re-mained firm and immoveable. This bridge isbuilt of mud and stone.
ALANGI, Santiago de, a city and headsettlement of the district of the province of Chi-riqui and government of Santiago de Veragua,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It is small, butabounding in fruits and cattle ; in which a regulartrade is carried on for supplying the city of Pa-nama. This trade consists principally in pigs.
sels can go 25 miles above Wilmington, and largeboats 90 miles, to Fayetteville. The n. e. branchjoins the n. w. branch a little above Wilmington,and is navigable by sea vessels 20 miles above thattown, and by large boats to S. Washington, 40miles further, and by rafts to Sarecto, which isnearly 70 miles. The whole length of Cape Fearriver is about 200 miles.)
(Cape May is the s. westernmost point of thestate of New Jersey, and of the county to which itgives name. Lat. 38° 59' n. Long. 74° 55' w.It lies 20 miles n. e. from cape Henlopen, whichforms the s. w. point of the mouth of Delaware bay,as cape May does the n. e.)
(Cape May County spreads n. around the capeof its name, is a healthy sandy tract of country, ofsufficient fertility to give support to 2571 industri-ous and peaceable inhabitants. The county isdivided into Upper, Middle, and Lower pre-cincts.)
CAPETI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the mountains in the interior of this pro-vince, runs from e. to w. and enters the large riverof Tuira.
Capi, a small river of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. It runsfrom e. to w. and enters the Marañon opposite thecity of Pará. Don Juan de la Cruz, in his map ofS. America, calls it Cupiu.
Santiago del Estero, on the bank of the river Cho-romoros.
Capillucas, a lake of the same province andgovernment; formed from an overflow or channelof the river Napo, and at no great distance fromthe banks of this river.
CAPINOTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cochambaba in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas ; in which there is, inde-pendent of the parish-church, a convent of theorder of San Agustin.
CAPITANEJO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tunja in the new kingdom ofGranada; situate on the bank of the river Soga-moso, in the territory called Cabuya de Chica-mocha, which is the direct road from Tunja toSanta Fe. It is of a very hot temperature, abound-ing in sugar-cane, and other productions of a warmclimate. The natives are very subject to an epi-demic disorder of lumps or swellings under thechin. Its population consists of 100 housekeepers.
It is distant 30 leagues to the n. of Tunja, andeight from the town of Suata.
CAPIUARI, a small river of the province andcaptainship of San Vincente in Brazil. It risesin the mountains near the coast, runs almost di-rectly from e. to w. and enters the Harihambu orTiete, between the Piraciacaba and Jundiaya.
Capiuari, another river of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, and in the king-dom of Peru ; it rises to the s. e. of the settlementof San Rafael, runs to the n. and enters the Yteneswith a slight inclination to the n. w.
CAPLITOILGUA, an island of the N. sea, inthe straits De Magellan, one of those which form thes. coast, at the mouth of the canal of St. Isidro.
Caplitoilgua, a bay in the former island.
Capot, a bay on the coast of the same island,on its n. w. side, between the town of Carbet andthe bay of Giraumont.
CAPUCINS, Morne des, or Morro de los
Capuchinos, a mountain of the island of Mar-tinique, at the back of the city of fort Royal.
CAPUE, with the addition of Baxo (low), to dis-tinguish it ; another settlement of the same islandand dominion as the former.
CAPUIO, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Etuquaro, and alcaldía mayor of Vallado-lid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán ;in which district there are some cultivated lands,and in these, as well as in the settlement, residesome Spanish families, and some of the Musteesand Indians, who gain their livelihood in tilling theground, in making lime, and cutting wood. Fourleagues w. of its capital.
CAPULA, a village of a small settlement of thehead settlement and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec inNueva España ; situate in the cleft or hollow partof a mountain covered with trees ; its inhabitants,who consist of 63 Indian families, make charcoaland timber, these being the articles of their com-merce.
CAPULALPA, San Simon de, a small settle-ment of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor ofTezcoco in Nueva España, situate on the top of ahill; it has a very good convent of Franciscans,and contains 75 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes,and Mustees, and 196 of Indians : its territory isvery fertile, and the most luxuriant of any in thesame jurisdiction ; notwithstanding there is a lackof moisture, there being no running streams. Theyare used to gather most abundant crops of wheat,maize, barley, vetches, beans, and French beans ;they have large breeds of hogs, both in the villageand in the farms and neighbouring fattening stalls,which they carry for sale to Mexico, to La Puebla,and other parts. One league n. of its capital.
CAPULUAC, San Bartolome de, a headsettlement of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec inNueva España; it contains 524 Indian families,including those who inhabit the wards of its dis-trict, and it is two leagues to the s. e. of its capital.
[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports con-sisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars.He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, andChile, are consumed within the country. Thepopulation of some of the chief cities is thus stated ;Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela deCoro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, aresupposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Ca-racas, on account of their revolutionary propensi-ties. Being treated with great indulgence by theofficers and soldiers to whose care they were com-mitted, they formed the project of a conspiracyagainst the government. They engaged a numberof persons, some of them of consequence, in theirparty. After gaining their first converts, the spiritdid not spread. The coldness and apathy of thepeople did not admit of the effervescene they de-sired. After the plot had been kept a secret formany months it was disclosed to the government.Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others weretaken. It was found that seventy-two had enteredinto the conspiracy; six were executed. Therest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys orbanished from the country. For an account of therecent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]
Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near thecoast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the pro-vince and government of Cumana. They are sixin number, all small and desert, serving as placesof shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on anillicit commerce on that coast.
CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement ofthe province and country of the Amazonas ; a re-duccion of the missions which belonged to the abo-lished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth ofthe river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.
CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast ofthe province and corregimiento aforementioned,between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.
CARAMANTA, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the new kingdom ofGratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature ishot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vege-tables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : nearit are many small rivers which enter the Cauca,and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On themountains within its jurisdiction, are some settle-ments of barbarian Indians very little known. Thiscity is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues dis-tant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antio-quia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.
rection to be drowned in the lake Yaguarcocha,which from thence takes its name, and signifies thelake of blood, with which it was quite polluted ;tlie Indians stating, .according to their traditions,that no less than 20,000 people were thus sacri-ficed. Part of this province is at present compre-hended in that of Ibarra, and part in that ofOtavalo.
CARAQUES, Bay of, on the S. sea-coast, andin the province and government of Guayaquil. Itis close to cape Pasao, and near the equinoctialline. There was a settlement here, bearing the samename, the ruins of which are still visible.
CARARE, a large river of the new kingdom ofGranada. It rises in the valley of Alferez, to then. of the city of Tunja, runs from s. ton. and join-ing the Zarbe, enters the large river of Magdalena.On the e. side, near the narrow pass which formsits shores, the French have constructed a fort toguard against invasion from the infidel Indians.
CARARI, a strait of the large river Magdalena,formed by great rocks. There was formerly herea fort, which has been moved to a place at somelittle distance. The course of the waters in theabove strait is so rapid as to render it sometimesimpossible for vessels and canoes to pass through it.
Carauele, a small island of the N. sea, situatenear the n. e. coast of the island of Martinique,on the n. side of Carauele point.
CARAUELLES, a river of the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. It risesat the foot of the « Fria, and describing a smallcircle, runs s. e. and according to Cruz, e. andenters the sea opposite the island of Pajaros.
Carbet, two very high mountains of the aboveisland. They are full of sharp points similar tothose on Montserrat in Cateluila. They are nearthe coast, lying towards the n. w. part ; and theFrench call them Pitons de Carbet.
Carbet, a point on the e. coast of the island
escape the destruction which followed them where-ever they fled. Still are the vestiges of this cala-mity to be seen, and there are large quantities ofthis mud or lava, now become hard, scattered onthe s. side of the settlement.
CARHUACAIAN, a settlement of the same pro-vince and corregimiento as the former ; annexedto the curacy of Pomacocha.
CARI, a river of the province and governmentof Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the Mesa (Table-land) de Guanipa, andruns s. being navigable to the centre of the pro-vince, and enters the Orinoco near the narrowpart.
Cari, a settlement of the same province; oneof those under the care of the religious order of S.Francisco, missionaries of Piritu. It is situateon the shore of the former river.
CARIACO, a large gulf of the coast of TierraFirme, in the province and government of Curnana.It is also called, Of Curnana, from this -capital beingbuilt upon its shores. The bajr runs 10 or 12leagues from w. to c. and is one league toroad atits widest part. It is from 80 to 100 fathomsdeep, and the waters are so quiet as to resemblerather the waters of a lake than those of the ocean.It is surrounded by the serramasy or lofty chainsof mountains, which shelter it from all winds ex-cepting that of the n. e. which, blowing on it as itwere through a straitened and narrow passage,it accustomed to cause a swell, especially from 10
m the morning until five in the evening, after whichall becomes calm. Under the above circumstances,the larger vessels ply to windward ; and if thewind be very strong, they come to an anchor outhe one or other coast, and wait till the evening,when the land breezes spring up from the s. e. Inthis gulf there are some good ports and bays, viz.the lake of Obispo, of Juanantar, of Gurintar,and others.
Cariaco, a river of the same province and go-vernment, taking its rise from many streams andrivulets which rise in the serrania, and unite be.fore they flow into the valley of the same Uame.After it has run some distance over the plain, it iscut off' to water some cacao plantations, and thenempties itself into the sea through the former gulf.In the winter great part of the capital, which issituate upon its banks, is inundated, and the riveris tlien navigated by small barks or barges ; but inthe summer it becomes so dry that there is scarce-ly water sufficient to nqvigate a canoe.
Cariaco, a small city of the same province,situate on the shore of the gulf. [This city (ac-cording to Depons) bears, in the official papersand in the courts of justice, the name of San Fe-lipe de Austria. The population is only 6500,but every one makes such a good use of his timeas to banish misery from the place. The produc-tion most natural to the soil is cotton, the beautyof which is superior to that of all Tierra Firme.This place alone furnishes annually more than3000 quintals ; and besides cacao they grow a littlesugar. Lat. 10° SO' n. Long. 63° 39' w.
(CARIACOU is the ehief of the small isles de-pendent on Granada island in the West Indies;situate four leagues from isle Rhonde, which is alike distance from the «. end of Granada. It con-tains 6913 acres of fertile and well cultivated land,producing about 1,000,000 lbs. of cotton, be-sides corn, yams, potatoes, and plaintains for theNegroes. It has two singular plantations, and atown called Hillsborough.)
CARIATAPA, a settlement which belonged tothe missions of the regular order of the Jesuits, inthe province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya ; situate in the middle of the sierra of thisname, and on the shore of the river Piastla.
[boyes. or pretended magicians, sacrifices and wor-ship ; wounding themselves on such solemnitieswith an instrument made of the teeth of the agouti,which inflicted horrible gashes ; conceiving, per-haps, that the malignant powers delighted ingroans and misery, and were to be appeased onlyby human blood,]
Caribe, a settlement of the same province andgovernment ; situate on the windward coast of thecape of Tres Puntas. In its district are 26 plan-tations, 15 of cacao, and the rest of vines andmaize, which yield but indifferently, from a wantof water; although they find means of supplyingthis in some degree by the rain. The communityconsists of 1070 souls ; and is five leagues dis-tant from the settlement of Carupano.
(CARIBEANA, now called Paria or NewAndalucia, which see.)
CARIBES, a barbarous and ferocious nation ofIndians, who are cannibals, inhabiting the pro-vince which by them is called Caribana. Theyare divided under the titles of the Maritiraos andMediterraneos : the former live in plains and uponthe coast of the Atlantic, are contiguous to theDutch and French colonies, and follow the lawsand customs of the former, with whom they carryon a commerce. They are the most cruel of anythat infest the settlements of the missions of theriver Orinoco, and are the same as those calledGalibis. The Mediterraneos, who inhabit thes. side of the source of the river Caroni, are of amore pacific nature, and began to be reduced tothe faith by the regular order of the abolished so-ciety of the Jesuits in 1738, The name of Caribesis given not only to these and other Indians of theAntilles, but to all such as are cannibals. See Ca-ribe.
CARICHANA, a settlement of the province ofGuayana, and government of Cumana ; one of themissions of the Rio Meta, which was under thecare of the society of Jesuits, of the province ofSanta Fe. It is situate on the shore of the Ori-noco, by the torrent of its name ; and is at presentunder the care of the religious order of Capuchins.
Carichana, Torrent of, a strait of the river
Orinoco, formed by different islands, some coveredby, and some standing out of, the water, so thatthe navigation is very difficult and dangerous. Itis near the mouth of the river Meta.
Carimbatay, a river of the above provinceand government, which runs w. and enters theXexuy near the town of Curuguato.
CARIOCOS, a lake of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the Portuguese territories, on the shoreof the river. It is formed by the Topinamba-ranas, which, according to Mr. Bellin, makes thissheet of water before it enters the former river.
CARIPE, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, situate in the middle of a serranía; one ofthe missions in that province belonging to theAragonese Capuchin fathers.
CARIPORES, a settlement of S. America, tothe n. of Brazil and of the river of Las Amazo-nas : although of barbarian Indians, it deservesparticular mention, on account of its virtuous andpacific customs, so different from the brutality andsloth of the surrounding nations. These Indiansare handsome, lively, bold, valorous, liberal, ho-nest, and affable, and in short the most polishednation of Indians in all America ; they esteem ho-nour, justice, and truth; are enemies to deceit, eatbread made of cazave, which they have a methodof preserving good for three or four years. Theydo not scruple to eat the flesh of some ugly snakesfound in their woods, but are not cannibals ; nei-ther do they revenge upon their prisoners takenin war the cruelties they experience from theirenemies.
(CARIY, a parish of the province and govern-
ment of Paraguay ; situate on a small river aboutl5 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23° 30' 27"Long. 56° 52' w.)
(Carlisle, the chief town of Cumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania, on the post-road from Phi-ladelphia to Pittsburg ; is 125 miles w. by n. fromthe former, and 178 e. from the latter, and 18 s. w.from Harrisburgh. Its situation is pleasant andhealthy, on a plain near the s. bank of Conedog-winet creek, a water of the Susquehannah. Thetown contains about 400 houses, chiefly of stoneand brick, and about 1500 inhabitants. The streetsintersect each other at right angles, and the publicbuildings are a college, court-house, and gaol, andfour edifices for public worship. Of these thePresbyterians, Germans, Episcopalians, and RomanCatholics, have each one. Dickinson college,named after the celebrated John Dickinson, esq.author of several valuable tracts, has a principal,three professors, a philosophical apparatus, and alibrary containing near SOOO volumes. Its re-venue arises from 4000/. in funded certificates, and10,000 acres of land. In 1787 there were 80 stu-dents, and its reputation is daily increasing.About 50 years ago this spot was inhabited by In-dians and wild beasts.)
Carlos, San, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of a small river nearthe river Pargua, about five leagues s. w. of Can-delaria. Lat. 27° 44' 36" s. Long. 55° 57' 12" w.
Carlos, San, a city of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of theriver Aguirre, to the n. of the city of Nirua. [Itowes its existence to the first missionaries of Vene-zuela, and its increase and beauty to the activityof its inhabitants. The greatest part of its popu-lation is composed of Spaniards from the Canaryislands ; and as these leave their native country
but to meliorate their condition, they arrive with awillingness to work, and a courage to undertakeany thing that they think the most proper to an-swer their views. Their example even inspires asort oT emulation among the Creoles, productiveof public prosperity. Cattle forms the great massof the wealth of the inhabitants. Oxen, horses,and mules, are very numerous. Agriculture, al-though not much followed, is yet not neglected.Indigo and coffee are almost the only things theygrow. The quality of the soil gives the fruits anexquisite flavour, but particularly the oranges,which are famed throughout the province. Thecity is large, handsome, and well divided ; theycompute the inhabitants at 9300. The parishchurch, by its construction and neatness, answersto the industry and piety of the people. The heatat San Carlos is extreme ; it would be excessive ifthe n. wind did not moderate the effects of the sun.It lies in 9° 20' lat. 60 leagues s. w. of Caracas,24 s. s.e. of St. Valencia, and 20 from St. Philip’s.
(San Carlos de Monterey|Carlos, San, de Monterey]]==, the capital ofNew California, founded in 1770, at the foot of thecordillera of Santa Lucia, which is covered withoiiks, pines, (foliis lernis J, and rose bushes. Thevillage is two leagues distant from the presidio ofthe same name. It appears that the bay of Mon-terey had already been discovered by Cabrillo onthe 13th November 1542, and that he gave it thename of Bahia rle los Pinos, on account of thebeautiful pines with which the neighbouring moun-tains are covered. It received its present nameabout 60 years afterwards from Viscaino, in ho-nour of the viceroy of Mexico, Gaspar deZunega,Count de Monterey, an active man, to whom weare indebted for considerable maritime expedi-tions, and who engaged Juan de Onate in the con-quest of New Mexico. The coasts in the vicinityof San Carlos produce the famous aurum merum(ormier) of Monterey, in request by the inhabi-tants of Nootka, and which is employed in thetrade of otter-skins. The population of San Carlosis 700.)
Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this riverand that of Pasimoni.
Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surnameof Real) of the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata,near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged tothe Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part,there is a lake of very good sweet water.
Carlos, San, a valley in the province and go-vernment of Tucumán, which is very fertile invines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birdsand animals of the chase. Its natives are thosewho most of all infested the Spaniards when theyconquered this province.
Carlos, San, another, of the province andcountry of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the mis-sions which were held there by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Arau-caso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahu-maris Indians.
Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, calledDe Don Carlos, in the province and captainship ofRey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra ofLos Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formedby the mouth of the river La Plata.
CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians ofthe province and corregimiento of Pastes in thekingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river ofits name. Its territory is most fertile, but the cli-mate is very cold, and the streets almost always
Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlementof Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.
CARMEN, a river of the province and colony ofSurinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by theDutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runsfrom w. to e. and gathering the waters of manyothers, enters in a large body into the Mazar-roni.
Carmen, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena ; situate in the district ofthe mountains of Marca, between those of San Ja-cinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one ofthose new settlements that were founded by the Go-vemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.
Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situatenear a stream and on the shore of the river Tocan-tines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayalof San Feliz.
San Nicolas de laPaz,
San J uan de lasPalmas,
San Nicolas deBari,
San Bernardo A-bad,
Tiquicio de Aden-tro,
Tiquicio de Afu-era,
Zienega del Oro,San Carlos de Co-losina.
San Geronimo deBuenavista.
The capital is a large city adorned with beauti-ful buildings, founded by Pedro de Heredia in1533, on the shore of a great and very convenientbay more than two leagues in length. It was call-ed Calamari in the time of the Indians, which sig-nifies, in their language, the land of craw-fish, fromthe abundance of these found in it. It is situateon a sandy island, which forming a narrow strait,gives a communication to the part called TierraBomba ; on the left it is entered by a woodenbridge, having a suburb called Xiximani, whichis another island uniting with the continent bymeans of a bridge in the same manner as itself.It is well fortified, and is the residence of a go-vernor, with the title of captain-general, dependenton the viceroy of Santa Fe, having beeu indepen-dent till the year 1739. Besides the precinct andbastions, it has a half-moon, which defends theentrance or gate ; and at a small distance is thecastle of San Felipe de Baraxas, situate on aneminence, and on the side of the bay the castles ofSan Luis, Santa Cruz, San Joseph, San P'elipe,and Pastelillo, which were rebuilt in a modernmanner, in 1654;, by the Lieutenant-general DonIgnacio de Sala, with the names of San Fernando,San Joseph, El Angel, and El Pastelillo. Thecathedral church is magnificent, and included in itis the parish of Sagrario, besides two other pa-rishes called La Trinidad and Santo Toribo. Ithas the convents of monks of St. Francisco, St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Diego, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, which is an hospital, andsituate at the top of a high mountain without thewalls of the city, at a quarter of a league’s dis-tance from the convent of the barefooted Augustins,called Nuestra Senora de la Popa ; to this con-vent vessels are accustomed to offer up a salutationas soon as they discover it at sea. It has also acollege which belonged to the society of Jesuits,a convent of Santa Clara, one of the Observersof San Francisco, and another of barefooted Car-
melites. At a small distance without the city isthe hospital of San Lazaro for lepers, which ma-lady is epidemical in the country. It has also atribunal of the inquisition, established in 1610, ofwhich there is only three in all America, and put-tingthis city, in this pointof view, onafooting withthe metropolitan cities Lima and Mexico. It is thehead of a bishopric erected in 1534 by his holinessClement VII. The bay abounds in fish of variouskinds, but it is infested by marine wolves. Theclimate of this city is very hot ; from May to No-vember, which are the winter months, thunder,rain, and tempests are very frequent, but fromthis inconvenience they derive an advantage offilling with water their cisterns, called aijibes, andwhich afford them the only supply of this inostnecessary article ; accordingly every house is fur-nished with one of these cisterns : from Decemberto April, which is the summer, the heat is exces-sive, occasioning continual perspiration, whichdebilitates the frame, and causes the inhabitants tohave a pale and unhealthy appearance, althoughthey nevertheless enjoy good health, it being notunusual to find amongst them persons exceeding80 years of age. The irregularity of this climateproduces several very afflicting disorders, as theblack vomit, which is most common amongststrangers and sea-faring people, few of whom havethe luck to escape it, but no person ever has ittwice. The inhabitants are likewise much trou-bled with the leprosy, or disease of St. Lazarus ; theculebrilla, which is an insect which breeds under theskin, and causes a swelling which is accustomed toterminate in gangrene and spasms or convulsions :besides these inconveniences, there are multitudesof troublesome insects which infest the houses,such as beetles, niguas, scorpions, centipeds, andmorcielagos. The largest trees are the caob, thecedar, the maria, and balsam ; of the first aremade canoes, out of the solid trunk, for fishing andcommerce ; the red cedar is better than the white,and the two last, not to mention their utility fromthe compactness of their timber, for their delicioussmell and beautiful colour, are the trees fromwhence are procured those admirable distillationscalled the oil of Maria and balsam of Tolu. Hereare also tamarind trees, medlars, sapotas, papai/as,cassias, and Indian apple trees, producing deli-cate and pleasant fruits ; the fruit, however, of thelast mentioned is poisonous, and many who, de-ceived by the beauty of these apples, have therashness to taste them, soon repent of their folly,for they immediately swell to a distressing degree :so if perchance any one should sleep under itsbranches, he will be afflicted in the same way.
he was at length persuaded to accept it by the ac-clamations and remonstrances of all parties, andespecially of the vicar-general of his order; hebegan to preside without being consecrated ; butbeing yet full of scruples, he renounced the office,and without permission returned to Spain ; h^ thenwent to Koine, but being desired by his holiness toreturn to his diocese, he was said to have been somuch affected as not to have been able to prevailupon himself to enter the city : he returned, there-fore, immediately to the coast, and embarked forFlorida, with a view of converting some of theinfidels ; and with this object he again set off forSpain, in order to obtain his renunciation ; whenbeing at length tired with his wanderings, andAvorn out Avith age, he died in his convent of To-ledo in 1562.
5. Don Juan de Simancas, native of Cordova,collegian of San Clemente de Bolonia ; he enteredin 1560, went to be consecrated at Santa Fe, andupon his return, had the mortification to find thatthe suburbs of Xiximani had been sacked by someFrench pirates ; which disaster was again repeatedin the following year, 1561. This bishop, afterhaving governed his church for the space of 10years, and suffering much from the influence of ahot climate, left the see without a licence, andreturned to his country, where he died in1570.
6. Don Ft. Luis Zapata de Cardenas, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Llerena in Estre-madura, third commissary-general of the Indies ;elected bishop in 1570, promoted to the archbi-shopric of Santa Fe before he left Spain, and in hisplace was chosen,
7. Don Fr. Juan de Vivero, a monk of the or-der of St. Augustin, native of Valladolid ; hepassed over into America, was prior of the conventof Lima, founder of the convent of Cuzco, electedbishop, which he renounced ; nor would he ac-cept the archbishopric of Chacas, to which he waspromoted : he died in Toledo.
8. Don Fr. Dionisio de los Santos, of the orderof Santiago, prior of the convent of Granada, andprovincial of the province of Andalucia ; electedin 1573 : he died in 1578.
9. Don Fr. Juan de Montalvo, of the same orderof St. Domingo, native of Arevalo ; elected bishop,he entered Cartagena in 1579, passed over to SantaFe to the synod celebrated there by the archbishop ;and in 1583 had the mortification of seeing hiscity sacked, plundered, and destroyed by SirFrancis Drake; Avhich calamity had such a greateffect upon him, and well knowing noAV that hehad no means of relieving the necessities of the
poor, who were dependent upon him, he fell sickand died the same year.
10. Don Fr. Diego Osorio, of the same orderof St. Domingo ; he went over as a monk to Car-tagena, from thence to Lima and Nueva Espana,received the presentation to this bishopric in 1587,which he would not accept, and died in 1579, inMexico.
11. Don Fr. Antonio de Hervias, also a Domi-nican monk, collegian of San Gregorio de Valla-dolid, his native place, where he had studiedarts ; he passed over to Peru, and was the firstmorning-lecturer in the university of Lima, ma-nager of the studies, qualificator of the inquisition,vicar-general of the province of Quito, and after-wards presented to the bishopric of Arequipa,then to that of Verapaz, and lastly to that of Car-tagena, where he died in 1590.
12. Don Fr. Pedro de Arevalo, monk of the or-der of St. Gerome ; he was consecrated in Spain,and renounced the bishopric before he came totake possession of it.
13. Don Fr. Juan de Ladrada, a Dominicanmonk, native of Granada ; he A^'as curate and re-ligious instructor in the Indies, in the settlements ofSuesca and Bogota, vicar-general of his religionin the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, lecturer on thesacred scriptures and on theology in Santa Fe,'was consecrated bishop of Cartagena in 1596 : herebuilt the cathedral, established a choir of boysand chaplains, and made a present of a canopy tobe carried by the priests over the blessed sacra-ment when in procession ; he assisted at the foun-dation of the college of the regulars of the societyof Jesuits, and of that of the fathers called thebarefooted Augustins, on the mountain of LaPopa ; he had the satisfaction of having for hisprovisor the celebrated Don Bernardino de Al-mansa, a wise and virtuous man, who was after-Avards archbishop of Santa Fe ; he frequentlyvisited his bishopric, and after having governed17 years, died in 1613.
14. Don Fr. Pedro de Vega, a monk of thesame order of St. Domingo, native of Bubiercain the kingdom of Aragon, professor of theologyand of the sacred AA'ritings in the universities ofLerida and Zaragoza ; he entered Cartagena asbishop in 1614, and his short duration disappintedthe hopes he had so universally excited, for hedied in 1616.
15. Don Diego Ramirez de Zepeda, friar of theorder of Santiago, native of Lima, a renownedpreacher, and consummate theologist ; being atMadrid, he was elected, and died before he couldreach the bishopric.
also De Piedras ; at its top is, according to the ac-count of Don J nan de la Cruz, the Bugio delGato, which serves as a watch-tower, which othersmaintain is situate upon the point Canoa, just byits side.
CARUPANO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, on the sea-shore, at the cape of Tres Pun-tas i there are in its district 25 small estates ofcacao, 35 of sugar-cane, a few of yucas and otherfruits ; some of them belonging to its inhabitants,and others to tlie inhabitants of Margareta andCumana.
CARUPARABAS, a nation of Indians but littleknown, who inhabit the woods and shores of therivers which run into the Negro.
(CARVEL OF St. Thomas, a rock between theVirgin isles e. and Porto Rico on the w. at a smalldistance it appears like a sail, as it is white andlias two points. Between it and St. Thomas, passesSir Francis Drake’s channel.)
(CARVEL, a township in Plymouth county,Massachussetts. Here is a pond with such plentyof iron ore, that 500 tons have been dragged out ofthe clear water in a year. They have a furnaceupon a stream which runs from the pond ; and theiron made of this ore is better than that made outof bog ore, and some is almost as good as refinediron.)
CASABLANCA, San Gabriel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Teutitlan, andalcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan, in Nueva Espana:it contains 34 families of Indians, who live by thecommerce of salt from some saMnes which they havein their district, at about a league’s distance fromthis settlement ; here are also some crops of maize :it is of a hot temperature, and lies two leagues fromits head settlement.
Casablanca, also with the dedicatory title ofSanta Barbara, a town of the province and cor-regimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile,situate on the coast : it formerly belonged to thejurisdiction of Valparaiso, from which it was se-parated.
CASANARE, a large river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada ; on the shores of which arevarious settlements of the missions, which underthis name were held at the expence of the regularsof the society of Jesuits, and which are at presentunder the care of the monks of St. Domingo : itrises in the paramos or mountain-deserts of Chita,of the district of the city of Pamplona, and afterrunning many leagues, divides itself into twobranches : the one, named the Uruhi, enters theMeta ; and the other, named the Sirapuco, entersthe Orinoco, first receiving those of Purare andTacoragua. To the w. of this river are the reduc-ciones of the Pantos Indians, and to the n. those ofthe Pautes ; to the e. and upon a plain, is the riverSan Salvador, aftbrding an handy port for commu-nication with the Meta and the Orinoco : it is after-wards entered by the river Tame, which pours intoit in a large stream from the same sierras, and hasupon its banks the two numerous nations, the reduc-ciones of the Giraras and Botoyes Indians.
Casanare, a settlement of Indians, of the reduc-ciones which were made by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits, in the same province and govern-ment as the former river : it consists of the AchaguasIndians, being situate on the shore of that river,with a good and well-frequented port : it is fertile^and abounds in maize, yucas, and above all incattle : its natives, who are very numerous, employthemselves in making little trunks of cane neatlypainted of various colours, and mats and sieves^which they call manares : here are also some whiteinhabitants, and the reduccion is now under the careof the religion of St. Domingo.
CASAPA, a settlement of the missions which
Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, ofVilla Rica.
CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province andkingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shoreof a river thus called.
Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in thisprovince, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.
Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runsn. and enters the sea.
CASAUATAI, a river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake ofthe Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. ofthe Maraiion, and following its course towards then. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter theUcayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receivethe waters of the Zapofe.
CASCABELES, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito :it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, andenters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruinsof the city of Mocoa.
CASCAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Conturnaza ; in the district of whichthere is, at three leagues distance, a large piece ofhewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of ayard wide on every face, particularly rough andunpolished.
Cascas, a large swamp of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos, which isformed from different arms of the rivers Sarare andApure, and communicates itself with the lake ofArechona ; both of these lakes being near the lastriver, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain de-sert of Chisgas.
(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreadsn. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and capeSmall Point on the n. e. Within these points,which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 smallislands, some of which are inhabited, and nearlyall more or less cultivated. The land on theseislands, and on the opposite coast on the main, isthe best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast ofthis country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoitbay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. Thewaters of Casco extend several arms or creeks ofsalt water into the country. The waters go upMeadow’s river, where vessels of a considerablesize are carried by the tide, and where it flowswithin one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. Onthe e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the seacalled Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscotriver, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag,which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens tothe waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; itsextent is not great, but it has several valuable millsupon it. Rayal’s river, called by the nativesW estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from
Presurapscot river. It has a good harbour at itsmouth for small vessels, and has several mills uponit ; two miles higher a fall obstructs the navigation.Between it and Kennebeck there are no rivers ;some creeks and harbours of Casco bay throw them-selves into the main land, affording harbours forsmall vessels, and intersecting the country in variousforms.)
CASIBANI, a river of the province and countryof the Amazonas : it rises in the cordillera of theMochovos and Pichambios Indians, runs in a ser-pentine course to the n. then inclining for manyleagues to the s. e. enters the Maranon or Amazonas,near the settlement of N uestra Seilora de Guada-lupe.
CASIDI, a river of the province and governmentof Guayana : it enters the Orinoco, according toBeilin, but which is afterwards contradicted by hisown map, since it is^there represented as having itssource to the e. of the city of Pamplona, and asrunning into the river Apure.
CASIMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe city of Santiago de los Atalayas, in the govern-ment of San Juan de los Llanos, of the NuevoReyno de Granada : it is of a very hot temperature,and abounds in fruits of a similar climate. Its na-tives, who are numerous and consist of the NeolitosIndians, are very industrious, docile, and of gooddispositions, having been reduced to the faith bythe missionaries of the extinguished society of Je-suits. The settlement is at present in the charge ofthe barefooted order of St. Francis, and lies threeleagues from the settlement of Surimena, on theshore of the large river Meta.
CASIPA, a large lake of the province of NuevaAndalucía Austral or South, to the w. ofthe Vaca-ronis Indians : it is 30 leagues in length from n. to s.and 24 in width from e. to w. Four large riversflow from it, the principal of which areArous or Aroiand Caroa, the which enter the Orinoco on its e.side. Its woods are inhabited by some barbarous
nations of Caribes Indians, such as are the Canuristo the n. the Bsparagois to the e. the Aravis to thes. and the Chaguas and Lasipagotes to thezw. Inthis lake tortoises and alligators abound ; its watersare hurtful, and the climate here is unhealthy;hurricanes are frequent here, from the winds whichblow from the neighbouring mountains.
Casipoure, a cape or point of the coast oppositethe side of cape Orange.
CASIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacocha in Peru ; annexed to the.curacy of its capital : in its vicinity is an elevatedmountain, in which great Indian wealth is said tobe secreted.
CASIRIAQUI, Cano de, a large and copiousarm of the river Negro, by which this communi-cates with the Orinoco, and through that with theMaranon or Las Amazonas ; which communication,however, has been frequently doubted and con-troverted since the short time of its having beendiscovered.
CASIRRUENTI, a large and copious riverabounding in fine fish, of the province and govern-ment of San Juan de los Llanos : it passes throughthe llanuras of Cazanare and Meta, and, near thesettlement of San Joaquin de Atanari, enters theMeta.
CASIUINDO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of thecity of Xuxuy ; annexed to the curacy of Cochino-ca ; it has two hermitages, which serve as chapelsof ease, with the dedicatory title of Rinconada andRio de San Juan. The natives fabricate powderof excellent quality, and in its district are goldmines, which are not worked.
merit of Venezuela ; situate upon the coast nearcape Blanco.
(CATABAW River. See Wateree.)
(Catabaw Indians, a small tribe who have onetown called Catabaw, situate on the river of thatname, hit. 44° S9' n, on the boundary line betweenN. and S. Carolina, and contains about 450 inha-bitants, of which about 150 are fighting men.They are the only tribe w hich resides in the state ;144,000 acres of land . were granted them by theproprietary government. These are the remains ofa forrnidalile nation, the bravest and most generousenemy thp Six Nations had, butthey have degenera-ted sincp they have been surrounded by the whites.)
CATACACHI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiehto of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Cruz, in which there is astream of water Avhich distils from some crevices,and deposits in its bed a sort of white stone orcrystalline substance, which they call catachi^ andwhich being dissolved in water, is accounted a spe-cific in the flux.
CATACUMBO, a river of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo, which rises to the e. ofthe city of Las Palmas, and runs e. increasing itsstream by many others which flow into it, until itunites itself with the Sulia, to enter the lake ofMaracaibo; where, at its mouth, it extends itselfand forms a large pool of water called La Lagu-neta.
CATALINA, Santa, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nue-va Espana ; annexed to the settlement of NuestraSenora de la Purificacion. It contains 132 fami-lies of Indians.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the head set-tlement of Tantoyuca, and alcaldia mayor ofTampico, in the same kingdom : it is of a hot tem-perature, and contains 80 families of Indians, whoapply themselves to the culture of the soil ; is 10leagues to the e. of its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another,' of the head set-tlement of Mistepeque, and alcaldia mayor of Ne-japa, in Nueva España: it is of a cold temperature,situate at the foot of a mountain, with 60 familiesof Indians, and is 4 leagues from its head settle-ment.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of themissions which were held by the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguanaand kingdom of Nueva Viscaya, on the shore ofthe river Las Nasas ; is 30 leagues to the n. w. ofits capital.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement, withthe addition of Sera, of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo, in the district of the city ofPedraza ; situate on the shore of the river Pariva ;is one of the missions which are held in Barinas bjthe religion of St. Domingo.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the same pro-
CATAMARCA, S. Fernando de, a city ofthe province and government of Tucumán, found-ed by Juan Gomez Zurita, in 1538, in the fertileand extensive valley of Conando. It has a fort torepress the encroachments of the Indians. Thename of Canete was given it in honour to the vice-roy who then commanded in Peru ; this was after-wards changed to London, in honour to the queenof England, wife of Philip II. king of Spain. Theinquietudes caused amongst the inhabitants by theinfidel Indians induced Don Geronimo Luis deCabrera, son of a governor of that province, in1663, to remove it to another not less fertile val-ley, and to give it the name of San J uan de la Ri-vero ; and lastly, by the permission of the king,in 1683, it was transferred to a spot in the valleyof Catamarca ; where it still remains, under thesame title, at 80 leagues distance from its first sta-tion. It has, besides the parish church, a conventof the Recoletos monks of St. Francis, with thededicatory title of San Pedro de Alcantara ; anhospital of Merced ; aud a house of residence,which formerly belonged to the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits. On the w. side of the val-ley is a mountain in which there are gold mines ;and on the w. also from n. to s. runs a serrama^ theskirts of which are for many leagues covered withestates and cultivated grounds, and filled, fromthe abundance of fine pastures, with lage and smallcattle and with mules. A tolerably large riverruns through the valley in the rainy season, andterminates in some lakes M’hich are formed by itabout 30 leagues s. of the city. The commerce ofthis city is very small, so that there is no coin cur-rent ; and even the payments of the royal dutiesare paid in effects, and in the productions of thecountry, such as cotton, linens, pepper, brandy,and wheat. Lat. 27° s.
Catamarca, a settlement of the same provinceand government ; situate in the district of thiscity.
Mapoyes, runs w. and enters the Orinoco close tothe torrent of Los Atures.
CATARAQUA, or Catarakui, a copiousriver of the province and country of the IroqueesIndians. It rises from the lake Ontario, runs n. e.and continues its course as far as Quebec, fromwhence it takes the name of St. Lawrence, andthen enters the sea.
CATARUBEN, a settlement of the missions ofSan Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; one of the seven which were held bythe regulars of the company of Jesuits, and be-longing to the nation of the Salivas Indians. TheCaribes burnt and destroyed it in 1684.
(CATAWESSY, a township in Northumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania ; situate on the s. e. bankof the e. branch of Susquehannah river, oppositethe mouth of Fishing creek, and about 20 milesn. e. of Sunbury.)
(CATHERINE’S Isle, St, a small island inthe captainship of St. Vincent’s in Brazil, be-longing to the Portuguese, 47 leagues s. of Cana-nea island. It is about 23 miles from n. to s. in-habited by Indians, wiio assist the Portugueseagainst their enemies, the natives of Brazil. Lak27° 10' s. Long. 47° 15' w.)
X X 2
shore of the river Maranon, near the port of Cu-rupa.
CAUIANA, an island of the N. sea; situate inthe middle of the mouth of the large river Ma-rañon.
CAUINAS, an ancient and barbarous nation ofthe province of Charcas in Peru, which wasbounded by the nation of the Canches ; here wasa superb palace belonging to the Incas, builtupon the top of an high mountain, the remains ofwhich are yet to be seen near the settlement ofUrcos, and those of Querquesana and Quiquijana,these being about nine miles distant from the afore-said palace.
CAUIUSARI, a river of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It rises in the mountains ofthe country of the Guames Indians, runs e. formany leagues, and enters the Apure,
CAUMARES, a barbarous nation inhabitingthewoods which lie upon the banks of the river Ma-ranon towards the n. Some of them were reducedto the faith by the missionaries of the extinguishedcompany of Jesuits of the province of Mainas, andformed part of the population of the settlement ofSan Ignacio de Pevas.
CAUO, or Couvo, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana. It runs towards the e.and enters the sea, at the distance of leaguesfrom the mouth of the river Aprovaca : its bankson the e. side are inhabited by some barbarous In-dians of the Yaus nation.
CAUQUIS, a nation of Indians of the kingdomof Chile, and one of the most warlike and valorous,who resisted and put a check to the conquests ofYupanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, obligingliim to retreat with his army to Coqnimbo.
CAURA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince of Guayana, and government of Cumana.It rises in some very lofty sierras, and its shoresare inhabited by many Indiatis, wlio retreat hitherwhen pursued by the Caribes, who are accustonicdto kill the adults, and to ko('p as prisoners tliewomen and children, iit order to sell them to theDutch. This river is the largest of the kingdomof Tierra Firme ever discovered since that of theOrinoco. It runs 60 leagues before it enters into thislatter river, through chains of rocks, which so im-pede its navigation as to render it unsafe for anybut very small craft. On its shores are two forts,one at tlie mouth, where it enters the Orinoco ; andthe other at its mid-course. The Maranon andthe Orinoco also communicate with it by an armwhich is very considerable, and is called the RioNegro.
CAUTEN, a large river of the kingdom ofChile, in the district and province of Repocura.It rises in the district of Maquegua, runs continu-ally from e. to vs. collecting the waiters of manyother rivers, in such a gentle and mild course, thatit has also acquired the name of Las Damns. Itpasses before the Ciudad Imperial, and enters theS. sea. It is 500 toises broad at its mouth, and ofsufficient depth to admit of a ship of the line ; at
place on the 12th of January 1809 ; the Englishin this brave contest having been commanded byLieutenant-colonel Marques, and Captain Yeo.JBesides the capital tliere are in this island thetowns of Armire, inhabited by Jews, as likewisethose of Matuiri, Matahuri, Courrou, and Cona-nama, inhabited by French, Negroes, Mustees, andMulattoes ; but few by Indians, these living for themost part retired in the mountains and Avoods tothe s. These towns were converted to the faith bythe society of the Jesuits, who had here establisheda mission, Avhich afterwards fell to decay.
(The province of Cayenne is bounded on the n.by the Dutch colony of Surinam; w. by tlie woodsand mountains inhabited by barbarians, and s. bythe country of the Portuguese on the borders of theMaranon.) The principal rivers which water it,and which empty themselves into the Atlanticocean, are the Cabo, Apurvaca, Cayenne, Vuya,and Barca. Its chief commerce is in sugar, Avhichis manufactured in various mills by the Negroes.(In 1752 the exports of the colony were 260,541 lbs.of arnotto, 80,365 lbs. sugar, 17,919 lbs. cotton,26,881 lbs. coffee, 91,916 lbs. cacao, beside timberand planks.)
Cayenne, the capital of the above island, issmall, well built, and populous. It is at the n.point of the island, at the foot of the castle of Sanljuis, and defended by two other redoubts, the onecalled Courrow, and the other Sinarari, with ahandsome, convenient, and large port ; the greaterpart of the houses, which amount to about 200, arebuilt of wood. Besides the parish called San Sal-vador, there is a fine one which belonged to the Je-suits, as also an excellent house for the governor.The form of the city is an irregular hexagon, wellfortified ; in Lat. 5“ n. Long. 52° 16' w.
Cayenne, a river of the above province, (whichrises in the mountains near the lake of Parime, runsthrough the country of the Galibis, a nation ofCaribe Indians, and is 100 leagues long; theisland which it environs being 18 leagues in circuit.)
CAYETANO, San , a settlement of the provinceand government of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; situate on the mountain of the di-vision of Maria ; six leagues to the n. n. e. of theswamp which takes the name of this town. It isone of those new establishments founded in the year1776 by the Governor Don Juan Pimienia.
Indians, on the banks of a river between the settle-ments of San Louis, and San Francisco Xavier.
(CAYLOMA, a jurisdiction under the bishop ofArequipa, 32 leagues e. of that city, in S. America,in Peru, famous for the silver mines in the moun-tains of the same name, which are very rich,though they have been worked for a long time.The country round it is cold and barren. Thereis an office here for receiving the king’s fifths andvending quicksilver. See Cailloma.)
(CAYMANS, three small islands, 55 leaguesn. n. w. of the island of Jamaica, in the West Indiesthe most s. of which is called the Great Caymans,which is inhabited by 160 people, who are descend-ants of the old Buccaniers. It has no harbour forships of burden, only a tolerable anchoring placeon the s. w. The climate and soil are singularlysalubrious, and the people are vigorous, and com-monly live to a great age. 'I'hey raise all kinds ofproduce for their own use and to spare. Theirchief employment is to pilot vessels to the adjacentislands, and to fish for turtle ; with w hich last theysupply Port Royal and other places in great quan-tities. Great Caymans lies in Lat. 19° 15' n. Long.81° 33' w.)
(CAYUGA, a beautiful lake in Onondaga,county, Ncav York, from 35 to 40 miles long,about two miles wide, in some places three, andabounds with salmon, bass, cat-fish, eels, &c. Itlies between Seneca and Owasco lake, and at the n.end empties into Scayace river, which is the 5 . e.part of Seneca river, Avhose waters run to lake On-tario. On each side of the lake is a ferry-house,where good attendance is given. The reservationlands of the Cayuga Indians lie on both sides of thelake, at its n. end.)
CAZERES, San Augustin de, or San Martin
C E R
C E Q
CENIS, a settlement of Indians of the provinceand government of Louisiana, situate in the roadwhich leads to Mexico. It has a fort whicli wasbuilt by the French when they had possession ofthe province.
CENOMANAS, a barbarous nation of Indians,descended from the Naunas, who live in the woods,and without any fixed abode, along the banks ofthe great river Magdalena.
CENOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, to then. of the river Marañon, w ho inhabit the woodsnear the river Aguarico. They are at continualwar with that of the Encabellados.
CENTA, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán. It runs from the z£. to e.and enters the Bermejo. The Fathers Antonio Sa-linis and Pedro Ortiz de Zarate, of the extin-guished company, suffered martyrdom upon itsshores whilst pn'aching to the barbarian Indians.
CENTERVILLE, the chief town of QueenAnne’s county, and on the e. side of Chesapeakbay, in Maryland. It lies between the forksof Corsica creek, which runs into Chester river,and has been lately laid out; 18 miles s. of Ches-ter, S4 s. e, by e. of Baltimore, and 93 s. xso. by s.of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 6' n,~\
CEPEROUX, a French fort, called also SanLouis, in Cayenne ; situate at the mouth of theriver, and on a lofty spot commanding the en-trance of the same. It was taken by the Dutch in1676 ; and in the following year it was recoveredby the French ; which date has been mistaken byMons. Martiniere, who mentions it as having beenlost the year preceding.
CEPITA, a small settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Charcas in Peru, above thechannel of the great lake Titicaca, near the fa-mous bridge that was built by the Emperor CapacYiipanqui over the channel, and which is 160yards in length. The Indians of this settlementare diligent in keeping this bridge in repair, andassist in helping and directing the cavalcades whichare continmdly passing it,
CEQUER, a small settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom ofQuito, to the n. of this city, and on the shore ofthe river Telembi. Its temperature is cold, and itis the direct road for such as are going to the pro-vince of Barbacoas.
CEQUIN, a mountain of the province of LosCanelos in the kingdom of Quito. Its skirts arewashed by the river Puyuc, and on the other sideby the Bobonasa : from it rise the rivers Tinguisaand Paba-yacu, which run from w. to e. until theyenter the Bobonasa. It is entirely covered withthick woods, save upon the top, where there isncifher tree nor plant.
CERCADO, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. by that of Chancay, n.e. bythat of Canta, e. by that of Huarochiri, bythat of Cañete, and w. by the S. sea; is 13 leagueslong s. and eight wide at the widest part; is ofa very mild and kind temperature, but somewhatsickly ; and is neither subject to tempests nor highAvinds, although it is often visited by earthquakes.It only rains in the winter, and this is a speciesof small sprinkling shower which they call garua;so that they have no necessity for houses with roofs,and they are covered only with clay or mortar.The whole of its territory is fertile, and aboundsin seeds and fruits. The herb alfalfa, which isgood forage for horses, is particularly cultivated,there being a great demand for it at Lima. Hereare many estates of sugar-cane, from Avhich sugaris manufactured, as Avell as honey, and a kind ofdrink called guarape. Chica is also made here;this being the common drink of the Indiansthroughout the whole kingdom. It is irrigated bythe rivers Rinac and Lurin, which run downfrom the province of Guarochiri, and by the Car-rabayilo, which runs from the province of Canta :all three of them are small ; but in the months ofDecember, January and February, which is therainy season in the sierra^ they swell greatly. Itspopulation consists of seven parochial settlements,and as many others thereunto annexed. Its repar-timiento used to amount to 10,000 dollars, and itpaid an alcaxala of 80 dollars per annum. Thecapital is of the same name, and the other 14 set-tlements are,
San Joseph de Bel-lavista.
Cercado, San Cristoval de, a settlementto the s. of the city of Lima, to which it is as asuburb. It is inhabited only by Indians, who aregoverned by a cazique ; and until 1776, it was acure of the regulars of the company of Jesuits,who had in it a college.
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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discoveryof this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662the innermost part of this country was penetratedby Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits. He discovered anation of Indians, whose manners correspondedwith this ; but he did not succeed in establishingmissions, for want of labourers, and from other ob-stacles which arose.
Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the sameprovince and kingdom, from which the above set-tlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake ofCoraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or"pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing bythe former settlement, becomes united witli anotherriver, formed by two streams flowing down fronrtheparamo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste watersof the lake Colta ; it then passes through the set-tlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly tothe e. and at a league’s distance from the settlementof Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cu-bigies, another river which flows down from themountain of Chimborazo, and following its courseto the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon asit reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua,and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhenit passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flowsin so large a body that it can be passed only bymeans of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ;and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it col-lects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and otherrivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and theother cordillera, have their rise in the s. summitof Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi andCotopasci.
CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island ofthe river Taquari, formed by this dividing itselfinto two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in theprovince and government of this name.
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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vesselstill it enters the S. sea.
CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofCozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moisttemperature, and situate on the shore of the largeriver Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spa-niards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 ofPopolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 en-gines or mills for making refined sugar ; and itsterritory produces maize and cotton in abundance ;is three leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlementand head settlement of the district of the alcaldiamayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature,and surrounded by eight wards within its district ;in all of which there are 160 families of Indians,who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is sevenleagues between the e. and s. of its capital.
(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)
CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the pro-province and government of Cumaná in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the mid-dle of the serrania of that province. It isunder the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fa-thers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast ofthe sea of Paria.
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another whose note resembles atrumpet. It aboundsin quadrupeds, as mules, horses, and cattle of thelarge and small kind, the antas, which is calledhere gran bestia^ (great beast), huanacos, vicunas,llamas, or native sheep, stags, bears, ant-eaters,wild bears, otters, tigers, mountain cats, visca-chas, (or large hares), large and small foxes, tor-toises, higuanos, and others ; all of which affordfood to tlie voracious Indians. In this provinceare also found many insects, such as scorpions,vipers, snakes of several kinds, some of two heads,and some with rattles, squirrels, mocamucas, am-palabas, or what are called in other countries owls,which are extremely deformed, and attract smallanimals to them by their screeching, quiriquinchosof various sorts, glow-worms, a great variety offlies and spiders, and of these a large kind veryvenomous, silk-worms, Avhich, if taken care of,would yield an abundance of silk, locusts, Avhichare eaten by the Indians both dry and fresh ; also ants,the beds of which are so deep as to render the roaddangerous for men and for horses to pass, theseinsects being of such an undaunted and trouble-some nature as often to attack a viper or locust inlarge bodies, and in some settlements to enter ahouse like a plundering army, devouring every in-sect and worm in their way, not leaving a singleeatable thing untouched ; scarcely shall these havefinished their operations, but they are succeeded byanother band, and indeed it is very liazardous todisturb them, since they bite very fiercely andcause much pain. This province has no mines,although it is said that formerly some were workedby the Indians ; some little time since, however,one of iron was discovered, when it was thought tohave been of gold. This extensive and pleasantcountry is inhabited by a multitude of infidel In-dians, of different nations and of various barbarouscustoms. It was casually discovered in 1586 byJuan de Banos, a native of Chuquisaca, a factorof the settlement of Yala ; he had an Indian slavewho used frequently to run away from his masterfor a time and return again, and who being askedonce whither he went, replied toChacu; this itAvas tliat led to its discovery, and to the subse-•quent attempts at several times made to conquerit; first by Martin de Ledesma, afterwards by.Tuan Manso, Don Pedro Lasarte, and lastly byD >11 Christoval de Sanabri, all of which were in-effectual. San Francisco Solano entered the coun-try, and succeeded in reducing some of the nativesto the Christian faith ; these, however, soon re-turned to their idolatry. The regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits likewise engaged themselves in thereduction of this country in 1587, the first of their
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preachers here being Father Alonzo Barzana,called the apostle of Peru ; they continued herefor a number of years, and during their stayfounded seven settlements. The inhabitants ofthe whole province are computed at 100,000.Catalogue of the nations which inhabit Chaco.
(Chaco, a large plain of the above province,in which Azara noticed a singular phenomenon,which he calls a large piece of pure iron, flexibleand malleable in the forge, but at the same timeso hard as not to be cut, though obedient to thefile. It contains about 468 cubic feet, and lieson the surface of the large plain of Chaco, on whichnot a single stone excepting this is to be found ;and what is still more curious, there is no volcanowithin 300 leagues, nor any iron mine to be heardof in that part of tho country.)
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(country of the Iroquees Indians. It is handsomeand well built, on the margin of the river of thesame name, about 12 or 15 miles s. w. from Mont-real, and n. of St. John’s fort. It was taken bythe Americans, Oct. 20, 1775, and retaken by theBritish, Jan. 18, 1776. Lat. 45° 26' w.)
Chambo, a very large river, which rises nearthe former settlement, and runs with such rapiditythat it cannot be forded ; is consequently passedover by means of various bridges made of osiers.
CHAME, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Natá in the province and kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near a river, and two leagues fromthe coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, plan-tains, and other fruits ; swine, fowl, turkeys, andother birds, with which it supplies, by means ofcanoes, the markets of the city of Panama, fromwhence it is nine leagues distant.
CHAMETLAN, a province and alcaldia mayorof Nueva España, also called Del Rosario ; bound-ed n. by the province of Culiacan, s. by that of Xa-lisco or Sentipac, e. and n. e. by that of Zacate-cas and Nueva Galicia, and w. by the S. sea ; is30 leagues long from e. to w. and 25 wide n. s. ;is of, a very hot temperature, and the greater partof it is a mountainous and rugged country, abound-ing in. noxious animals and insects, and on thisaccount uninhabitable in the summer and in therainy season. It was conquered by Don Juan deIbarra in 1554, has many mines of silver and gold,which were formerly worked, but which at presentare all abandoned, as well from their having filledwith water, as from the scantiness of the means ofthe inhabitants to work them. The royal mines,however, are productive of some emolument, andare in fafct the support of the place. It producessome maize, and much tobacco , and cotton, towhich article the soil is exactly suited, though notso to wheat, which yields here but sparingly. Onthe banks of the lakes formed by the sea, is left athick incrustation of salt in the month of April ;and although the inhabitants spare no pains to col-lect this valuable commodity, yet abundance of itis lost from the Avant of hands to collect it ere theheats come on, when it very quickly disappears.
Some large cattle are bred here. It is very badlypeopled, or, to speak more truly, it is as it weredesert, having only three settlements and someestates. It is irrigated by a river which flowsdown from the sierra Madre, and passes throughthe capital, the waters of which are made usefulfor the working of the mines. The same river entersthe sea two leagues from the settlement of Chamet-lan, and has abundance of fish, which are caughtwith ease, as well upon its shores as in marsheswhich it forms. Tlie capital, which is the resi-dence of the alcalde mayor, is the real del Ro-sario.
Chametlan, a settlement of the former alcaldíamayor ; from thence taking its name. It containsonly five or six Indians, and some Spaniards, Mus-tees, and Mulattoes, who, the greater part of theyear, live in the estates which they have for thebreeding of large cattle, and on the farms for thecultivation of maize and cotton.
CHAMESA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; annexed to the curacy of Nopsa. Itis of a cold temperature, and produces the fruitscorresponding to such a climate, particularlywheat, which is of the best quality. It contains100 Avhite inhabitants, and as many Indians, andis a little more than eight leagues from its ca-pital.
CHAMI, San Juan de, a settlement of theprovince and government of Chocó ; situate in thedistrict of Thatama, near the ruins of the city ofSan Juan de Rodas, to the w. of the city of San-tiago de Arma.
CHAMICUROS, S. Francisco Xavier de,a settlement of the missions which were held by theregulars of the company of Jesuits, in the provinceand government of Mainas, of the kingdom ofQuito ; founded in 1670 by the Father LorenzoLucero. '