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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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particularly those of (lie parish church, the con-vent of the monks of Niiestra Sonora de la Merced,another of St. Francis, and the hospital of S. J uande Dios. Its population consists of 200 familiesof Spaniards, 122 oi Mustees, 15 Mulattoes, and22 of Indians. In its district is found and gatheredthe celebrated plant called in the country oleacazan^■which is considered as a wonderful restorer of loststrength, and a certain specific against all kinds ofpoison. The leaves of it are applied to the partaffected, and the natives are accustomed to judgeof its virtues by its degree of adhesion. One hun-dred and fifty leagues to the w. of Mexico, inlong. 103^ 20', and lat. 18° 34'.

COLIMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians informer times, but now reduced to the faith, in theprovince of its name; this being now incorporatedwith that of Muzo of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.These Indians are also known by the name of Ca-napayes, being united to them. Its capital is thecity of La Palma de los Colimas. See articleMuzos.

COLIMBA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Popayán in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada.

COLINA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Santiago in the kingdom of Chile ;in the district of which there are five chapels ofcase, in a spacious and beautiful valley.

COLINA, a river of this province and kingdom,which rises in the mountains of its cordillera, andenters the Maypo.

COLIUINA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Nicaragua in the kingdom of Guate-mala ; situate upon a long strip of land on the coastof the S. sea.

(COLLA, a parish of the province and govern-ment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small rivernear the sea-coast, about eight leagues e. of Coloniadel Sacramento, in lat. 34° 19' 39" s. Long. 57°21' 43" w.')

COLLADOS, Ensenada de los a bay onthe s. coast of the w. head, and in the territory ofthe French, in the island of St. Domingo. It is be-tween the rock of Bareo and the river Damasein.

COLLAHUAS, and Asiento of Mines ofCaylloma, a province and corregwiiento of Peru ;bounded n. by that of Cbumbivilcas, e. by that ofCanes and Canches or Tinta, s. e, by that ofLampa, s. by that of Arequipa, and w. by that ofCamana. It is 52 leagues in length s. e. n. w. and16 in width. Its temperature is cold, from beingsituate in the cordillera ; with the exception of thatpart which borders upon Camana, where it isvery mild, especially in the five leagues where its

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jurisdiction extends itself in the valley of Sihuas ;the other five leagues reaching to tlie sea borderingon Camana. Its productions are various : thoseof the valley are comprised in wine, brandies,wheat, maize, pulse, and fruits, especially figs,which being preserved, serve as nourishment tonumbers of poor people. The other territories ofthis province are of the same temperature, thoughcomparatively barren. It abounds in large andsmall cattle, native sheep, vicunas, and some wildanimals. The roads are dangerous, from thecountry’s being extremely unequal, and the greaterpart of it beinga craggy ravine, over which labours,rather than to say runs, a pretty large river, whichhas its rise within the province. Here are manysilver mines, from which great riches were formerlyextracted, since they yielded 80 or 100 marks eachcaxon. Atthe present day they yield but sparingly,on account of their great depth, some of them being200 fathoms in descent ; they are, nevertheless,worked with tolerable profit. The principalmountain of these mines is that of Caylloma, andit was through this mine that the capital wasfounded. There are also not wanting mines ofgold, tin, lead, copper, and sulphur; but these, onaccount of the deficiency of resources, remain un-worked. The capital, as we have before stated, isCaylloma. Its repartimmito used to amount to37,100 dollars, and its alcavala to 456 dollars perannum. The other settlements of the jurisdictionare.

Tisco,

Madrigal,

Callalli,

Tapay,

Sibayo,

A^angui,

Tuty,

Achoma,

Llauta,

Murco,

Taya,

Sihuas,

Chibay,

Maca,

Canocota,

Y chupampa,

Coperaque,

Chabanaconde,

Lary,

Pinchollo,

Huanca,

Huambo,

Yura,

Hucan.

COLLANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Mccapa. Its Indian inhabitants havekept themselves unmixed from any other cast eversince the time of the conquest ; and in order to stillpreserve themselves so, they will not allow of anystrangers sleeping in the settlement, though heshould be sent by the corregidor. If any otherperson should come among them, he is put intoprison, and after a very short time dispatched.Owing to these precautions, the vicious propen-pensities observable in other settlements are en~

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much incommoded by mosquitos ; so that its po-pulation is much reduced, and those that remainapply themselves to the cultivation of sugar-canes,maize, yucas^ and plantains.

COLONCHE, a small settlement of Indians,of the district and jurisdiction of Santa Elena,in the government of Guayaquil, and kingdomof Quito ; situate on the s. shore of a river,from whence it takes its name, in lat. 1° 56' s.The said river rises in the mountains of thedistrict, and enters the S. sea, opposite the islandof La Plata.

Colonche, a small island of the S. sea, nearthe coast of the province and government of Gua-yaquil.

COLONIES OF THE English. See thearticles Virginia, Carolina, New England,New York, Jersey, Massachusetts, RhodeIsland, Pennsylvania, Nova Scotia ; of theJ3utch, see Surinam, Berbice, Corentin,CuRAZAo ; of the Portuguese, San Gabriel;of the French, Cayenne, St. Domingo, Mar-tinique; of the Danes, St. Thomas. (See gene-ral Tables of Dominions, &c. in the introductorymatter.)

COLOPO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs from s. e. to n. w. at an almostequal distance between the rivers Esmeraldas andVerde, and runs into the S. sea, in the bay of SanMateo, in lat. 58' n.

COLOR, Cabo de, a cape on the coast of theprovince and captainship of Sergipé in Brazil. Itlies between the rivers Real and Ponica.

COLORADA, Punta, a point on the coast ofthe N. sea, and in the province and governmentof Venezuela, to the e. of the cape San Roman.

COLORADA, a river of tlie jurisdiction andalcaldta mayor of Penonomé, in the governmentof Panama, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It risesin the mountains to the s. and enters the Pacificnear the settlement of Anton.

COLORADO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tucumán, in the district andjurisdiction of the city of Salta, and s. s. e. of thesame.

Colorado, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom of TierraFirme; situate on the shore of the river of its name.

Colorado, a river of the province and corre-^imiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile. Itrises in its cordillera, to the n. runs e. and spendsitself in various lakes, on account of the level oftlie country. The geographer Cruz errs in makingit enter the river Maipo.

Colorado, another, a large river of the pro-:vince and government of Sonora in NuevaEspana.

Colorado, another, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in thekingdom of Tierra Firme, which enters the greatriver Magdalena before you come to the townof Tamalameque.

Colorado, another, in the province and go-vernment of Louisiana, near the road wliich leadsto Mexico. It runs s. e. in a very large stream,and enters the sea in the bay of San Bernardo.

Colorado, a cape or point of land of the s.coast of St. Domingo, in the part possessed bythe French, between the bays of Tondo and Puer. .

Colorado, a mountain of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, on the shore of the riverSalado, and to the s. of the settlement of Nuestra'Sefiora de Buenas Costumbres. ;

COLORADOS, a barbarous nation of Indians,of the province and corregimiento of Tacunga inthe kingdom of Quito, who inhabit some moun-,tains of the same name, very craggy and rugged,abounding in animals and wild beasts, such asbears, lions, tigers, deer, squirrels, monkeys, andmarmosets. These Indians, although the greaterpart of them are reduced to the Catholic faith bythe extinguished company of the Jesuits, aregiven to superstition ; they are divided into twoparts, the one called the Colorados of Angamarca,since tlieir principal settlement bears this title, andthe other the Colorados of St. Domingo ; they now,belong to the province and government of Esme-raklas, and live retired in the woods, and upon thebanks of the rivers Toachi and Quininay, wherethe missionaries of the religion of St. Domingo ofQuito exercise their apostolical zeal. The princi-pal settlement of this place, being situate on the w.shore, is called St. Domingo. The commerce ofthese Indians, and by which they subsist, is incarrying to Guayaquil, the province by whichthey are bounded , w dod for making canoes and rafts,sugar-canes, achiote, and agi pepper, and bring-ing back in exchange cattle, fish, soap, and othernecessary eft'ects.

COLOSO, a settlement of the province andgovernment ©f Cartagena ; situate on the shore ofthe river Pechelin, to the s. s. w. of the townof Maria, to the jurisdiction^of which it apper-tains.

COLOTLAN, a settlement and head settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Mextitlan in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 240 families of Indians, and isthree leagues to the w. of its capital.

COLOTLIPAN, a settlement of the head set-

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of Atengo, and alcald'ia mayor of Chilapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 27 families of Indians,and is two leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.

COMALA, another settlement, in the head settle-ment of Almololoyan, and alcald'ia mayor of Co-lima. It contains 67 families of Indians, who ex-ercise themselves in the cultivation of the lands.Two leagues to the n. e.- of its head settlement.

COMALAPA, a .settlement of the province andalcald'ia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guate-mala.

COMALTEPEC, a settlement and head settle-ments of the mayor of Villalta, of a hottemperature, with 310 families of Indians. Nineleagues between the e. and ??. of its capital.

COMALTEPEC, another, in the alcald'ia mayorof Tecocuilco. It contains 78 families of Indians,who cultivate nothing but cochineal and maize,and these only in as much as is nece.ssary for theirsustenance.

COMANJA, a settlement of the head settlementof Tirindaro, and alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, inthe province and bishopric of Mechoacan. Itcontains 13 families of Indians, and is one leagueto the s. of its head settlement.

=COMANJA==, another settlement and real of minesin the alcald'ia mayor oi Lagos, of the kingdom andbishopric of Galicia ; the population of which con-sists of 30 families of Spaniards, Mustees, andMulattoes, and 50 of Indians, who live by thecommerce of and labour in the mines, which,although these inhabitants are little given to in-dustry, produce good emolument. This settle-ment is at the point of the boundary which dividesthe settlements of this kingdom from the king-dom of Nueva Espana. Seven leagues e. of itscapital.

COMAO, a province of the country of LasAmazonas, to the s. of this river, from the mouthof which it is 40 leagues distant, extending itselfalong the banks of the same; discovered in 1745by Francisco de Orellana. The territory is leveland fertile, and the climate moist and hot. Itabounds in maize, and has some plantations ofsugar-cane. It is watered by different rivers, allof which abound in fish, as do also its lakes ; andin these an infinite quantity of tortoises are caught.This province belongs to the Portuguese, and ispart of the province of Para.

(COMARGO, a town of New Leon in N.America ; situate on the s. side of Rio Bravo,which empties into tlie gulf of Mexico on the w.side.)

COMARU, or De los Angeles, a settle-

ment of the missions held by the Portuguese in thecountry of the Amazonas, on the shore of the riverNegro.

COMARU, another settlement in the provinceand captainship of Pará, and kingdom of Brazil ;situate on th.e s. shore of the river of Las Ama-zonas, on a point or long strip of land formed bythe mouth of the river Topayos.

COMAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regmiienio of Xauxa in Peru.

Comas, a lake of the province and governmentof Venezuela, of an oval figure, between the riverGuarico and the jurisdiction which divides thisgovernment from that of Cumana.

COMATLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Chixila, and alcald'ia mayor of Villalti.It contains 32 families of Indians, and is fiveleagues to the n. of its capital.

COMATLAN, another settlement, the head set-tlement of the district of the alcald'ia mayor of Te-quepexpa ; of a hot temperature. It contains 20families of Indians, who live by cultivating thelands. Fifteen leagues to the s. of its capital.

COMAU, a settlement of the province and cap-tainship of Pará in Brazil ; situate at the mouth ofthe river Las Amazonas, to the n. n. e. of thetown of Macapa.

COMAUUINI, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions,on the shores and at the mouth of which they haveconstructed the fort of Amsterdam. It runs n. andafterwards turning to the s. s. e. enters the Co-tica.

COMAYAGUA, or Valladolid, a city andcapital of the province of Honduras in the king-dom of Guatemala ; founded by the CaptainAlonzo de Caceres, by the order of Pedro de Al-varado. It was at first called Nuestra Senora dela Concepcion, and by this title there is still namedan hospital which is well endowed and served.Here are also some convents of the religious orderof La Merced, and a very good church, erectedinto a bishopric in 1539. One hundred and tenleagues from the capital Guatemala. Lat. 20° 58'n. Long. 87° 5 P

Bishops who have presided in Comayagua.

1. Don Fray Juan de Talavera, of the orderof St. Jerome, prior of his convent of NuestraSenora del Prado, near Valladolid : being nomi-nated first bishop, he refused the appointment.

2. Don Christoval de Pedraza, elected bishopfrom the renunciation of the former; at the sametime nominated protector of the Indies, and resi-dentiary judge to the conquerors Pedro Alvaredoand Francisco de Montejo, in 1539,

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and government of Neyba in the kingdom of Gra-nada. It rises in the paramo or mountain desertofQuindiu, traverses and waters the valleys ofLas Lanzas, and unites itself witli that of SanJuan, taking the name of Coello, from a Spaniardof this name having been drowned in it. It thenenters the Magdalena.

COMBEJU, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Rey in Brazil ; situate at the sourceof the river Curitaba.

COMBERUI, Bay of, on the coast of the pro-vince o.i\6. captainship of Rey in Brazil. It liesbetween the bay of Tasay and the island of Gallo.

COMBES, a settlement of the island of Bar-badoes, in the district of the parish of St. George.

COMBINCUMA, a spacious, and but littleknown country of the kingdom of Quito. It isfull of woods, in which there are many wild beastsand snakes of various kinds, and it is watered bymany rivers, all of which enter the s. side of theMaranon. Amongst the various nations whichinhabit it is that of the Tontones.

COMBITA, a settlement of the province andcorregirniento oi Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a cold temperature, and pro-duces the fruits corresponding with its climate.It contains 100 house-keepers, and as many otherIndians, and is two leagues to the n. zo. of itscapital.

COMBLES, Los Cinco, a settlement andparish of the island of St. Christopher, one of theAntilles ; situate on the shore of the n. w. coast,and in the part formerly possessed by the Eng-lish.

COMBOY, a rocky shoal of the N. sea, to thes. of that of La Vivora.

COMEAPA, a settlement of the province andulcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

COMECUERO, a river of the province andgovernment of Honduras in the kingdom of Guate-mala. It runs into the gulf which has tlie nameof the province.

COMETA, PUNTA DE, a point or cape ofthe Caico Grande, or Del N. (of the N.) on the n. e.coast.

Cometa, a shoal of rocks, near upon the n. e.coast of the island of Caico Grande, or Del N.and by the former point, from whence it takes itsname.

(COMFORT Point is the s. easternmost partof Elizabeth City county in Virginia, formed byJames river at its mouth in Chesapeak bay. PointComfort lies 19 miles w. by n. of cape Henry.]Comfort Point, another point, which is also

of the same coast and province as the former, andwithin that bay, being one of the points which formthe entrance of the river York.

Comfort Point, another, on the s. coast ofHudson’s bay, in the province of this name.

COMICHIGELES, Sierra de, in the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, and boundedby the sierra of Cuyo, in the kingdom of Chile. Itruns from 5. s. e. on the shore of the Concara, andin fact follows the course of that river.

COMISARIO, Punta del, a long strip ofland which runs into the sea on the coast of theprovince and government of Cartagena, betweenthis city and the point of S. Bernardo.

COMISTAHUACAN, a settlement of the pro-vince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in thekingdom ol' Guatemala.

COMITLAN, a settlement of the province and'alcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

COMITLAN, another settlement, in the pro-vince and alcaldia mayor of Capanabastla in thesame kingdom.

(COMMANOES, one of the Small Virginisles, in the W. Indies, situate to the n. n. e. ofTortilla.)

COMOCAUTLA, San Pedro de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Zapotitlan, andalcaldia mayor of Xacatlan, in Nueva Espana,three leagues distant from its head settlement.

COMO-LEWU, or Rio de los Sauces, call-ed also Gran Desaguadero. See Sauces.

COMONDU, San Joseph de, a settlementof the missions which were held by the regularsof the company of Jesuits in the province of Ca-lifornia ; situate near the sea-coast, between thesettlements of La Concepcion and San FranciscoXavier.

COMONDU, San Joseph de, a bay of this pro-vince, between the bay of Concepcion and theisland of Carmen.

COMOPORO, a settlement of the governmentof Maracaibo in the province of Venezuela;situate on the coast of the lake towards the e. part.

COMORI, Crique de, a creek and establish-ment of the French, in their possessions inGuayana.

COMORIPA, or Comoriopa, as some willhave it, a settlement of the province of Ostimuriin Nueva Espana; situate on the shore of the riverHiaqui, between the settlements of Cocoria andTecoriona.

COMPOSTELA, a province and alcaldiamayor of Nueva Galicia. Its jurisdiction extendsfrom the mouth of the large river San Pedro, as

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far as the confines of the akaldia mayof of Tepi-que. It is of an hot temperature, abounding’ inmaize, cotton, cocoa-trees, and other fruits pecu-liar to the climate : and particularly in large andsmall cattle, which breed in numberless wards andcountry estates. It has silver mines, which areworked to tolerable profit. It is but thinlypeopled, and the greater part of its inhabitants arcMustees and Negro slaves. It is watered by theriver Canas, which rises in the jurisdiction ofAcaponeta. The capital is of the same name.This was founded by Nufio de Guzman in 1531,and is the capital of the kingdom, and where thetribunal of royal audience and episcopal see wereerected ; these being afterwards removed to thecity of Guadalaxara. This latter city was at thesame time made the capital, from its proximity tothe shore of the S. sea, its distance from the samebeing only 12 leagues. It was at that time verywealthy, but it afterwards fell to decay ; the pri-macy was also taken from it, and it is nothing nowbut a miserable village. Its natives are the mostpolite and best affected to the Spaniards of any inthe whole kingdom. (To the n. w. of Compos-tela, as well as in the districts of Autlan, Ahux-catlan, and Acaponeta, a tobacco of a superiorquality was formerly cultivated.) Lat. 21° 10' w.Long. 104° 40' w. The settlements of this juris-diction are,

Matanchel, Sapotan,

San Pedro, Mazatlan,

Cali may a, Xaltocan.

Compostela, another city, in the island of St.Domingo. See Azua.

COMPTON, a settlement of the English, in theprovince and colony of Massachusetts ; situate onthe coast, at the entrance of the bay of Buzard.

COMUATO, a small island of the lake or seaof Chalapa, in the district of the alcaldia mayorof Zamora, and kingdom of Nueva Espana. Itis of a hot and moist temperature, surrounded bythick reeds and Indian fig-trees. In the dry sea-son it communicates with the mainland. Its po-pulation is scanty, and consists of 20 families ofSpaniards, and in its plains various herds of largecattle graze. Nine leagues from the capital.

COMUTA, a city of the province and captain-ship of Pará in Brazil, founded in 1581 by JuanPedro de Olivciro, on the e. shore of the riverPaeaxa. It is at present destroyed, and somesmall houses alone remain, where, for the conve-nienee of its situation, a small garrison of Portu-guese resides.

CONAHASET, a rocky shoal of the coast of

the province and colony of New England, at theentrance of port Boston.

CONAICA, a settlement of tlie province andcorrep;imiento of Angaraez in Peru.

(CONAJOHARY, a post-town on the s. side ofMohawk river, New York, very large, 36 milesabove Schenectady, and 318 from Philadelphia.See Canajoiiary.)

CONANAMA, a bay of the province and go-venment of Guayana.

CONANAMA, a river of the same name, in thisprovince.

CONARDO-TUBA, a river of the provincecaptainship o^ Los Ilheos in Brazil. It risesnear the coast, and runs e. between those of theDuna and Ilheos.

(CONAWANGO, a n. branch of Alleghanyriver, in Pennsylvania, which rises from Cha-taughque lake.)

CONCARY, a river of the province and cor-regimiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile. Itrises from a small lake to the e. of the mountain ofthe Pie de Palo, and running s, e. returns, form-ing a curve to the w. when it divides itself into se-veral branches.

CONCEPCION, or Penco, a city of the king-dom of Chile, the capital of the province andcorregimiento of its name, founded in 1550 byPedro de Valdivia. Its situation is upon a barrenand uneven territory, somewhat elevated, on thesea-shore, and on the side of a large, noble, andconvenient bay. On the n. side it is crossed by arivulet, and on the s. it is watered by the riverAndalien, and lies not far from the Biobio. It isa small city, and its houses and buildings arepoor and much reduced. It has, besides the ca-thedral church, convents of the religious orders ofSt. Francis, St. Domingo, La Merced, St. Au-gustin, an hospital of San Juan de Dios, and acollege w hich belonged to the regulars of the com-pany of the Jesuits, and which is the best build-ing in it. Its climate is moderately warm, al-though in the winter the cold is great. It abouiidsgreatly in all kinds of grain, cattle, and deliciousfruits, and these are cultivated in gardens whichare found attached to almost every house. It liesopen on all sides, being commanded by six emi-nences ; amongst the which the most prominent isthat which is called Del Romitorio, and extendsas far as the city. Its only defence is a batteryon a level with the water, which defends the an-choring ground of the bay. The natives resemblethe rest of tliis kingdom : they are strong, robust,valorous, and well made, most dexterous in the3 s 2

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mills. The whole of the district of its territory iscovered with estates and country-seats, whichabound in all kinds of fruits, at once rendering ita place pleasing and advantageous for residence.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Pacajes in Peru ; situate on the shoreoflhe lake Titicaca, and at the mouth of the riverDesa<;uadero.

Concepcion, anotlier, of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, in the samekingdom ; a reduccion of the missions which wereheld in this province by the regulars of the com-pany of the Jesuits ; situate between the source ofthe river Verde and the river Ubay.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito ;■situate between the rivers Guandes and Y laibi, andnearly in the spot where they join.

Concepcion, another, of the former provinceand government ; situate on the shore of the riverItenes.

Concepcion, another, of the province andcountry of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos-sessions ; a reduccion of the missions which are heldby the Carmelite fathers of this nation ; situate onthe shore of a pool or lake formed by the riverUrubu. . .

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits in California ; situate near the sea-coast andthe Puerto Nuevo, or New Port.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, and district ofChaco ; being a reduccion of the Abipones Indians,of the mission held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, and to-day under the charge of the reli-gious order of S. Francisco.

Concepcion, another, which is also called hu-enclara or Canada, of the missions held by the re-ligion of St. Francis, in the kingdom of NuevoMexico.

Concepcion, another, which is the real oi inesilver mines of the province and government ofSonora in Nueva Espana.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cap-iahiship ot Rio Janeiro in Brazil 5 situate on thecoast, opposite the Isla Grande.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cap-iainship of S. Vincente in the same kingdom.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres; situate at the mouth ofthe river Saladillo, on the coast which lies betweenthe river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-

suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the w. shore of the river Uru-guay. (Lat. 27° 58' 43". Long. 53° 27' 13" re.)

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the country of the Chiquitos Indians, inthe kingdom of Peru ; situate to the e. of that ofSan Francisco Xavier.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom ofQuito, which produces nothing but maize, yucas^plantains, and quantities of aloes, with the whichthe natives pay their tribute, and which are muchesteemed in Peru.

Concepcion, a town of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, between therivers Bermejo and Salado. It was destroyed bythe infidel Indians.

Concepcion, a bay of the kingdom of Chile,at the innermost part of which, and four leaguesfrom its entrance, is found a bed of shells, fromwhich is made excellent lime.

Concepcion, another bay, in the gulf of Cali-fornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. It is very largeand capacious, having within it various islands.Its entrance is, however, very narrow.

Concepcion, a river in the province and go-vernment of Costarica, which runs into the sea be-tween that of San Antonio and that of Portete.

Concepcion, another, of the kingdom of Bra-zil, which rises to the w. of the town of Gorjas,runs s. 5 . K). and unites itself with that of the Re-medies, to enter the river Prieto or La Palma.

Concepcion, another, which is an arm of theriver Picazuru, in the province and government ofParaguay.

Concepcion, another, of the kingdom of Chile,which runs through the middle of the city ofConcepcion, and enters the sea in the bay of tliisname.

(Concepcion, a large bay on the c. side ofNewfoundland island, whose entrance is betweencape St. Francis on the s. and Flamborough headon the n. It runs a great way into the land in a s.direction, having numerous bays on the w. side,on which are two settlements, Carboniere andHavre de Grace. Settlements were made here in1610, by about 40 planters, under Governor JohnGuy, to whom King James had granted a patentof incorporation.)

(Concepcion of Salaye, a small town of N.America, in the province of Mechoacán in Mexico

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or New Spain, was built bj the Spaniards, as wellas the stations of St. Michael and St. Philip, to se-cure the road from Mechoacan to the silver minesof Zacatea. They have also given this name toseveral boroughs of America; as to that in His-paniola island, and to a sea-port of California,&C.)

CONCHA, San Martin de la, a town andcapital of the province and corregimiento of Quil-lota in the kingdom of Chile ; founded in 1726by the Licentiate Don Joseph dc Santiago Concha,who gave it his name, being at the time temporalpresident of this kingdom. Its situation is in avalley, the most beautiful and fertile of any in theJcingdom, and it particularly abounds in wheat.It has been celebrated for the abundance of goldthat has been taken out of a mine within its dis-trict, and for the protection of which a fort hadbeen built by Pedro de Valdivia. It has a very^ood parish church, three convents of the religiousorders of St. Francis, St. Augustin, and La Merced,and a collec^e which belona-ed to the regulars ofthe company of Jesuits, and which is at present oc-cupied by {jic monks of St. Domingo, and a houseof retirement for spiritual exercies, founded andendowed by a certain individual. In the districtof this city European chesnuts grow, and not farfrom it is a lime-kiln belonging to the king, andwhich renders a supply for the works going on atthe garrison of Valdivia. Nine leagues from Val-parayso. Lat, 32^48' s. Long. 71° 10' zo.

Concha, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina;situate near the source of the river Sonlahowe.

Concha, a bay on the coast of the province andgovernment of Santa Marta, to the e. of the capeof La Aguja.

Concha, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru ; situate at themoiitli of the river of its name, and where it en-ters the Pasage.

Concha, a river in the jurisdiction of the cityof Salta, runs e. and enters the Pasage betweenthe river Blanco and that of Metau.

CONCHACHITOUU, a settlement of Indiansof S. Carolina, where a fort has been built by theEnglish for the defence of the establishment whichthey hold there.

CONCHALI, a river of the province and cor-regimienlo of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile. Itruns Z 0 . and enters the sea.

CONCHAMARCA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; an-aexed to the curacy of San Miguel de Huacar.

CONCHAO, a settlement of the province and

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corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Andajes.

(CONCHAS, a parish of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a river ofthe same name, about six leagues n. zs. of BuenosAyres. Lat. 34° 24' 56" s. Long. 58° 23' 30" ay.)

Conchas, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs n. e. and en-ters the river La Plata, at a small distance fromthe capital.

Conchas, another river, in the province andcaptainship of the Rio Grande in Brazil. It issmall, rises near the coast, and empties itself at themouth of that of Amargoso.

Conchas, another, of the kingdom of NuevaEspaña, which runs into the sea at the bay ofMexico, being first united to the Bravo.

Conchas, another, a small river of the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres, distinct fromthat of which we have spoken. It runs zso. andenters the Parana, close to the settlement of LaBaxada de Santa Fe.

(CONCHATTAS, Indians of N. America, al-most the same people as the Allibamis. Theyfirst lived on Bayau Chico, in Appelousa district ;but, four years ago, moved to the river Sabine,settled themselves on the e. bank, where they nowlive, in nearly a s. direction from Natchitoch, anddistant about 80 miles. They call their numberof men about 160 ; but say, if they were altogether,they would amount to 200. Several families ofthem live in detached settlements. They are goodhunters. Game is here in plenty. They kill anuncommon number of bears. One man alone,during the summer and fall hunting, sometimeskills 400 deer, and sells his skins at 40 dollars per100. The bears usually yield from eight to 12gallons of oil, each of which never sells for lessthan a dollar a gallon, and the skin a dollar more.No great quantity of the meat is saved. Whatthe hunters do not use when out, they generallygive to their dogs. The Conchattas are friendlywith all other Indians, and speak well of theirneighbours the Carankouas, who, they say, liveabout 80 miles s. of them, on the bay, which isthe nearest point to the sea from Natchitoches.A tew families of Chactaws have lately settled nearthem from Bayau Bceiif. The Conchattas speakCreek, which is their native language, and Chac-taw, and several of them English ; and one or twoof tliem can read it a little.)

CONCHOS, San Francisco DE LOS, a Settle-ment and garrison of the province of the Tepe-guana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate

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Chuquibamba, and the other settlements of its juris-diction, -which comprehend nine curacies, are thefollowing :

Chuquibamba,

San Pedro de Illotnas,Andaray,Yanaquihua,Chorunga,

Alpacaj,

Llanca,

Cayaraiii,

Areata,

Salamanca,

Chichas,

Quechalla,

Belinga,

Andaliua,

Cliilca and Marca,Viraco,

Pampacolca,Umachulco,

H uancarama,Orcopampa,

Chachas,

Ayo,

San J nan Crisostomo deChoco,

Ucuchacas,Machahuay,

Arirahua, Tipan.

CONDIRAS, an arm of the river Jamunda, inthe country of Las Amazonas, and in the Portu-guese possessions. It runs from the lake Mari-pava, and enters the Maranon.

CONDOCONDO, a settlement of the provinceand corre^imiento of Pariá in Peru.

CONDONOMA, a mine, celebrated for itsabundance of silver, of the province and corregi-miento of Tinta in Peru.

CONDORGUASI, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tucumán in Peru ; belongingto the jurisdiction of Jujui, situate on the shore ofthe river Laquiaca.

CONDOROMA, a settlement and asiento of thesilver mines of the province of Canes and Canchesor Tinta in Peru, -where, during tempests of thun-der and lightning, is experienced a singular phe-nomenon ; namely, a certain prickly sensation uponthe hands and face, -which they called moscas,(flies), though none of these insects are ever seen.It is indeed attributed to the air, which is at thattime highly charged with electric fluid ; the effectsof which may be observed on the handles of sticks,buckles, lace, and other metal trinkets ; the sameeffects ceasing as soon as the tempest is over. Itis observed, that in no other parts is the same phe-nomenon known to exist.

CONDOROMA, another settlement, of the pro-vince and government of Chucuito in the samekingdom ; situate on the shore of the lake.

CONDUITE, or CoNDUITA, a small river ofthe province and country of the Iroquees Indians.It runs w. forming a curve, and enters the lakeOswego.

(CONDUSKEEG, a settlement in the districtof Maine, in Hancock county, containing 567 in-habitants.)

CONEUAGUANET, a small river of the pro-

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vince and colony of Pennsylvania and counfy ofCumberland. It runs c. and enters the Susque-hanna.

CONEGA, a small island of the s. coast of theisland of Newfoundland, between the isle of Des-pair and port Bartran.

CONEGHTA, a small river of S. Carolina. Itrises in the territory of the Tuscaroras Indians, runss. e. and enters the Neus.

(CONEGOCHEAGUE Creek rises near Mer-cersburg, Franklin county, Pensylvania, runs s.in a -winding course, and after supplying a numberof mills, empties into the Potowmack, at Williamport, in W ashington county, Maryland ; 19 miless. e. of Hancock, and eight miles s, of the Pennsyl-vania line.)

CONEGOGEE, a small river of the provinceand colony of Maryland. It runs s. and entersthe Potowmack.

CONEIUAGA, a small river of the provinceand colony of Pennsylvania, in the county of York,It runs e. and enters the Susquehanna.

(CONEMAUGH River, and Little Cor emaugh,are the head waters of Kiskemanitas, in Pennsyl-vania : after passing through Laurel hill and Ches-nut ridge, Conemaugh takes that name, andempties into the Alleghany, 29 miles n. e. of Pitts-burg. It is navigable for boats, and there is -aportage of 18 miles between it and the Frankstownbranch of Juniata river.)

(CONENTES, Las, a city of La Plata orParaguay in S. America, in the diocese of BuenosAyres.)

(CONESTEO, a w. w. branch of Tioga river inNew York. See Canjcodeo Creek.)

CONESTOGA, a settlement of Indians of thesame province and colony as the former river ; si-tuate between the e. and w. arms of the river Sus-quehanna, where the English have a fort andestablishment for its defence.

Conestoga, a river of this province, whichrunsw. then turns s. and enters the Susquehanna.

(CONESUS, a small lake in the Genesseecountry. New York, which sends its waters n. w,to Genessee river.)

CONETLA, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Comitlan in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CONFINES. See Villanueva de los In-fantes.

CONFUSO. See Togones.

CONG, a small river of the province and c^p-iainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises near thecoast, runs e. and enters the sea between the riverGoyana and the settlement of Gonzalo.

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(which, with that degree of industry that is neces-sary to happiness, produces the necessaries andconveniences of life in great plenty. The inhabi-tants are almost entirely of English descent. Thereare no Dutch, Phench, or Germans, and very fewScotch or Irish people, in any part of the state.The original stock from which have sprung all thepresent inhabitants of Connecticut, and the nume-rous emigrants from the state to every j)art of tlieUnited States, consisted of 3000 souls, who settledin the towns of Hartford, New Haven, Windsor,Guilford, Milford, and Weathersfield, about theyears 1635 and 1636. In 1756, the population ofthe state amounted to 130,611 souls ; in 1774, to197,856; in 1782, to 202,877 whites, and 6273Indians and Negroes; in 1790, to 237,946 per-sons, of whom 2764 w'ere slaves ; and by the cen-sus of 1810, to 261,942 souls. The people ofConnecticut are remarkably fond of having alltheir disputes, even those of the most trivial kind,settled according to law. The prevalence of thislitigious spirit affords employment and support fora numerous body of lawyers. That party spirit,however, which is the bane of political happiness,has not raged with such violence in this state as inMassachusetts and Rhode Island. Public pro-ceedings have been conducted generally with 'nuclicalmness and candour. The people are well in-informed in regard to their rights, and judicious inthe methods they adopt to secure them. Tiiestate enjoys an uncommon share of political tran-quillity and unanimity.

All religions, that are consistent with the peaceof society, are tolerated in Connecticut : and aspirit of liberality and forbearance is increasing.There are very few religious sects in this state.The bulk of the people are Congregationalists.Besides these, there are Episcopalians andBaptists.

The damage sustained b}’- this state in the latewar was estimated at 461,235/. I6s. Id. To com-pensate the sufferers, the general court, in May1792, granted them 500,000 acres of the w. part ofthe reserved lands of Connecticut, which lie w.of Pennsylvania. There are a great number ofvery pleasant towns, both maritime and inland, inConnecticut. It contains five cities, incorporatedwith extensive jurisdiction in civil causes. Twoof these, Hartford and New Haven, are capitals ofthe state. The general assembly is holden at theformer in May, and at the latter in October, an-nually. The other cities are New London, Nor-wich, and Middleton. Weathersfield, Windsor,Farmington, Litchfield, Milford, Stratford, Fair-field, Guilford, Stamford, Windham, Suffieid, and

Enfield, are all considerable and very pleasanttowns. In no part of the world is the educationof all ranks of people more attended to than inConnecticut. Almost every town in the state isdivided into districts, and each district has a pub-lic school kept in it a greater or less part ofevery year. Somewhat more than one-third of themoneys arising from a tax on the polls and rateableestate of the inhabitants is appropriated to the sup-port of schools in the several towns, for the educa-tion of children and youth. The law directs thata grammar-school shall be kept in every countytown throughout the state. Yale college is aneminent seminary of learning, and was foundedin the year 1700. See Yace College. Acade-mics have been established at Greenfield, Plain-field, Norwich, Windham, and Pomfret, some ofwhich are flourishing.

The constitution of Connecticut is founded ontheir charter, which was granted by Charles II. in1662, and on a law of the state. Contented withthis form of government, the people have not beendisposed to run the hazard of framing a new consti-tution since the declaration of independence.Agreeable to this charter, the supreme legislativeauthority of the state is vested in a governor, de-])iity-governor, twelve assistants, or counsellors,and the representatives of the people, styled thegeneral assembly. The governor, deputy-gover-nor, and assistants, are annually chosen by thefreemen in the month of May. The representa-tives (their number not to exceed two from eachtown) arc chosen by the freemen twice a-year, toattend the two annual sessions, on the secondTuesdays of May and October. The general as-sembly is divided into two branches, called the up-per and lower houses. The upper house is com-posed of the governor, deputy-governor, and as-sistants ; the lower house of the representativesof the people. No law can pass without the con-currence of both houses.

Connecticut has ever made rapid advances inpopulation. There have been more emigrationsfrom this than from any of the other states, andyet it is at present full of inhabitants. This in-crease may be ascribed to several causes. Thebulk of the inhabitants are industrious, sagacioushusbandmen. Their farms furnish them with allthe necessaries, most of the conveniences, and butfew of the luxuries of life. They, of course, mustbe generally temperate, and if they choose, cansubsist with as much independence as is consistentwith happiness. The subsistence of the farmer issubstantial, and does not depend on incidentalcircumstances, like that of most other professions.)

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CONNECTICUT.

(There is no necessity of serving an apprentice-ship to the business, nor of a large stock of moneyto commence it to advantage. Farmers who dealmuch in barter, have less need of money than anyother class of people. The ease with which acomfortable subsistence is obtained, induces thehusbandman to marry young. The cultivation ofhis farm makes him strong and healthful. Hetoils cheerfully through the day, eats the fruit ofhis own labour with a gladsome heart, at night de-voutly thanks his bounteous God for his dailyblessings, retires to rest, and his sleep is sweet.Such circumstances as these have greatly contri-buted to the amazing increase of inhabitants in thisstate. Besides, the people live under a free go-vernment, and have no fear of a tyrant. Thereare no overgrown estates, with rich and ambitiouslandlords, to have an undue and pernicious in-fluence in the election of civil officers. Propertyis equally enough divided; and must continue tobe so, as long as estates descend as they now do.No person is prohibited from voting. He who hasthe most merit, not he Avho has the most money,is generally chosen into public office. As instancesof this, it is to be observed, that many of the citi-zens of Connecticut, from the humble walks oflife, have arisen to the first offices in the state, andfilled them with dignity and repulation. Thatbase business of electioneering, which is so di-rectly calculated to introduce wicked and design-ing men into office, is yet but little known in Con-necticut. A man who wishes to be chosen intooffice, acts wisely, for that end, when he keepshis desires to himself.

A thirst for learning prevails among all ranks ofpeople in the state. More of the young men inConnecticut, in proportion to their numbers, re-ceive a public education, than in any of the states.The revolution, which so essentially affected thegovernment of most of the colonies, produced novery perceptible alteration in the government ofConnecticut. While under the jurisdiction ofGreat Britain, they elected their own governors,and all subordinate civil officers, and made theirown laws, in the same manner and with as littlecontroul as they now do. Connecticut has everbeen a rejmblic, and perhaps as perfect and ashappy a republic as has ever existed. Whileother states, more monarchical in their governmenand manners, have been under a necessity of un-dertaking the difficult task of altering their old, orforming new constitutions, and of changing theirmonarchical for republican manners, Connecticuthas uninterruptedly proceeded in her old track,both as to government and manners ; and, by these

means, has avoided those convulsions which haverent other states into violent parties.

The present territory of Connecticut, at thetime of the first arrival of the English, was pos-sessed by the Pequot, the Mohegan, Podunk, andmany other smaller tribes of Indians. In 1774,there were of the descendants of the ancient nativesonly 1363 persons ; the greater part of whomlived at Mohegan, between Norwich and NewLondon. From the natural decrease of the In-dians, it is imagined that their number in this statedo not now exceed 400. The first grant of Connec-ticut was made by the Plymouth council to theEarl of Warwick, in 1630. The year followingthe earl assigned this grant to Lord Say and Seal,Lord Brook, and nine others. Some Indian traderssettled at Windsor in 1633. The same year, alittle before the arrival of the English, a few Dutchtraders settled at Hartford, and the remains of thesettlement are still visible on the bank of Connec-ticut river. In 1634, Lord Say and Seal, &c.sent over a small number of men, who built a fortat Saybrook, and made a treaty with the PequotIndians for the lands on Connecticut river. Mr.Haynes and Mr. Hooker left Massachusetts bay in1634, and settled at Hartford. The followingyear, Mr. Eaton and Mr. Davenport seated them-selves at New Haven. In 1644, the Connecticutadventurers purchased of Mr. Fenwick, agentfor Lord Say and Seal, and Lord Brook, their rightto the colony, for 1600/, Connecticut and NewHaven continued two distinct governments formany years. At length, John Winthrop, Esq.who had been chosen governor of Connecticut,was employed to solicit a royal charter. In 1662,Charles II, granted a charter, constituting the twocolonies for ever one body corporate and politic,by the name of “ The Governor and Company ofConnecticut.” New Haven took the affair ill;but in 1665, all difficulties were amicably adjusted ;and, as has been already observed, this charterstill continues to be the basis of their government.The capital is Boston.)

(Connecticut is the most considerable riverin the c. part of the Linited States, and rises inthe high lands which separate the states of Vermontand New Hampshire from Lower Canada. Ithas been surveyed about 25 miles beyond the 45°of latitude, to the head spring of its n. branch ;from which, to its mouth, is upwards of 300 miles,through a thick settled country, having upon itsbanks a great number of the most flourishing andpleasant towns in the United States. It is from80 to 100 rods wide, 130 miles from its mouth.Its course between Vermont and New Hampshire]

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of a hot and moist temperature, and inhabited by107 families of Indians ; being 15 leagues n.e. ofits capital.

Copan, a river of the province and governmentof Cumaná. It rises in the serrama of Imataca,runs s. and enters the Cuyuni on the side.

COPANDARO, Santiago de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Tuzantla, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in Nueva Espaha. It contains 34families of Indians, and is 10 leagues to the s. ofits head settlement. In it is a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Augustin, Avhicli is one of thebest convents in the kingdom.

COPENAME, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions orcolony of Surinam. It runs n. and unites itselfwith the Sarameca at its mouth, to form anothermouth, and enter into the sea.

COPER, a small settlement of the Nuevo Reynode Granada, in the road which leads from SantaFe to Muzo ; situate upon an height, near themountain Apari, where, upon the descent whichis called Cuesta de Macanazos, and at its skirt,runs the river Villaraisar. Near it has been founda mine of earth, esteemed an excellent antidoteagainst poisons.

COPERE, a settlement of the province and ju-risdiction of Muzo, in the corregimiento of Tunja,of the N uevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a be-nign temperature, produces maize, cotton, yucas^plantains, and the other fruits of its climate. Inthe territory of this curacy rises the river calledVillamisar, memorable for the battle fought thereby the Indians and Captain Luis Lanchero, inwhich the former were routed. It contains 150housekeepers, and 30 Indians.

COPIA, one of the ancient provinces whichwere formed by that of Popayan in the time of theIndians ; and bounded by the province of Car-tama. At present its limits are not known, sincethe Spaniards have changed both the divisions andnames.

COPIAPO, a province and corregimienlo of thekingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by the province ofAtacama, of the archbishopric of Charcas, andkingdom of Peru ; e. by the territory of the city ofRioja, of the province of Tucuman, the cordillerarunning between ; s. by the province of Coquitnbo,and w, by the Pacific ocean. Its extent is 60leagues n. s. and from 20 to three e. w. It very sel-dom rains here ; cattle is therefore scarce, althoughit nevertheless produces every sort of grain, of ex-cellent quality, and fruits of various kinds. Thetemperature is very benign throughout the year.

it has many mines of copper, most pure and richsulphur, loadstone, lapis lazuli, and gold ; some ofwliicJi are worked ; and it is not many years agothat some silver mines also were discovered. Itproduces a kind of small frees, which are plantedand cultivated upon the banks of the streams andaqueducts, called jonM/o hobo, and which distil aliquor, which, being prepared over the fire, servesinstead of pitch for lining the vessels in which thewine in that kingdom is kept. The conger eelabounds upon the coast, and there is a particulartribe of Indians, called Changes, who are devotedto this kind of fishery, living the whole year uponthe coasts, and carrying about their wives and chil-dren upon rafts, until they find out a creek likelyto afford them what they are in search of: thesefish are then bought by the natives, and carried tobe sold at the capital of the kingdom, Santiago.Here is also a trade of sulphur, since it is so finethat it needs never to be purified, and is conse-quently worth three dollars the canlaro [a cantarois about four gallons]. It abounds no less in nitre,on which account all the waters here are brackish,and there is little indeed that is sweet. This pro-vince is very thinly peopled, since it has no otherpopulation than such as is found in the capital,which is called, San Francisco de la Selva. Its in-habitants, which should amount to 5000, of allsexes and ages, are dispersed about in countryfarms. (The province of Copiapo owes its name,according to the Indian tradition, to the greatquantity of turquoises found in its mountains.Though these stones ought, with propriety, to beclassed amongst the concretions, as they arc onlythe petrified teeth or bones of animals, colouredby metallic vapours, we may place them amongstthe precious stones. The turquoises of Copiapoare usually of a greenish blue ; some, however,are found of a deep blue, which are very hard,and known by the name of the turquoises of theold rock. The amazing fertility of the soil of thisprovince has given rise to assertions, which, onthe first blush, might appear fabulous. Mr. San-son, of Abbeville, in his Geography, asserts thatits valleys frequently yield 300 for one. SeeChile.)

Copiapo, a port of the above province andcorregimiento.

Copiapo, a settlement of the same.

Copiapo, a mountain, in which there is a vol-cano, which at different times has occasionedmuch mischief, and is in lat. 26°. (This moun-tain consists entirely of a marble, striped withbands of various colours, which have a very beau-3 u 2

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upon the loftiest part of that most beautiful lltinura,from which the prospect is so enchanting ; sliew-ing on one side the sea, on another the river whichwaters tlie precincts, and on another some shadypoplar groves. It is of an extremely benign tem-perature, and enjoying throughout the year a per-petual spring, being neither incommoded by heatnor cold. It is extremely fertile, and abounds inwhatever can conduce to the comfort and conve-nience of life. The city is tolerably large ; all thestreets are drawn at straight lines ; and the housesare disjoined from each other by large gardens,which are all well supplied with water brought byaqueducts from the river. The parish church isvery beautiful, and not less so are those of the re-ligious orders of St.. Francis, St. Domingo, St.Augustin, La Merced, San Juan de Dios, and thecollege which formerly belonged to the regularsof the company of the Jesuits. It has a port,which is convenient ajid much frequented by ves-sels ; upon the shore of which are caught tunnies,abacoras, and various other kinds of fish ; alsomany delicate kinds of shell-fish. At a small dis-tance is a very abundant copper mine, from whichmuch metal is extracted and carried to Europe ;and it is of this, as well as of its excellent breedof horses, its wine, oil, tallow, cow-hides, anddried meats, that its commerce is composed ; send-ing, as it does yearly, four or five vessels loadedwith these effects to Lima. Although it has minesof the purest gold, yet these are but little worked.The whole of the town is covered with beautifulmyrtles, and of these there is a delightful grove.It was destroyed by the Araucanos Indians in1547 ; and in 1579 it was attempted to be taken byFrancis Drake, who was repulsed by the inhabi-tants, la 1680 it seemed to be rebuilt only thatit might undergo a sacking the same year by theEnglish pirate, Bartholomew Sharps. Its popula-tion consists of 500 families of Spaniards andpeople of colour, and some Indians. Fifteenleagues from the city of Concepcion, and 58 fromthe capital of the kingdom, Santiago. Lat. 30° s.Long. 71° 18'. [See Chile,]

COQUIMBO, an island of the coast of this pro-vince and corregimiento.

COQUIN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Cayna.

COQUINOCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chichas and Tarija in Peru.

CORAI, Santa Clara de Cosme, a settle-ment of the province and corregimienlo of Hu-anta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Paucar-baraba.

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CORAJAIS, a settlement and village of th«Portuguese in the province and country of LasAmazonas ; situate on the shore of the riverNegro.

CORAL, a settlement of the province and c«/j*iainship of Rey in Brazil; situate on the sea-coast,at the mouth of the river Imbau.

(Coral River, in New Mexico, runs acourse w. by s. and empties into the head of thegulf of California, close by the mouth of Colo-rado river.)

(CORAM, a post-town in Suffolk county. Longisland. New York, It has about 60 houses, andlies 62 miles e. of New Y ork city, and 10 fromSrnithtown.)

CORANI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Ayapata.

CORAS, Santiago de los, a settlement of themissions which were held by the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits in California ; situate at anequal distance from both coasts. It is composedof Indians of the nation of its name, and is theplace where the Father Lorenzo Carranza, a mis-sionary, suffered martyrdom.

Coras, some shoals, lying very little underwater, near the coast of the province and coptam-ship of Marañan in Brazil, at the mouth of a riverwhich is also thus called.

CORAZON DE Jesus, a settlement of thecorregimiento and jurisdiction of Velez in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. Its population i*small, and it is situate in a country mountainousand full of pools, being scanty in vegetable pro-ductions, with 200 inhabitants, a miserable race.It is near the settlement of Chiquinquira, and tothe s. of Velez.

CORAZON, another, called De Maria, of the mis-sions which were held by the regulars of the companyof J esLiits, in the province and government of May-nas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on theshore of the river Aguarico.

CORAZON, another, called De Jesus, in the pro-vince and government of the Chiquitos Indians inPeru ; situate at the foot of the cordillera of SanFernando, a reduccion of the missions which wereheld there by the regulars of the company,

CORAZON, another, of the kingdom of Quito,in the corregimiento of the district of Las CincoLeguasde esta Ciudad (the Five Leagues from thisCity), and in the road which leads down fromGuayaquil.

CORAZON, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,on the s. s. e. part, from the ivhich on the w. flowdown the rivers of San Lorenzo and Yaraboya,

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running to unite themselves with that of Toachi.It is to the n. of the paramo of Elenisa, and issometimes covered with snow.

CORCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Huanoquite.

(CORCAS, or Grand Corcas, an islandalmost in the form of a crescent, n. of St. Do-mingo, in the windward passage, about sevenleagues w. of Turk’s island, and about 20 e. ofLittle Inagua or Heneagua. Lat. 21° 45' n.Long. 71° ob' w.)

CORCHUE, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Valdivia in the kingdomof Chile.

CORCOLA, a settlement of the Portuguese, inthe territory of the Giiayazas Indians, of the king-dom of Brazil; situate at the source and on theshore of the river Tocantines.

CORCOUADO, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in the province and government of LosLlanos, of the Nuevo Reyno de Gratiada, andwhich is at present under the charge of the reli-gious order of St. Francis.

CORCOUADO, a rock or island of the S. sea, op-posite the port of Santa, of the province and corre-gimiento of this name in Peru.

CORCULLA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CORDES. See Verdf.

CORDILLERA. See Andes.

CORDILLIERS, Montagne des, a mountainof the island of Cayenne, on the skirts of avliichthe French have a fort and establishment for itsdefence.

CORDON, PUNTA DEL, a point of the coast ofthe w. head of the island of St. Domingo, on theshore of the port Pimiento.

CORDOVA, a province and alcaldia mayor ofNueva España; bounded w. by the province ofOrizava ; n. by that of San Juan de los Llanos ;e. by that of the ancient Vera Cruz ; and s. by therugged mountains of Songolica. It has on the5. e. and s.s. e. the great estate of Mataanona, 10leagues from Taliscona, the last boundary of VeraCruz. It is of a hot and moist temperature ; thegreater part of its district is composed of brokenand uneven grounds, and mountains covered withcedars, walnuts, pines, and ocotales. It has alsobeautiful and fertile plains, abounds in birds andanimals of the chase, and no less in fish, many troutand bohos being caught out of the rivers by whichthis province is irrigated. In the spacious plainof Altotonga runs a rapid river, by which it is

fertilized, and rendered abundant in every kind ofvegetable production. Here also breed manyflocks of cattle, which are the chief commerceof the place. The capital bears the same name.

This was founded in 1618, by order of the vice-roy Don Diego Fernandez de Cordova, Marquisof Gnadalcazar, who gave it his name. It is of ahot and moist temperature ; situate to the w. ofsome small mountains, which form an half-circle,and are surrounded by many umbrageous trees.The parish church is magnificent, of exquisitearchitecture, and rich ornaments. Here is a con-vent of the religious Descalzos (barefooted order)of St. Francis, and one of St. Hippolyte dela Ca-ridad, in which there is an hospital for the sickSpaniards, and for the black slaves, endowed bythe masters and proprietors of certain mills, in whichan infinite quantity of sugar is made. It aboundsin this artich', with those of tobacco, Chinaoranges, ajonjoli, large cattle, and swine ; as alsoother fruits and articles of merchandize peculiarto Europe and the kingdom itself. [Hun.boldtassert.s that the environs of Cordova and Orizabaproduce all the tobacco consumed in New Spain.]Its population consists of 260 families of Spaniards,126 of Mustees, 70 of Mulattoes and Negroes,and 273 of Mexican Indians ; of many others alsowho are of various classes, and Avho work in thesugar-mills. Forty-eight leagues to the e. «. c. ofMexico, in lat. 18° 50' ; long. 96° 56'. Theothersettlements of this jurisdiction are,

Santa Ana de Zacan, San Diego,

Chocaman,

Yxhuatlan,

Coscomatepec,

Sta. Maria Magdalena,Calcahualco,

S. Antonio Huatuzco,Amatlan de los Reyes,

San Bartolome,Totutla,

Copan,

Zentla,

San Diego Huatuzco,San J uan de la Punta,San Lorenzo.

Cordova, another city, the capital of the provincoand government of Tucumán in Peru ; founded bythe governor of that province, Geronimo Cabrera,in 1573, and not by Juan Nuilezde Prado, in 1549,according to the erroneous account of the Ex-jesuit Coleti. It was in the territory of the Comi-chingones Indians, and part which they calledKisliisacate, on the shore of the river Piicani ;but removed from thence to the x. part of thesame river ; the parish being dedicated to NuestraSenora de la Pena of France, and being under theobligation of celebrating its festival on the day ofthe conception, when it was also usual to displaythe spectacle of a bull-fight. It is situate in anarrow bay, close to which is a lotty n'ountain.It is much exposed to inundations in the rainy

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CORORAMO, a small river of tbe province andgovernment of Guayana. It rises to the w. of thelake Icupa, runs n. and enters the Paraguay.

COROYA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru ; of the district andjurisdiction of the city of Cordoba ; situate on theshore of the river Priraero.

COROYO, a lake of the province and countryof Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions.It is in the island of Topinambes, and is formedby the waters of the Maranon. '

COROZAL, or Pileta, a settlement of theprovince and government of Cartagena in the king-dom of Tierra Firme.

CORPAHUASI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Huaillati.

CORPANQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Tillos.

CORPUS-CHRISTI, a settlement of the mis-sions which were held by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits in the province and government ofParaguay ; situate on the shore of the river Parana,about 11 leagues n. e. of Candelaria. Lat. 27° T23" s. Long. 55° 32' 29" w.

Corpus-Christi, a large, beautiful, and fertilevalley of the province and government of Mariquitain the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.

CORQUEMAR, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas.

CORQUINA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana. It runs s. and enters theOrinoco.

CORRAL, a settlement of the district of Gua-dalabquen, of the kingdom of Chile ; situate on theshore of the river Valdivia.

Corral, Quemado, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Piura in Peru ; situatein an angle formed by a river of this name.

CORRALES, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Antioquia ; situate on the shore ofthe river Perico, in the sierras of Guarnoco.

CORRALITO, a setdement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Santiago del Estero ; to thee. of the same, and on the shore of the river Gua-rico.

CORRIENTES, S.Juan de , a city of theprovince and government of Buenos Ayres inPeru ; founded in 1588, on the e. coast of the riverLa Plata, near the part where those of the Paranaand Paraguay unite. It has, besides the parish

church, three convents, of St. Domingo, St. Francis,and La Merced, and a college which belonged tothe regulars of the company of Jesuits. This cityhas been harassed by the infidel Abipones In-dians, who have here put to death many Spaniards,and taken others prisoners ; on which account aguard of horse-militia has been established for itsdefence. (It is 100 leagues n. of the city of SantaFe, and contained, in 1801, 4300 inhabitants. Lat.27° 27' 21" s.)

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, a rivcr of the pro-vince and government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains towardsthe n. and enters the sea in the large plain oppositethe Mulatto isles.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another river, of theprovince and government of Buenos Ayres, whichrises from the lake Yberia, and runs s. w. to enterthe river La Plata.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another, of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay. It rises in theserrania which lies between the rivers Paraguayand Parana, runs w. and enters the former betweenthe rivers Mboeri and P'areiri.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another, of the pro-vince and captainship of Rey in Brazil, which runss.s. e. and enters the large lake of Los Patos.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, a Cape of the s. coastof the island of Cuba : CO leagues from the islandof Trinidad, and 13 from the cape of San An-tonio.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another cape, calledalso De Arenas Gordas, on the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Ma-gellan, between the capes San Antonio and SaaAndres.

CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another Cape OF pointof the coast, in the province and captainship ofSeara, between the river Molitatuba and the portPalmeras.

(CORTLANDT, a township in the n. part ofthe county of W. Chester, on the e. bank of Hud-son river. New York, containing 1932 inhabitants,of whom 66 are slaves. Of its inhabitants, in 1796,305 were electors.)

CORUPA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises near the coast of the N. sea to the e. of theprovince, and enters the Tarina.

CORUPA, another river. See Curupa.

CORUPO, San Francisco de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayorof Valladolid, in the province and bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains S3 families of Indians,3x2

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and lies seven leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.

CORUTES, a small river of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It runs n. n.'e. and en-ters the Xexuy, opposite the town of Curuguato.

CORWI, a river of the province and govern-ment of French Guinea. It enters the sea close tocape Orange.

COSACURO, a small river of the province andcolony of Surinam, or part of Guayana in theDutch possessions. It runs n. and enters theCuyuni.

COSANGA, a large river of the province ofQuixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs s. e.then turns its course e. and as it were imperceptiblyto the n. and afterwards, in order to receive on thew. the river Bermejo, enters the s. side of the riverCoca.

COSAPA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carangas in Peru, of the arch-bishopric of Charcas ; annexed to the curacy ofTurco.

COSCAOCOAS, a nation of Indians reducedto the Catholic faith, dwelling upon the llanura orlevel of Cumboso, of the jurisdiction of Lamas.They are few in number, and are bounded by theAmasifucines.

COSCOMATEPEC, San Juan de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Yxhuatlan, andalcaldia mayor of Cordoba, in NuevaEspana. Itcontains 10 families of Spaniards, 35 of Mustees,75 of Mulattoes, and 196 of Indians. Seven leaguesto the n. n. w. of its head settlement ; but the roadshere are so rugged and full of steeps and precipicesthat the sight grows dizzy at looking down them.

COSCOMITLAN, a settlement of the lieadsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlas inNueva Espana, from whence it lies one league anda half to the n. w. In its vicinity is a lake.

COSELA, a settlement and real of the silvermines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate to the n. of that of Char-cas.

COSEREMONIANOS, a barbarous nation ofIndians, of the province and government of Moxosin the kingdom of Quito ; discovered by FatherCypriano Baraza, a Jesuit. It is, however, butlittle known.

COSIGUIRACHI, a town of the province ofTaraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the most wealthy towns in the kingdom, and ofa mild and healthy temperature. Its populationis composed of many families of Spaniards andMustees^ no small number of Mulattoes, and verymany Indians. It is 24 leagues to the s. k?. \ to

the s. of the real of the mines and town of SanFelipe de Chiguagua.

Cosiguirachi, a settlement and real of thesilver mines of the intendancy of Durango inNueva Espana; of a cdld temperature ; situate ina rough and uneven territory, but being fertile, andabounding in fruits and seeds. (By a very recentmemoir of the intendantof Durango, the populationof this real was made to amount to 10,700.)

COSMA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Banos.

COSMA, another settlement, in the province andcorregimiento of Andahuailas, of the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Moro in the pro-vince of La Santa.

COSME, San, a settlement of the head settle-ment and alcaldia mayor of Fresnillo in NuevaEspana. It contains a very large number ofSpaniards, Indians, Mustees, and Mulattoes, beingvery close to the city of Zacatecas, lying fromthence only seven leagues to the n. and being 10 tothe e. of its capital.

COSME, San, another settlement, of the provinceand government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ;situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, onthe shore of a river between the settlements of SantaCatalina and San Francisco Xavier.

COSME, San, another, with the surname of Viejo,(Old), a reduccion of the missions which were heldby the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in theprovince and government of Paraguay ; situate onthe shore of the river Parana, between the settle-ments of Santa Ana and La Candelaria.

COSME, San, another, with the addition ofNuevo, (New), to distinguish it from the former inthe same province : also a reduccion of the regularsof the company of Jesuits, on the shore of theParana, and to the w. of the settlement ofJesus.

COSME, San, a small island of the gulf of Cali-fornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes ; situate very nearthe coast, in the middle of the canal which isformed by this coast and the island of Carmen,and close to another island called San Damian.

COSPALA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Juchipila in Nueva Espana.It is five leagues to the s. of the head settlement.

COSSA, or COSAIBO, a river of the provinceand government of Guayana, in the French posses-sions.

COSSART, a town of the province and colonyof N. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the riverJadquin.

COSTA-BAXA, a part of the coast of Brazil, in

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same kingdom. It contains 180 families of In-dians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes.Here is an hospital of the religious order of St.Francis. Seven leagues from its capital.

(COXHALL, a township in York county, dis-trict of Maine, containing 775 inhabitants.)

COXIMAR, a large plain of the coast of theisland of Cuba, close by the city of Havana, inwhich is a fortified tower. On this plain the Eng-lish drew up their troops when they besieged thatplace, in 1762.

COXIMES, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate on the sliore of the S. sea, on thepoint formed by the port Palmar, under the equi-noctial line.

COXO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the sea-coast,close to the settlement of Carvalleda.

(COXSAKIE, a township in the w. part ofAlbany county, New York, containing S406 in-habitants, of whom 302 are slaves. Of the citi-zens 613 are electors.)

COXUMATLAN, a settlement of the headsettlement of Zanguio and afcaldia mayor of Za-mora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of thesea of Chapala, and being backed by a large moun-tain covered with fruit-trees of various kinds, andexcellent timber and woods. It contains 17 tami-lies of Indians, who employ themselves in fishingand in agriculture. Four leagues to the w. of itshead settlement.

COYAIMAS, a barbarous and ancient nationof Indians of the province and government of Po-payán in the kingdom of Quito, and district of thetownofNeiba. Tliese Indians are valorous, ro-bust, faithful, and enemies to the Pijaos. Someof tl)ern have become converted to the Catholicfaith, and liveuniteil in settlemenis.

(COYAU, a settlement on Tennessee river, SOmiles below Knoxville.)

COYONES, a barbarous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the s. w. of Tocuyo. They are ferociousand infidels, and live upon the mountains. Theirnumbers at the present day are much reduced.

COYPO. SeeRAi.EMo.

COZAL, a settlement of the province and alcaldiamayor of Zacapula in the kingdom of Guatemala.

COZALCAQUE, San Felipe de, a settlementof the head settlement of Tenantitlan, and alcaldiamayor of Acaynca, in Nueva Espana. It contains51 families of Indians, and is 10 leagues to the e.and one-fourth to the a. e, of its head settlement.

COZAMALOAPAN, a province and alcaldiaviayor of Nueva España, the capital of which

bears the same name, with the dedicatory title ofSan Martin, and which is situate on a plain half aleague long, and somewhat less broad, surroundedby mountains so knit together, that, at the time ofits foundation, passes were obliged to be o[>ened.Through this province runs a river, which flowsdown from the sferTflA of Zongolica, and whichafterwards takes the nam.e of Alvarado, it is ofa hot and moist temperature, and continually ex-posed to inundations during the rainy seasons,owing to the immense overflowings of the rivers.Its population is composed of 38 families of Spa-niards, 128 of Mulattoes, and 34 of Mexican In-dians, who maintain themselves by the gatheringof cotton and maize ; and this last in such abun-dance as to supply Vera Cruz. The Spaniardsemploy themselves in fishing in the rivers, whichabound with fish the three last months of the year,and they carry them for sale into the other juris-dictions. It has, besides the parish church, atemple of superior architecture, dedicated toNuestra Seilora de la Soledad, though it be com-monly called, Of Cozomalotipan, being of suchancient origin as to be said to liave existed 12years before the conquest of the kingdom. Thistemple was inhabited by a religious fraternity, ap-proved by his holiness Gregory XIII. he havinggranted to the same many favours and indulgences,which, through the devotion of the communily,were perpetuated, through several prodigies andmiracles which afterwards took place in the set-tlement, and in its district. One hundred andfifteen leagues s. s.xo. of Mexico, in lat. 17^ 47' ;long. 274° 50'. The jurisdiction of this alcaldiaconsists in the folloAving settlements :

A rnatlnn,Acula,

Ixmaluliacan,Chacaltiaiiguis,Texliuacaii,Tlacotalpan,

Otatitlan,

Tuxtepec,

Chinantla,

Utzila,

Uzainacin,

A^etla.

COZAQUl, Santa Maria de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Acazingo and alcaldiamayor of Tepeaca, in Nueva Espana. It containsfour families of Spaniards, 33 Aluslees and Mu-lattocs, and 51 of Indians. It is a quarter of aleague lioni its head settlement.

COZATLA, San Juan de, a settlement of thehead settlement of Axixique, and ahaldia mayor ofZayula, in the same kingdom. It contains 60familie.s of Indians,its head settlement.

COZAUTEPEC, a settlement and head settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Chichicapain Nu-eva Espana, of the province and bishopric of3

iid is two leagues to the w. of

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Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.

COZCATLAN, a settlement and head settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Tasco in NuevaEspana. It contains 200 families of Indians, andis five leagues c. of its capital.

COZEL, a settlement of the jurisdiction andaknld'ia mayor of Culiacan in Nueva Espaila.

COZINAS, a bay of the coast of the provinceand government of Yucatán.

COZINERA, a shoal of rocks on the coast ofthe S. sea, of the province and government ofTierra Firme, very near the point of Paytilla, inthe bay of Panama.

COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.

COZTLA, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Coronango, and alcaldiamayor of Cholula, in Nueva Espana. It contains48 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n.of the capital.

COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.

(CRAB-ORCHARD, a post-town on Dick’sriver, in Kentucky, eight miles from Cumberlandriver, and 25 miles s. e. of Danville. The roadto Virginia passes through this place.)

CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered

with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.

CRAMBERRI, a small river of the provinceand colony of N. Carolina. It runs s. and entersthe source of the Conhaway.

CRAMBROOK, a river of the province andcolony of Pennsylvania in N. America.

(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)

(Cranberry Islands, on the coast of the dis-trict of Maine. See Mount Desert Island.)

(CRANEY, a small island on the s. side ofJames river, in Virginia, at the mouth of Eliza-beth river, and five miles 5. w. of fort George, onpoint Comfort. It commands the entrance of bothrivers.)

(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)

CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}

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CRAVO, Santa Barbara de, a settlement ofthe jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, of thegovernment of Los Llanos of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is on the shore of the large river of itsname, upon a very pleasant mountain plain, verynear to i\\ellanura at the bottom of the mountain, andwhere formerly stood the city of San Joseph deCravo, founded by the governor of this province in1644, but which was soon after destroyed. Thctem-perature here is not so hot as in the other parts ofthe province, from its being', as we have beforeobserved, in the vicinity of t\\e paramos or moun-taiti deserts. It produces in abundance maize,plantains, and pucas, of which is made the bestcazave of any in the kingdom, also many trees ofa hard and strong wood, used as a medicine inspotted fevers, and a specific against poisons, sothat it is much esteemed, and they make of itdrinking cups. Here are other trees, good forcuring the flux, their virtue in this disorder havingbeen accidentally discovered as follows. A la-bourer, as he was cutting down one of these trees,let his hatchet fall upon his foot; but rememberingthat by pressing his foot against the tree it wouldstop the blood, he did so, and a splinter thus gettinginto the wound, the cut soon healed without theapplication of any other remedy. Here are largebreeds of horned cattle, and the natives, whoshould amount to 100 Indians, and about as manywhites, are much given to agriculture. Eightleagues from the settlement of Morcote.

Cravo, a river of the former province and go-vernment. It rises in the province of Tunja, nearthe lake of Labranza, passes before the city, towhich it gives its name, and after running manyleagues, enters the Meta.

CRAVO, another river, in the district and juris-diction of Pamplona, of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises to the e. of the settlement ofCapitanejo, runs s. s. e. and enters the river Caza-nare, according to Beilin, in his map of the courseof a part of the Orinoco; and indeed ^\e doubt ifhe be not correct. In the woods upon its shoreslive some barbarian Indians, the }ietoyes,.Acira-guas, and Guaibas. its mouth is in tat. 3° SO' n.

(CREE Indians, The, inhabit of Littlelake Winnipeg, around fort Daiipiiin, in UpperCanada.)

(CREEKS, an Indian nation, described alsounder tfie name of Muskogulge or Muskogee,in addition to 'which is the following particulars,from the manuscript joarnal of an infeliigent tra-veller : “ Coosa river, and its main branches, formthe re. line of settlements or villages of the Creeks,but their hunting grounds cxtaid 200 miles be-

yond, to the Tombigbee, which is the dividingline between their coufitry and that of the Chac-taws. The smallest of their towns have from 20to 30 ho'.ises in them, and some of them containfrom 130 to 200, that are wholly compact. Thehouses stand in clusters of four, five, six, seven,and eight together, irregularly distributed up anddown the banks of the rivers or small streams.Each cluster of houses contains a clan or family orelations, who eat and live in common. Eac!town has a public square, hot-house, and yard ne.the centre of it, appropriatad to various pubhuses. The following are the names of the prin-cipal towns of the Upper and Lower Creeks thathave public squares ; beginning at the head of theCoosa or Coosa Hatcha river, viz. Upper Utalas,Abbacoochees, Natchez, Coosas, Oteetoocheenas,Pine Catchas, Pocuntullahases, Weeokes, LittleTallassie, Tuskeegees, Coosadas, Alabamas, Ta-wasas, Pawactas, Autobas, Auhoba, W eelump-kees Big,W eelumpkees Little, Wacacoys, Wack-soy, Ochees. The following towns are in thecentral, inland, and high country, between theCoosa and Taliapoosee rivers, in the district calledthe Hillabees, viz. Hillabees, Killeegko, Oakchoys,Slakagulgas, and Wacacoys; on the waters ofthe Taliapoosee, from the head of the river down-ward, the following, viz. Tuckabatchee, Tehassa,Totacaga, New Aork, Chalaacpaulley, Logus-pogus, Oakfuskee, Ufala Little, Ufala Big, Soga-hatches,Tuckabatchees, Big Tallassce or Half-wayHouse, Clewaleys, Coosahatches, Coolamies, Sha-Vt'anese or Savanas, Kenlsulka, and Mnckeleses.The towns of the Low'er Creeks, beginning on thehead waters of the Chattahoosee, and so on down-wards, are Chelu Ninny, Chattahoosee, liohtatoga,Cowetas, Cussitahs, Chalagatscaor, Broken Arrow,Euchces several, Hitchatces several, Palachuolo,Chewackala ; besides 20 towns and villages ofthe Little and Big Chehaus, low down on Flint andChattahoosee rivers. From their roving and un-steady manner of living, it is impossible to deter-mine, 'with much precision, the number of Indiansthat comimse tlie Creek nation. General M‘GiI-livray estimates the number of gun-men to be be-tween 3 and 6000, exclusive of the Semiuolcs, Avhoare of little or no accosmt in war, except as smallparties of marauders, acting independent of thegeneral interest of the others. The wliole numberof individuals may be about 23 or 26,000 souls.Every town and village has one established whitetrader in it, and generally a family of whites, wholiave fled from some part of the tfontiers. Theyoften, to have revenge, and to obtain jdunder thatmay be taken, use their influence to scud out pre«3 Y 2

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Bishops who have presided in Santa Cruz de laSierra.

1. Don Antonio Calderon, native of Vilches,dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bisliop ofPuertorico and Panama; first bishop in 1605;died at the advanced age of upwards of 100years.

2. Don Fray Fernando de Ocampo, of the re-ligious order of St. Francis, a native of Madrid.

3. Don Juan Zapata y Figueroa, native ofVelez-Malaga ; he was canon and inquisitor ofSeville ; presented to the brishopric of Santa Cruzin 1634.

Fray Juan de Arguinao, a religiousDominican, native of Lima, was prior and provin-cial in his religion, first professor of theology andwriting in that university, qualificator of the in-quisition ; presented to the bishopric of Santa Cruzin 1646, and promoted to the archbishopric ofSanta Fe in 1661.

5. Don Fray Bernardino de Cardenas, native ofLima, of the order of St. Francis ; promoted fromParaguay to this bishopric in 1666.

6. Don Fray Juan de Rivera, of the order ofSt. Augustin, native of Pisco in Peru ; first pro-fessor of theology.

7. Don Fray Juan de Esturrizaga, of the orderof preachers, native of Lima.

8. Don Pedro de Cardenas y Arbieto, native ofLima, collegian of the royal college of San Mar-tin, canon of its holy church.

9. Hon Fray Juan de los Rios, of the order ofSt. Dominic, a native of Lima, provincial of hisreligion in the province of San Juan Bautista delPeru.

10. Don Fray Miguel Alvarez de Toledo, ofthe order of Nuestra Sexiora de la Merced, electedin 1701.

11. Don Miguel Bernardo de la Fuente, deanof the holy church of Truxillo, elected in 1727.

12. Don Andres de Vergara and Uribe, electedin 1744 ; he died in 1745.

13. Don Juan Pablo de Olmedo, native of Tu-cuman, elected in 1745, died in 1757.

14. Don Fernando Perez de Obiitas, native ofArequipa, elected in the aforesaid year, died in1760.

15. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, nativeof Lima, elected in 1760, promoted to the arch-bishopric of Charcas in 1766.

16. Don Juan Domingo Gonzalez de la Ri-gucra, elected the aforesaid year, and promotedto the archbishopric of the holy metropolitanchurch of Lima in 1780.

17. Don Alexandro de Ochoa, elected in 1782.

Cruz, Santa, a city of the above province,which was once the capital ; founded by Nuno deChaves in 1557, after that he had passed along theshores of the river Paraguay to discover a commu-nication with the other provinces. Its inhabitants,however, not being able to stay in it through theincessant sallies of the Indians who surroundedthem, were under the necessity of changing theirsettlement ; but disagreeing in the choice of place,some of them united together, and founded the cityof Santiago del Puerto, and others that of SanLorenzo de la Frontcra, which is to-day the capi-tal, the former city being entirely abandoned.

Cruz, Santa, a settlement of the province andcorregimunto of Yauyos in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of the settlement of Pacaran in the provinceof Canete.

Cruz, Santa, another, a conversion of Indiansof the missions which were held by tlie regulars ofthe company of Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Mainas of the kingdom of Quito.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, between the cities of Cumanagoto and Ca-riaco.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Popayan ; situate to the s. of the cityof Almaguer, in the limits of the jurisdiction olQuito.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementand alca’d'ia mayor of Jochimilco in Nueva Es-pana ; situate in a mountainous and cold country,containing 46 families of Indians, who live by cut-ting timber and making fuel. It is two leagues tothe cU. of its capital.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Paccho.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement ofSt. Francisco del Valle, and akaldia mayor ofZultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 28 fa-milies of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation ofthe land, and cutting bark from trees. Ten leaguesfrom its head settlement.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcorregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Pari.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementof Huehuetlan, and alcaldia mayor oi Cuicalian, inNueva Espana; situate on the middle of a raoun-

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inin, and containing 72 families of Indians, dedi-cated to the commerce of saltpetre and cochineal.Three leagues to the s. of its head settlement.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the alcaldia mayorof the same kingdom. It contains 36 families ofIndians, and is in the boundaries of the jurisdictionof Xalapa.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the island of Cuba;situate bj a creek or bay formed by the sea, on thes. coast, between the settlement of Guanco and thebay of iflatanzas.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementof Zultepec, and alcaldia mayor of the same name,in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 families of In-dians, and is six leagues to the s. of the capital.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Toluca in the same king-dom. It contains 51 families of Indians, and is ata small distance to the n. of its capital.

Cruz, Santa, another, a head settlement of thedistrict of the province and alceddia mayor ofTlaxcala in the same kingdom.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementof Chapala, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula, in thesame kingdom ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of Chapala. It contains 28 families ofIndians, who cultivate many seeds and fruits fromthe fertility and pleasantness of the country; oc-cupying tliemselves also in traffic and in fishingupon the lakes. It is tsvo leagues to the e. of itshead settlement.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of Mainas ofthe kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of theriver Napo.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementand edra’dia mayor of Caxititlan in Nueva Es-pana. Four leagues to the s. of its cajjital.

Cruz, Santa, another, of tlie head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Tlajomulco in the samekingdom, in which there is a convcul of the reli-gious order of St. Francis.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementof Cacula, cmA alcaldia mayoral Zayula, in thesame kingdom. It contains 50 families of Indians,who employ themselves in agriculture, and in cut-ting wood upon the mountains of its district. Fourleagues between the w. and s. of its head settlement.

Cruz, Santa, another, of tlic missions whichW,ere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits in the province of Tepeguana, and kingdomof Nueva Vizcaya ; situate on the shore of theriver of Las Nasas.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the nrissions of the

VOL. 1.

religious order of St. Francis, in the province ofTaraumara, of the same kingdom as the former.Eighteen leagues to the s, e. of the real of the minesand town of San Felipe de Chiguagua.

Cruz, Santa, another, called Real de la Cruz,in the province and government of Cartagena, onthe shore of the large river Magdalena, and uponan island formed by this river and the w aters of theDique.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Antioquía in the Nuevo Reyno dcGranada, on the shore of the river Cauca.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, of the district andjurisdiction of the city of Cordoba.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the missions whichare held by the religious order of St. Francis, inthe kingdom of Nuevo Mexico.

Cruz, Santa, another, with the addition ofMayo, in the province and government of Cinaloa ;situate at the mouth of the river Mayo, whichgives it its name. It has a port convenient for trade.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the same kingdom ofNuevo Mexico ; situate on the shore of a riverwhich enters the large river Del Norte.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andgovernment of the river Hacha ; situate on thecoast, to the e. of tlie capital.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Antioquía in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; founded on the shore of the river Sinu,with a good port, which serves as an entrepot forgoods to be carried to Choco, from whence it liesa three-days journey.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana ; situate atthe mouth of the river Mayo, where this entersthe California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. Distinctfrom another, which is upon a shore of the sameriver.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of La Sonora in the same kingdom ;situate in the country of the Apaches Indians, onthe shore of a river which enters the Gila.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andalcaldia mayor of Zacapula in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andalcaldia mayor of Verapaz in the same kingdom.

(Cruz, a parish of tlie province and govern-ment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small riverrunning into the Plata, about five leagues n. of thetown of imxan, in lat. 31° 16' 22". Long. 59*23' SO" a'.)

(Cruz, La, a settlement of Indians of the pro-3 z

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known by the name of Carenas. It is of a kind,warm, and dry temperature, and more mild thanthe island of St. Domingo, owing to the refreshinggales which it experiences from the n. and e. Itsrivers, which are in number 15S, abound in richfish ; its mountains in choice and vast timber ;namely cedars, caobas^ oaks, ('ranadillos, guaya-canes^ and ebony-trees ; the fields in singing birds,and others of the chase, in flourishing trees andodoriferous plants. The territory is most fertile,so that the fields are never without flowers, and thetrees are never stripped of their foliage. Some ofthe seeds produce two crops a year, the one ofthem ripening in the depth of winter. At the be-ginning of its conquest, much gold was taken fromhence, and principally in the parts called, at thepresent day, lagua, and the city of Trinidad ; andthe chronicler Antonio de Herera affirms that thismetal was found of greater purity here than in theisland of St. Domingo. Some of it is procured atthe present day at Holguin. Here are sorne veryabundant mines of copper and load-stone; andartillery was formerly cast here, similar to thatwhich was in the fortified places of the Havana,Cuba, and the castle of the Morro. Here was es-tablished an asiento of the mines, under the reign ofthe King Don J uan de Eguiluz, when no h ss aquan-tity than lOOG quintals of gold were sent yearly toSpain. In the jurisdiction of the Havana, an ironmine has been discovered some little time since, ofan excellent quality, and the rock crystal foundhere is, when wrought, more brilliant than thefinest stones. In the road from Bayamo to Cuba,are found pebbles of various sizes, and so perfectlyround that they might be well used for cannon-balls. The baths of medical warm waters are ex-tremely numerous in this island. It contains 1 1large and convenient bays, very secure ports, andabundant salt ponds, also 480 sugar engines, fromwhich upwards of a million of arrobas are em-barked every year for Europe, and of such anesteemed and excellent quality, as without beingrefined, to equal the sugar of Holland or France ;not to mention the infinite quantity of this articleemployed in the manufacturing of delicious sweet-meats ; these being also sent over to Spain andvarious parts of America. It contains also 982herds of large cattle, 617 inclosures for swine, 350folds for fattening animals, 1881 manufactories, and5933 cultivated estates ; and but for the want ofhands, it might be said to abound in every neces-sary of life, since it produces in profusion yiicas,sweet and bitter, and of which the cazave bread ismade, coffee, maize, indigo, cotton, some cacaoand much tobacco of excellent quality ; this being

one of the principal sources of its commerce, anrJthat which forms the chief branch of the royalrevenue. This article is exported to Europe inevery fashion, in leaf, snuff, and cigars, and is heldsuperior to the tobacco of all the other parts ofAmerica. The great peculiarity of this climateis, that we find in it, the whole year round, themost Belicate herbs and fruits, in full season, nativeeither to Europe or these regions ; and amongstthe rest, the pine is most delicious. The fields areso delightful and so salutary, that invalids go to-reside in them to establish their health. Throughoutthe Avhole island there is neither wild beast or ve-nomous animal to be found. Its first inhabitantswere a pacific and modest people, and unacquaintedwith the barbarous custom of eating human flesh,and abhorring theft and impurity. These haveb-3corne nearly extinct, arid the greater part ofthem hung themselves at the beginning of the con-quest, through vexation at the hardships inflictedupon them by the first settlers. At the presentday, the natives are the most active and industriousof any belonging to the Antilles islands. Thewomen, although they have not the complexion ofEuropeans, are beautiful, lively, affable, of acutediscernment, lovers of virtue, and extremely hos-pitable and generous. The first town of this islandwas Baracoa, built by Diego Velazquez in 1512.,It is divided into two governments, which are thatof Cuba and that of the Havana : these are sub-div'ided into jurisdictions and districts. The go-vernor of the Havana is the captain-general ofthe whole island, and his command extends as faras the provinces of Louisiana and Movila ; and hisappointment has ever been looked upon as a si-tuation of the liighest importance and confidence.He is assisted by general officers of the greatestabilities and merits in the discharge of his office.When the appointment becomes vacant, the vice-roy of the Havana, thfbugh a privilege, becomesinvested with the title of Captain-General in thegovernment. The whole of the island is onediocese; its jurisdiction comprehending the pro-vinces of Louisiana, and having the title of thoseof Florida and the island of Jamaica. It is suf-fraganto the archbishopric of St. Domingo, erectedin Baracoa in 1518, and translated to Cuba bybull of Pope Andrian VI. in 1522. It numbers21 parishes, 90 churches, 52 curacies, 23 convents,3 colleges, and 22 hospitals. In 1763 some swarmsof bees were brouglit from San Agnstin de LaFlorida, which have increased to such a degree,that the wax procured from them, after reservingenough for the consumption of all the superiorclass, and independently of that used in the

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[■soms. Their limbs were finely proportioned, andtheir complexions, though brown, were smooth,shining, and lovely. Tlic Spaniards were struckwith admiration, believing that they beheld thedryads of the woods, and the nymphs of the foun-tains, realizing ancient fable. The branches whichthey bore in their hands, they now delivered ivithlowly obeisance to the lieutenant, who, enteringthe palace, found a plentiful, and, according tothe Indian mode of living, a splendid repast al-ready provided. As niglA approached, the Spa-niards were conducted to separate cottages, whereineach of them was accommodated with a cottonhammoc ; and the next morning they were againentertained with dancing and singing. This wasfollowedliy matches of w restling, and running forprizes ; after which two great bodies of armed In-dians unexpectedly appeared, and a mock engage-ment ensued ; exhibiting their modes of attack anddefence in their wars with the Caribes. Forthree days were the Spaniards thus royally enter-tained, and on the fourth the affectionate Indiansregretted their departure.”

3. Political institutions . — Their kings, as we haveseen, were called caciques and their power washereditary. But there were also subordinatechieftains, or princes, who were tributaries to thesoverei<rn of each district. Thus the territory in11 ispaniola, anciently called Xaraguay, extendingfrom the plain of Leogane to the westernmost part ofthe island, was the kingdom of the cfle^ 5 '^/e Behechio;but it appears from Martyr, that no less than 32inferior chieftains or nobles had jurisdiction withinthat space of country, who were accountable to thesupreme authority of Behechio, They seem tohave somewhat resembled the ancient barons orfeudatories of Europe : holding their possessionsby the tenure of service. Oviedo relates, that theywere under the obligation of personally attendingthe sovereign, both in peace and Avar, whenevercommanded so to do. The whole island of His-paniola was divided into five great kingdoms.The islands of Cuba and Jamaica rvere divided,like Hispaniola, into many principalities or king-doms ; but we are told that the Avhole extent ofPuerto Rico was subject to one cacique onljr. Ithas been remarked, that the dignity of these chief-tians was hercditaiy ; but if Martyr is to becredited, the laAv of succession among them wasdifferent from that of all other people ; for he ob-serves, that the caciques bequeathed the supremeauthority to the children of their sisters, accordingto seniority, disinheriting their owm offspring ;“ being certain,” adds Martyr, “ that, by thispolicy, they preferred the blood royal ; which

might not happen to be the case in advancing anyof the children of their numerous wives.” Therelation of Oviedo is somewhat different, and seemsmore probable : he remarks, that one of tlie wivesof each cacique was particularly distinguishedabove the rest, and appears to have been consideredby the people at large as the reigning queen ; thatthe children of this lady, according to priority ofbirth, succeeded to the father’s honours; but, indefault of issue by the favourite princess, the sistersof the cacique, if there were no surviving brothers,took place of the cacique’s own children by hisother wives. The principal cacique was distin-guished by regal ornaments and numerous attend-ants. In travelling through his dominions, he wascommonly borne on men’s shoulders, after a man-ner very much resembling the use of the palanquinin the E. Indies. According to Martyr, he wasregarded by all his subjects with such reverence,as even exceeded the bounds of nature and reason ;for if he ordered any of them to east themselvesheadlong from a high rock, or to drown themselvesin the sea, alleging no cause but his sovereignpleasure, he was obeyed without a murmur ; op-position to the supreme authority being consi-dered not only as unavailing, but impious. Nordid their veneration terminate with the life of theprince ; it was extended to his memory afterdeath; a proof that his authority, however extra-vagant, was seldom abused. When a caciquedied, his body was cmbowelled, and dried in anoven moderately heated ; so that the bones andeven the skin Avere preserved entire. The corpseW'as then placed in a cave with those of his ances-tors, this being (observes Oviedo) among thesesimple people the only system of heraldry ; Avhere-by they intended to render, not the name alone,but the persons also, of their worthies immortal.If a cacique Avas slain in battle, and the bodycould not be recovered, they composed songs inhis praise, Avhich they taught their children. Itis related by Martyr, that on the death of a cacique,the most beloved of his wives Avas immolated at hisfuneral. Thus he observes that Anacaona, on thedeath of her brother. King Behechio, ordered a verybeautiful Avoraan, Avhose name Avas GuanahataBenechina, to be buried alive in the cave Avlicrehis body (after being dried as above mentioned)Avas deposited. But Oviedo, though by no meanspartial towards the Indian character, denies thatthis custom Avas general among them. Anacaona,Avho had been married to a Caribe, probablyadopted the practice from the account she had re-ceived from her husband of his national customs;and it is not impossible, under a female adrninis-]

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dom of Guatemala, in the province and alcaldiamayor of Chiapa.

CUCHUNA, a large settlement of Indians, andformerly the capital of a small province of thisname in Peru, to the w. of the mountains of (heAndes. It was founded by Maita Capac, fourthEmperor of the Incas, after that he had literallystarved the country into obedience. These In-dians were treacherous, and used to give theirenemies a very deadly poison ; the said emperorcaused many to be burnt alive for having practisedthis abominable custom, and their houses to bedestroyed, together with their cattle and posses-sions.

CUCIO, a settlement of the head settlement ofPerucho, and alcaldia mayor of Guimco, in NuevaEspana. It contains 140 families of Indians, andis a quarter of a league from its head settlement.

CUCUANA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate on the shore of the river Mag-dalena.

CUCUCHO, San Bartolome de, a settle-ment of tlie head settlement of Arantzan, and aleal-dia mayor of Valladolid, in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 27 familiesof Indians, who employ themselves in agriculture,cutting wood, and making earthen-ware and

CUCUCHUCHAU, San Pedro de, a settle-ment of the bead settlement of the city of Cucupao,and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate on the shoreof the lake. It contains 18 families of Indians,and is two leagues to the s. of its head settle-ment.

CUCUISAS, a small river of the province andgovernment of Guayana. It rises to the e. of thesettlement of Encaramada, and enters the Itari.

CUCUMAYA, a river of Spanish island, or St.Domingo, which rises near the s. coast, runs s.and enters the sea between the Seco and the Bo-mana, opposite the island Cataline.

CUCUNUBA, a settlement oiihe corregimientoof Ubate in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It isof a cold temperature, and produces the fruits ofthis climate. It consists of 100 families, includingthose of its vicinity, and of 80 Indians; is nineleagues to the n. of Santa Fe.

CUCUNUCO, a mountain to the e, of the pro-vince and government of Popayan, eternallycovered with snow. From it rises the river Pu-rase, as also the river La Plata. It takes its namefrom a nation of Indians, by whom it was inhabit-

C U E 549

ed, and of whom a few only, who are reduced tothe,faith, remain.

CUCURPE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Sonora in Nueva Espana; situateon the shore of the river of its name, between thesettlements of Dolores and Ticapa.

CUCURULU, a river of the kingdom of Peru,which runs through the country of the CanisiencsIndians to the e. of the Andes, it abounds in fishof a very fine quality, which serve as food to thebarbarians; runs e. and being much swelled bythe waters it collects from others, enters the riverSanta Rosa.

CUCUTA, San Joseph de, a settlement ofthe government and jurisdiction of Pamplona inthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hottemperature, though healthy, of great commerce,owing to the cacao with which it abounds, andwhich is brought by persons coming from variousparts, the greater portion of it being embarked onthe river Sulia for Maracaibo. It contains morethan 100 rich Indians, but is infested with snakes,lice, and other noxious insects and reptiles.

CUCUTA, an extensive valley of this province (Pamplona),between the cities of Pamplona and S. Christoval,discovered by Juan de San Martin in 1534 ; cele-brated for its fertility, and excellent breed ofmules, by which the kingdom is supplied. It iswatered by many streamlets which render it luxu-riant and fertile, and most particularly in cacaoof the finest quality. The herb on which the muleschiefly feed is wild marjoram.

CUDAJA, a lake of the province and countryof Las Amazonas, in the territory possessed by thePortuguese. It is formed by one of the arms w hichis thrown out by the river Maranon, and returnsto enter the same, in the country of ihe CabaurisIndians.

CUDIHUEL, a settlement of Indians of thedistrict of Guadalabqueu in the kingdom of Chile,on the shore of the riv'er Valdivia.

CUDUUINI, a small river of the provinceand government of Cumaná. It rises in the ser~of Irnataca, runs s. and enters the Curgunion the n. side.

CUEBAYA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situateat the source of the river Bezani, to the w. of thegarrison which takes this name.

CUECA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Chipan.

CUELLO, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Tocayma, and government of Mariqnita, in

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country of Las Amazonas. It flows in the territoryof the Carigueres or Mutuanis Indians, runs c.and enters the Madera opposite the great cataract.

CUIAPAN, a settlement of the head settlementof Atoyaque, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula, inNueva Espana. It contains 70 families of In-dians, who live by agriculture and making coarsestuffs. It is one league to the s. of its head settle-ment.

CUIATAN, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxitlan,being a league and a half’s distance to the s. w.

CUIAUTEPEC, Santiago de, a settlementof the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldiamayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains32 families of Indians, and is two leagues to then. c. of its head settlement.

CUIAUTEPEC, another settlement of the headsettlement of Ayotitlan, and alcaldia mayor ofAmola, in the same kingdom. It contains 13 fa-milies of Indians, who live by agriculture andbreeding cattle; is 10 leagues to the w, of itshead settlement.

CUICATLAN, the alcaldia mayor of the pro-vince and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is 19leagues in length from e. to w. and 1 1 in widthn. s. It is of a hot temperature, abounds in salt-petre, scarlet-dye, and cotton, of which beautifulornamental dresses are made ; these being the prin-cipal source of its commerce. The capital is thesettlement of the same name, inhabited by 125 fa-milies of Cuicatecos Indians, who cultivate greatquantities of maize, French beans, and cotton. Itis 70 leagues to the e. with a slight inclination tothe s. of Mexico. The other settlements of thisdistrict are,

Alpizagua==, ==Teponastla,

Cotahuiztla==, Teutitlan]],

Nacantepec==, Santa Ana]],

Quiotepeque==, ==San Lucas,

Coyula==, ==San Antonio,

Izcatlan==, ==San Mateo,

Papalotipac==, ==San Martin,

Santiago==, ==Casa Blanca,

San Lorenzo==, ==Nanahuatipac,

San Geronimo==, ==San Juan de los Cues,

Santa Cruz==, ==Thecomahuaca,

Santa Maria==, ==Teopuxco,

San Lorenzo==, ==Santiago,

Los Santos Reyes==, ==Huehuetlan,

Tepeuzila==, ==San Pedro,

San Pedro==, ==San Juan,

San Andres==, ==Huahutla,

Santa Maria==,==Chilchola.

==CUICEO=, (Of the lake), the alcaldia mayor of

the province and bishopric of Mechoacan ; boundedc. by the province of Acambaro ; n. by that ofZelaya; nc. by that of Pasquaro ; and s. by thatof Valladolid. It is in length eight leagues frome. to w. and five in width «. s. It is surroundedby a lake of wholesome water, which gives itsname to the jurisdiction, and which, towards then. part, becomes dry in the summer season, itswaters being supplied from certain drains fromanother large lake which lies on its s. side. Thetemperature here is, for the most part, mild anddry, and the place abounds with salutary waters,which bubble out from a fountain in an island ofthe above mentioned lake. Its commerce is verysmall, since it produces only maize, French beans,and Chile pepper, and a kind of fish found in greatabundance in both the lakes, called charaes.

The capital is the settlement of the samename ; situate in front of the island formed bythe lake.. It contains a convent of the religiousorder of St. Augustin, and 190 families of Indians,including those of the wards of its district, 72 ofSpaniards, 11 of Mulattoes, and 43 of Mustees.It is 50 leagues to the w, of Mexico. The othersettlements are,

San Marcos==, ==San Buena Ventura,

San Geronimo==, ==Cupandaro,

Sta. Ana Maya==, ==San Juan. (Mechoacan)

CUICOCHA, a large lake of the province andcorregimiento of Octavalo in the kingdom ofQuito, surrounded by living stone. To the e. ithas a rock, where it forms a streamlet, which after-wards enters the river Blanco. It does not appearto receive its waters from any source, and i«thought to be filled through subterraneous aque-ducts from the mountain of Cota-cacbe, which iscovered with eternal snow. In the middle of thislake rise two hills, which have the appearance oftwo beautiful isles, the one being covered withtrees, and filled with stags and mountain goats, andthe other being bedecked with a herb calledp^jow,amongst which thrive many Indian rabbits, which,in the language of the country, are called cuy^ andfrom thence the name of Cuy-cocha, which meansthe lake of Indian rabbits. The water which runsbetween the two islands, forms a channel of 3000fathoms. This lake belongs to the noble familyof the Chiribogas of Quito.

CUILAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Ygualapa in Nueva Espana,half a quarter of a league’s distance from its ca-pital.

CUILAPA, a town, the head settlement of thedistrict of the alcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas inNueva Espana ; situate at the skirt of a mountain.

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It is of a mild temperulurcj but rather inclined tocold than heat. It contains 264 families of In-dians, and a convent of the religious order of St.Domingo, and in its district are various estates, inwhich, and in the 10 settlements of which its dis-trict consists, are collected scarlet dje, seeds, fruits,coal, woods, and timber. It is two leagues s. e. ofthe capital.

CUILOTO, a river of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, It rises in the mountains of Bogota,runs e. through the llanos or plains of Casanare andMeta, and afterwards enters the river Meta. Somebarbarian Indians, the liraras and Chinalos, liveabout its borders, dispersed amongst the woods.

CUIQUE, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of thelake Tacarigua, towards the s.

CUIQUILA, Santa Maria de, a settlementand head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold tem-perature, contains 76 families of Indians, whoseonly employment is that of making stone flags ;and these in sufficient quantity to supply the wholeprovince. Is nine leagues s.w. of its capital.

CUISILLO, San Francisco de, a settlementand head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of thetown of Leon, in the province and bishopric ofMechoacan, contains S3 families of Indians, whoemploy themselves in the cultivation of maize andmany fruits. It is very close to its capital.

CUITES, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and govetument of Cinaloaof Nueva Espaila.

CUITI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, of the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the mountains towards the n. and entersthe sea between the islands Palmas and Pinos.

CUITINA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate in the llanura of Sogamoso, be-tween the settlement of this name and that of Tota.It is of a cold temperature, produces wheat, maize,papas, and the other fruits of a cold climate. Itcontains 60 housekeepers, and as many Indians ;lies eight leagues to the n. of Tunja.

CUIXTLAHUACA, San Juan de,, a settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan in NuevaEspaila. It contains 604 families of Indians, withthose of the wards of its district. It is of a hottemperature, and lies 16 leagues s. w. of its capi-tal. It produces some scarlet dye and seeds,

CUIXTLAHUACA, San Juan de, another settle-ment, of the alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in the samekingdom. It contains 15 families of Indian’s,

VOE. 1.

CUJENA, Cano de, an arm of the river Negro,in the country of Las Amazonas. It runs nearlydue s. and joins the Parime.

CUJILLOS, a settlement of province and go-vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Ma-railon.

[CUJO. See Cuva.]

CUL DE Sac, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in the part possessed by them in theisland of St. Domingo. It is in the head of the w.and upon the w. coast, on the shore of a river be-tween port Principe and the river of Naranjos orOranges.

Cul de Sac, another settlement and parish inthe island of Guadalupe. It lies on the shore ofthe bay of its name, between the rivers Vondi-piques and Testu. There is also another settle-ment in the same bay, between the rivers Lezardand Sarcelles.

CUL DE SAC, a large bay and convenient portof the same island (Guadalupe), which is the principal of thewhole island, and in which are many smallerislands. There is also another close to it, dis-tinguished by the title of Cul de Sac Petit ; andthese are divided by an isthmus of land, which al-lows a communication to the same lakes by a nar-row channel.

CULATAS, a small settlement of the districtand jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the cor-regimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada ; annexed to the curacy of Oiba, It lies be-tween the settlements of Socorro and Charala,

CULAUI, a river of the island of La Laxa, inthe kingdom of Chile. It runs w. forming a bendbetween those of Huaque and Duqueco, and entersthe Biobio.

CULCHE, a settlement of Indians, of the dis-trict of Guadalabquen, and kingdom of Chile;situate at the source of the river Valdivia.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, a river on (he coast ofthe province and government of Costarica, of tliekingdom of Guatemala. It runs into tlie N. sea,between the river Bocaes and the bay of Almi-rante.

CuLEBRAs, Rio de, another river in the pro-vince and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises inthe mountains of the n. coast, and point of SanBias, and runs into the sea to the w.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, another, of the island ofSanto Domingo, in the e. head ; runs into thesea in the great bay of Samana, between the riversMagua and Yaina.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, a lake of the province andgovernment of Venezuela, between the river of Sa-4 B

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linas and that of Chirgua, in the space left bythese rivers as they run to enter the Portuguesa.

CULEBRAS, rio de, a settlement of the sameprovince and government (Venezuela) as is the former lake ;situate on the sliore of the river Yaraqui, to the e.of the town of San Felipe.

CULEBRAS, RIO DE, an island of the N. sea,near the coast of the province and government ofCartagena, at the entrance of the large river of LaMagdalena.

CULEBRILLAS, a small island of the S. sea,in the bay of Panama, of the province and go-vernment of Tierra Firme; is one of thosewhich Ibrm with that of Perico the port of thisname. .

CULIACAN, a province and alcald'm mayorof the kingdom of Nueva Galicia ; bounded n.and n. e. by the province of Cinaloa, s. by that ofCopala, s. w. by the kingdom of Niieva Fizcaya,s. by that of Chiamatlan, and w. by the gulf ofCalifornia. It is 60 leagues in length and 50 inAvidth. It is fertile, apd abounds in all sorts ofproductions; is watered by various rivers, par-ticularly the Umaya, Avhich is very large, and inwhich are caught great quantities offish. It emp-ties itself into the S. sea, in the port of Navitoos.It abounds in various earths, salt, and silvermines, and in many settlements of Mexican In-dians, reduced by the missionaries of the religionof St. Francis. The capital is of the same name.Lat.24°58'??.

CULIACAN, with the dedicatory title of San Mi-guel, a town which was founded by Nunez deGuzman in 1531 ; situate on the banks of a smallriver, Avhich afterwards unites itself Avith theUmaya. It is 160 leagues from Guadalaxara,and 260 from Mexico. The other settlements ofthis province are,

Cozela Real de Minas==, ==Binapa,Tacuchameta==, ==Baita.

Buya,

CULIACAN, a settlement of the intendancyof Sonora in Nueva Espana, celebrated in theMexican history under the name of Hueicol-huacan. The population is estimated at 10,800souls.]

CULIACAN, a river of this province (Sonora), which di-vides the jurisdiction of the same from that of Ci-naloa. It runs into the sea at the entrance of thegulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. At itsmouth or entrance are some very dangerous shoalsof the same name. See St. Michael.

CULLI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canta in Peru j annexed to the cu-racy of Pari.

CULLOUMAS, a settlement of Indians, of thsprovince and colony of Georgia ; situate on theshore of the river Apalachicola.

CULLOUMAS, a settlement of the province andcorregirnienlo of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the-curacy of San Buenaventura.

CULLUE, a large lake of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru. From it isformed the canal Avhich empties itself into theriver Paria.

CULLURI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Toledo.

CULLURQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru, in the vici-nity of which, in an estate for breeding cattle, is apoor chapel of Santa Rosa, and near to this twovery large rocks, Avhich, being touched with smallstones, send forth a sound similar to bells of thebest temper and metal.

CULPEPPER, a county in Virginia, betweenthe Blue ridge and the tide waters, which con-tains 22,105 inhabitants, of whom 8226 are slaves.The court-house of this county is 45 miles fromFredericksburg, and 95 from Charlottesville.]

CULTA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of Condocondo.

CULTEPEQUE, a settlement of the real ofthe silver mines of the province and alcaldiamayor of Tlaxcala in Nueva Espana.

CULUACAN, San Lucas de, a settlement ofthe head settlement and alcatdia mayor of Yzucárin Nueva Espana. It contains 50 tamilies of In-dians, and Avas formerly the capital of the juris-diction. Here there still remain some baths ofwarm water, celebrated for the cure of many in-firmities. It is two leagues to the s. Avith a slightinclination to the 5. e. of its head settlement.

CUMA, San Antonio de, a town of the pro-vince and captainship of Marañan in Brazil. Itcontains a good parish-church, two convents ofmonks, one of the order of Carmen, and the otherof La Merced ; and at a short distance from thetown is a house Avhich was the residetice of the re-gulars of the company of .Jesuits. This town be-longs to the lordship of the house of Antonio Al-burquerque Coello de Carballo. It is three leaguesfrom its capital.

CUMA, San Antonio de, another settlement inthis province and kingdom (Marañan Brazil); situate near the coastand the cape of its name.

CUMA, San Antonio de. This cape is .alsoin the same captainship^ (Marañan) between a bar and thebay of Cabelo de Yelha. The aforesaid bar is a

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shoal of rock, Vfliich runs into the sea at the en-trance of the river Maranan, in the same pro-vince.

CUMAIPI, a small river of the country of LasAmazonas, or part of Guayana possessed by thePortuguese. It runs c. under the equinoctial line,and enl^ers tlie Marailon, at its mouth or entranceinto the sea.

CUMANA, a province and government of S.America, called also Nueva Andalucia ; though,properly sj)eaking, the latter is only a part of Cu-inana, which contains in it also other provinces.It extends 76 geographical leagues from e. to w.from the point of Piedra, the oriental extremity ofTierra Firme, on the coast of Paria, and greatmouth of Drago, as far as the mouth of the riverUnare, the deep ravines of which form, as it Avere,limits to the w. between this province and that ofVenezuela; the waters of the aforesaid river run-ning for a great distance towards the serramaor settlement of Pariguan ; from wliich point theline of division is undecided as far as the riverOrinoco, 20 leagues to the s. From the w. to s.it is 270 leagues, namely, from the sea-coast to thegreat river or country of Las Amazonas, the terri-tory of which is divided by the renowned riverOrinoco. On the e. it is terminated by the sea,which surrounds the coast of Paria, the gulfTriste, the mouths of the Orinoco, the riverEsquivo and Cayenne ; on the s. no. it is boundedby the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which extendsits limits as far as the river Orinoco, being dividedby this river from Guayana. It is a continued ser-Tanitty running along the whole coast from e. to w.being nine or 10 leagues wide ; and although it isnot without some llanos or extensive plains, theseare but little known, and are entirely impassable,owing to the swamps and lakes caused by the in-undations of the rivers which flow down from thesierra. The sierra, in that part which looks to then. is barren, and in the vicinities of the coast thesoil is impregnated with nitre, and is unfruitful.The temperature is healthy but cold, especially atnight. The most common productions of this pro-vince are maize, which serves as bread, supplyingthe want of wheat, ^uca root, of which anotherkind of bread is made, cosabe, plantains, and otherfruits and pulse peculiar to America ; also cacao,although with great scarcity, and only in the n.part ; and sugar-canes, which are only cultivatedin a sufficient degree to supply the sugar consumedhere. It has some cattle ; and although there aremeans of breeding and feeding many herds, thenatives choose rather to supply themselves from

ANA.

the neighbouring province of Barcelona, notwith-standing the difficulty of bringing them hither oversucli rugged and almost impassable roads. Tliewhole of the coast yields an immense abundance offish, also of shell fish of various kinds, and of themost delicate flavour. Of these the consumjitiouis very great, and a great proportion of them aresalted, and carried to the inland parts ; and to theprovince of Venezuela alone upwards of 6000quintals yearly. It has several convenient and se-cure ports and bays, and indeed the whole coast iscovered with them, as the sea is here remarkablycalm, and peculiarly so in the celebrated gulf ofCariaco, as also in the gulfs of the lake of Obispo,Juanantar, and Gurintar. It has many very abun-dant saline grounds, so much so, that the wholecoast may be looked upon as forming one ; sincein any part of it as many might be established aswere necessary ; and this without mentioning thatcelebrated one of Araya, and those of the gulfTriste, between the settlements of Iraca and Soro,and the Sal Negra, (Black Salt), used only by theIndians. In this province there are only threerivers of consideration, that of Cariaco, of Cumana,and of Guarapiche : the others which flow downfrom the serrama are of little note, and incorporatethemselves with the former before they arrive inthe valley. Its jurisdiction contains six settle-ments belonging to the Spaniards, seven belongingto the Indians, 13 to the missions supported bythe Aragonese Capuchin fathers, and 16 belong-ing to the regular clergy. [From the river Unareto'the city of Cumana, the soil is very fertile.From the Araya to the distance of between 20 and25 leagues, more to the e. the coast is dry, sandy,and unfruitful. The soil is an inexhaustible mineboth of marine and mineral salt. That which isnear the Orinoco is fit only for grazing, and this isthe use to which it is put. It is here that all thepens of the province are kept. All the rest of thiscountry is admirably fertile. The prairies, thevalleys, the hills, proclaim by their verdure and bythe description of the produce, that nature has de-posited here the most active principles of vegetablelife. The most precious trees, the mahogany, theBrazil and Campechy woods, grow even up to thecoast of Paria ; and there are found here manyrare and agreeable birds. In the interior of the go-vernment of Cumana are mountains, some of Avhichare very high : the highest is the Tumeriquiri,which is 936 fathoms above the surface of the sea.The cavern of Guacharo, so famous among the In-dians, is in this mountain. It is immense, andserves as an habitation for thousands of night birds, 14 B 2

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llio Naipi to Cartagena. The same way offersthe advantage of a very quick communication be-tween Cadiz and Lima. Instead of dispatchingcouriers by Cartagena, Santa Fe, and Quito, orby Buenos Ayres and Mendoza, good quick-sail-ing packet-boats might be sent from Cupica toPeru. If this plan were carried into execution,the viceroy of Lima would have no longer to waitfive or six months for the orders of his court. Be-sides, the environs of the bay of Cupica aboundswith excellent timber fit to be carried to Lima.We might almost say that the ground betweenCupica and the mouth of the Atrato is the onlypart of all America in which the chain of theAndes is entirely broken.]

CUPIN, a small river of the province and cap-tainship of Para in Brazil. It runs n. n. zo andenters the Guama, before it runs into the Amazo-nas or Maranon.

CUPIRA, a river of the province of Barcelona,and government of Cumana, in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the serrania, and runsf. until it enters the sea, close to the settlement ofTucuyo.

CUPITA, Cano de, an arm of the riverOrinoco, which runs out by the w. side, and takesits course n. opposite the mouth of the Caura.

CUPLICOS, a river of the province and alcal-dia maijor of Tabasco in Nueva Espana, whichfalls into the sea in the bay of Mexico, between theDos Bocas and the Tabasco.

CUPO, a small river of the province and coun-try of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by thePortuguese. It rises in the territory of the Nou-rises Indians, runs s. and enters the Trqpibetas.

CUQUE, a large river of the province andgovernment of Darien, and kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises near the N. sea, to the e. of theprovince, and following an e. course, enters thecanal of Tarena.

CUQUIARACHI, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, in the province and government of LaSonora.

CUQUIO, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdictionof Nueva Espana, in the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara ; is one of themost civilized and fertile, abounding in fruits andseeds, and being of a mild temperature. It iswatered by three rivers, which are the Verde onthe e. the Mesquital on the w. and the Rio Grandeon the s. in which last the two former becomeunited.

The capital is the settlement of its name, in-habited by a large population of Indians, some

Mmtets and Mulattoes, and a few Spaniards ;is 13 leagues to the n. e. of Guadalaxara, in long.268° ; and lat. 21° 40'. The other settlements are,Cantla== , ==Tenalucan,

Manalisco== , ==Quaquala,

Huisculco== , ==Ocotic,

Yagualica== , ==Tepunahuasco,

Acatico== , ==Yotahuacan,

Mestitlan== , ==Tacotan,

Nochistlan== , ==San Christoval,

Toyagua== , ==Iscatlan.

Apulco,

[CURA, with the surname of St. Louis de, issituate in a valley formed by mountains of a verygrotesque appearance ; those on the s. w. side arecapped with rocks. The valley is, however, fer-tile, and covered with produce, but the greaterpart of the property consists in animals. Thetemperature is warm and dry ; the soil is a reddishclay, which is extremely muddy in the rainy sea-sons ; the water is not limpid, although it is whole-some. The inhabitants are 4000, governed bya cabildo. In the church is an image of our Ladyof Valencianosy the claim to which was long asubject of dispute between the curate of Cura andthat of Sebastian de los Reynos ; and after a SO yearscontest, it was ordered by the bishop Don Fran-cisco de Ibarro to be returned to this place, whenit was received in a most triumphant manner. Thiscity is in lat. 10° 2' ; twenty-two leagues s. xo. ofCaracas, and eight leagues s. e, of the lake ofValencia.]

CURABICO, a river of the province and cap-tainship of Maranan in Brazil.

CURACOA, or Curazao, an island of theN. sea, one of the Smaller Antilles ; situate nearthe coast of the province and government of Vene-zuela. It is 30 miles long, and 10 broad, and is theonly island of any consideration possessed by theDutch in America. It was settled in 1527, by theEmperor Charles V. as a property upon theliouse ofJuan de Ampues ; is fertile, and abounds in sugarand tobacco, large and small cattle, also in very goodsaline grounds, by which the other islands are pro-vided : but its principal commerce is in a contra-band trade carried on with the coasts of TierraFirme ; on which account its storehouses are filledwith articles of every description imaginable.Formerly its ports were seldom without vessels ofCartagena and Portobelo, which were employedn the Negro trade, bringing home annually froiu1000 to 15,000 Negroes, with various other ar-ticles of merchandise, although this branch ofcom-merce has, from the time that it was taken up bythe English, greatly declined. On the s. part of

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CURAHUARI an ancient province of Peru, tothe n. of Cuzco. The Inca Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor, conquered and united it to the em-pire.

CURAHUASI, a settlement of tlie provinceand con eginiietito of Abancay in Peru, S3 leaguesdistant from the city of Cuzco.

CURAI, a settlement of the province and cor~regimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Churin.

CURAL, a settlement of the province and cap-tainship of Rio Janeyro in Brazil ; situate on thecoast, opposite the Isla Grande.

CURAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Guayana. It enters the Meta, and losesits name.

CURAMPA, an ancient settlement of the pro-vince of Chinchasuyu in Peru. The Prince Ya-huar Huacar, eldest, son of the first Emperor, theInca Roca, took it by force of arms, and subjectedit to the crown. It was then one of the strongplaces of the province.

CURANARIS, a barbarous and numerous nationof Indians, divided into bodies of militia, who in-habit the woods near the river Bayari to the s. ofthe Maranon.

CURANTA, an islet or rocky shoal of thecoast of the kingdom of Chile, close to the point ofXosH umos.

CURAPO, a settlement of the missions whichare held by the religious Capuchins, in the pro-vince and government of Guayana.

CURAUAUA, a river of the kingdom of Chile,in the district and jurisdiction which belonged tothe city Imperial. It runs w. and forms Avith theEyou the great lake of Puren, out of which it runson the 5. w. side, uniting itself with the Cauten,or the Imperial.

CURASAY a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Maynas in the king-dom of Quito. It rises in the paramos of 'i'a-cunga, and after running e. for more than 90leagues, enters the Napo ; first collecting the wa-ters of the Soetuno, Noesino, and Turibuno, onthen, and on the s. the Villano. The woods onthe s. are inhabited by some barbarous nations ofIquitos, Ayacores, and Scimugaes Indians, and the«. parts by the Yates and Zaparas.

CURARICARU, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana. It rises in the countryof the Maraucotos Indians, runs e. and turning itscourse enters the Parime or Puruma.

CURASANA, a river of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana. It rises neartlie settlement of Cari, towards the c. runs s. and

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enters the Orinoco, near the Angostura, or narrowpart.

CURASCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimieyito of Cochabamba in Peru ; annexed tothe coracy of Ayruhanca.

CURASENI, a small river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs e. and entersthe Orinoco between the settlements of the missionsAvhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, called Santa Teresa, and San Ignacio.

CURASIRI, a small river of the province andgovernment of Cumana. It rises in the serraniaof Ymataca, runs s. and enters the Cuyuni on then. side.

CURATAQUICHE, a settlement of the pro-vince of Barcelona and government of Cumana ;situate on the shore of the river Nevery, to the s.of the city of Barcelona.

CURAZAICILLO, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Mainas in the kingdomof Quito. It rises in the country of the AbijirasIndians, runs e. and turning afterwards to the n.enters the Napo, close to the settlement of Oravia.

CURAZILLO, or Curaza Chico, or Little,a small island of the N. sea, near the coast ofTierra Firme, and close upon the e. side of Cu-ra^oa.

CURBA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimknio of Larecaxa in Peruj annexed to thecuracy of Charazani.

CURBATI, a small settlement of Indians ofthe province and government of Maracaibo; an-nexed to the curacy of the city of Pedraza. Itsnatives, although few, are docile and well in-clined.

CURE River of, in the island of Guadalupe,one of the Antilles or Windward isles. It rises inthe mountains to the e. and enters the sea betweenthe bay of La Barque and the port of Las Gpa-yabas.

CURECA, a river of the province and captain-ship of Para in Brazil. It runs nearly due n.and enters that of Las Amazonas.

[CURIACO, a bay in Tierra Firme, S. Ame-rica, on the N. sea.]

CURIANCHE, an habitation or palace, builtby the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac,of very large stones, and covered with straAv; fromAvhence the city of Cuzco has its origin. Thispalace was afterwards dedicated to the sun, andbecame converted into a temple, being the mostbeautiful and rich structure of any in Peru, in thetime of the Indians; the inside of it being casedAvitb gold, and the outside with silver, these metals

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CURCURIBISA, a river of the province and government of Quijos and Macas, in the district of *he second, and in the kingdom of Quito. It rises in the country of the Xibaros Indians, runs inclining to the s. e. and enters the Santiago. CURICO, San Joseph de, a town of the province and corregimiento of Maule in the kingdom of Chile ; situate on the shore of the river Huaico. It is small, and but thinly peopled, its inhabitants being for the most part composed of people of colour. [The metal of the mine lately discovered here has obtained the name of natural avanturine, from its being filled with brilliant particles that give it a beautiful appearance. This metal is used by the goldsmiths for rings, bracelets, and other ornaments of jewellery.] CURICURARI, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It runs e. between the rivers Cicayuri and Yurubechi, and enters the Negro. CURIEPE, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the coast, near the point or cape of Codera, on the shore of the river of its name. Curiepe. This river rises in the mountains near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea in the bay formed by the cape Codera.

CURIES, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yea in Peru ; annexed to one of the curacies of the Indians of its capital. CURIGUACURU, a river of Nueva Andalucia, Austral or Inferior, in the province of Guayana. It flows down from the mountains of the Caribes Indians to the n. and. running s. and increasing its waters by many other streams, enters the Maranon. CURIGUIMAR, a lake of the province and government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia, on the shore of the river Orinoco, close to the town of Sanchez. CURIGUIRES, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the woods bordering upon the source of the river Cuchigaras, and bounded by the Indians of this name, as also by the Cumavaris. Some of these Indians are warlike, and of gigantic stature. CURIMON, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aconcagua in the kingdom of Chile in the district of which is a convent of the religious recollects, or strict observers of the order of St. ■ Francis, bearing the title of Santa Rosa de Vfr terbo. CURINAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the s. part of the river Maranon. It is but little known, and all that is traced of them is, that they are in continual warfare with the Aguas ; so that their numbers are gradually diminishing. CURIPANA, a port of the coast of the N. sea, in the province and government of Cumana, to the s. of the city of Cariaco. CURIQUAXES, S. Francisco de los, a settlement of the province and government of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom of Quito. It belongs to the district of the former, and is one of those which compose the reduccion of the Sucurabos Indians, held at the charge of the regulars of the company of Jesuits. CURITI, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; annexed to the curacy of Guane. It is of a very wood temperature, pleasant and agreeable. Its natives, who should amount to 30 or 40 Indians, are docile, mild, and of good dispositions. CURITIMI see CorentinCURITUBA, a town of the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil ; situate near the coast. Curitcjba, a river, called also Yguazii, in the province and government of Paraguay. It runs w. collecting the waters of many other rivers, and enters with a large stream into the Parana. See Yguazu.

CURU, a river of the province and captainship of Seara in Brazil. It runs n. and enters the sea, between the coast of Los Humos and the point of Los Baxos or Arricifes. CURUA, a river of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil. It rises in the country of the Aritues Indians, runs to the n.n.e. and enters the river of Las Amazonas on the 5. side. CURUARI, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, in the territory of the Cayapos Indians. It rises in its mountains, runs s.s.e. and enters the n. side of the large river Parana. CURUAT, a small river of the province and government of Guayana. It runs nearly parallel with the river Caroni, collecting the waters of many others in its course, until it enters this river. CURUAU, an island of the N. sea ; situate at the mouth or entrance of the river of Las Amazonas, to the s. of the island of La Penitencia. CURUA-UASU, a village and settlement of the Portuguese, in the kingdom of Brazil ; situate on the shore of a small river which enters the Sono.

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