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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
The antidote, however, is oil taken in abundanceinternally, and applied outwardly. Neither wheatnor barley are known here, but the place aboundsin maize and rice, of which they make cakes, andwhich are the common bread of the natives, andmore particularly so that called cazave^ being asort of cake made of the root yiica^ name, or mo-niato. There are also a great number of cottontrees. The arms of this city are a green crossupon a gold ground, with a lion rampant oneach side. It was sacked in 1593 by RobertBaal, a pirate ; in 1583, by Sir Francis Drake, 23years from the time of its being fortified, and notfrom its foundation, as according to Mr. La Ma-tiniere ; again iti 1695, by Mr. Ducase, assisted bythe adventurers or fiibustiers, who completely pil-laged it : but a great sensation having been causedamongst the inhabitants at the loss of a superb se-pulchre made of silver, in which it rvas usual ona good Friday to deposit the eucharist, they hadthe good fortune to obtain its restitution throughthe interest and favour of Louis XI F. TheEnglish, under the command of Admiral Vernonand Sir Charles Ogle, besieged this city in 1740,when, although its castles were destroyed, andit was completely besieged, it would not surren-der, being gloriously defended by the viceroyDon Sebastian de Esiava, and Don Bias de Lezo,who caused the English to abandon the enterprisewith precipitancy and with great loss. [For thisconduct on the part of the English, several reasonswere assigned besides the strength of the place ;namely, the mortality among the troops, wantof skill in the commanders, and certain ditferencesbetween the admiral and the general. The forti-fications which they demolished have since beenrepaired.] It is the only part of all America wherethere is etfective coin of a fourth part of a real insilver. Its inhabitants amount to 9160 souls incommunion. It has been the native place of manycelebrated persons, such are,
Don Augustin Samiento de Sotomayor, of the or-der of Santiago, viscount of Portillo.
Don Andres de la Vega, professor at Salamanca,a famous lawyer.
Fray Carlos de Melgarejo, a religious Domini-can, an excellent preacher, and a man of unble-mished life.
Don Caspar de Cuba and Arce, head collegiateof San Marcos de Lima, oidor of Chile.
Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Villalta,governor of Antioquia.
Don Gregorio Castellar y Mantilla, governor ofCumana, and general of the armada of the guardof the coasts of Cartagena.
Don Joseph de Paredes, captain of infantry,knight of the order of Santiago.
Fray Joseph Pacheco, of the order of St. Au-gustin, master, visitor, and vicar-general i:i his pro-vince of the Nuevo Reyno.
The Father Joseph de Urbina, of the extin-guished company, rector of the college of SantaFe.
Don.Iuan Fernandez Rosillo, dean of the churchof his country, bishop of V^erapez and of Mecho-acan .
Fray Juan Pereyra, a religious Dominican.
Don Lope Duke Estrada, kiiight of the order ofSantiago.
It is in long. 75° 24' and lat. 10° 25' n. [Foraccount of the present revolutions, see Vene-zuela.]
Bishops who have presided in Cartagena.
1. Don Fray Tomas del Toro, a monk of theorder of St. Domingo, elected the . first bishop in1532; but being at Talavera, his country, at thetime, he unfortunately died before he was conse-crated.
2. Don Fray Geronimo de Loaisa, a Dominicanmonk, renowned for his virtue and talent, and forhis experience in Indian affairs ; he was elected inthe room of the former, was consecrated at Valla-dolid, and there he erected the church into a ca-thedral in 1538, the same year in which he enteredCartagena ; from hence he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Lima in 1542.
3. Don Fray Francisco de Santa Maria y Bena-vides, of the order of St. Gerome, of the illustriousfamily of the Marquises of Fromesta ; serving atthat time the Emperor in Flanders, he took to areligious life, and was elected bishop of Cartagenain 1543. The city, in his time, was plundered bytwo pirates, lieaded by the Spanisli pilot AlonsoVexines, who cominitted thisactout of revenge fora flogging he had received ; they also ill-treatedthe venerable prelate, who had the additional griev-ance, in the year L551, of witnessing the city inflames. In 1554 he was promoted to the churchof Modonedo in Galicia, and was succeeded inCartagena by,
4. Don Fray Gregorio de Beteta, a Dominicanmonk, brought up in the convent of Salamanca, andone of the twenty who went to the Nuevo Reynode Gratiada, from whence he passed over to Mex-ico to convert the Indians, and afterwards withthe same object to the provinces of Santa Marta,Uraba, ami Cartagena ; and being teacher amicurate in one of his settlements, he received theorder of presentation to this bishopric in 1555 ;although he endeavoured to decline the dignify,
when he was promoted to the bishopric of Carta-gena in 1746, of which he took possession in thefollowing year, and governed until 1752, whenhe was promoted to the church of Truxillo.
51. Doii Bartolome Narvaez y Berrio, canon ofthis holy church of Cartagena, and native of thiscountry ; presented to this bishopric in^ 1752, andgoverned here until he died in 1754.
52. The Doctor Jacinto Aguado y Chacon, ca-non penitenciario of the holy church of Cadiz ;elected in 1754, and promoted to the bishopric ofArequipa before he embarked for this of Car-tagena.
33. Don Diego Antonio Valenzuela Faxardo,native of the city of Santa Fe of Bogota; electedin 1754 : he died in 1755.
34. The Doctor Don Manuel de Sosa Betancur,archdeacon of the holy church of Caracas ; electedin 1755 : he died in 1765.
35. Don Diego Peredo, native of the town ofLeon of Mechoacan ; elected in 1765, promotedto the bishopric of Yucatan in 1722.
36. Don Augustin de Alvarado y Castillo ; pro-moted to the bishopric of Santa Fe in 1774.
37. The Doctor t)on Bias Sobrino y Minayo ;elected in 1774, and promoted to the archbishopricof Quito in 1776.
38. Don Fr. Joseph Diaz de la Madrid, a monkof the Order of St. Francis, native of the city ofQuito ; elected in 1 777.
Governors of Cartagena.
1. Don Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city ;and its adelantado or governor, a native of Madrid,and a valorous conqueror, in 1532.
2. The Licentiate Badillo, nominated J uez deResidencia,; he exercised the government duringthe commission in 1536.
3. The, Licentiate Santa Cruz, judge of anothersecond residence, who became adelantado in 1537.
4. The Licentiate Miguel Diez de Armendariz;he entered in 1545, had for judge of his resi-dence the Licentiate Juan de Montano, oidor ofSanta F<5, whom he sent to Spain.
5. Don Pedro de Heredia, who for the secondtime was provisional governor until the year 1556,when he died, being drowned in the fleet whichwas wrecked in the Gordas sands.
6. The Doctor J uan de Maldonado, Jiscal of theaudience of Santa Fe in 1556.
7. Jorge de Quintanilla, provisionally nomi-nated by the audience of Santa Fe.
8. The Brigadier Don Go'izalo Ximinez deQuesada ; nominated by the audience as residen-tiary to the three former, in the same year, 1556.
9. Antonio de Castro ; provisionally nominated.
10. Juan de Bustos Villegas, nominated by theking ; he entered in 1 557, and was promoted tothe presidency of Panama in 1563.
11. Anton Davalos de Luna, a field-officer ; heentered in 1563, and governed till 1567, whenhe died.
12. Don Lope de Orozco, as provisional gover-nor in the same year.
13. Francisco Bahamonde y Lugo ; he enteredin 1572, and died in 1573.
14. Hernan Suarez de Villalobos, nominatedprovisonally by the audience of Santa Fe in 1574.
15. Pedro Fernandez del Busto, who entered inthe above year, and was promoted to the govern-ment of Popayan in 1577.
16. Don Pedro de Lodena, in 1593.
17. Don Pedro de Acuna, knight of the orderof San Juan, field-officer, in 1601 ; he had the titleof president of the Philippines, and died the sameyear.
18. Don Geronimo Suazo Casasola, of the habitof Santiago ; he died in 1605.
19. Don Francisco Sarmientode Sotomayor, no-minated in the interim, in 1606.
20. Don Diego Fernandez de Valazco, in 1608.
21. Don Diego de Acuna, in 1614.
22. Don Garcia Giron de Loaysa, who governeduntil 1620.
23. Don Diego de Escobar, knight of the orderof Santiago, who died whilst exercising the govern-ment.
24. Don Francisco de Berrio, nominated in thein the interim, in 1628.
25. Don Francisco de Murga, knight of the or-der of Santiago, a field-officer, and celebratedengineer ; appointed to fortify the Plaza, beingat the time governor of Marmora in Africa : h«died in 1634.
26. Don Nicolas de Larraspuru, nominated inthe interim, in 1636.
27. Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Vil-lalta, nominated in the interim, in 1637, on accountof the former not having accepted the office.
28. Don Vincente de los Reyes Villalobos, pro-visional governor in the same year, 1637, being thegovernor of Moxos.
29. Don Melchor de Aguilera, a field-officer;he entered in 1638, was suspended and called toaccount by Don Bernardino de Prado, oidor ofSanta Fe.
30. Don Ortuno de Aldape ; being governor ofMuzo, he was nominated in the interim, in 1641.
31. Don Luis Fernandez de Cordova, of the or-