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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


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those which form its different mouths : also theisland of its name, inhabited by the Guaranos In-dians.

CAPUXA, a small settlement of the jurisdictionand alcaldía mayor of Ixmiquilpán, and of the ca-pital of Orizava, in Nueva España.

CAQUETA, a very large and abundant riverrising in the province of Sucumbios in the kingdomof Quito, in the mountains of Mocoa, this namebeing also given to it: it runs from w. to e. Onthe s. it gathers the waters of the San Pedro, SantaCruz, and Arevalo, and on the n. those of theLucia, Pato, Tango, Tabaquero, Cascabeles,Iscanzé, and others of an inferior description. Itdivides itself into two arms, the one of which takesthe name of Yupura, and which, running nearly tothe same point as the Marañon, separates itself intoother branches, which enter into this latter river in4° of lat. and immediately become as large andconsiderable as if they were the main stream : theother arm is also divided into two, the one takinga n. e. course, and entering the Orinoco, and theother running s. e. and bearing the name of the RioNegro ; by means of which, in the year 1744, somePortuguese came from Marañon to Orinoco, andproved the communication of these rivers, whichbefore was doubted : also by one of the arms of theYupura, Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada found hisway to the new kingdom of Granada when heundertook its conquest. Some maintain that thisriver was the Orinoco, and thus has Don PedroMaldonado represented it in his map published inthe year 1750; but that of the Father BernadoRosella, missionary of the abolished society of theJesuits in Orinoco, made after the notes and in-structions of the Father Manuel Roman, attributeswith some confidence another origin to the Orinoco,and speaks of the Caquetá as one of the rivers whichenter it on the w. side. The Spanish geographerCruz, in his General Chart of America, makes nodistinction between the Yupura and the Caquetá,and only speaks of one stream, which runs con-tinually to the s. s. e. through the territory of the Ca-vauris Indians, before it enters the Marañon. Hedelineates the same as throwing out four branchesto the w. and three to the e. all which join the latterriver ; and he further states, that before it becomesthus divided, it forms on its n. side two large lakescalled Ynabavú and Cumapi ; from the whole ofwhich may be easily inferred how great is theabundance of its waters.

CAQUEZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofUbaque in the new kingdom of Granada, situate ina warm but pleasant and agreeable soil, althoughmuch infested by venomous snakes called tayas :


it abounds in the productions of a warm climate,contains more than 200 housekeepers, and is nineleagues to the s. w. of Santa Fe, in the road whichleads from San Juan de los Llanos to this capital.

CAQUIAUIRI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CAQUINGORA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CARA, an ancient province of the kingdom ofQuito towards the w. It extends itself along thecoast of the Pacific sea from the point of Pajonal tothe bay of Quaquez, for the space of 19 or 20leagues ; is watered by the rivers Tasagua andChonos to the s. and by the Jama to the n. Thewhole of the lands lie low, and are uncultivated andfull of wood ; the climate is hot and moist. It is atpresent united to the province of Esmeraldas.

CARA, the capital, which is now destroyed, wasfounded by Francisco de Ribas in the year 1562.It was situate in the bay of Cara, which is formedby the mouths of the two rivers Tasagua andChones : its ruins are still to be seen, and from thesewas built the settlement of Canoa, at six leaguesdistance, which was the residence of the lieutenantgovernor. This settlement was in 31' s. lat.

Cara, with the addition of BELLA, a small set-tlement of the Portuguese in the province and cap-tainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil ; situate at thesource of the river Prieto, and in the territory orcountry of the Pories Indians.

CARABAIA, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded on the e. by Larecaja, w. by Quis-picanchi, n. w. and n. by the territories of theinfidel Indians, called Carangues, Sumachuanes,and others, who are separated by the famous riverInambary; s. w. by the province of Canes andCanches or Tinta, and s. by Lampa and Asangaro,and in part by Puno or Paucarcolla. According {othe nice measurements which were made with re-gard to this province as well as of the others, it issaid to be 40 leagues from n. to s. and 50 at themost from e. to w. Its furtherest limits are only 14leagues distant from Cuzco, although on horsebackit is necessary to go a round of 60 leagues. Itsclimate is various, according to the more or lesselevated situation of the country; so that it is insome parts very cold, and in others more temperate.The pastures are good, consequently there is nowant of cattle, and in the neighbourhood of theAndes they gather three or four crops of coca inthe year. In this province is included that calledSan Gaban, which was united to it; many settle-ments having been at the same time added to theprovinces of Larecaja, Lampa and Asangaro. Ithas abounded more in gold than any other province

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and it is, indeed, pretty generally believed thatthis cross was left here by the above apostle.

CARAC, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of Lampian.

CARACARA, an ancient and small province ofCharcas in Peru, to the s. of Cuzco, and the lastof those conquered by the sixth Emperor or Inca.

CARACARES, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It is 26 leagues inlength, and has many fertile islands, inhabited bybarbarian Indians, and empties itself through acanal into the river Paraná on the e. side. It isin 30° 41' s. lat.

CARACAS, Santiago de Leon de, a capitalcity of the province of Venezuela, founded byDiego Losada in the year 1566, in a beautiful andextensive valley of more than four leagues inlength. It is of a very mild temperature, beingneither troubled with excessive heat or cold. It iswatered by four rivers, which fertilize its territory,and make it abound as well in delicate waters asin exquisite fruits and flowers: the streets are wideand straight, the buildings elegant and convenient,and it is ornamented by four marts. It is the seatof the bishopric, erected in the city of Coro in1532, and translated to this spot in 1636. It hasa beautiful cathedral church, besides some parishchapels, which are Nuestra Señora de Alta Gra-cia ; San Pablo, which is also an hospital, andNuestra Señora de la Candelaria, out of the wallsof the city. There is also an hospital De la Ca-ridad (of charity) for women ; a convent of the re-ligious order of Santo Domingo, in which is heldin high respect the wonderful image of the Virginof the Rosary, presented by Philip II. There isanother convent of San Francisco, in which ispreserved a piece of the wood of the cross left bythe Governor Don Martin de Robles Villafañate ;another of our Lady of La Merced ; a monasteryof religious women of La Concepcion ; another ofthe Carmelites Descalzas (barefooted) ; a college andseminary for the education of youth, with five ca-thedrals ; four hermitages dedicated to San Mau-ricio, Santa Rosalia de Palermo, La Divina Pas-tora, and La Santisima Trinidad. Charles II.granted to this city the privilege of allowing itsalcaldes to govern the province in the vacancy ofa governor ; and Philip V. permitted a commer-cial company of Biscayans to be established, whoreaped considerable affluence, especially in the ar-tiles of cacoa and sugar, the chief source of its re-venues ; but this company was abolished in thereign of Charles III. in the year 1778 ; which cir-cumstance was considered by the city and the pro-

vince as a most considerable privilege. The num-ber of inhabitants amounts to about 1000, besidesan infinity of people of colour by whom it is in-habited. The natives have shown themselves tobe of an ingenuous disposition, clever, affable, andcourteous. Its arms are a grey lion rampant in afield of silver, having between his arms a scollop-shell of gold, with the cross of Santiago ; and thecrest is a crown with five points of gold. It wassacked in 1566 by Sir Francis Drake, who camethither in an English cruiser ; also by the Frenchin 1679. It is three leagues distant from the portof Guaira. Long. 67° w. Lat. 10° 30' n.

The bishops who have presided in this city.

1. Don Rodrigo Bastidas, dean of the holychurch of St. Domingo, the chief of the visitationof the bishopric of Puertorico; elected on the 27thOctober 1535, and who died in 1542.

2. Don Miguel Gerónimo Ballesteros, dean ofthe church of Cartagena of the Indies ; electedin 1543.

3. Don Fr. Pedro de Agreda, of the order ofSt. Domingo, collegiate of San Gregorio of Val-ladolid ; presented to this bishopric in 1558, andtaking possession of it 1560. In his time the citywas sacked by the English : he died in 1580.

4. Don Fr. Juan de Manzanillo, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; presented in the year 1582 ; he re-built the church, and died in 1593.

5. Don Fr. Diego Salinas, of the order of St.Domingo, native of Medina del Campo, colle-giate of San Gregorio de Valladolid, prior in dif-ferent convents, procurator-general in the court,and elected bishop in the year 1600 : in the fol-lowing year he died.

6. Don Fr. Pedro Martin Palomino, of the orderof St. Domingo ; elected in 1601 : he died the sameyear.

7. Don Fr. Pedro de Oña, native of Burgos, ofthe order of our Lady of La Merced ; he was even-ing lecturer in the university of Santiago, electedbishop in 1601, canonized in the convent of Val-ladolid, and before he came to his church, waspromoted to the bishopric of Gaeta, in the king-dom of Naples, in 1604.

8. Don Fr. Antonio de Alcega, of the order ofSt. Francis ; he Avas formerly married, and heldthe office of accountant to the royal estates in Yu-catán, when he became a widower, and giving allhe possessed as alms to the poor, he took to a re-ligious life, and Philip III. being charmed withhis virtues presented him to this bishopric in1664 ; he celebrated the synod in Caracas theyear following, and died in 1609.

9. Don Fr. Juan de Bohorques, native of Mex-

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he was at length persuaded to accept it by the ac-clamations and remonstrances of all parties, andespecially of the vicar-general of his order; hebegan to preside without being consecrated ; butbeing yet full of scruples, he renounced the office,and without permission returned to Spain ; h^ thenwent to Koine, but being desired by his holiness toreturn to his diocese, he was said to have been somuch affected as not to have been able to prevailupon himself to enter the city : he returned, there-fore, immediately to the coast, and embarked forFlorida, with a view of converting some of theinfidels ; and with this object he again set off forSpain, in order to obtain his renunciation ; whenbeing at length tired with his wanderings, andAvorn out Avith age, he died in his convent of To-ledo in 1562.

5. Don Juan de Simancas, native of Cordova,collegian of San Clemente de Bolonia ; he enteredin 1560, went to be consecrated at Santa Fe, andupon his return, had the mortification to find thatthe suburbs of Xiximani had been sacked by someFrench pirates ; which disaster was again repeatedin the following year, 1561. This bishop, afterhaving governed his church for the space of 10years, and suffering much from the influence of ahot climate, left the see without a licence, andreturned to his country, where he died in1570.

6. Don Ft. Luis Zapata de Cardenas, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Llerena in Estre-madura, third commissary-general of the Indies ;elected bishop in 1570, promoted to the archbi-shopric of Santa Fe before he left Spain, and in hisplace was chosen,

7. Don Fr. Juan de Vivero, a monk of the or-der of St. Augustin, native of Valladolid ; hepassed over into America, was prior of the conventof Lima, founder of the convent of Cuzco, electedbishop, which he renounced ; nor would he ac-cept the archbishopric of Chacas, to which he waspromoted : he died in Toledo.

8. Don Fr. Dionisio de los Santos, of the orderof Santiago, prior of the convent of Granada, andprovincial of the province of Andalucia ; electedin 1573 : he died in 1578.

9. Don Fr. Juan de Montalvo, of the same orderof St. Domingo, native of Arevalo ; elected bishop,he entered Cartagena in 1579, passed over to SantaFe to the synod celebrated there by the archbishop ;and in 1583 had the mortification of seeing hiscity sacked, plundered, and destroyed by SirFrancis Drake; Avhich calamity had such a greateffect upon him, and well knowing noAV that hehad no means of relieving the necessities of the

poor, who were dependent upon him, he fell sickand died the same year.

10. Don Fr. Diego Osorio, of the same orderof St. Domingo ; he went over as a monk to Car-tagena, from thence to Lima and Nueva Espana,received the presentation to this bishopric in 1587,which he would not accept, and died in 1579, inMexico.

11. Don Fr. Antonio de Hervias, also a Domi-nican monk, collegian of San Gregorio de Valla-dolid, his native place, where he had studiedarts ; he passed over to Peru, and was the firstmorning-lecturer in the university of Lima, ma-nager of the studies, qualificator of the inquisition,vicar-general of the province of Quito, and after-wards presented to the bishopric of Arequipa,then to that of Verapaz, and lastly to that of Car-tagena, where he died in 1590.

12. Don Fr. Pedro de Arevalo, monk of the or-der of St. Gerome ; he was consecrated in Spain,and renounced the bishopric before he came totake possession of it.

13. Don Fr. Juan de Ladrada, a Dominicanmonk, native of Granada ; he A^'as curate and re-ligious instructor in the Indies, in the settlements ofSuesca and Bogota, vicar-general of his religionin the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, lecturer on thesacred scriptures and on theology in Santa Fe,'was consecrated bishop of Cartagena in 1596 : herebuilt the cathedral, established a choir of boysand chaplains, and made a present of a canopy tobe carried by the priests over the blessed sacra-ment when in procession ; he assisted at the foun-dation of the college of the regulars of the societyof Jesuits, and of that of the fathers called thebarefooted Augustins, on the mountain of LaPopa ; he had the satisfaction of having for hisprovisor the celebrated Don Bernardino de Al-mansa, a wise and virtuous man, who was after-Avards archbishop of Santa Fe ; he frequentlyvisited his bishopric, and after having governed17 years, died in 1613.

14. Don Fr. Pedro de Vega, a monk of thesame order of St. Domingo, native of Bubiercain the kingdom of Aragon, professor of theologyand of the sacred AA'ritings in the universities ofLerida and Zaragoza ; he entered Cartagena asbishop in 1614, and his short duration disappintedthe hopes he had so universally excited, for hedied in 1616.

15. Don Diego Ramirez de Zepeda, friar of theorder of Santiago, native of Lima, a renownedpreacher, and consummate theologist ; being atMadrid, he was elected, and died before he couldreach the bishopric.

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16. Don FV. Diego de Tores Atamairano, amonk of the order of St. Francis, native of Trux-illo in Estremadura, commissary-general of theprovinces of Peru ; he received his consecration atEiraa, entered Cartagena in 1620, and died in thefollowing year, 1621.

17. Don Fr. Francisco de Sotomayor, of theorder of St. Francis, native of San Tome, in thebishopric of Tuy, guardian of the convents inMontforte and Salamanca, difimdor general in thechapter which was celebrated at Rome ; elected tothe bishopric of Cartagena in 1622, and promotedto that of Quito before he left Madrid, in 1623.

18. Don Fr. Luis Ronquillo de Cordova, of theorder of the Santissirna Trinidad, native of Gra-nada, where he read arts and theology, was mi-nister in the convent of Malaga, and twice in that ofSeville, provincial and vicar-general of Andalucia ;he was elected bishop in 1630 : he governed eightyears, and returned to Spain without a licence ;he received notice of his promotion to the bishop-ric of Truxillo in Peru, which honour he declined,and retired to his convent in Granada, where hedied in 1642.

19. Don Fr. Christoval Perez de Lazarraga, ofthe order of San Bernardo, native of Madrid,qualificator of the inquisition ; he took to an eccle-siastical life when quite a child, was collegian ofthe college of Meira, afterwards of those of Sala-manca and Alcala, professor of philosophy, moraland theological, abbot of the college of Nuestra Se-hora ' de Salamanca, a most learned theologist ;elected and consecrated bishop of Chiapa, and be-fore he left the court promoted to the bishopric ofCartagena, of which he took possession in 1640 :he thrice visited his bishopric, and after a grievousillness of 90 days duration, died in 1648.

20. Don Francisco Rodriguez de Zepeda Val-carcel, native of Zamora ; he studied grammar inthe town of Garcia, jurisprudence in Salamanca,was professor of laws in Valladolid, abbot of Ci-fuentes, and canonical doctor of the church ofSiguenza ; elected bishop of Cartagena, of whichhe took possession in 1650 ; and having governedonly 11 months, he died in the following.

21. Don Diego del Castillo y Arteaga, native ofTudela ; he studied in the university of Alcala,was collegian of Malaga, professor of arts, hav-ing substituted this title for that of theology, cano-nical master of the church of Avila; presentedto the bishopric of Cartagena in 1632, which hedeclined.

22. Don Garcia Martinez Cabezas, native of thetown of Don Benito in Estremadura ; he was pub-

lic professor of the institutes, primate of canonsin the university of Maese Rodrigo de Sevilla,w hen he was adopted as provisor by the archbishopof Lima, Don Gonzalo de Ocampo, as he passedthrough that city ; he was doctoral canon of thechurch of Charcas, afterwards school-master, trea-surer, and archdeacon, from whence he went toLima as inquisitor, and was elected bishop of Car-tagena, but died before he took possession of hisoffice, in 1653.

23. Don Antonio Sanz Lozano, native of Cava-nillas, chief collegian iti Alcala, public professorof theology, a man of learning and of acute ge-nius ; being rector of his college, he was presentedby the king to the bishopric ot Cartagena, of whichhe took possession in 1661, governed with greatskill for 20 years, and was promoted to the arch-bishopric of Santa Fe in 1681.

24. Don Antonio dc Benavides and Piedrola,native of the city of Andujar, canon of Badajoz ;elected bishop of Cartagena in 1681 : his govern-ment being very troublesome, and disturbed by acessation of religious rites, occasioned by the cir-cumstance of the nuns of Santa Clara, who wereunder the care of the religious order of St. Fran-cis, having been put under the ordinary jurisdic-tion, he was called to the court, and arrived therein 1691 ; and not being willing to accept of anyother bishopric in Spain, he died in Cadiz.

25. Don Fr. Antonio Maria Casiani, monk ofBasilio, of the university of Alcala; elected in1713.

26. Don Francisco Gomez Calleja, doctoral Ca-non of the church of Zamora; elected in 1718.

27. Don Manuel Antoniode Silva, dean of Lima,named through promotion of the former, who nothaving accepted of the same, there became a dis-pute as to which was rightly entitled to the bishop-ric of Cartagena, when it was declared by thecourt in favour of the former, who governed from1725 till 1736.

28. Don Gregorio de Molleda y Clerque, nativeof Lima, consecrated at Rome with the title ofbishop of Isauria, domestic prelate to his holiness,and made bishop of Cartagena in 1736, afterwardspromoted to the see of Truxillo in 1740.

29. Don Diego Martinez Garrido, of the orderof Santiago, opponent to the professors in the uni-versity of Salamanca; elected in 1740: he diedin 1746.

30. Don Bernardo de Arbiza y Ugarte, nativeof Cuzco, in the university of which he studiedand graduated as doctor of both laws ; he waschief auditor of the royal audience of Panama,

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Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, ofVilla Rica.

CASA-PIEDRA, Isla De, an island of thecoast and kingdom of Brazil, and province andcaptainship of the Rio Janeiro, close to Cape Frio.

CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province andkingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shoreof a river thus called.

Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in thisprovince, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.

==CASAPOEIRA, Bahia de, or De BarrerasBermejas==, a bay on the coast and in the captain-ship of Marañon, arid kingdom of Brazil, betweenthe islands Ygirapa and Sipatuba.

CASARA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Chincheros.

Casara, another settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Vilcas Huaman, also of Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Hualla.

CASARANI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa inPeru.

CASARIDA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo ; situate on the coast, atthe mouth of the river of its name.

Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runsn. and enters the sea.

CASAS-GRANDES, an extensive and beautifulvalley of the province of Los Apaches in NuevaEspaña.

CASAUATAI, a river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake ofthe Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. ofthe Maraiion, and following its course towards then. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter theUcayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receivethe waters of the Zapofe.

CASCABAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Talavera.

CASCABELES, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito :it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, andenters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruinsof the city of Mocoa.

CASCADE, a small river of country and landof Labrador : it runs s. between the rivers Bois andSan Francisco, and enters the sea in the strait ofBellisle.

CASCAJAL, a river of the province and king-dom of Tierra Firme : it rises in the mountains ofPortovelo, and runs into the sea through the bay ofthis city.

Cascajal, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena ; situate on the shore of theriver Cauca, in the district and jurisdiction of thetown of Mompox.

CASCAJO, ISLA DEL, an island of the coast ofthe province and government of Cartagena, close tothe island of Arenas.

Cascajo, a point of the s. coast of the island ofSanto Domingo, in the French possessions : it liesbetween port Nonet and port Salud.

CASCARA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Lampa.

CASCAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Conturnaza ; in the district of whichthere is, at three leagues distance, a large piece ofhewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of ayard wide on every face, particularly rough andunpolished.

Cascas, a large swamp of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos, which isformed from different arms of the rivers Sarare andApure, and communicates itself with the lake ofArechona ; both of these lakes being near the lastriver, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain de-sert of Chisgas.

CASCAY, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Paucartambo in Peru.

CASCAYUNCA, an ancient province of Peru, tothe n. e. of Cuzco, conquered by Tupac Yupanqui,twelfth Emperor.

(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreadsn. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and capeSmall Point on the n. e. Within these points,which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 smallislands, some of which are inhabited, and nearlyall more or less cultivated. The land on theseislands, and on the opposite coast on the main, isthe best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast ofthis country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoitbay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. Thewaters of Casco extend several arms or creeks ofsalt water into the country. The waters go upMeadow’s river, where vessels of a considerablesize are carried by the tide, and where it flowswithin one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. Onthe e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the seacalled Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscotriver, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag,which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens tothe waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; itsextent is not great, but it has several valuable millsupon it. Rayal’s river, called by the nativesW estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from

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shore of the river Maranon, near the port of Cu-rupa.

CAUIANA, an island of the N. sea; situate inthe middle of the mouth of the large river Ma-rañon.

CAUIJA, a lake of the province and govern-ment of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. It is n.of that of Ipava, from whence, according to some,the river Orinoco takes its rise.

CAUINAS, an ancient and barbarous nation ofthe province of Charcas in Peru, which wasbounded by the nation of the Canches ; here wasa superb palace belonging to the Incas, builtupon the top of an high mountain, the remains ofwhich are yet to be seen near the settlement ofUrcos, and those of Querquesana and Quiquijana,these being about nine miles distant from the afore-said palace.

CAUIUSARI, a river of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It rises in the mountains ofthe country of the Guames Indians, runs e. formany leagues, and enters the Apure,

CAUJUL, a settlement of the province and cor-regimienio of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Andajes.

CAUMARES, a barbarous nation inhabitingthewoods which lie upon the banks of the river Ma-ranon towards the n. Some of them were reducedto the faith by the missionaries of the extinguishedcompany of Jesuits of the province of Mainas, andformed part of the population of the settlement ofSan Ignacio de Pevas.

CAUN, a settlement of the missions which wereheld by the regulars of the company of the Jesuits,in the province of Cinaloa.

CAUO, or Couvo, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana. It runs towards the e.and enters the sea, at the distance of leaguesfrom the mouth of the river Aprovaca : its bankson the e. side are inhabited by some barbarous In-dians of the Yaus nation.

CAUOS, a barbarous nation of Indians who in--habit the woods to the w. of the river Putumayo.They are thought to be a branch or tribe of theAbives, and are but little known.

CAUQUE, a settlement of the kingdom andpresidency of Guatemala.

CAUQUENES, a river of the kingdom andgovernment of Chile. It rises in the mountains ofits cordillera, and enters the Maule.

CAUQUICURA, an ancient and large provinceof the kingdom of Peru, to the s. of Cuzco. Itwas conquered and united to the monarchy byMayta Capac, fourth Emperor.

CAUQUIS, a nation of Indians of the kingdomof Chile, and one of the most warlike and valorous,who resisted and put a check to the conquests ofYupanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, obligingliim to retreat with his army to Coqnimbo.

CAURA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince of Guayana, and government of Cumana.It rises in some very lofty sierras, and its shoresare inhabited by many Indiatis, wlio retreat hitherwhen pursued by the Caribes, who are accustonicdto kill the adults, and to ko('p as prisoners tliewomen and children, iit order to sell them to theDutch. This river is the largest of the kingdomof Tierra Firme ever discovered since that of theOrinoco. It runs 60 leagues before it enters into thislatter river, through chains of rocks, which so im-pede its navigation as to render it unsafe for anybut very small craft. On its shores are two forts,one at tlie mouth, where it enters the Orinoco ; andthe other at its mid-course. The Maranon andthe Orinoco also communicate with it by an armwhich is very considerable, and is called the RioNegro.

Caura, a settlement of the jurisdiction of thetown of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra.-nada.

CAURANTA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná ; situate on the coast and atthe point of Paria.

CAURE, a small river of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It rises opposite that city, to-wards the s. and then enters the Ariari.

CAURI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimienlo of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of Cayna.

CAURIMPO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cinaloa ; situate between the fortsRio and Mayo. It is n reduccion of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the company ofJesuits.

CAUSAN, a river of the ])rovince and colonyof Georgia, is the same as that of the name ofCombahi. It runs till it enters the sea.

CAUTE, a small river of the island of Cuba,Which runs rw. and enters the sea.

CAUTEN, a large river of the kingdom ofChile, in the district and province of Repocura.It rises in the district of Maquegua, runs continu-ally from e. to vs. collecting the waiters of manyother rivers, in such a gentle and mild course, thatit has also acquired the name of Las Damns. Itpasses before the Ciudad Imperial, and enters theS. sea. It is 500 toises broad at its mouth, and ofsufficient depth to admit of a ship of the line ; at

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de Granada, rises in the valley of Cerinza, runsn. and passing tlirough the city of San Gil, turnsto the w. and enters the Suarez or Sabandija.

CHALCAXINGO, a settlement of the headsettlement of Xonacatepéc, and alcaldía mayor ofCuernavaca, in Nueva España.

CHALCHILGUITES, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Nueva Vizcaya; situateclose to that of Sombrerete.

CHALCHITLAN, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Capanabastla in the king-dom of Guatemala.

CHALCO, Hamanalco, a district and alcal-día mayor of Nueva España ; situate between then. and s. of the city of Mexico, at eight leaguesdistance ; is very fertile, and abounds in produc-tions and the necessaries of life, especially in wheatand maize; the crops of the former usually amount to30,000 (argas (a measure containing four bushels)yearly, and of the latter to 25,000. Besides thisit produces great quantities of seeds, woods, sugar,honey, and the fruits of a hot climate, all ofwhich arc carried to Mexico, as well by land car-riage as by the lake, which is so favourable to itscommerce. In the sierra of the volcano of thisjurisdiction, there are silver mines, but they arenot worked, on account of the great expence. Thepopulation consists of 46 settlements, of which 16are head settlements of districts, and in 15 of thesethere are parish churches. Tlie capital is of thesame name, and it is situate on the shore of a lakeenjoying a mild temperature, and well knownfrom the fair which it celebrates every Fridaythroughout the year, to which flock a great num-ber of people from the neighbouring provinceswith merchandize ; some even coming from themost distant parts in canoes by the lake, or withdroves of mules on land. It lies between the riversFiamanalco and Tenango, which run into thelake, and the waters of this serve, when it is ne-cessary, to replenish the lake of Mexico, forwhich purpose there are proper sluices provided.It contains 350 families of Indians, and someSpaniards and Mustees ; is seven leagues fromMexico. The other settlements are,

Fiamanalco, Atlautla,

San Pedro de Ecazingo, Ayapango,

Tepozozolco, Ixtapalucan,

San Juan Tenango, Ayozingo,

Amecameca, Mexquique,

Zentlalpan, Hahuac,

Chimalhuacan, Themamatla,

Tepetuxpan, Ozumba.

CHALCO, with the dedicatory title of SanAgustin, another settlement of the head settle-

ment of Coxcotlan, and the alcaldia mayor of Val-les, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacyof Aquismon ; is of an extremely hot and moisttemperature, on account of which it has beenabandoned by several Indian families who residedin it formerly ; 12 of these families only are nowremaining ; is 23 leagues from its capital.

CHALCO, another, of the head settlement andalcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan ; situate in theplain of a deep break or hole made by mountainfloods ; is of a hot temperature, and contains 35families of Indians ; lies 12 leagues to the n. of itscapital.

(Chalco Lake. See Mexico.)

CHALCOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Cahuanca.

CHALEUAPAN, a settlement of the provinceand government of Nicaragua in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHALEURS, a bay on the coast of the pro-vince of Nova Scotia or Acadia, and gulf of St.Lawrence. It is large and convenient.

CHALEURS, another bay on the s. coast of theisland of Newfoundland, near the point whichlooks to the w.

(CHALEURS, a deep and broad bay on the w.side of the gulf of St. Lawrence. From this bayto that of Verte, on the s. in the s. e. corner of thegulf, is the n. e. sea line of the British provinceof New Brunswick.)

CHALINGA, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and corregimiento of Coquimbo in thekingdom of Chile.

CHALIQUE, San Pablo de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru.

CHALLABAMBA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Paucartambo in Peru.

CHALLACATA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Garu Mendoza.

CHALLACOLLO, a settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento as the former, belong-ing to the archbishopric of Charcas. It has a con-vent of monks of the order of St. Augustin.

CHALLAHUACHO, a river of the provinceand corregimiento of Chilques y Masques in Peru.It rises near the settlement of Capi, runs in a ser-pentine course to the n. n. w. and enters the Apu-rirnac.

CHALLANA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHALLAPAMPA an ancient province ofPeru, of small extent, and to the c. of Cuzco. It

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CHAQUIMINAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Sandia in the province of Ca-rabaya.

CHARABAYE, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela ; situate on the shoreof a river in the district of the city of Caracas, andto the e. of the town of Victoria.

CHARACATO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In itschurch is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senorade la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singulardevotion is paid.

CHARAI, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Cinaloa ; situate on the shore ofa river of the fort which lies between the settle-ments of Ziribijoa and Mochicauchi.

(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)

CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement ofMongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced)annexed to the curacy of the same. Its tempera-ture is mild, and abounds in pure good water, andin the productions of a hot climate.

CHARANDO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Guimeo, and alcaldia mayor of Cirandaro,in Nueva Espafia ; annexed to the curacy of Turi-cato.

CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ;situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, fromwhence its temperature is so cold that it is seldomany crops can be gathered from the seeds that aresown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 inthe wards of its district, and a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settle-ment.

CHARAPE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district ofPuerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in thekingdom of Quito, at a small distance from thesea-coast and bay of its name ; this title beingalso applied to the point which forms the samebay.

CHARAZANI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina,which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. Thewhole of it abounds in cataracts, and its watersthrow up immense quantities of coal, which wasthe cause of its being thus named.

CHARCA, a settlement of the province and

corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sacaca.

CHARCANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CHARCAS, an extensive province of the king-dom of Peru, composed of various others. Its ju-risdiction comprehends the district of this royalaudience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the cor-regimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, andextends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It isbounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian servingas a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregi-miento of Atacama, which is of its district, andforms the most n. part of this province in that di-rection, and being closed in on its other sides bythe kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, in-cluding the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . :is in many parts very thinly peopled, and coveredwith large desert tracts, and rugged and impene-trable mountains, and again by the elevated cordil-leras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras orpampas, which serve to mark its size and the relativedistances of its territories. Its temperature through-out is extremely cold, although there are not want-ing parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At thetime that this province was in the possession of theIndians, and previous to the entrance of the Spa-niards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointlyunder the name of Charcas ; and the conquest ofthese was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the ter-ritory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Hereit was that his conquests terminated : nor did thesubjection of these parts extend farther than Col-laysuyo until after his death, when he was suc-ceeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor,who carried on still farther the victories which hadbeen already gained, conquering all the nations asfar on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwardsfounded the city of this name, called also La Plata.After that the Spaniards had reduced that part ofPeru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and thatthe civil wars and dissensions which existed be-tween these were at an end, they endeavoured tofollow up their enterprise by making a conquest ofthe most distant nations. To this end, in 1538,Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force,and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues,found in them such a spirited opposition, that afterseveral battles he was brought to think this objectwas nearly impracticable : this idea was strength-ened by the reception he had met with from theChuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given himconvincing proofs of their valour and warlikespirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just

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at that critical moment received fresh succours,that were sent from Cuzco by his brother the Mar-quis Don Francisco Pizarro, he would have fallena sacrifice, with the whole of the Spanish army, tothat undertaking : but being invigorated by thisassistance, he succeeded in routing the Indians,and in obliging them to surrender to the Spanishgovernment. In 1539 the Marquis Don Fran-cisco Pizarro, seeing the importance of making anestablishment here, resolved upon building of atown, giving a commission to Captain Pedro Au-zures to execute the same. This person actuallyput into effect the plan suggested, founding thetown in exactly the same spot in which formerlystood the settlement of Chuquisaca. Here manyof its conquerors settled and became citizens, andthey gave it the name of La Plata, or Silver, fromsome mines of this metal which are found in themountain of Porco, which lies at a small distancefrom this city, and from which the Inca Emperorswere accustomed to extract immense emolument.Notwithstanding this name it has never lost itsoriginal title, Chuquisaca, although indeed it isbadly pronounced by the Spaniards ; since the In-dians, and with great propriety, will have it Cho-quezaca, Choquechaca, or Choquisacha; all ofwhich, however pronounced, signify, the first,moun-tains of gold ; the second, cunchos of gold, orfields of brambles with yellow twigs ; and the third,bridges of gold. Although this province is exten-sive, it is composed of various others, which weshall notice under their proper heads. This keepsits present name, from being the one of all theothers the most abounding in minerals, seeds, andcattle ; as well as being the one best peopled withIndians. It is watered by many large rivers ; andthe whole of it composes an archbishopric, towhich arc suffragan the bishoprics of La Paz,Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tucuman, Paraguay,and Buenos Ayres. It belongs to the viceroyaltyof this latter place since the time that this waserected, and that the government was entrusted tothe royal audience established in 1559. The afore-said district comprehends in its jurisdiction allthe following provinces and corregimientos :Tomino, Cochabamba,

Porco, Chayanta,

Tarija, Paria,

Lipes, Carangas,

Amparaez, Cicasica,

Oruro, Atacama ;


In which are contained 188 settlements and cura-cies, in which there were in 1651 about 100,000Indians. The capital of the whole jurisdiction is

the aforesaid city of Chuquisaca or La Plata. —[Charcas joined the new government of BuenosAyres in 1810. See La Plata,]

Those who have been Presidents in the RoyalAudience of Charcas.

1. The Licentiate Pedro Ramirez de Quinones,first president, in 1559.

2. The Licentiate Juan de Matienzo, a cele-brated jurisconsult, in 1580.

3. The Licentiate Zepeda, in 1588.

4. The Licentiate Alonso Maldonado de Torres,in 1606.

5. Don Juan de Lizarazu, knight of the orderof Santiago ; he passed over to the presidency ofQuito in 1612.

6. Don Diego de Portugal, in 1614.

7. Don Alonzo Perez de Salazar, who was pre-sident of Quito, and was promoted to this, wherehe governed until the year 1620.

8. Don Juan de Caravajal y Sande, promotedin 1633.

9. Don Dionisio Perez Manrique, knight ofthe order of Santiago, collegiate in the collegeof Los Manriques de Alcala, rector of the uni-versity there, oidor of Lima, and president ofQuito, from whence he was removed to be pre-sident of this audience of Charcas in 1646 ; whence,having exercised it till 1654, he was removed tothat of Santa Fe.

10. Don Pedro Vazquez de Velasco, who pre-sided until the year 1661.

11. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, pro-moted in 1678 ; he was made archbishop of theholy church of Charcas, remaining in the presi-dency until 1688.

12. Don Diego Mesia, native of Lima, oidor ofits royal audience, and formerly of that of Quito ;he was promoted to the presidency of Charcas in1688.

13. Don Jorge Manrique de Lara, who wasoidor of Panama, afterwards of Charcas, as alsopresident.

14. Don Gabriel Antonio Matienzo, president in1723.

15. Don Francisco de Herboso, who was ap-pointed in 1725, and presided until 1732.

16. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, and native of Lima.

17. Don Juan Francisco Pestana, adjutant-major of the regiment of Spanish guards ; he wasnominated in 1752, and presided until 1769.

18. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, who enteredin the above year, and presided until 1777.

19. Don Agustin de Pinedo, who succeededthe former, and governed until 1782.

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smaller size, are more delicate, and of superiorflavour to those caught in Newfoundland. Am-bergris is also found upon the coast. The moun-tains abound in trees of the most beautiful kind,laurels, oaks of four sorts, the carob-tree, thewood of M'hich is extremely hard, reulis, cinna-mon-trees, Cyprus, sandal, paraguas, hazel-nut,ivall-nut, volos, and alerces, which are a kind ofcedar, of which they make planks in great num-bers to carry to Lima and other parts. Many ofthese trees are green the whole year round, fromthe moisture and shelter they derive from the cor-dillera, which contains in its bowels much fire, asappears from the volcanoes found upon it, andwhich are 12 in number, without counting manyothers, even as far as the straits of Magellan. Al-though these mountains and woods are so immense,beasts of a savage kind are rarely to be found, ex-cepting such, now and then, as a tiger or leopard ;but there are great numbers of deer, stags, vicunas,and Imanacos, which served as food for the In-dians; as likewise of birds, as ducks, vandurrias,swans, herons, kites, doves, piuguenes, tarlales,parrots, hawks, falcons, goshawks ; and many sing-ing birds, as goldfinches, larks, starlings, diucas,trillies, and many others. Its present vegetableproductions are wheat, barley, Indian wheat, grainsof different kinds, oil of the finest olives, excellentwines, much esteemed in Peru; all kinds of suc-culent fruits, oranges, lemons, innumerable sorts ofapples, and every kind of garden herb. Flax andliemp is cultivated here, from which they makerigging for vessels trading to the S. seas ; and thiscould be supplied in a proportion equal to any de-mand. This kingdom keeps up a considerabletrade with Peru ; for, one year with the other, itsends to Lima from 150 to 180,000 bushels ofwheat, 120,000 quintals of grease, much wine,and other productions, as almonds, nuts, lentils,a sort of wild marjoram and bastard saffron ; andtakes in exchange sugar and cloths of the country.It derives also great emolument from large herdsof the cow kind, from flocks of sheep and goats,of the skins of which they procure fine tanned lea-ther, leathern jackets, sharaois leather, and soles ofshoes : from these animals is also procured muchfat or tallow. Flere are numerous breeds of mostbeautiful horse.s, and some of these, from excellingall the others in the swiftness of their paces, arecalled aguiliUias. It also abounds in mules, andit would still more so, if, as formerly, they werein request at Peru, where their skins were usedinstead of fine cloths and carpets. Baizes arc stillmade ; as likewise some sorts of small cord, coarse€tutfs, and many kinds of sackcloth, which is the

common vesture, and consists of a square garment,with an opening to admit the head ; but manylooms have been lost through a want of Indians inthe manufactories. The greater part of thesepeople still prefer their original uncivilized state,depending upon the natural fruits of the earth forfor their food ; for, besides the productions aboveenumerated, they used to gather, without thetrouble of cultivation, all sorts of delicious fruits,such as pines, though different from those of Eu-rope; and to make excellent chiclia of the murtilla.Indeed the luxuriance and abundance of delicateflowers, and aromatic and medicinal herbs, is al-most incredible ; of the last the following are themost esteemed for their virtue, viz. the cancliala-gua, quinchemali, alhahaquilla, and culen. Itcontains many mines of the richest gold, silver,copper, lead, tin, quick-silver, brimstone, load-stone, and coal : yielding immense riches, whichthe Indians never appreciated, nor even gavethemselves the least trouble about, until the con-quest of the Incas, who began to work them ;sending portions of gold to Cuzco for the orna-ment of the temples and palaces, rather by way ofgift than of tribute. The incursions and rebel-lions of the Indians, principally of the Arauca-nians, who, in the year J599, took and destroyedsix cities, viz. Valdivia, Imperial, Angol, SantaCrux, Chilian, and Concepcion, is the cause whythe population is in many places not large, andthat it consists of poor people, living in smallcommunities ; the fact being, that they are alwaj^sliving in constant dread of a surprise from the In-dians; not but that on the confines there are gar-risons, well defended by Spanish troops, with ne-cessary provisions of artillery, victuals, and am-munition. The war which has from the begin-ning been sustained by the Spaniards against thesemost ferocious Indians, has tended greatly to re-duce the numbers of the former ; some havingbeen killed on the spot, and others doomed to beslaves to their indignant conquerors. Indeed,when it was found that arms were of no availagainst them, some missionaries of the society ofthe Jesuits were sent among them, in the year1612, in order to propagate the gospel ; when theFathers Horacio Vechi and Martin de Arandasuffered martyrdom at their hands: after which atreaty of peace was made by the Governor Mar-quis de Baides, A. D. 1640, and which has sincebeen renewed yearly ; their deputies coming re-gularly to the capital to receive the presents fromthe king of Spain. They have, notwithstanding,at different times broken the treaty, making in-cursions into the Spanish towns, and their manner4

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[archers of Copiapo, commanded by Cotco, anofficer of the ulinen of that province. Of the wholeband none escaped with life but the two officers,Monroy and Miranda, who Avere brought coveredwith wounds before the ulmen.

12. The compassionate ulmena.—^^ hilst thatprince, Avho had resoU’cd to put them to death, asenemies of the country, Avas deliberating on themode, the v.hnena, or princess, hisAvife, moved withcompassion for their situation, interceded Avith herhusband for tin ir lives; atid having obtained herrequest, uisbound them Avitli lier own hands, ten-derly dressed! +h -ir Avounds, and treated them likebrothers. When they Avere fully recovered, shedesired ihenr to teach her son the art of riding, asseveral of the horses had been taken alive in tliedefeat. 'I'he tAVo Spaniards readily cojisented toher request, hoping to avail themselves of this op-portunity to recover their liberty. lJut the meansthey took to effect this, Avere marked Avith an actof ingratitude to tlu'ir benefactress, of so much thedeeper dye, as, from their not being strictly guard-ed, such an e.vpedicnt Avas unnecessary. As theyountr prince Avas one day riding between tliem,escorted by his arcl!crs, and preceded by an officerarmed Avith a lance, Monroy suddenly attackedhim with a poniard Avhich he carried about him,and bro!ight him to the ground Avith tAvo or threemortal Avounds ; Miranda at the same time wrest-ing tlie lance from the officer, they forced theirAvay through their guards, Avho Avere throAvn intoconfusion by such an unexpected event. As theywere Avell-mounted, they easily escaped pursuit,and taking their Avay through the deserts of Peru,arrived at Cuzco, the residence at that time ofVascade Castro, Avho had succeededed to the go-vernment upon the death of Pizarro, cruelly as-sassinated by the partizans of Airaagro.

IS. Ilecruits from Perti under Monro7/.-—Oi\being informed of the critical situation of Chile,Castro immediately dispatclied a considerablenumber of recruits by land, under the commandof Monroy, who had the good fortune to con-ceal his march from the Cppiapins, and at thesame time gave directions to Juan Bautista Pas-tene, a noble Genoese, to proceed thither by seaAvith a still greater number. Valdivia, on receiv-ing these two reinforcements, Avhich arrived nearlyatthe same time, began to carry his great designs intoexecution. As he had been solicitous from the firstto have a complete knowledge of the sea-coast, heordered Pastene to explore it, and note the situa-tion of the most important parts and places, as faras the straits of Magellan. On his return fromthis expedition, he .sent him back to Peru for new


recruits, as since the alfair of Copiapo, the nativesbecame daily more bold and enterprising.

14. Stratagem of the Quillotanes. -~-Amon^others the Qiullotanes had, a little time before,massacred all the soldiers employed in the mines.To this end they made use of the folloAving strata-gem : One of the neighbouring Indians broughtto the commander, Gonzalo Rios, a pot biil ofgold, telling him that he had found a groat quaii-titv of it in a certain district of the country ; uponth is information, all were impatient to proceedthither to particip'ate in ti)c imagined treasure.As they arrived tumultuously at the place de-scribed, they easily became victims to an ambus-cade Avhich had been formed for them, not one ofthem escaping except the imprudent commanderand a Negro, Avho saved themselves by the supe-rior excellence of their horses. The frigate, Avhichwasthen finished, Avas also destroyed, being burnedtogether with the arsenal.

15. Serena founded.- — VixWivhx, on receivingadvice of this disaster, hastened thither with histroops, and having revenged as far as in his poAverthe death of his soldiers, built a fort to protect theminers. Being afteiAvards reinforced Avith SOOmen from Peru, under the command of FrancisViliagrau and Christopher Escobar, he becamesensible of the necessity of establishing a settle-ment ill the n. part of the kingdom, that mightserve as a place of arms, and a protection for theconvoys that should come that Avay. For this pur-pose he made choice of a beautiful plain at themouth of the river Coquimbo, Avhich forms a goedharbour, Avherc, in 1564, he founded a city calledby him Serena, in honour of the place of his birth ;it is not, however, knoAAn at present by this ap-pellation, except in geographical treatises, thecountry name having prevailed, as is the case Avithall the other European settlements in Chile.

16. Promoucian u///es.-— luthe ensuing year hebegan to think of extending his conquests, andfor that purpose proceeded into the country of thePromaucians. Contemponiry Avriters have notmade mention of any battle that Avas fought uponthis occasion; but it is not to be supposed thatthis valiant people, Avho had with so muchglory repulsed the armies of the Inca and ofAlmagro, would have alloAved him, Avithout oppo-sition, to violate their territory. It is, hoAvever,highly probable that Valdivia, in the frequent in^cursions Avhich he made upon their frontiers, haddiscovered the art to persuade them to unite withhim against the other Chilians by seducing pro-mises. In fact, the Spanish armies have eversince that period been strengthened by Promaucian’]

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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]

CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.

CHILOSTUTA, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Zedales in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHILPANSINGO, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, surroundedwith fertile fields of wheat. Elevation 1080 me-tres, or 3542 feet.

CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.

to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,


San Lorenzo,Parapacucho,
























Same name, another settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

CHILTAL, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Atacames or Esmeraldas in thekingdom of Quito ; situate in the valley of Chota,on the shore of the river Mira.

CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.

Same name, a river of the province and alcal-diamayor of Tabasco, which runs into the sea.

CHILUA, San Marcos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ;annexed to the Curacy of Huamanguilla.

CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.

3 L 2

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CHIMOR, a settlement of the province andforregimiento of Paucartambo in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Challabamba.

CHINA, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; one of those which enter the greatcienega, or quagmire, on the e.

Same name, a point of land of the coast of Peru, inthe province and corregimienlo of Cañete.

Same name, a settlement of Indians of the provinceand colony of Georgia ; situate on the shore of theriver Apalachicola.

CHINACATES, a settlement of the provinceof Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.

CHINACOTA, a small settlement of the jurisdiction and government of Pamplona in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot tempe-rature, produces sugar-cane, plantains, maize, andis extremely fertile in wheat ; but this not withoutcultivation. The natives amount to about 90 poorfamilies, and as many Indians. It is situate in anextensive valley, from whence it derives its title,and which is also called. Of Meer Ambrosio, fromthe Indians having killed here the GermanGeneral Ambrosio de Alfinger, by whom it w^as dis-covered in 1531. Four leagues n. e. of Pam-plona.

CHINANTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espaha. It contains 40 fami-lies of Chinantecas Indians, and is very fertile,and abounding in maize and cotton. Eightyleagues s. of Mexico.

CHINANTEPEC, Santa Catalina, asettlement and head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guayacocotla in NuevaEspana. Its territory is somewhat extensive, andthe settlements or wards belonging to it are far re-moved from each other, the greater part of thembeing situate within the deep glens, or on theheights, so that the roads to them are very diffi-cult. It contains, in all, 1340 families of In-dians.

CHINAPA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of La Sonora ; situate on the shore ofthe river of its name, between the settlements ofArispo and Bacuachi.

CHINAS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Popayan.

CHINATAGUAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru ; situate to the n. of the city of Gua-nuco. They are descendants of the Panataguas,of whom few remain at the present day, and ofwhom but little is known.

CHINATECA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reynode Granada ; situate on the skirt of a mountain.

CHINATOS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit theforests to the n. e. 1 to the e. of the city of Pam-plona. They are relics of the Chitareros, whohave been always found very troublesome, fromtheir proximity to the aforesaid city.

CHINAUTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teuzitlan in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy ofthis capital. It contains 108 families of Indians,and lies a league and an halPs distance from thesame capital.

CHINCHA, Santo Domingo, el Real de asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofCanete in Peru ; situate on the sea-coast.

Same name, an island of the S. sea, near the coast,in the same province and corregimiento, oppositethe port of Sangallo.

Same name, formerly the name of the provinceor district now called Chunchasuyu in Peru, tothe is. of Cuzco. Its natives were valorous, andresisted for eight months the Emperor Pachacutec,who subjected it to his controul. The country ispleasant, fertile, and abounding in cattle. Hereare to be seen vestiges and ruins of some magnifi-cent fabrics, which belonged to the Incas, andwhich strike the imagination with wonder and sur-prise, at viewing the immense stones used in theirarchitecture, and when it is considered that theIndians knew not the use of engines, whereby theymight raise them.

CHINCHAIPUCQUIO, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

CHINCHAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Huariaca.

CHINCHAO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Maria del Valle; situate onthe confines of the infidel Pataguas Indians.

CHINCHAYCOCHA, a large lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It ismore than nine leagues in length and three inwidth ; and from it rises the river Pari or Paria,also called Xauxa, towards the n. side. Thisriver runs s. dividing the province of Xauxa, andgiving it its name, both in Xauxa Alta, or High,and Baxa, or Low ; it then turns e. and after run-ning for more than 40 leagues, flows back to the n.until it enters the Maranon on the s. side. M. Dela Martiniere, with his accustomed error, says that

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466 C H U

of Key in Brazil. It runs s. and turning e. en-ters the lake Mini.

Same name, a settlement of this province (Rey) ; situate onthe sea-coast, and lying between this and the lakeMini.

CHUIGOTES. See Chiugotob.

CHUILLE, a river of the province and go-vernment ot Darien in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It has its source in the mountains towardsthe e. runs n. e. and enters the river Tarena.

CHUIRIEUI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It runs n. and enters theIguy near the mission of San Miguel.

CHULK, a small port or creek of the coast ofthe S. sea, in the province and corregimiento ofArequipa. It is shallow, insecure, and exposedto the ,v. w. winds.

==CHULIHUCANI, a settlement of tlie province and government of Potosiin Peru.

CHULINA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Charazani.

CHULISANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Cachi.

CHULUMANI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cicasica in Peru.

Same name, a river of the above province (Cicasica),which rises at the end of the cordillera of Ancuma,begins its course to the e. and forming a large bendtowards the n. enters the Beni just at its source,and where it keeps the name of the Chuquiavo.

CHUMA, a river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which flows down from the mountains ofBogota. It waters the territory of Merida, pass-ing opposite the city, and enters through the s.side into the lake of Maracaybo.

Same name, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHUMATLAN, a settlement of the head settle-nidnt of Zozocoles, and alculdia mayor of Papantla,in Nueva Espana. It is situate at the top of anhigli mountain, and from it may be seen all the set-tlements belonging to this jurisdiction. Its popu-lation amounts to 183 families of Indians, and itlies to the n. of its head settlement, three leaguesdistant from this, and 14 from the capital.

CHUMBE, a village of the province and corre-gimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito. Itis to the xd. of Tarqui, and on the w. shore of oneof the torrents rising in fhe river Paute. Not farfrom it are some excellent hot baths, of which nouse is made. LHere the stately melastoma and theembothriuin are growing at an elevation of 12,000feet, according to Humboldt, who visited this vil-lage in 1802. Lat. 3° 10' s.]

CHUMBES, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Vilcas Huaman in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Vizchongo.

CHUMBI, a settlement of the province and cor-of Parinacochas in Peru, where thereis a pious sanctuary, with an excellent painting ofthe blessed virgin, said to have been given by apontitf to the curate of this settlement when he wasat Rome.

CHUMBICHA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tucuman in Peru; situate to thew. of the valley of San Fernando de Cata-inarca.

CHUMBICOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Piura in Peru ; situate on theshore of a small river of the same name.

CHUMBILLA, a mountain of the province andcorregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ; celebratedfor a rich silver mine. It lies three leagues froma small settlement called Canaria, which is at pre-sent abandoned and deserted.

CHUMBIVILCAS, a province and corregi-miento of Peru. It is bounded n. by the provinceof Quispicanchialgo, and by that of Chilquesand Masques on the n. w. ; by those of Cota-bamba and Aymaraez on the jr. ; by that of Con-dcsuyos de Arequipa on the s . ; and on the e. bythat of Canes and Cauches. Its temperature isfor the most part cold, although in some placestemperate, so that it produces the fruits peculiar toeither climate ; such as wheat, barley, maize, pa-pas, and other seeds, though none in abundance,but plenty of neat cattle. In this province arefound the lofty and vast snowy mountains calledCondesuyos del Cuzco. It lies on the boundariesof the province of Parinacocha, being separatedfrom it by the river which flows down from theprovince of Camana. Here much cloth peculiarto the country is manufactured ; and in its districtare many mouths of gold and silver mines, themounds and pits of which, together with the re-mains of several mills for working metal, indicatethat in former times they were probably worked tono small advantage. They gather here a greatquantity of Cochineal, which is called macno, withwhich cloths are dyed of very fine colours. Ithas likewise fountains and mineral streams of hotwater, and is subject to earthquakes. Its reparti-mento used to amount to 85,800 dollars, and its al-cavala to 685 dollars per annum. Its inhabitants,including the district of Condesuyos, amount to16,000 souls, who live in the 22 following set-tlements :

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territory, where the noble families of Loxa havetheir best possessions.

CHUQUIS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Bailos.

CHUQUISACA, La Plata,a city and capital of the province of Peru, foundedby Pedro Anzures in 1539, who gave it this name.It had a settlement of Indians on the same spot.The first founders called it La Plata, from thecelebrated mine of this metal (silver) in the moun-tain of Porco, close to the aforesaid settlement,and from whence immense wealth was extractedby the emperors the Jncas of Peru. This city issituate on a plain surrounded by pleasant hills,which defend it from the inclemency of the winds ;the climate is mild and agreeable, but during thewinter, dreadful tempests, accompanied with thun-der and lightning, are not unusual ; the edificesare good, handsome, and well adorned, havingdelightful orchards and gardens. The waters aredelicate, cold, and salutary, and divided intodifferent aqueducts, by which they are carried tothe public fountains, forming an object at onceuseful and ornamental. Its nobility is of the firstand most distinguished families of Peru, who havemany privileges and distinctions. The cathedralconsists of three naves ; it is very rich, and adorn-ed with fine furniture and beautiful paintings.It contains convents of the religious orders of St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Francis, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, with a good hospital, ahandsome college and a magnificent church whichbelonged to the regulars of the company ; alsothree monasteries of nuns, the one of Santa Clara,the other of Santa Monica, and the third of theCarmelites ; a royal university with the title ofSan Francisco Xavier, the rector of which wasuniversally of the college of the regulars of thecompany of the Jesuits. It has also two housesof study for youth, the one the seminary of SanChristoval, and the other the college of San Juan,which were likewise under the controul of theJesuits until the year 1767 ; also an hermitage de-dicated to San Roque. It was erected into abishopric by the pontiff Julius III. in 1551, andafterwards into a metropolitan in 1608, with anarchbishop, five dignitaries, six canons, four pre-bends, and as many more demi-prebends. Thetribunal of audience was erected here in 1559, andafterwards those of the inquisition of the cruzada.Its arms are a shield divided horizontally, havingin the upper part two mountains with a cross uponeach, in the middle a tree with two columns on thesides, in the lower part to the left two lions rampant,

on the right two towers with two lions, a standardbeing in the middle, and the whole embossedupon a silver field. At the distance of six leaguesfrom this city passes the river Pilcoraayu, bywhich it is supplied with good fish, and upon theshores of the Cachimayu, which is only twoleagues distant, the nobility have many rural seats.In 1662 a great insurrection took place hereamongst the Mustees and the people of colour.It is the native place of several illustrious persons,and amongst others of the following :

Don Rodrigo de Orozco, Marquis of Mortara,captain-general of the principality of Cataluna,and of the council of state and war.

Fra}/ Antonio de Calancha, a monk of St. Au-gustin, a celebrated author.

Don Rodrigo de Santillana, oidor of Valladolid,and afterwards in his country.

The venerable Friar Martin de Aguirre, of theorder of St. Augustin.

Don Alonso Corveda de Zarate, canon of Lima,and professor of languages.

The Father Maestro Diego Trexo, a Do-minican monk.

The Father Juan de Cordoba, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits, a celebrated theo-logist.

Its archbishopric has for suffragans, the bishop-rics of Santa (3ruz de la Sierra, La Paz, Tucu-man, and La Ascencion of Paraguay ; and to itsdiocese belong 188 curacies. Its inhabitants inand about it amount to 13,000, of which 4000 areSpaniards, 3000 Mustees, 4500 Indians, and 15,000Negroes and Mulattoes. It is 290 leagues fromCuzco, in lat. 19° 31' s.

Archbishops of the church of La Plata.

1. Don Frau Tomas de San Martin, a monk ofthe order of St. Dominic, a master in his order,and one of the first monks who passed over intoPeru with the Friar Vicente de Valverde; he W 2 isprovincial there, returned to Spain with the Licen-tiate Pedro de la Gasca, and as a reward for hislabours, presented by the king to the first arch-bishopric of Charcas, in 1553: he died in 1559.

2. Don Fraj/ Pedro de la Torre, who waselected, but not consecrated ; and in his place,

3. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda.

4. Don Fernan Gonzalez de la Cuesta, who laidthe foundation of the cathedral church.

5. Don Fray Domingo de Santo Tomas, of theorder of St. Dominic, a noted preacher, and one ofthose who went over to Peru with the Fray VicenteValverde ; he was prior in different convents, andgeneral visitor of his order in those kingdoms.

6. Don Fernando de Santillana, native of Se-

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villa, president of the courts of chancery of Gra-nada and Valladolid, elected bishop ; he died inLima before he took possession.

7. Don Alonso Ramirez Granero, and not Pedro,as Gil Gonzalez will have it ; a native of V illaes-cusa in the bishopric of Cuenca, a collegiate ofthis city, dean of the church of Guadix, and Jiscalof the inquisition of Mexico ; elected archbishopin 1574 ; he governed until 1578.

8. Don Frai/ Juan de Vivero, native of Valla-dolid, of the order of St. Augustin ; he passedover to Peru, was prior of his convent of Lima,presented to the archbishopric .of Cartagena of theIndies, and to this archbishopric ; but these digni-ties he would not accept ; he returned to Spain, anddied in his convent of Toledo.

9. Don Alonso Ramirez de Vergara, native ofSegura de Leon, collegiate in Malaga, Alcala, andSalamanca, professor of arts, and canon of Malaga ;he was presented to the archbishopric of Charcasin 1594, and died in 1 603.

10. Don Fra^ Luis Lopez de Solis, native ofSalamanca, of the order of St. Augustin ; he passedover into Peru, where he was master of his reli-gious order, professor of theology, prior provin-cial, and qualificator of the inquisition; he waspromoted to the church of Quito, and to this me-tropolitan see.

11. Don Fra?y Ignacio de Loyola, a monk ofthe barefooted order of St. Francis ; he was commis-sary in the province of Pilipinas, and on his returnto Spain elected archbishop of Charcas.

12. Don Alonso de Peralta, native of Arequipa,archdeacon and inquisitor of Mexico, and arch-bishop of Charcas, where he died.

13. Don Frn^ Geronimo de Tiedra, native ofSalamanca, of the order of St. Domingo ; he wasprior of his convent, and preacher to the king, andarchbishop of Charcas in 1616.

14. Don Fernando Arias de Ugarte, native ofSanta Fe of Bogota, of whom we have treated inthe catalogue of the bishops of Quito ; he passedover from the archbishopric of Santa Fe to this in1630.

15. Don Francisco de Sotomayor.

16. Don FVr/y Francisco de Borja, of the orderof San Benito, master in the university of Sala-manca, and professor of theology ; elected bishopof Charcas in 1634.

17. Don Fru7/ Pedro de Oviedo, of the order ofSan Benito, native of Madrid ; he studied arts andtheoloijy in Alcala, was abbot of the monastery ofS. Cloclio, and difinidor of his order ; he was pro-moted from the bishopric of Quito to this arch-bishopric in 1645 : he died in 1649.

18. Don Juan Alonso de Ocon, native of LaRoja, collegiate-major of San Ildefonso in Alcala,doctor and professor of theology, curate of Ele-chosa in the archbishopric of Toledo, and of theparish of Santa Cruz of Madrid ; he was promotedfrom the church of Cuzco to this of La Plata.

19. Don Fray Gaspar de Villaroel, of the orderof St. Augustin, native of Riobamba ; he studiedin the royal university of Lima, and with the re-putation of being very learned, of which, indeed,his works bear testimony ; he was promoted fromthe church of Arequipa to this in 1658.

20. Don Bernardo de Izaguirre, native of To-ledo ; he was fiscal of the inquisition of Carta-gena and of Lima, and was promoted from thechurch of Cuzco to this metropolitan see.

21. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda, of the orderof preachers, native of Lima, provincial of hisorder, bishop of Honduras ; from whence he waspromoted to this church.

22. Don Melchor de Lilian and Cisneros, nativeof Tordelaguna, of Avhom we speak in the cata-logue of the bishops of Santa Marta ; he was re-moved from the bishopric of Popayan in 1672,governed until 1678, when he was promoted tothe metropolitan see of Lima.

23. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, whobecame archbishop, and governed until 1692.

24. Don Fray Diego Morcillo Rubio de Aunon,of the bishopric of La Paz in 1711, where he re-mained until 1724, when he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Lima.

25. Don Francisco Luis Romero, promoted fromthe archbishopric of Quito ; he governed until1725.

26. Don Alonso del Pozo and Silva, of thebishopric of Santiago of Chile.

27. Don Agustin Delgado, in 1743 ; governeduntil 1746.

28. Don Salvador Bermudez, from the aforesaidyear ; governed until 1747.

29. Don Gregorio de Molleda y Clerque, of thebishopric of Truxillo, in 1748 ; he governed until1758, when he died.

30. Don Cayetano Marcellano y Agramont, ofthe bishopric of Buenos Ayres, in 1758 ; he go-verned until 1761, when he died.

31. Don Pedro de Argandoua, promoted in theabove year ; he governed until 1776, when hedied.

32. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, whogoverned from 1776 to 1784.

33. Don Arqy Joseph Antonio de San Alberto,who governed in 178.5.

CHUQUISONGO, San Pedro de, a settlement

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c o c

c o c

Same name, another (settlement), of the province and govern-ment of Tucuman, of the jurisdiction of the cityof Cordoba ; situate on the shore of the river Se-gundo.

COCHABAMBA, a province and corregUmiento of Peru ; bounded n. by the cordillera of theAndes, e. by the heiglits of Intimuyo, e. by theprovince of Misque, s. by that of Chayanta orCharcas, s. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, w.and n. w. by that of Cicasica. It is 40 leagues inlength from n. to s. and 32 in width. This pro-vince may with justice -be called the granary ofPeru, since it produces an abundance of every kindof seed, through the mildness of its climate. Inthe higher parts are bred a tolerable quantity oflarge and small kinds of cattle. It is watered byseveral small rivers of sweet water, which fertilizethe valleys ; and in these are some magnificentestates. Almost all these small rivers becomeunited in the curacy of Capinota ; and their wa-ters, passing through the provinces of Misque andCharcas, become incorporated in the large riverwhich passes on the e. side of Santa Cruz de laSierra. In former times some mines were workedhere, and from 1747, forward, great quantities ofgold have been extracted from the lavaderos, orwashing-places, upon the heights of Choqueca-mata, although this metal is not now found therein the same abundance. Some veins of it are, how-ever, to be seen in the cordillera, although theserender but little emolument. The greatest com-merce carried on in this province depends upon itsown productions ; and the market-place of thevalley of Arque is so stocked with articles as tohave the appearance of a continual fair. It hasalso some glass kilns, as it abounds greatly in glass-wort ; likewise many sugar estates, and streams ofhot waters. Its repartirniento used to amount to186,675 dollars, and its alcavala to 1493 dollarsper annum. Its inhabitants may amount to 70,000;and these are divided into 17 curacies, two othersbeing annexed. The capital is the town of Oro-pcsa, and the rest are,

Sacaba, Carasa,

Choquecamata, Calliri,

Yani, Zipezipe,

Machacamarca, Quillacollo,

Tapacari, Passo,

Berenguela, Tiquipaya,

Coloha, Colcapirhua,

Arque, Punata,

(Japinota, Tarata.


I Inhabited by a hardy, sober, and active race,Cochabamba (as Azara observes) has risen of late

years to a considerable state of prosperity in themanufactory of glass, cotton, &c. with which, du-ring the late war, it has supplied the whole inte-rior. Blessed with fertility and a moderate cli-mate, it bids fair to be the Manchester of Peru, for1,000,000 pounds of cotton are already annuallyconsumed in its manufactures. Its surface aboundsin a variety of salts and mineral productions, andits forests teem with woods and roots for dyeing.To these Haenke has particularly turned his atten-tion, and has pointed out, besides several new ma-terials for manufacture, other processes for dyeing,worthy of our adoption in Europe. This pro-vince joined the new government of Buenos Ayresin September 1810. See La Pcata.]

Same name, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cuaylas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Llautan in the province of Santa.

Same name, an extensive valley, watered bythe pleasant streams of the river Condorillo, of theprovince of this name (Condorillo) ; in which was founded theprincipal settlement of the Indians, now calledOropesa.

Same name, a river of the same province,which rises close to the settlement of Tapacari.It runs s. s. e. and enters the Plata, after traversingmany leagues.

COCHACAJAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru. It is35 leagues from Cuzco, and 44 from Huamanga.

COCHACALLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Parianchacra.

COCHACASA, an ancient settlement of Indians, in the province of Chinchasuyu in Peru.It was one of the celebrated conquests of the here-ditary prince of the Incas, Yahuar Huacae, son ofthe Emperor Inca Roca, sixth in the series ofthese inonarcbs.

COCHACASCO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Chorillo.

COCHAIMA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Cheto.

COCHAMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru.

COCHANGARA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Xauxa in Peru .

COCHAPETI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huailas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Cotoparazo.

COCHARCAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Chincheros ; in which is

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tirely unknown to tiiis. Its inlmbitants lead aregular life ; they give without cxjicctation of in-demnification, and are governed l!)roughoiit the■whole tribe by the sounding of a bell. In short,they might serve as a model for all the other settle-ments of Indians in the kingdom.

COLLANA, another settlement of the same pro-vince and corregimicnto ; annexed to the curacy ofMecacapaca.

COLLANES, a chain of very lofty mountains,almost continually covered with snow, in the pro-vince and corre"imiento of Riobamba in the king-dom of Quito, to the s. of the river Pastaza, and ofthe mountain runguragua. They take their namefrom the nation of barbarous Indians who livescattered in the woods of these mountains, whichrun from w. to e. forming a semicircle of 20leagues. The mountain which out-tops the rest,they call the Altar.

COLLANI, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of theJesuits in Nuevo Mexico.

COLLATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Olaya.

COLLAY. See Pataz.

COLLETON, a county of the province of Ca-rolina in N. America ; situate n. of the county ofGrenville, and watered by the river Stone, whichunites itself with an arm of the Wadrnoolan. Thatpart which looks to the n, e. is peopled with es-tablishments of Indians, and forms, with the otherpart, an island called Buono, which is a little belowCharlestown, and is well cultivated and in-habited. The principal rivers of this country are,the Idistows, the S. and N. Two or three miles upthe former river, the shores are covered with plan-tations, which continue for more than three milesfurther n. where the river meets with the N. Edis-tow, and in the island formed by both of them,it is reckoned that 20 freeholders reside. Theseare thus called, from the nature of the assignmentand distribution of lands which took place in thenew colonies. But the English governor did notgrant an absolute and perpetual property, save toparticular individuals : the concession was some-times for life, sometimes considered as lineal,sometimes to descend to the wife, children, or re-lations, and sometimes with greater restrictions.The above-mentioned people have, however, theirvote in the assembly, and send to it two members.In the precinct of this county is an Episcopalchurch.

Colleton, another county, of the provinceand colony of Georgia.

Colleton, a settlement of the island of Bar-badoes, in the district of the parish ot TodosSantos.

COLLICO, a small river of the district of Tol-ten Baxo in Ihe kingdom of Chile. It runs h. n.w. and enters the river Tolten.

COLLIQUEN, a llanura, or plain, of thecorregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is fertile, andof a dry and healthy climate, although thinly in-habited and uncultivated.

COLLIUE, a settlement of Indians of the king-dom of Chile, situate on the shore of the riverTolpan.

COLLQUE, an ancient, large, and well peo-pled settlement of Peru, to the n. of Cuzco ; con-quered and carried by force of arms by the IncaHuayna Capac, thirteenth Emperor of Peru.

COLNACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chichos and Tarija in Peru, ofthe district of the second, and annexed to the cu-racy of its capital.

COLOATPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Olinalá, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 29 families of In-dians, who occupy themselves in the commerceof chia^ a white medicinal earth, and cochineal,which abounds in this territory. It lies to then. w. of its head settlement.

COLOCA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru,situate on the shore of the river of La Plata, and tothe n. of its capital.

COLOCINA, San Carlos de, a settlement ofthe province and government of Cartagena, in thedistrict of the town of Tolu; founded in 1776 bythe governor Don J uan Pimienta.

COLOCINA, some mountains of this province andgovernment, also called Betanzi, which run n. formany leagues from the valley of Penco.

COLOCOLO, a settlement of Indians of thekingdom of Chile ; situate on the shore of the riverCarampangue, and thus called from the celebratedcazique of this name, one of the chiefs in the warin which these Indians were engaged with theSpaniards.

COLOLO, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs n. and en-ters the river Negro, near where this enters tireUruguay.

COLOMBAINA, a small settlement of the ju-riscidiction of Tocaima, and government of Mari-quita, and in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; an-nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Amba-leina. It is situate on the shore of the riverMagdalena; is of a very hot temperature, and

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the province and captainship of Marañan, betweenthe rivers Camindes and Paraguay.

Costa-Desierta, a large plain of the At-lantic, between cape S. Antonio to the n. and capeBlanco to the s. It is 80 leagues long, and has onthe n. the llanuras ox pampas of Paraguay, on theetJ. the province of Cuyo, of the kingdom of Chile,on the s. the country of the Patagones, and on tliec. the Atlantic. It is also called the Terras Ma-gellanicas, or Lands of Magellan, and the wholeof this coast, as well as the land of the interior terri-tory, is barren, uncultivated, and unknoAvn.

Costa-Rica, a province and government ofthe kingdom of Guatemala in N. America ; boundedn. and w. by the province ot Nicaragua, e. bythat of Veragua of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ;s. w. and n. w. by the S. sea, and n. e. by the N.sea. It is about 90 leagues long e. w. and 60 n. s.Here are some gold and silver mines. It has portsboth in the N. and S. seas, and tAVO excellent bays,called San Geronimo and Caribaco. It is for themost part a province that is mountainous and fullof rivers ; some of which enter into the N. sea, andothers into the S. Its productions are similar tothose of the other provinces in the kingdom ; butthe cacao produced in some of the llanuras hereis of an excellent quality, and held in much esti-mation. The Spaniards gave it the name ofCosta-Rica, from the quantity of gold and silvercontained in its mines. From the mine calledTisingal, no less riches have been extracted thanfrom that of Potosi in Peru ; and a tolerable tradeis carried on by its productions with the kingdomof Tierra Firme, although the navigation is not al-way« practicable. The first monk Avho came hi-ther to preach and inculcate religion amongst thenatives, was the Fra_y Pedro de Betanzos, of theorder of St. Francis, who came hither in 1550,when he was followed by several others, whofounded in various settlements 17 convents of theabove order. The capital is Cartago.

Costa-Rica, a river of the province ancT go-vernment of Nicaragua in the same kingdom,which runs n. and enters theDesaguadero, or W asteW ater of the Lake.

COSTO, a settlement of the English, in theisland of Barbadoes, of the district and parish ofSantiago ; situate near the w. coast.

COTA, a settlement of the corregimiento of i-paquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is ofa very cold temperature, produces the fruits pecu-liar to its climate, contains upwards of 100 In-dians, and some white inhabitants ; and is fourleagues from Santa Fe.

Cota, a small river of the province and govern-

ment of Buenos Ayres in Peru. It rises in thesierras, or craggy mountains, of Nicoperas, runsw. and enters the Gil.

COTABAMBAS, a province and corregimientoof Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Abancay,s. w. and s. and even s. e. by that of Chilques andMasques or Paruro, w, by that of Chumbivilcas,and n. w. by that of Aimaraez. It is 25 leagueslong e.w. and 23 wide n.s. It is for the mostpart of a cold temperature, as are the other pro-vinces of the sierra; it being nearly covered Avithmountains, the tops of which are the greatest partof the year clad Avith snoAV. In the Ioav lands aremany pastures, in Avhich they breed numerousherds of cattle, such as cows, horses, mules, andsome small cattle. Wheat, although in no greatabundance, maize, pulse, and potatoes, also groAvhere. In the broken, uneven hollows, near whichpasses the river Apurimac, and which, after passingthrough the province, runs into that of Abancay,groAV plantains, figs, water melons, and other pro-ductions peculiar to the coast. Here are abund-ance of magueges', which is a plant, the leaves ortendrils of which, much resemble those of thesavin, but being somewhat larger ; from them aremade a species of hemp for the fabricating ofcords, called cahuyas, and some thick ropes usedin the construction of bridges across the rivers.The principal rivers are the Oropesa and the Chal-huahuacho, Avhich have bridges for the sake ofcommunication Avith the other provinces. Tliebridge of Apurimac is three, and that of Churuc-tay 86 yards across ; that of Churuc, Avhich is themost frequented, is 94 yards ; and there is anotherwhich is much smaller : all of them being built ofcords, except one, called Ue Arihuanca, on theriver Oropesa, which is of stone and mortar, andhas been here since the time that the ferry-boat wassunk, Avith 15 men and a quantity of Spanishgoods, in 1620. Although it is remembered thatgold and silver mines have been worked in thisprovince, none are at present ; notAvithstanding thatin its mountains are manifest appearances of thismetal, as well as of copper, and that in a part ofthe river Ocabamba, Avhere the stream runs witligreat rapidity, are found lumps^ of silver, whichare washed off from the neighbouring mountains.The inhabitants of the whole of the provinceamount to 10,000, who are contained in the 25following settlements ; and the capital is Tambo-bamba.










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COTACACHE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Otavalo in the kingdom ofQuito.

COTACACHE, a mountain of this province andkingdom, the top of which is eternally coveredAvith snow. From its summit runs the river Ca-yapas.

COTAGAITA, Santiago de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Chichas andTarija. Twenty-nine leagues from Potosi.

COTAGAITILLA, a settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento as the former ; annexedto the curacy of the capital.

COTAHUASSI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

COTAHUAU, an ancient province of Peru, atthe foot of the cordillera of the Andes, and to thew. of Cuzco. It is one of those which were con-quered by Mayta Capac, fourth Emperor.

COTAHUIZITLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan inNueva Espana. It is of a hot temperature, con-tains 28 families of Indians, who are busied inmaking mats, which they cs\\ petates. It belongsto the curacy of Atlatlauca, the capital of thealcaldia mayor of this name; being distant 10leagues from its capital.

COTAPARAZO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Guailas in Peru.

COTA-PINI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdomof Quito.

COTAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Yauyos in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Arma in the province of CastroVireyna.

(COTEAUX, Les, a town on the road fromTiburon to port Salut, on the 5. side of the s. pen-insula of the island of St. Domingo, 13f leagues of the former, and four n.w, of the latter.)

COTICA, a river of Guayana, in the part pos-sessed by the Dutch, or colony of Surinam. Itruns n. until it comes very near the coast, makingmany turns, and then changing its course e. entersthe Comowini. At its mouth is a fort to defendits entrance, called Someldick.

COTIJA, Valley of, of the alcaldia mayor of

Tinguindin in Nueva Espana. It is more thantwo leagues in circumference, and in it live 205families of Spaniards. It is of a mild temperature,and abounds in seeds. Seven leagues to the w. ofits capital.

COTLALTA, a settlement and head settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Tuxtla in Nueva Espana.It contains 140 families of Indians, and three orfour of Spaniards. It abounds greatly in tamarinds,of which are made excellent conserves.

COTOCHE, a cape of the coast of Yucatán,opposite that of San Antonio, in the island ofCuba ; between these lies the navigation leadingto this island from Nueva Espana.

COTOCOLLAO, a settlement of the kingdomof Quito, in the corregimiento of the district ofthe Cinco Leguas de la Capital; being situate justwhere the beautiful llanura or plain of lilaquitoor Rumi-Pampa terminates. Its territory extendsto n. w. upon the skirt of the mountain Pichincha,and is bounded on the n. by the settlement of Po-masque. It is of a somewhat cold and moist tem-perature ; and in it is the county of Selva Florida,of the house of Guerrero Ponce de Leon, one ofthe most ancient and illustrious of the kingdom.

COTOE, a settlement of the province and ga-vernment of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacyof Lampun.

COTOPACSI, a mountain and desert, or pa-ramo, of the province and corregimiento of Ta-cunja in the kingdom of Quito, to the s. and one-fourth to s. e. It is of the figure of an invertedtruncated cone, and is in height 2952 Parisian feetabove the level of the sea : on its summit, whichis perpetually covered with snow, is a volcano,which burst forth in 1698, in such a dreadful man-ner as not only to destroy the city of Tacunja,with three fourths of its inhabitants, but othersettlements also. It likewise vomited up a river ofmud, which so altered the face of the province,that the missionaries of the Jesuits of Maynos,seeing so many carcases, pieces of furniture, andhouses floating down the Maranon, were persuadedamongst themselves that the Almighty had visitedthis kingdom with some signal destruction ; they,moreover, wrote circular letters, and transmittedthem open about the country, to ascertain Avhatnumber of persons were remaining alive. Thesemisfortunes, though in a moderate degree, recurredin the years 1742, 1743, 1760, 1768. From thee. part of this mountain the Napo takes its rise;and from the s. the Cotuche and the Alagues,which, united, form the river San Miguel, andafterwards, with others, the Patate ; to this theChambo joins itself, which afterwards degenerates.

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CURAHUARI an ancient province of Peru, tothe n. of Cuzco. The Inca Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor, conquered and united it to the em-pire.

CURAHUASI, a settlement of tlie provinceand con eginiietito of Abancay in Peru, S3 leaguesdistant from the city of Cuzco.

CURAI, a settlement of the province and cor~regimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Churin.

CURAL, a settlement of the province and cap-tainship of Rio Janeyro in Brazil ; situate on thecoast, opposite the Isla Grande.

CURAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Guayana. It enters the Meta, and losesits name.

CURAMPA, an ancient settlement of the pro-vince of Chinchasuyu in Peru. The Prince Ya-huar Huacar, eldest, son of the first Emperor, theInca Roca, took it by force of arms, and subjectedit to the crown. It was then one of the strongplaces of the province.

CURANARIS, a barbarous and numerous nationof Indians, divided into bodies of militia, who in-habit the woods near the river Bayari to the s. ofthe Maranon.

CURANTA, an islet or rocky shoal of thecoast of the kingdom of Chile, close to the point ofXosH umos.

CURAPO, a settlement of the missions whichare held by the religious Capuchins, in the pro-vince and government of Guayana.

CURAUAUA, a river of the kingdom of Chile,in the district and jurisdiction which belonged tothe city Imperial. It runs w. and forms Avith theEyou the great lake of Puren, out of which it runson the 5. w. side, uniting itself with the Cauten,or the Imperial.

CURASAY a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Maynas in the king-dom of Quito. It rises in the paramos of 'i'a-cunga, and after running e. for more than 90leagues, enters the Napo ; first collecting the wa-ters of the Soetuno, Noesino, and Turibuno, onthen, and on the s. the Villano. The woods onthe s. are inhabited by some barbarous nations ofIquitos, Ayacores, and Scimugaes Indians, and the«. parts by the Yates and Zaparas.

CURARICARU, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana. It rises in the countryof the Maraucotos Indians, runs e. and turning itscourse enters the Parime or Puruma.

CURASANA, a river of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana. It rises neartlie settlement of Cari, towards the c. runs s. and


enters the Orinoco, near the Angostura, or narrowpart.

CURASCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimieyito of Cochabamba in Peru ; annexed tothe coracy of Ayruhanca.

CURASENI, a small river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs e. and entersthe Orinoco between the settlements of the missionsAvhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, called Santa Teresa, and San Ignacio.

CURASIRI, a small river of the province andgovernment of Cumana. It rises in the serraniaof Ymataca, runs s. and enters the Cuyuni on then. side.

CURATAQUICHE, a settlement of the pro-vince of Barcelona and government of Cumana ;situate on the shore of the river Nevery, to the s.of the city of Barcelona.

CURAZAICILLO, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Mainas in the kingdomof Quito. It rises in the country of the AbijirasIndians, runs e. and turning afterwards to the n.enters the Napo, close to the settlement of Oravia.

CURAZILLO, or Curaza Chico, or Little,a small island of the N. sea, near the coast ofTierra Firme, and close upon the e. side of Cu-ra^oa.

CURBA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimknio of Larecaxa in Peruj annexed to thecuracy of Charazani.

CURBATI, a small settlement of Indians ofthe province and government of Maracaibo; an-nexed to the curacy of the city of Pedraza. Itsnatives, although few, are docile and well in-clined.

CURE River of, in the island of Guadalupe,one of the Antilles or Windward isles. It rises inthe mountains to the e. and enters the sea betweenthe bay of La Barque and the port of Las Gpa-yabas.

CURECA, a river of the province and captain-ship of Para in Brazil. It runs nearly due n.and enters that of Las Amazonas.

[CURIACO, a bay in Tierra Firme, S. Ame-rica, on the N. sea.]

CURIANCHE, an habitation or palace, builtby the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac,of very large stones, and covered with straAv; fromAvhence the city of Cuzco has its origin. Thispalace was afterwards dedicated to the sun, andbecame converted into a temple, being the mostbeautiful and rich structure of any in Peru, in thetime of the Indians; the inside of it being casedAvitb gold, and the outside with silver, these metals

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CURUCAG, a small river of the province and government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. It rises to the w. of the settlement Murucuri, runs w. and afterwards turning; n. enters the Orinoco opposite the mouth of the Curusama. CURUCAY, a river of the province and captains/u'p of San Vicente in Brazil. It rises near the coast, and runs to the w. CURUCUANES, a barbarous nation of Indians but little known, who inhabit the shores of the river Paraguay towards the w. CURUGUATI, a settlement of the province and government of Paraguay ; situate on the shore of the river Xexuy. It was in former times very considerable, but at present reduced to a scanty population of people of colour, who live in a miserable way. [About 39 leagues n. e. of Asuncion. Lat. 24° 28' 10". Long. 55° 54' 25" a>.] CURULAUA, a valley or llanura of the kingdom of Chile, in the country and territory of the Araucanos Indians ; celebrated for their having here surprised the Spaniards, and having at the same time put to death the governor Don Martin Garcia Ofiez de Loyola, with 50 others who accompanied him. CURUMA, a settlement of the province and government of Valparaiso in the kingdom of Chile; situate on the coast and at the point of its name. Curtima, a river of the province and government of Cutnana. It rises in the serrania of Ymataca, runs 5. and unites itself with the Tucupu to enter the Cuyuni.

CURUME, an ancient and large province of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, to the w. of the river Cauca : discovered by the Marshal George Robledo. The Indians who inhabited it, and who were called Curumenes, have become extinct, notwithstanding that they were in great numbers at the time of the entrance of the Spaniards in 1542. Some believe that they have retired within the woods, and to the mountains of Darien. This province, which is bounded by that of Popayan, and is at the present day contained in the same, is mountainous, rough, barren, and of an unhealthy climate ; and although rich in gold mines, these are not worked. Curume, a small town of the same province ; situate in an extensive valley, which also takes this denomination, near the river Tonusco.

GURUPA==, or ==Coropa, a settlement of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil « situate "on the shore of the river Maranon. CurupAj a river of the province and govern- cus ment of Buenos Ayres, which runs e. and enters the Aguapey.

CURUPARER, a small river of the province and government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. It rises in the country of the Parecas Indians, near the settlement of San Joseph de Otomacos, runs n. and enters the Orinoco to the w. of the settlement of Encaramada. CURUPI, a river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises near the Curaseni, runs e. and nearly parallel to the same river, and enters the Orinoco. CURUPUTUBA, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, or part of Guayana possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in the sierra of Tumucuraque, runs s. many leagues, between the rivers Ubuquara to the e. and Tombetas to the w. and enters the Maranon on the n. side, in lat. 1°52' s. The infidel Curuputubas Indians live more than 40 leagues to the n. of the river, near the mouth of the Topajocos. Curuptjtuba, a settlement of the Portuguese, being a reduction of Indians of this name; situate on the shore of the above river, after which it is called.

CURURU, a small river of the province and captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs s. s. e. and enters the sea between the Ypoba and the Yquen. CURUTUTE, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, which, according to Mr. Bellin, runs s. s. e. and enters the Maranon, between the rivers Uruparate and Putumayo.

CURUZICARIS== or ==Yumaguaris, which signifies Founder of Metals, a barbarous and numerous nation of Indians, who inhabit the woods near the river Maranon, towards the y. and extending as far as the mountains to the w. of the kingdom of Brazil. The same extract from the mines great quantities of gold. They have some sort of civil government, are industrious, and fond of labour. CUSABATAY, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the king- e. for many leagues, and dorn of Quito, runs enters the Ucayale. CUSAHUAYA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Ambana. [CUSCO==. ==See Cuzco.]

CUSCOPANG==, a river of the province and colony of N. Carolina. It runs n. and enters the sea in the strait of Albemarle. [CUSCOWILLA, in E. Florida, is the capital of the Aluchua tribe of Indians, and stands in

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tlie small river Guatanay ; the same being nearlydry, save in the months of January, February,and March ; though the little water found in itjust serves to irrigate the neighbouring plains.The grandeur and magnificence of the edifices,of the fortress, and of the temple of the sun, struckthe Spaniards with astonishment, when, at the con-quest, they first beiield them, and upon their en-tering the city.j in 1534, when the same was takenpossession of by Don Francisco Pizarrro, forCharles V^. It was then the capital of the wholeempire of Peru, and the residence of the empe-rors. Its streets were large, wide, and straight ;though at the present day Lima stands in compe-tition with it in regard to grandeur. The housesare almost all builtofstone, and of fine proportions.The cathedral, which has the title of La Asun-cion, is large, beautiful, rich, and of very goodarchitecture, and some even prefer it to the cathe-dral of Lima. Here are three curacies in thechapel of the Sagrario, two for the Spaniards, andanother for the Indians and Negroes ; and the pa-rishes are Nuestra Senora de Belen, San Christo-yal, Santa Ana, San Bias, S:intiago, and the hos-pital ; besides two others, which are without thecity, called San Geronirno and San Sebastian.Here are nine convents of the following religiousorders ; one of St. Dominic, founded on the spotwhere the Indians had their celebrat^sd temple ofthe sun ; two of St. Francis, one of the Observers,and another of the Recoletans, one of St. Au-gustiti, one of La Merced, two colleges whichbelonged to the regulars of the extinguished com-pany of Jesuits, the principal, in the part lyingtowards the c. being destined, at the present time,for an armoury ; and the other at the back of thesame, in which was the house for noviciates andstudents, serving now as barracks for the troops ;add to these the chapel of ease to the cathedral.Here are four hospitals ; the first and most ancientis that of the Espiritu Santo, in which are receivedIndians of both sexes, subject to the patronageof the secular cabildo, and governed by a junta ofS3 persons, the president of whom, the alcalde,has the first vote, and after him the administratoror first brother. It has two chaplains and veryample revenues ; one of the sources being the du-ties paid upon all effects passing over the bridgeof Yipuriraac, the which droits belonged to theroyal exchequer until the year 1763, at whichtime, at the instance of the king’s ensign, DonGabriel de Ugarte, they were conceded by theking to the hospital, together with the right andproperty of the bridge, in redemption of somecrown grants which were left to the hospital by

Rodrigo de Leon, in Seville ; and it was by thismeans that the hospital, having become so wellendowed, has now no less than 250 beds. A jubi-lee has been granted by the apostolical see to itschapel; and this is celebrated at the octave ofPentecost with much solemnity, and by an unusu-ally great concourse of people, and was once the bestobserved jubilee of any in America. The se-cond hospital, being of the religious order of SanJuan de Dios, is for the men, and has 50 beds;the third, called. Of Nuestra Senora de la Almu-dena, is for all descriptions of individuals, andhas also 50 beds ; the tburih, called San rlndres,has 30 beds for Spanish women. Here are threemonasteries of nuns ; the first of Santa Catalina dcSena, founded where the Incas kept the virginsdedicated to the sun ; and the others are of SantaClara and the bare-tboted Carmelites. Here arealso four other religious houses, which are that^ofthe Nazarenes, thatof Nuestra Senora del Carmen,that of Santiago, and that of San Bias ; three col-leges, which are, that of San Bernardo, whereinare taught grammar, philosophy, and theology,and was founded by a Aizcayan for the sons of theconquerors, having been formerly under thecharge of the regulars of the company of Jesuits,and at present under an ecclesiastical rector ; thatof San Borja, for the sons of the Indian caciques,where they are initiated in their letters, and in therudiments of music, at least as many of them asshow any disposition to this science, (this accom-plishment having been formerly taught by thesame regulars of the company) ; and that of SanAntonio Abad, which is a seminary and univer-sity, and is a very sumptuous piece of architec-ture. This city preserves many monuments of itsancient grandeur ; and amongst the rest, thegreat fortress built for its defence, which, althoughinjured by time, bears testimony to the powers ofthe Incas, and excites astonishment in the mindof every beholder, since the stones, so vast andshapeless, and of so irregular a superficies, areknit together, and laid one to fit into the other withsuch nicety as to want no mortar or other materialwhereby to fill up the interstices ; and it is indeeddifficult to imagine how they could work them inthis manner, when it is considered that they knewnot the use of iron, steel, or machinery for thepurpose. The other notable things are the baths ;the one of warm and the other of cold water ; theruins of a large stone-way, which was built by or-der of the Incas, and which reached as far aswhere Lima now stands ; the vestiges of some sub-terraneous passages which led to the fortress fromthe houses or palaces of the Inca, and in which pass-4 n ?

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s;iges the walls were cut Tery crooked, admittingfor a certain space only one person to pass at atime, and this sidewise, and with great difficulty,when shortly afterwards two raio^ht pass abreast.The exit was by a rock, worked in the same nar-row manner on the other side ; and this was alto-gether a plan adopted through prudence, and forthe better security against any sudden assault,since here a single man might defend himselfagainst a great number. In a magnificent chapelof the cathedra! is venerated a miraculous crucifix,which was presented by the Emperor Charles V.and which is called De los Temblores, from thecity having invoked it as a patron in the tremen-dous earthquake which happened here in 1590;also an image of Nuestra Senora de Helen, whichthey call La Linda, (the Beautiful), the gift of thesame royal hand. It is the second city of Peru,and inferior only to the capital of the kingdom.It was governed, after the time of the conquestsmade by the Spaniards, by a secular cabildo, com-posed of two ordinary alcaldes, a royal ensign,an alguaxil mayor, a provincial alcalde, a depo-sitor-general, 12 perpetual regidors, two alcaldesof the inquisition, and a regidor, nominated an-nually, with the title of judge of the natives, whois entrusted with the causes of the Indians; thesehaving also a protector, nominated every twoyears by the viceroy of Lima. This cabildo main-tains, through the grant of the Emperor CharlesV. the same privileges as the cabildo of Burgos.The city has also many other prerogatives, withthe title of Gran Ciudad, and Cabeza, or head ofthe kingdoms and provinces of Peru, in rewardfor its having supported the crown against thetraitor Diego de Almagro, in the conflicts that hemaintained with Francis Pizarro, and from itsliaving taken him prisoner in 1553, in the cele-brated battle of Las Salinas, a league from Cuzco ;also from its having refused to acknowledge thetitle of governor of Peru, assumed by Diego deAlmagro the younger, supporting, in preference,the legitimate government. Again, when the Li-centiate Christoval Vaca de Castro arrived, think-ing to be governor, the people of Cuzco took himprisoner, under the orders of the lieutenant-gover-nor, Diego Salazar de Toledo, and the ordinaryalcalde, Antonio Ruiz de Guevera, and kept himin confinement until he was beheaded in that placeby the same person that executed his father. Forthese services, and for the valuable presents,which on several occasions it has made to thecrown, this city was allowed to be by the laws ofthe Indies, and, as appears by its records, one ofthe first cities in all Castilla, having a priority of

vote ; and in 1783, it was ordered by the king ofSpain, that in consideration of the resistance itoffered in the late rebellion of the Indians of theprovince of Tinta and the other immediate pro-vinces, it should be endowed with the title ofMost Noble, Most Loyal, and Most Faithful, andthat it should enjoy the same privileges as Lima.In 178i, the office of corregidor was extinguished,and his Majesty established an intendant and go-vernor vice-patron; and in 1787, the tribunal ofroyal audience, composed of a president, fouroidors, and aJiscaL It has for arms a golden castleupon a blue field, with various trophies andcolours on the sides, and an eagle at the top. Ithas been the native place of many illustrious men,and of these are,

Don Bernardo de Aviza y Ugarte, oidor ofPanama, bishop of Cartagena and Truxillo, andelected archbishop of Charcas.

Don Cayetano Marcellano y Agramont, bishopof Buenos Ayres, and archbishop of Charcas.

Don Gabriel de Ugarte, royal ensign of the saidcity.

Don Diego Esquivel and Navia, dean of itschurch.

Don Ignacio de Castro, curate of San Geronimoand rector of the university.

Don Francisco Espinosa and Medrano, alias ElLunarejo, magistral canon of its church,

Don Francis Xavier de Lagos, penitentiarycanon.

The Father Maestro Fray Pedro de la Sota, ofthe order of La Merced ; a subject who was oftenconsulted by the viceroys in matters of the utmostimportance.

The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, a celebratedhistorian of Peru.

Its jurisdiction, although it may retain the titleof province, is so reduced as to extend merely asfar as the district of the city, notwithstanding itformerly comprehended all the neighbouring pro-vinces, until the president, Lope Garcia de ()astro,established in each of these separate corregidors.Its principal commerce consists in the very largequantity of sugar which is made in the neighbour-ing jurisdictions, and where the inhabitants havemany sugar plantations ; that of San Ignacio dePachachaca, in the boundaries of the jurisdictionof Abancay, and formerly belonging to the re-gulars of the extinguished company of Jesuits,being the most celebrated. Tliere is made here avast quantity of baize and ordinary cloth, calledpanete, woven stuffs, saddles, floor-carpets, andtucuyo, which is an ordinary kind of linen usedas clothing by the poor; galloons of gohl, silver,

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